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Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness

Duy Vu Tran, Carol S North
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate potential association between psychopathology and subjective evaluation of the experience of debriefing in disaster-exposed rescue and recovery workers. METHODS: Structured diagnostic interviews for DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders were conducted with 166 firefighters who served as rescue and recovery workers for the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, who categorized their satisfaction with the debriefing on 4 levels...
March 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Christiana R Dallas, Curtis H Harris, Cham E Dallas
In the U.S., migration has been documented to affect the prevalence of infectious disease. As a mitigation entity, border security has been recorded by numerous scholarly works as being essential to the support of the health of the U.S. POPULATION: Consequently, the lack of current health care monitoring of the permeable U.S. border places the U.S. population at risk in the broad sectors of infectious disease and interpersonal violence. Visualizing border security in the context of public health mitigation has significant potential to protect migrant health as well as that of all populations on both sides of the border...
March 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Tessa J Koeffler, Natalie E Demeter, Lynn Kysh, Jeffrey Reeb, Alix Stayton, Robert Spears, Rita V Burke
The goal of this research was to identify, summarize, and evaluate pediatric disaster preparedness resources in the United States and to identify areas that need improvement or further development. Using standard literature, gray literature and website reviews, relevant resources were identified and the 50 most relevant resources were studied in depth. Each resource was given a grade of A, B, or C based on content, format, quality, and thoroughness. These resources were divided into 3 categories: (1) hospital resources, (2) school resources, and (3) training/education resources...
March 7, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Melinda J Morton Hamer, Paul L Reed, Jane D Greulich, Charles W Beadling
US Africa Command's Disaster Preparedness Program (DPP), implemented by the Center for Disaster and Humanitarian Assistance Medicine, partnered with US Government agencies and international organizations to promote stability and security on the African continent by engaging with African Partner Nations' (PN) civil and military authorities to improve disaster management capabilities. From 2008 to 2015, DPP conducted disaster preparedness and response programming with 17 PNs. DPP held a series of engagements with each, including workshops, strategic planning, developing preparedness and response plans, tabletop exercises, and prioritizing disaster management capability gaps identified through the engagements...
March 7, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Syra Madad, Anna Tate, Maytal Rand, Celia Quinn, Neil M Vora, Machelle Allen, Nicholas V Cagliuso, Jennifer L Rakeman, Sean Studer, Joseph Masci, Jay K Varma, Ross Wilson
The Zika virus was largely unknown to many health care systems before the outbreak of 2015. The unique public health threat posed by the Zika virus and the evolving understanding of its pathology required continuous communication between a health care delivery system and a local public health department. By leveraging an existing relationship, NYC Health+Hospitals worked closely with New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene to ensure that Zika-related processes and procedures within NYC Health+Hospitals facilities aligned with the most current Zika virus guidance...
March 7, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
James T Dant, Glen Reeves, Daniela Stricklin
OBJECTIVE: A radiological disaster could result in a large number of patients potentially exposed to harmful levels of radiation. Currently, early triage of patients for radiation exposure relies heavily on a clinical evaluation of signs and symptoms. However, detailed clinical assessment takes significant time and requires specialized training to accurately interpret the results. METHODS: During planning of a recent exercise, SMEs estimated that it would take up to 15 minutes per patient...
March 4, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Pamela Mar, Robert Spears, Jeffrey Reeb, Sarah B Thompson, Paul Myers, Rita V Burke
OBJECTIVE: Eight million American children under the age of 5 attend daycare and more than another 50 million American children are in school or daycare settings. Emergency planning requirements for daycare licensing vary by state. Expert opinions were used to create a disaster preparedness video designed for daycare providers to cover a broad spectrum of scenarios. METHODS: Various stakeholders (17) devised the outline for an educational pre-disaster video for child daycare providers using the Delphi technique...
February 22, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Rachel M Peters, Thomas J Hipper, Esther D Chernak
OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to determine the capacity of community primary care practices to meet the needs of patients during public health emergencies and to identify the barriers and resources necessary to participate in a coordinated response with public safety agencies. METHODS: The self-administered web-based survey was distributed in January 2014 via e-mail to primary care providers in Pennsylvania using the listservs of several professional societies. RESULTS: A total of 179 primary care providers participated in the survey...
February 22, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Paul D Biddinger, David Reisman, Robert F Seger, Ann L Prestipino, Julia Sinclair, Barry Wante, Eric Goralnick, Katherine Kemen
OBJECTIVE: Although hospital emergency preparedness efforts have been recognized as important, there has been growing pressure on cost containment, as well as consolidation within the US health care system. There is little data looking at what health care emergency preparedness functions have been, could be, or should be centrally coordinated at a system level. METHODS: We developed a questionnaire for academic health systems and asked about program funding, resources provided, governance, and activities...
February 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Albert Brizio, Jean-Christophe Hubert, Brigitte Hennequin, Jeremy Bouchez, Marie-Clément Kouka
In 2016 France hosted the European football championship. In a context of an increased terrorist threat, Chemical, Bacteriological, Radiological, Nuclear (CBRN) attacks were considered possible. Three days prior to the beginning of the event, the Health Authorities required that a medium sized hospital close to a major potential target, prepare a chemical decontamination centre. Despite a low level of preparedness, little external help, and very few extra resources, an efficient decontamination chain (all premises necessary for the management of contaminated victims: from the entrance gate to the post-decontamination dressing cabins) was set up in 15 days (12 days after the unrealistic deadline)...
February 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Kristin Levoy, Summer D DeBastiani, Brian E McCabe
OBJECTIVE: A common method of disaster training is needed to improve disaster nursing education and facilitate better communication among interprofessional disaster responders. To inform the development of disaster nursing curricula, a novel disaster nursing education method consistent with Homeland Security Exercise and Evaluation Program (HSEEP) and the International Council of Nurses (ICN) framework was developed to improve disaster nursing competencies in a baccalaureate nursing program...
February 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Vishal R Aggarwal
This paper presents an overview of the importance of oral health in complex emergencies. It highlights the importance of maintaining general and oral health in the acute, intermediate and long-term phases of such events which are increasing in frequency. The importance of oral health as an early warning sign for systemic disease and deprivation is also explored along with the crucial role of oral health in maintaining quality of life through adequate nutrition and speech. The overview of oral health in these situations identifies the need for training dental personnel as members of rehabilitation teams that set out to manage these disasters...
February 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Eliezer Be'eri, Simon Owen, Maurit Beeri, Scott R Millis, Arik Eisenkraft
OBJECTIVES: Chemical-biological-radio-nuclear (CBRN) gas masks are the standard means for protecting the general population from inhalation of toxic industrial compounds (TICs), for example after industrial accidents or terrorist attacks. However, such gas masks would not protect patients on home mechanical ventilation, as ventilator airflow would bypass the CBRN filter. We therefore evaluated in vivo the safety of adding a standard-issue CBRN filter to the air-outflow port of a home ventilator, as a method for providing TIC protection to such patients...
February 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Mimang Tembe, Sushma Dhakal, Ashis Shrestha, Josh Mugele, Darlene R House
OBJECTIVE: Natural disasters have a significant impact on the health sector. On April 25, 2015, Nepal was struck by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake. The aim of the study was to compare patient volumes and clinical conditions presenting to the emergency department pre- and post-earthquake. METHODS: A retrospective study was done at Patan Hospital Emergency Department in Kathmandu, Nepal. Volume, demographics, and patient diagnoses were collected for 4 months post-disaster and compared with cases seen the same months the year before the disaster to control for seasonal variations...
February 20, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Dennis Darrin Pruitt, Erkan Gunay
There is little existing in the literature that provides a definition of readiness for a jurisdiction's whole health care system. As defining readiness at the system level has proven to be challenging, an approach that provides a framework for planning and measuring health care readiness with broad utility is needed. The New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DOHMH) devised the Readiness Target Project. Nine areas or dimensions of readiness emerged from this work. Through focus groups and feedback from hospital stakeholders DOHMH developed a matrix of readiness areas outlining current state, target state, gaps, and recommendations to achieve readiness...
February 20, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Sarah R Lowe, Megan N Young, Joie Acosta, Laura Sampson, Oliver Gruebner, Sandro Galea
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine factors associated with receipt of post-disaster support from network (eg, family or friends) and non-network (eg, government agencies) sources. METHODS: Participants (n=409) were from a population-based sample of Hurricane Sandy survivors surveyed 25-28 months post-disaster. Survivors were asked to imagine a future disaster and indicate how much they would depend on network and non-network sources of support. In addition, they reported on demographic characteristics, disaster-related exposure, post-traumatic stress, and depression...
February 20, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Bruria Adini, Avi Israeli, Moran Bodas, Kobi Peleg
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to examine impact of think-tanks designed to create policies for emerging threats on medical teams' perceptions of individual and systemic emergency preparedness. METHODS: Multi-professional think-tanks were established to design policies for potential attacks on civilian communities. In total, 59 multi-sector health care managers participated in think-tanks focused on: (a) primary care services in risk zones; (b) hospital care; (c) casualty evacuation policies; (d) medical services to special-needs populations; and (e) services in a "temporary military-closed zone...
February 20, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Susan Schmitz, Tiffany A Radcliff, Karen Chu, Robert E Smith, Aram Dobalian
OBJECTIVE: The US Veterans Health Administration's Disaster Emergency Medical Personnel System (DEMPS) is a team of employee disaster response volunteers who provide clinical and non-clinical staffing assistance when local systems are overwhelmed. This study evaluated attitudes and recommendations of the DEMPS program to understand the impact of multi-modal training on volunteer perceptions. METHODS: DEMPS volunteers completed an electronic survey in 2012 (n=2120)...
February 20, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Amir Khorram-Manesh, Johan Berlin, Lina Ljung Roseke, Johan Aremyr, Josef Sörensson, Eric Carlström
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a simulation training in raising a group of young students' personal and situational awareness in disasters and emergencies. METHODS: In total, 25 young students participated in two simulation scenarios representing two actual events, fire, and shooting, using a combination of two validated simulation training (Emergency Management and Preparedness Training for Youth [EMPTY]). The changes in their knowledge and awareness were evaluated by using questionnaires and the whole simulation was evaluated by three independent observers and a reference group...
February 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Maiko Fukasawa, Yuriko Suzuki, Akiko Obara, Yoshiharu Kim
OBJECTIVE: To explore whether stressors after a disaster have later effects on the mental health of public servants who engage in disaster response and to estimate the proportion of those experiencing persistent mental distress. METHODS: We analyzed the data of health surveys conducted in Miyagi Prefecture for all prefectural public servants at 2, 7, and 16 months after the Great East Japan Earthquake (n=3174). We investigated relationships between mental distress (defined as K6≥10) at 16 months after the earthquake and earthquake damage and working conditions at 2 months...
February 15, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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