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Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644303/prostate-cancer-immunotherapy-the-path-forward
#1
Ravi A Madan, James L Gulley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an overview of current strategies being investigated in the development of immunotherapy in prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Development of immunotherapy in prostate cancer actually began in 2010 with FDA approval of sipuleucel-T. Given that immune checkpoint inhibitor trials have either been negative at the phase III level or underwhelming in smaller studies, it is likely that combination strategies will be required to further maximize the impact immune-based therapies on the clinical course of the disease...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644302/the-role-of-bone-targeted-therapies-for-prostate-cancer-in-2017
#2
Samer L Traboulsi, Fred Saad
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bone-targeted agents (BTAs), such as zoledronic acid and denosumab, delay the occurrence of skeletal-related events (SREs) in metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) patients. Recently, several agents, such as abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide and radium-223, were approved for the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC). These agents resulted in improved overall survival (OS), pain control and had positive effects on bone health. Combining BTAs to the newly approved agents demonstrates additional benefits that warrant a review of available evidence looking at appropriate combination therapies and timing of BTAs for optimizing the management of advanced and metastatic PCa...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644301/palliative-oxygen-for-chronic-breathlessness-what-new-evidence
#3
Zainab Ahmadi, David C Currow, Magnus Ekström
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Supplemental oxygen improves survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and severe hypoxaemia, but the effect of oxygen therapy in mild or moderate hypoxaemia to reduce symptomatic chronic breathlessness remains unclear. This review provides an overview of recent evidence about the role of oxygen therapy for the relief of chronic breathlessness in advanced illness. RECENT FINDINGS: In COPD, a recent Cochrane review strengthens earlier findings regarding the positive effect of supplemental oxygen compared with air during exercise test in the training setting...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644300/breathlessness-in-the-primary-care-setting
#4
Noel Baxter
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Breathlessness is a high-volume problem with 10% of adults experiencing the symptom daily placing a heavy burden on the health and wider economy. As it worsens, they enter the specialist and hospital-based symptom services where costs quickly escalate and people may find themselves in a place not of their choosing. For many, their care will be delivered by a disease or organ specialist and can find themselves passing between physicians without coordination for symptom support...
July 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617682/carers-and-breathlessness
#5
Morag Farquhar
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Informal carers play a key role in supporting patients living with breathlessness in advanced disease, but with considerable impacts on their own well being. The purpose was to review recent advances in our understanding of the caring role in refractory breathlessness, its impacts on carers, and interventions to support them. RECENT FINDINGS: A systematic literature search resulted in 28 included articles that could be mapped to four broad areas of carer enquiry: the carer role (n = 6), role impact (n = 7), carer support (n = 11) and carer views (n = 4)...
June 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614082/pharmacology-of-cough-in-palliative-care
#6
Alyn H Morice, Gabriella Shanks
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cough is a common and distressing symptom. It has a marked decrement on quality-of-life particularly in the arena of palliative care where coexisting symptoms such as pain may be exacerbated. Whilst local definitive treatment may alleviate coughing it usually requires general measures. The purpose of the review is to assess the current evidence relating to the pharmacological management of cough. RECENT FINDINGS: Key to understanding cough is the realization that most cough is because of a hypersensitivity of the afferent vagus nerve...
June 12, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590313/current-management-of-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-evolving-new-therapies
#7
Ravi Kumar, Anil Kapoor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Targeted therapies have recently replaced cytokine treatments as the gold standard for management of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Currently approved treatments include the tyrosine kinase inhibitors sunitinib, pazopanib, axitinib, sorafenib, cabozantinib and lenvatinib; the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibitor bevacizumab; the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors everolimus and temsirolimus; and the immunologic nivolumab. The purpose of this review is to provide an updated analysis of the clinical data supporting the use of these agents in the first-line and second-line setting...
June 5, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590314/novel-imaging-in-advanced-prostate-cancer
#8
Hanan Goldberg, Robert J Hamilton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most commonly diagnosed noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of death in men. Imaging evaluation of PCa is challenging because of the prostate's deep pelvic location, its complex zonal anatomy and its multifocal nature. Novel imaging modalities are needed to improve detection, reassessment in biochemical relapse, and disease progression in advanced metastatic stages. RECENT FINDINGS: Current imaging modalities have distinct strengths...
June 3, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562375/exercise-medicine-for-advanced-prostate-cancer
#9
Nicolas H Hart, Daniel A Galvão, Robert U Newton
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exercise is a provocative medicine, known for its preventive, complimentary and rehabilitative role in the management of cancer. Impressively, exercise is also emerging as a synergistic and targeted medicine to enhance symptom control, modulate tumour biology and delay disease progression, with the potential to increase overall survival. Given the complex clinical presentation of advanced prostate cancer patients and their omnipresent comorbidities, this review describes the current and potential role of exercise medicine in advanced prostate cancer...
June 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460373/cancer-treatment-related-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#10
Joanne M Bowen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460372/the-role-of-topiceuticals-in-cancer-pain
#11
Peter Paisley, Michael Serpell
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pain is one of the most common and feared symptoms associated with a new diagnosis of cancer and its subsequent treatment. Unfortunately, it remains undertreated in around one third of patients. It has been recently postulated that one mechanism for this could be failure to recognize neuropathic pain. One attractive option in both the case of neuropathic pain and pain associated with intolerable side effects of prescribed opioids is the use of 'topiceuticals', as a means of targeted pain relief with potentially fewer side effects...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403122/editorial
#12
Paul Farquhar-Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375884/editorial
#13
Anthony H Dickenson, Kirsty Bannister
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375883/improving-the-treatment-of-infant-pain
#14
Fiona Moultrie, Rebeccah Slater, Caroline Hartley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pain management presents a major challenge in neonatal care. Newborn infants who require medical treatment can undergo frequent invasive procedures during a critical period of neurodevelopment. However, adequate analgesic provision is infrequently and inconsistently provided for acute noxious procedures because of limited and conflicting evidence regarding analgesic efficacy and safety of most commonly used pharmacological agents. Here, we review recent advances in the measurement of infant pain and discuss clinical trials that assess the efficacy of pharmacological analgesia in infants...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333868/proteasome-inhibitor-induced-gastrointestinal-toxicity
#15
Romany L Stansborough, Rachel J Gibson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal toxicities are commonly reported following treatment with proteasome inhibitors. The first-generation proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, induces significant gastrointestinal side effects including nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, and constipation, occurring in up to 84% of patients. Despite the development of safer proteasome inhibitors, such as carfilzomib, gastrointestinal toxicities remain some of the most common side effects. This review aims to summarize the previous literature on proteasome inhibitor-induced gastrointestinal toxicities, report on recent updates in the field, and investigate possible mechanisms of this toxicity...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333867/determining-risk-of-severe-gastrointestinal-toxicity-based-on-pretreatment-gut-microbial-community-in-patients-receiving-cancer-treatment-a-new-predictive-strategy-in-the-quest-for-personalized-cancer-medicine
#16
Hannah R Wardill, Wim J E Tissing
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Currently, our ability to accurately predict a patient's risk of developing severe gastrointestinal toxicity from their cancer treatment is limited. Risk stratification continues to rely on traditional patient-related and treatment-related factors including age, ethnicity, sex, comorbidities, genetics, agent, dose and schedule. Although informative, these crude measures continue to underestimate toxicity risk, and hence alternative methods of risk prediction must be investigated...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333866/prevention-of-gastrointestinal-side-effects-in-paediatric-oncology-what-are-the-guidelines
#17
Karis K F Cheng
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gastrointestinal side-effects, particularly with regard to alimentary tract mucositis and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV), continue to be frequent and debilitating symptomatic conditions among children and adolescents receiving cytotoxic cancer therapy. Further avenues of progress for mucositis and CINV prevention in paediatric oncology setting are warranted. RECENT FINDINGS: The current article reviews the major guidelines and literature published in 2016 pertaining to the prevention of mucositis and CINV...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333865/clinical-application-of-perioperative-multimodal-analgesia
#18
Jörgen Bruhn, Gert J Scheffer, Geert-Jan van Geffen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The experience of intense postoperative pain remains a significant problem in perioperative medicine. The mainstay of postoperative analgetic therapy is the combination of nonopioid agents (e.g. paracetamol and NSAIDs) with strong opioids (e.g. morphine) according to the WHO analgesic ladder. But as the incidence and intensity of postoperative pain remains high, the search for and evaluation of additional concepts is ongoing. This review highlights the current trends of perioperative multimodal analgesia concepts...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306570/use-of-corticosteroids-for-pain-control-in-cancer-patients-with-bone-metastases-a-comprehensive-literature-review
#19
Fiona M Y Lim, Adam Bobrowski, Arnav Agarwal, Mauricio F Silva
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite a limited understanding of the exact mechanism, corticosteroids are commonly employed for pain control in patients with bone metastases. The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroid-mediated pain control in patients with bone metastases associated with solid cancers. RECENT FINDINGS: A literature search was conducted using OVID MEDLINE and Embase databases (from 1946 up to July 19, 2016). Studies involving patients with bone metastases receiving corticosteroids as the primary means of pain control were included...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306569/pain-prevalence-in-cancer-patients-status-quo-or-opportunities-for-improvement
#20
Johan Haumann, E Bert A Joosten, Marieke H J van den Beuken-van Everdingen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cancer incidence increases worldwide and thus more patients will suffer from cancer pain. As cancer pain severely affects quality of life, the decrease of pain should be of high priority for every clinician. In the last decade, attention for cancer pain and for its treatment has increased, and new pharmacological based treatment options became available. This gave reason to hypothesize a decrease in pain prevalence in cancer patients over the last decade. RECENT FINDINGS: Despite increased attention to cancer pain, pain prevalence in cancer patients has not significantly changed over the last decade as compared to the four decades before...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
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