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Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness

Allison R Heid, Seran Schug, Francine P Cartwright, Rachel Pruchno
OBJECTIVE: Individuals exposed to natural disasters are at risk for negative physical and psychological outcomes. Older adults may be particularly vulnerable; however, social support can act as a resource to help individuals respond to severe stressors. This study explored the challenges older people faced before, during, and after Hurricane Sandy in October 2012 and the people they turned to for support. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 older adults in New Jersey drawn from the ORANJ BOWL (Ongoing Research on Aging in New Jersey - Bettering Opportunities for Wellness in Life) research panel, who experienced high levels of primary home damage during Hurricane Sandy...
October 14, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Abdallah Mohamed Elsafti, Gerlant van Berlaer, Mohammad Al Safadi, Michel Debacker, Ronald Buyl, Atef Redwan, Ives Hubloue
OBJECTIVE: The Syrian civil war since 2011 has led to one of the most complex humanitarian emergencies in history. The objective of this study was to document the impact of the conflict on the familial, educational, and public health state of Syrian children. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study was conducted in May 2015. Health care workers visited families with a prospectively designed data sheet in 4 Northern Syrian governorates. RESULTS: The 1001 children included in this study originated from Aleppo (41%), Idleb (36%), Hamah (15%), and Lattakia (8%)...
October 14, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Mohammadkarim Bahadori, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Rouhollah Zaboli, Ramin Ravangard, Isa Malmir
OBJECTIVE: Coordination is a major challenge in the field of health in disasters, mostly because of the complex nature of health-related activities. METHODS: This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory approach. A total of 22 experts in the field of health in disasters participated in the study. The data were collected through in-depth interviews and literature review. The collected data were then analyzed by use of MAXQDA 2010 software (VERBI Software GmbH)...
October 11, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Jong-Hak Park, Hanjin Cho, Joo Yeong Kim, Joo-Hyun Song, Sungwoo Moon, Sang Hoon Cha, Byung-Min Choi, Chang-Su Han, Young-Hoon Ko, Hongjae Lee
The Sewol ferry disaster is one of the most tragic events in Korea's modern history. Among the 476 people on board, which included Danwon High School students (324) and teachers (14), 304 passengers died in the disaster (295 recovered corpses and 9 missing) and 172 survived. Of the rescued survivors, 72 were attending Danwon High School, located in Ansan City, and residing in a residence nearby. Because the students were young, emotionally susceptible adolescents, both the government and the parents requested the students be grouped together at a single hospital capable of appropriate psychiatric care...
September 29, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Emma Paras, Matthew Butler, Brian F Maguire, Rich Scarfone
In September 2015, Pope Francis visited Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and led outdoor events over the course of 2 days. As a result, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) was faced with the challenge of planning for and responding to a mass gathering that was anticipated to be one of the largest in US history. As a result of unprecedented traffic restrictions, it was anticipated that patients, staff, and vendors would have severe challenges accessing the hospital, along with impaired communications from widespread cell phone service disruption...
September 29, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Yibing Tan, Xiaolan Liao, Haihao Su, Chun Li, Jiagen Xiang, Zhaoyang Dong
OBJECTIVE: This study had 2 aims. First, we evaluated the current levels of disaster preparedness among university students in southern China. Second, we assessed students' demands for future disaster education. In addition, we examined the influence of demographic factors on current disaster preparedness status and demand. METHODS: A cross-sectional design was used. The data were collected from 1893 students in 10 universities in the Guangzhou Higher Education Mega (GHEM) center...
September 26, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Lei Liu, Huahua Yin, Ding Liu
In November 2014, a total of 164 health care workers were dispatched by the Chinese government as the first medical assistance team to Liberia. The tasks of this team were to establish a China Ebola treatment unit (ETU), to commence the initial admission and treatment of suspected and confirmed Ebola patients, and to provide public health and infection control training for relevant local personnel. Overall, during the 2-month stay of this first medical assistance team in Liberia, 112 Ebola-suspected patients presented to the ETU, 65 patients were admitted, including 5 confirmed cases, and 3 confirmed cases were cured...
September 26, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Qi Lv, Hui Ding, Zi-Quan Liu, Hong-Wei Gao, Bao-Guo Yu, Zhou-Wei Wu, Hao-Jun Fan, Shi-Ke Hou
OBJECTIVE: Human adenovirus type 55 (HAdV-55) has recently caused multiple outbreaks. This study examined polymorphisms in CD46 to determine their involvement in HAdV-55 infection. METHODS: A total of 214 study subjects infected with HAdV-55 were included in our study. The study subjects were divided into those with silent infections (n=91), minor infections (n=85), and severe infections (n=38). Ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from CD46 were examined...
September 20, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Erin McClelland, Richard Amlôt, M Brooke Rogers, G James Rubin, John Tesh, Julia M Pearce
In recent years, a series of large-scale, high-profile natural disasters and terrorist attacks have demonstrated the need for thorough and effective disaster preparedness. While these extreme events affect communities and societies as a whole, they also carry specific risks for particular population groups. Crises such as Hurricane Katrina and the 2011 earthquake and tsunami disaster in Japan have illustrated the risk of significant and disproportionate morbidity and mortality among older adults during disasters...
September 20, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Samuel M Pope
The purpose of this communication is to explore the implications of genome editing techniques, such as CRISPR/Cas9, on public health-related responses to outbreaks of disease. The recent commercialization of genome editing techniques makes the creation and release of genetically altered pathogens a much easier task, increasing the possibility to the point of needing discussion. Three areas need to be addressed: predictions concerning potential genetic alterations, predictions and implications concerning the release of genetically altered pathogens, and the short- and long-term implications of the release of genetically altered pathogens...
September 19, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Bishal Gyawali, June Keeling, Per Kallestrup
As Nepal mourns the 1-year commemoration of the April 2015 earthquake and its aftershocks that killed more than 8500 people and left thousands injured and displaced, other more hidden repercussions of the resultant chaotic environment need attention: the increased risk of human trafficking. Considering that natural disasters provide a milieu for this illicit trade, there is a need for a robust response from stakeholders such as donors, civil society organizations, and government organizations against human trafficking following disasters such as the Nepal earthquake...
September 15, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
J J Mark Haverkort, Jos H Bouman, Jelte D D Wind, Luke P H Leenen
OBJECTIVE: To describe the development of the Patient Barcode Registration System (PBRS) over time and confirm the usability and feasibility of the system's latest version during a large trauma drill. METHODS: The development of a PBRS started around 1993 aiming to provide an effective tool for patient registration, tracking, and tracing during major incidents. The PBRS uses wristbands with barcodes to follow and register patients in the care process. During a large trauma drill, 120 patients and 40 relatives were registered and traced in the system...
September 13, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Sebastián Eduardo Espinoza Espinoza, Anibal Enrique Vivaceta De la Fuente, Constanza Andrea Machuca Contreras
OBJECTIVE: To describe and relate the main environmental risk factors in the emergency process after a large urban fire in Valparaiso, Chile, in April 2014. METHODS: An observational, cross-sectional descriptive study was performed. All 243 reports from an ad hoc web/mobile website created on the Ushahidi/Crowdmap platform were reviewed. Reports were recorded in a new database with dichotomist variables based on either the presence or absence of the relevant category in each report...
September 13, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
ZiQuan Liu, Zhen Yang, Qi Lv, Hui Ding, XinJun Suo, HongWei Gao, LiMin Xin, WenLong Dong, RuiChang Wu, HaoJun Fan, ShiKe Hou
OBJECTIVE: To explore the 3-tiered treatment model for medical treatment after an earthquake. METHODS: Based on the practices of the national emergency medical rescue services in the Lushan earthquake zone, the 3-tiered treatment classification approach was retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Medical rescue teams assembled and reported quickly to the disaster areas after the earthquake. The number of injured people had reached 25,176 as of April 30; of these, 18,611 people were treated as outpatients, 6565 were hospitalized, and 977 were seriously or severely injured...
September 13, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Elena Savoia, Leesa Lin, Kasisomayajula Viswanath
OBJECTIVE: On January 9, 2014, a faulty storage tank leaked 10,000 gallons of an industrial coal-processing liquid into the Elk River in West Virginia, contaminating the drinking water of 9 counties collectively known as the Kanawha Valley. In the context of this event, we explored the relationship between social determinants and (1) the timeliness with which residents learned about the crisis, (2) the source of information, (3) opinions on the source of information, (4) information-seeking behaviors, and (5) knowledge acquired...
September 9, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Liang E Liu, Meaghan Dehning, Ashley Phipps, Ray E Swienton, Curtis A Harris, Kelly R Klein
OBJECTIVE: Mosquito-borne diseases pose a threat to individual health and population health on both a local and a global level. The threat is even more exaggerated during disasters, whether manmade or environmental. With the recent Zika virus outbreak, it is important to highlight other infections that can mimic the Zika virus and to better understand what can be done as public health officials and health care providers. METHODS: This article reviews the recent literature on the Zika virus as well as chikungunya virus and dengue virus...
August 30, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Laura Singer, Kelly G Vest, Charles W Beadling
Zika virus continues to pose a significant global health threat. While the outbreak pattern may seemingly mirror those of other arboviruses, unique transmission characteristics and clinical outcomes warrant a different approach to traditional public health practices. Sexual transmission and virus-associated fetal and nonfetal neurologic disorders specifically challenge conventional methods of disease protection and prevention with regard to vector control, disease surveillance, and health risk communication...
August 30, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Caleb Dresser, Jeroan Allison, John Broach, Mary-Elise Smith, Andrew Milsten
OBJECTIVES: Hurricanes cause substantial mortality, especially in developing nations, and climate science predicts that powerful hurricanes will increase in frequency during the coming decades. This study examined the association of wind speed and national economic conditions with mortality in a large sample of hurricane events in small countries. METHODS: Economic, meteorological, and fatality data for 149 hurricane events in 16 nations between 1958 and 2011 were analyzed...
August 30, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Furqan B Irfan, Sameer A Pathan, Zain A Bhutta, Mohamed E Abbasy, Amr Elmoheen, Abdallah M Elsaeidy, Tooba Tariq, Charles D Hugelmeyer, Habib Dardouri, Noor Bibi Khial Bad Shah, Colene Y Daniel, Ashwin D Silva, Kaleelullah S Farook, Yogdutt Sharma, Stephen H Thomas
The State of Qatar experienced a sandstorm on the night of April 1, 2015, lasting approximately 12 hours, with winds of more than 100 km/h and average particulate matter of approximately 10 μm in diameter. The emergency department (ED) of the main tertiary hospital in Qatar managed 62% of the total emergency calls and those of higher triage order. The peak load of patients during the event manifested approximately 6 hours after the onset. The Major Emergency Command Centre of the hospital ensured the department was maximally organized in terms of disaster management, and established protocols were brought into action...
August 19, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Lijun Gao, Qunhong Wu, Ye Li, Ding Ding, Yanhua Hao, Yu Cui, Zheng Kang, Mingli Jiao, Libo Liang, Adamm Ferrier, Ning Ning, Hong Sun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2016: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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