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Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness

Simone Dell'Era, Olivier Hugli, Fabrice Dami
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to provide a comprehensive assessment of Swiss hospital disaster preparedness in 2016 compared with the 2006 data. METHODS: A questionnaire was addressed in 2016 to all heads responsible for Swiss emergency departments (EDs). RESULTS: Of the 107 hospitals included, 83 (78%) returned the survey. Overall, 76 (92%) hospitals had a plan in case of a mass casualty incident, and 76 (93%) in case of an accident within the hospital itself...
July 5, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Mary Hall, Chris Cartwright, Andrew C K Lee
OBJECTIVE: While carrying out a scoping review of earthquake response, we found that there is no universal standardized approach for assessing the quality of disaster evidence, much of which is variable or not peer reviewed. With the lack of a framework to ascertain the value and validity of this literature, there is a danger that valuable insights may be lost. We propose a theoretical framework that may, with further validation, address this gap. METHODS: Existing frameworks - quality of reporting of meta-analyses (QUORUM), meta-analysis of observational studies in epidemiology (MOOSE), the Cochrane assessment of bias, Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) checklists, strengthening the reporting of observation studies in epidemiology (STROBE), and consensus guidelines on reports of field interventions in disasters and emergencies (CONFIDE)-were analyzed to identify key domains of quality...
July 5, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Gerlant van Berlaer, Frank de Jong, Timothy Das, Carlos Primero Gundran, Matthijs Samyn, Geert Gijs, Ronald Buyl, Michel Debacker, Ives Hubloue
OBJECTIVE: In 2013, the Philippines was struck by typhoon Haiyan, which damaged local hospitals and disrupted health care. The Belgian First Aid and Support Team erected a field hospital and water purification unit in Palo. This study aims to describe the diagnoses encountered and treatment provided. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, medical records of 1267 field hospital patients were reviewed for gender, age, complaints, diagnoses, and management and referral information...
July 4, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Danielle Osborn, Lucy Easthope
Increasing scrutiny of the role and actions of emergency responders in the aftermath of mass casualty events has led to improvements and advances in terms of treatment and care. However, despite these improvements, the authors have identified a growing concern relating to the identification of incapacitated patients and those unable to provide any identifying details, such as pediatric patients. The use of visual identification and the reliance on personal effects within the vicinity of a victim, either living or deceased, has resulted in mistaken identification in a number of major international incidents...
June 29, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Anatoly Kreinin, Alexey Lyansberg, Miriam Yusupov, Daniel S Moran
When a fire occurs, there is little time to escape. In less than 30 seconds, a fire can rage out of control, filling the area with heat and toxic thick smoke (Purdue University Fire Department, 2017; In 2010, following the successful evacuation of Maale Ha'Carmel Mental Health Center during a raging forest fire in the area, a comprehensive investigation was performed to evaluate the management of the evacuation process and to systematically elicit lessons learned from the incident...
June 27, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Kenneth E Christopher, Panagiota Kitsantas, Kiara K Spooner, Joseph F Robare, Dan Hanfling
OBJECTIVE: Despite emerging evidence of the detrimental effects of natural disasters on maternal and child health, little is known about exposure to tornadoes during the prenatal period and its impact on birth outcomes. We examined the relationship between prenatal exposure to the spring 2011 tornado outbreak in Alabama and Joplin (Missouri) and adverse birth outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional cohort study using the 2010-2012 linked infant births and deaths data set from the National Center for Health Statistics for tornado-affected counties in Alabama (n=126,453) and Missouri (Joplin, n=6,897)...
June 20, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Howard J Osofsky, Carl F Weems, Rebecca A Graham, Joy D Osofsky, Tonya C Hansel, Lucy S King
OBJECTIVE: Theorists and researchers have linked resilience with a host of positive psychological and physical health outcomes. This paper examines perceptions of resilience and physical health symptoms in a sample of individuals exposed to multiple community disasters following involvement in integrated mental health services. METHODS: A multiwave naturalistic design was used to follow 762 adult clinic patients (72% female; 28% minority status), ages 18-92 years (mean age=40 years), who were evaluated for resilience and physical health symptoms prior to receiving services and at 1, 3, and 6 months' follow-up...
June 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Lucie Chauvelin, Morgane Gindt, Bertrand Olliac, Philippe Robert, Susanne Th├╝mmler, Florence Askenazy
In the actual context of terrorism targeting children and families, it seems essential to describe different experiences of pediatric psychological emergency devices after such unexpected mass trauma. Here we testify our experience of the psychological emergency care setup dedicated to children and families during the first 48 hours after the terrorist attack of Nice, France, on July 14, 2016. Activated within the hour following the attack, the device included two child psychiatry teams turning over each day, receiving at least 163 individuals (99 children and 64 adults) within the first 2 days...
June 19, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Wanqiu Yang, Timothy Sim, Ke Cui, Jun Zhang, Yanchun Yang, Xiaohong Ma
OBJECTIVE: Health care workers performing rescue tasks in large-scale disaster areas are usually challenged in terms of physical and mental endurance, which can affect their lifestyles. Nevertheless, data on whether health care workers tend to adopt healthy lifestyles after disasters are limited. This paper compares the adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors among health care workers with that among non-health care workers in a postdisaster area. METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted in August 2016...
June 18, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Yutaka Yabe, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Takuya Sekiguchi, Yumi Sugawara, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Masashi Koide, Nobuyuki Itaya, Shinichiro Yoshida, Yasuhito Sogi, Toshihisa Yano, Ichiro Tsuji, Eiji Itoi
OBJECTIVE: Psychological distress is a common symptom after natural disasters. Although musculoskeletal pain also increases after natural disasters, its relation to psychological distress is not known. This study aimed to examine the association of musculoskeletal pain with new-onset psychological distress among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake. METHODS: A panel study was conducted with survivors at 2 and 3 years after the Great East Japan Earthquake...
June 12, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Eli Yafe, Blake Byron Walker, Ofer Amram, Nadine Schuurman, Ellen Randall, Michael Friger, Bruria Adini
OBJECTIVE: Rapid response to a trauma incident is vital for saving lives. However, in a mass casualty incident (MCI), there may not be enough resources (first responders and equipment) to adequately triage, prepare, and evacuate every injured person. To address this deficit, a Volunteer First Responder (VFR) program was established. METHODS: This paper describes the organizational structure and roles of the VFR program, outlines the geographical distribution of volunteers, and evaluates response times to 3 MCIs for both ambulance services and VFRs in 2000 and 2016...
June 4, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Melinda J Morton Hamer, Paul L Reed, Jane D Greulich, Charles W Beadling
OBJECTIVE: The West African Disaster Preparedness Initiative held a disaster preparedness tabletop exercise with representatives from the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) in November 2015. The tabletop exercise was hosted by the Republic of Ghana's National Disaster Management Organization and partners in Accra, Ghana. METHODS: ECOWAS Commission delegates and representatives from 10 member states were confronted with a series of simulated crises...
May 30, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Jagadish K Chhetri, Gehendra Mahara, Bruno Vellas, Matteo Cesari
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 30, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Asmita Sharma, Nilamadhab Kar
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to gather data on posttraumatic stress and depression in adolescents following the 2015 Nepal earthquake and explore the adolescents' coping strategies. METHODS: In a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study about 1 year after the earthquake, adolescents in two districts with different degrees of impact were evaluated for disaster experience, coping strategies, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression measured with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Scale and the Depression Self Rating Scale...
May 24, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Sandeep Kumar Soni, Mitra Basu, Priyanka Agrawal, Aseem Bhatnagar, Neelam Chhillar
OBJECTIVE: Researchers have been evaluating several approaches to assess acute radiation injury/toxicity markers owing to radiation exposure. Keeping in mind this background, we assumed that whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the antioxidant profile in skin that could be used as an acute radiation injury/toxicity marker. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with CO-60 gamma radiation (dose: 1-5 Gy; dose rate: 0.85 Gy/minute)...
May 24, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Saeed Hamood Alsamhi, Mohd Samar Ansari, Ou Ma, Faris Almalki, Sachin Kumar Gupta
The actions taken at the initial times of a disaster are critical. Catastrophe occurs because of terrorist acts or natural hazards which have the potential to disrupt the infrastructure of wireless communication networks. Therefore, essential emergency functions such as search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be disabled. We propose tethered balloon technology to provide efficient emergency communication services and reduce casualty mortality and morbidity for disaster recovery...
May 23, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Tener Goodwin Veenema, Fiona Boland, Declan Patton, Tom O'Connor, Zena Moore, Sarah Schneider-Firestone
OBJECTIVE: Ultimately, a country's capacity for a large-scale major emergency response will be directly related to the competence of its health care provider (HCP) workforce and communication between emergency responders and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to assess HCP preparedness and service readiness for a major emergency involving mass casualties (mass casualty event or MCE) in Ireland. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a 53-item survey was administered to a purposive sample of emergency responders and HCPs in the Republic of Ireland...
May 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Mark S Mannenbach, Carol J Fahje, Kharmene L Sunga, Matthew D Sztajnkrycer
ABSTRACTWith an increased number of active shooter events in the United States, emergency departments are challenged to ensure preparedness for these low frequency but high stakes events. Engagement of all emergency department personnel can be very challenging due to a variety of barriers. This article describes the use of an in situ simulation training model as a component of active shooter education in one emergency department. The educational tool was intentionally developed to be multidisciplinary in planning and involvement, to avoid interference with patient care and to be completed in the true footprint of the work space of the participants...
May 11, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Xiaowen Hu, Fachun Jiang, Wei Ni
BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify the impact of few times floods on hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in Qingdao during 2009-2013. METHODS: The Spearman correlation test was applied to examine the lagged effects of floods on monthly morbidity of HFMD during study period in Qingdao. We further quantified the effects of 5 flood events on the morbidity of HFMD using the time-series Poisson regression controlling for climatic factors, seasonality, and lagged effects among different populations...
May 8, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
Frederick M Burkle, Adam L Kushner, Christos Giannou, Mary A Paterson, Sherry M Wren, Gilbert Burnham
ABSTRACTNo discipline has been impacted more by war and armed conflict than health care has. Health systems and health care providers are often the first victims, suffering increasingly heinous acts that cripple the essential health delivery and public health infrastructure necessary for the protection of civilian and military victims of the state at war. This commentary argues that current instructional opportunities to prepare health care providers fall short in both content and preparation, especially in those operational skill sets necessary to manage multiple challenges, threats, and violations under international humanitarian law and to perform triage management in a resource-poor medical setting...
May 7, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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