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Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239386/palliative-care-for-all-how-can-brazil-develop-a-palliative-care-service-founded-on-principles-ofs-equity-and-access-for-all
#1
Santiago Rodríguez Corrêa, Julian Abel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite the historical international development of palliative care over the last 50 years, provision of equity of care and access to appropriate medication remains a major problem in many countries across the world. Interest in the public health approach to end-of-life care has grown over the last 20 years. Models of palliative care, which are affordable and provide equity of care are changing through these new concepts. We describe an existing model of practice in a primary care setting in Rio Grande in Brazil, which could act as a template for redesign of palliative care services...
September 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239385/what-s-next-in-using-ct-scans-to-better-understand-cachexia
#2
Sami Antoun, Caroline Rossoni, Emilie Lanoy
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cachexia (CAX), a protein metabolism disorder commonly associated with cancer, can be evaluated by computed tomography (CT) scan assessment of skeletal muscle mass (SMM), a parameter associated with patient outcome. This review analyzes current barriers for using CT scans of SMM in routine management for defining prognostic risk groups, and proposes new areas of research to reach a better understanding of CAX mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Current research is focused on establishing a robust and relevant CAX staging system to reach a consensual definition...
September 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239384/benzodiazepines-for-agitation-in-patients-with-delirium-selecting-the-right-patient-right-time-and-right-indication
#3
David Hui
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an evidence-based synopsis on the role of benzodiazepines in patients with agitated delirium. RECENT FINDINGS: Existing evidence supports the use of benzodiazepines in two specific delirium settings: persistent agitation in patients with terminal delirium and delirium tremens. In the setting of terminal delirium, the goal of care is to maximize comfort, recognizing that patients are unlikely to recover from their delirium. A recent randomized trial suggests that lorazepam in combination with haloperidol as rescue medication was more effective than haloperidol alone for the management of persistent restlessness/agitation in patients with terminal delirium...
September 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239388/we-all-need-support-but-can-our-patients-help-us-to-help-them
#4
Christopher Dalley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30239387/how-should-we-assess-patient-reported-outcomes-in-the-onco-hematology-clinic
#5
Laura Cannella, Fabio Efficace, Johannes Giesinger
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The improvement of clinical outcomes in hematologic malignancies has paved the way for a more systematic patient-reported outcomes (PROs) assessment in routine clinical practice. PROs help to narrow the gap between patients' and healthcare professionals' view of patient health and treatment success. This review outlines key aspects of planning and performing PRO assessments in daily routine such as the selection of PRO instruments, electronic PRO data collection, and the presentation and interpretation of PRO results...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138131/the-relationship-between-muscle-mass-and-function-in-cancer-cachexia-smoke-and-mirrors
#6
Michael I Ramage, Richard J E Skipworth
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Randomized clinical trials of cancer cachexia interventions are based on the premise that an increase in the muscle mass of patients is associated with consequent improvements in muscle function, and ultimately, quality of life. However, recent trials that have succeeded in demonstrating increases in lean body mass have been unable to show associated increases in patient physical function. In this review, we examine the potential causes for this lack of association between muscle mass and function in cancer cachexia, paying particular attention to those factors that may be at play when using body composition analysis techniques involving cross-sectional imaging...
August 22, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124527/how-much-does-reduced-food-intake-contribute-to-cancer-associated-weight-loss
#7
Lisa Martin, Catherine Kubrak
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: An international consensus group defined cancer cachexia as a syndrome of involuntary weight loss, characterized by loss of skeletal muscle (with or without fat loss), which is driven by a variable combination of reduced food intake and altered metabolism.This review presents recent studies that evaluated the contribution of reduced food intake to cancer-associated weight loss. RECENT FINDINGS: Four studies examined food intake in relation to weight loss...
August 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30124526/preservation-of-muscle-mass-as-a-strategy-to-reduce-the-toxic-effects-of-cancer-chemotherapy-on-body-composition
#8
Fabrizio Pin, Marion E Couch, Andrea Bonetto
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy often experience very debilitating side effects, including unintentional weight loss, nausea, and vomiting. Changes in body composition, specifically lean body mass (LBM), are known to have important implications for anticancer drug toxicity and cancer prognosis. Currently, chemotherapy dosing is based on calculation of body surface area, although this approximation does not take into consideration the variability in lean and adipose tissue mass...
August 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102621/understanding-sex-differences-in-the-regulation-of-cancer-induced-muscle-wasting
#9
Ryan N Montalvo, Brittany R Counts, James A Carson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We highlight evidence for sexual dimorphism in preclinical and clinical studies investigating the cause and treatment of cancer cachexia. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer cachexia is unintended bodyweight loss occurring with cancer, and skeletal muscle wasting is a critical predictor of negative outcomes in the cancer patient. Skeletal muscle exhibits sexual dimorphism in fiber type, function, and regeneration capacity. Sex differences have been implicated in skeletal muscle metabolism, mitochondrial function, immune response to injury, and myogenic stem cell regulation...
August 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074925/improving-outcome-in-patients-with-prostate-and-kidney-cancer-heading-in-the-right-direction
#10
Fred Saad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074924/psychological-support-for-patients-with-cancer-evidence-review-and-suggestions-for-future-directions
#11
Nicholas J Hulbert-Williams, Lisa Beatty, Haryana M Dhillon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychological distress and mental health comorbidity are common in cancer. Various therapeutic frameworks have been used for interventions to improve psychological wellbeing and quality of life in cancer patients with mixed results. This article reviews contributions to that literature published since January 2017. RECENT FINDINGS: The majority of new psychological intervention research in cancer has used cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) or mindfulness-based interventions...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074923/the-role-of-primary-care-in-supporting-patients-living-with-and-beyond-cancer
#12
Rosalind Adam, Eila Watson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The prevalence of cancer survivors is increasing. Those living with and beyond a cancer diagnosis have a range of physical, psychosocial and practical needs. This review aims to discuss the role of primary care in meeting these needs. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients have increased contact with primary care after a cancer diagnosis but the role of the primary care team in the formal delivery of cancer aftercare is not clearly defined and varies depending on setting and context...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074922/pathophysiological-mechanisms-of-exertional-breathlessness-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-interstitial-lung-disease
#13
Dennis Jensen, Michele R Schaeffer, Jordan A Guenette
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breathlessness is a common and distressing symptom in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD), particularly during exercise. Effective medical management of exertional breathlessness in people living with COPD and fibrotic ILD is challenging for healthcare providers and requires an understanding of its mechanisms. Thus, in this brief review we summarize recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of exertional breathlessness in COPD and fibrotic ILD...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074921/learning-30-years-behind%C3%A2
#14
David C Currow, Marie Fallon, Miriam J Johnson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067576/exercise-and-movement-in-musculoskeletal-pain-a-double-edged-problem
#15
Roberto Casale, Pierluigi L Chimento, Michelangelo Bartolo, Giovanni Taveggia
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exercise and movement are increasingly used in pain management and in palliative care, outside the traditional context of physical medicine and rehabilitation. This critical review aims to provide specialists in pain and palliative medicine with recent insights into the use of exercise and movement in the approach to musculoskeletal disorders when pain and disability are the major complaints. RECENT FINDINGS: If there is a common sense linking pain and movement in both directions, that is pain influencing movement - as a withdrawal movement or a reduction of mobility as a defense reaction - or movement evoking pain, not so clear and recognized is the link between exercise and movement in controlling pain...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067575/breathlessness-in-the-emergency-care-setting
#16
Miriam J Johnson, Ann Hutchinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breathlessness is one of the most common reasons for presentation at the emergency department (ED). The present review summarizes work published from 2017, which focuses on the symptom of breathlessness in its own right rather than as a signpost to diagnosis in relation to presentation to the ED. RECENT FINDINGS: Seven relevant papers are included in the present review. Five describe the epidemiology of breathlessness presentation showing: a prevalence of approximately 5% all ED presentations, a high likelihood of hospital admission especially for those with heart failure, breathlessness as a predictor of re-presentation...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048250/role-of-immunotherapy-in-kidney-cancer
#17
Sebastiano Nazzani, Amélie Bazinet, Pierre I Karakiewicz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize current knowledge on promising immunotherapeutic agents and to provide a brief outline of current use of immunotherapeutic agents in patients with locally advanced or metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC). RECENT FINDINGS: Immunotherapy with mAbs directed against programed death cell protein 1, programed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Antigen 4 has become new first-line standard of care for moderate and poor-risk metastatic RCC patients...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036215/supporting-self-management-in-palliative-care-throughout-the-cancer-care-trajectory
#18
Dena Schulman-Green, Abraham Brody, Stephanie Gilbertson-White, Robin Whittemore, Ruth McCorkle
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite increased survivorship and the subsequent need for chronic management of cancer, the association of self-management and palliative care is still emerging within cancer care. Routine and timely use of self-management strategies in the palliative setting can help reduce self-management burden and maximize quality of life. In this review, we consider the complementary relationship of self-management and palliative care and how they support living with cancer as a chronic illness...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015692/myofascial-pain-so-common-and-yet-not-understood
#19
Roberto Casale
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30015691/treatment-of-hormone-na%C3%A3-ve-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#20
Zineb Hamilou, Fred Saad, Karim Fizazi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Until 2015, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) alone was the standard-of-care for metastatic hormone-naïve prostate cancer (mHNPC). In the last decade, important landmark therapeutic advances occurred in the management of these patients permitting improvement of their survival. RECENT FINDINGS: At least two prospective randomized trials proved upfront docetaxel (DOC) + ADT benefit consequently providing strong evidence for guidelines modifications...
September 2018: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
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