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Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792240/posttraumatic-stress-depression-and-coping-following-the-2015-nepal-earthquake-a-study-on-adolescents
#1
Asmita Sharma, Nilamadhab Kar
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to gather data on posttraumatic stress and depression in adolescents following the 2015 Nepal earthquake and explore the adolescents' coping strategies. METHODS: In a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study about 1 year after the earthquake, adolescents in two districts with different degrees of impact were evaluated for disaster experience, coping strategies, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress and depression measured with the Child Posttraumatic Stress Scale and the Depression Self Rating Scale...
May 24, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792236/evaluation-of-gamma-radiation-induced-biochemical-changes-in-skin-for-dose-assesment-a-study-on-small-experimental-animals
#2
Sandeep Kumar Soni, Mitra Basu, Priyanka Agrawal, Aseem Bhatnagar, Neelam Chhillar
OBJECTIVE: Researchers have been evaluating several approaches to assess acute radiation injury/toxicity markers owing to radiation exposure. Keeping in mind this background, we assumed that whole-body irradiation in single fraction in graded doses can affect the antioxidant profile in skin that could be used as an acute radiation injury/toxicity marker. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with CO-60 gamma radiation (dose: 1-5 Gy; dose rate: 0.85 Gy/minute)...
May 24, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789025/tethered-balloon-technology-in-design-solutions-for-rescue-and-relief-team-emergency-communication-services
#3
Saeed Hamood Alsamhi, Mohd Samar Ansari, Ou Ma, Faris Almalki, Sachin Kumar Gupta
The actions taken at the initial times of a disaster are critical. Catastrophe occurs because of terrorist acts or natural hazards which have the potential to disrupt the infrastructure of wireless communication networks. Therefore, essential emergency functions such as search, rescue, and recovery operations during a catastrophic event will be disabled. We propose tethered balloon technology to provide efficient emergency communication services and reduce casualty mortality and morbidity for disaster recovery...
May 23, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781406/analysis-of-emergency-health-care-workforce-and-service-readiness-for-a-mass-casualty-event-in-the-republic-of-ireland
#4
Tener Goodwin Veenema, Fiona Boland, Declan Patton, Tom O'Connor, Zena Moore, Sarah Schneider-Firestone
OBJECTIVE: Ultimately, a country's capacity for a large-scale major emergency response will be directly related to the competence of its health care provider (HCP) workforce and communication between emergency responders and hospitals. The purpose of this study was to assess HCP preparedness and service readiness for a major emergency involving mass casualties (mass casualty event or MCE) in Ireland. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using a 53-item survey was administered to a purposive sample of emergency responders and HCPs in the Republic of Ireland...
May 21, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747715/an-in-situ-simulation-based-training-approach-to-active-shooter-response-in-the-emergency-department
#5
Mark S Mannenbach, Carol J Fahje, Kharmene L Sunga, Matthew D Sztajnkrycer
ABSTRACTWith an increased number of active shooter events in the United States, emergency departments are challenged to ensure preparedness for these low frequency but high stakes events. Engagement of all emergency department personnel can be very challenging due to a variety of barriers. This article describes the use of an in situ simulation training model as a component of active shooter education in one emergency department. The educational tool was intentionally developed to be multidisciplinary in planning and involvement, to avoid interference with patient care and to be completed in the true footprint of the work space of the participants...
May 11, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734967/floods-increase-the-risks-of-hand-foot-mouth-disease-in-qingdao-china-2009-2013-a-quantitative-analysis
#6
Xiaowen Hu, Fachun Jiang, Wei Ni
BACKGROUND: We aimed to quantify the impact of few times floods on hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD) in Qingdao during 2009-2013. METHODS: The Spearman correlation test was applied to examine the lagged effects of floods on monthly morbidity of HFMD during study period in Qingdao. We further quantified the effects of 5 flood events on the morbidity of HFMD using the time-series Poisson regression controlling for climatic factors, seasonality, and lagged effects among different populations...
May 8, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733000/health-care-providers-in-war-and-armed-conflict-operational-and-educational-challenges-in-international-humanitarian-law-and-the-geneva-conventions-part-ii-educational-and-training-initiatives
#7
Frederick M Burkle, Adam L Kushner, Christos Giannou, Mary A Paterson, Sherry M Wren, Gilbert Burnham
ABSTRACTNo discipline has been impacted more by war and armed conflict than health care has. Health systems and health care providers are often the first victims, suffering increasingly heinous acts that cripple the essential health delivery and public health infrastructure necessary for the protection of civilian and military victims of the state at war. This commentary argues that current instructional opportunities to prepare health care providers fall short in both content and preparation, especially in those operational skill sets necessary to manage multiple challenges, threats, and violations under international humanitarian law and to perform triage management in a resource-poor medical setting...
May 7, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717685/a-bibliometric-profile-of-disaster-medicine-research-from-2008-to-2017-a-scientometric-analysis
#8
Liang Zhou, Ping Zhang, Zhigang Zhang, Lidong Fan, Shuo Tang, Kunpeng Hu, Nan Xiao, Shuguang Li
ABSTRACTThis study analyzed and assessed publication trends in articles on "disaster medicine," using scientometric analysis. Data were obtained from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) of Thomson Reuters on March 27, 2017. A total of 564 publications on disaster medicine were identified. There was a mild increase in the number of articles on disaster medicine from 2008 (n=55) to 2016 (n=83). Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness published the most articles, the majority of articles were published in the United States, and the leading institute was Tohoku University...
May 2, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716669/the-health-sector-response-to-the-2015-earthquake-in-nepal
#9
Shiva Subedi, Guna Nidhi Sharma, Sagar Dahal, Megha Raj Banjara, Basu Dev Pandey
ABSTRACTIn April 2015, Nepal experienced an earthquake of a magnitude of 7.6 on the Richter scale that resulted in deaths, morbidities, and infrastructure damage. In the post-earthquake period, 4 different workshops and a national "Lessons Learnt" conference were organized to assess the adequacy of the preparedness and response of the health sector. This article summarizes the main conclusions of these discussions relating to leadership, timely search and rescue, referral operations, medical relief to response activities, awareness campaigns, and support from the national and international levels, and epidemiological surveillance...
May 2, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716666/lessons-learnt-from-exercise-celestial-navigation-the-application-of-a-geographic-information-system-to-inform-legionnaires-disease-control-activity
#10
Emma Quinn, Kai Hsiao, George Truman, Nectarios Rose, Richard Broome
Geographic information systems (GIS) have emerged in the past few decades as a technology capable of assisting in the control of infectious disease outbreaks. A Legionnaires' disease cluster investigation in May 2016 in Sydney, New South Wales (NSW), Australia, demonstrated the importance of using GIS to identify at-risk water sources in real-time for field investigation to help control any immediate environmental health risk, as well as the need for more staff trained in the use of this technology. Sydney Local Health District Public Health Unit (PHU) subsequently ran an exercise (based on this investigation) with 11 staff members from 4 PHUs across Sydney to further test staff capability to use GIS across NSW...
May 2, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716663/organization-or-community-based-outbreak-responding-to-cases-of-meningitis-under-epidemiologic-uncertainty
#11
Tea Burmaz, Vittorio Selle, Vincenzo Baldo, Elena Savoia
Six cases of serogroup C invasive meningococcal disease were identified in Treviso district, Veneto region, Italy between December 13 and 15, 2007. The afflicted patients were found to have attended the same Latin-dance clubs on the same nights, and chemoprophylaxis was provided to potentially exposed individuals. Despite these efforts, 2 cases caused by the same meningococcal strain subsequently occurred in the same area, without any apparent epidemiological correlation to the initial cases. This may have resulted from a failure to neutralize the meningococcal carrier/s...
May 2, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708097/adherence-to-emergency-public-health-measures-for-bioevents-review-of-us-studies
#12
Robyn R Gershon, Qi Zhi, Alexander F Chin, Ezinne M Nwankwo, Lisa M Gargano
The frequency of bioevents is increasing worldwide. In the United States, as elsewhere, control of contagion may require the cooperation of community members with emergency public health measures. The US general public is largely unfamiliar with these measures, and our understanding of factors that influence behaviors in this context is limited. The few previous reviews of research on this topic focused on non-US samples. For this review, we examined published research on the psychosocial influences of adherence in US sample populations...
April 30, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706140/health-care-providers-in-war-and-armed-conflict-operational-and-educational-challenges-in-international-humanitarian-law-and-the-geneva-conventions-part-i-historical-perspective
#13
Frederick M Burkle, Adam L Kushner, Christos Giannou, Mary A Paterson, Sherry M Wren, Gilbert Burnham
Since 1945, the reason for humanitarian crises and the way in which the world responds to them has dramatically changed every 10 to 15 years or less. Planning, response, and recovery for these tragic events have often been ad hoc, inconsistent, and insufficient, largely because of the complexity of global humanitarian demands and their corresponding response system capabilities. This historical perspective chronicles the transformation of war and armed conflicts from the Cold War to today, emphasizing the impact these events have had on humanitarian professionals and their struggle to adapt to increasing humanitarian, operational, and political challenges...
April 30, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704903/when-natural-disaster-follows-economic-downturn-the-incremental-impact-of-multiple-stressor-events-on-trajectories-of-depression-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#14
Amar D Mandavia, George A Bonanno
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there were incremental mental health impacts, specifically on depression trajectories, as a result of the 2008 economic crisis (the Great Recession) and subsequent Hurricane Sandy. METHOD: Using latent growth mixture modeling and the ORANJ BOWL dataset, we examined prospective trajectories of depression among older adults (mean age, 60.67; SD, 6.86) who were exposed to the 2 events. We also collected community economic and criminal justice data to examine their impact upon depression trajectories...
April 29, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690947/united-nations-charter-chapter-vii-article-43-now-or-never
#15
Frederick M Burkle
For more than 75 years, the United Nations Charter has functioned without the benefit of Chapter VII, Article 43, which commits all United Nations member states "to make available to the Security Council, on its call, armed forces, assistance, facilities, including rights of passage necessary for the purpose of maintaining international peace and security." The consequences imposed by this 1945 decision have had a dramatic negative impact on the United Nation's functional capacity as a global body for peace and security...
April 25, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690939/disaster-risk-reduction-in-myanmar
#16
Beuy Joob, Viroj Wiwanitkit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 25, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644946/the-incidence-risk-factors-and-chronobiology-of-acute-myocardial-infarction-ten-years-after-hurricane-katrina
#17
John C Moscona, Matthew N Peters, Rohit Maini, Paul Katigbak, Bradley Deere, Holly Gonzales, Christopher Westley, Hassan Baydoun, Kapil Yadav, Patrick Ters, Ahmad Jabbar, Alaa Boulad, Indrajeet Mahata, Taraka V Gadiraju, Ryan Nelson, Sudesh Srivastav, Anand Irimpen
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the 10-year impact of Hurricane Katrina on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) along with contributing risk factors and any alteration in chronobiology of AMI. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective, comparison study of AMI incidence was performed at Tulane University Health Sciences Center from 2 years before Hurricane Katrina to 10 years after Hurricane Katrina. A 6-year, pre-Katrina and 10-year, post-Katrina cohort were also compared according to pre-specified demographic, clinical, and chronobiological data...
April 12, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29631647/a-qualitative-study-of-paramedic-duty-to-treat-during-disaster-response
#18
Erin Smith, Frederick Burkle, Kristine Gebbie, David Ford, C├ęcile Bensimon
OBJECTIVES: Disasters place unprecedented demands on emergency medical services and can test paramedics personal commitment as health care professionals. Despite this challenge, guidelines and codes of ethics are largely silent on the issue, providing little to no guidance on what is expected of paramedics or how they ought to approach their duty to treat in the face of risk. The objective of this research is to explore how paramedics view their duty to treat during disasters. METHODS: The authors employed qualitative methods to gather Australian paramedic perspectives...
April 10, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622053/risks-health-consequences-and-response-challenges-for-small-island-based-populations-observations-from-the-2017-atlantic-hurricane-season
#19
James M Shultz, James P Kossin, J Marshall Shepherd, Justine M Ransdell, Rory Walshe, Ilan Kelman, Sandro Galea
ABSTRACTThe intensely active 2017 Atlantic basin hurricane season provided an opportunity to examine how climate drivers, including warming oceans and rising seas, exacerbated tropical cyclone hazards. The season also highlighted the unique vulnerabilities of populations residing on Small Island Developing States (SIDS) to the catastrophic potential of these storms. During 2017, 22 of the 29 Caribbean SIDS were affected by at least one named storm, and multiple SIDS experienced extreme damage. This paper aims to review the multiplicity of storm impacts on Caribbean SIDS throughout the 2017 season, to explicate the influences of climate drivers on storm formation and intensity, to explore the propensity of SIDS to sustain severe damage and prolonged disruption of essential services, to document the spectrum of public health consequences, and to delineate the daunting hurdles that challenged emergency response and recovery operations for island-based, disaster-affected populations...
April 6, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622049/socio-cultural-challenges-of-family-planning-initiatives-for-displaced-populations-in-conflict-situations-and-humanitarian-settings
#20
Ramin Asgary, Joan T Price
Provision of family planning services for refugee populations in conflict and humanitarian settings has been improving. Availability of services, however, does not translate into acceptability and uptake; understanding socio-cultural settings and barriers is critical to ensure utilization of services. Misconceptions and apprehensions surrounding family planning services are common. Populations may see limiting pregnancies as counterproductive in light of high child mortality or suspicious in the context of ethnic violence; larger family size has the perceived advantage of additional security for the community or ethnic group, assistance with family duties in a subsistence structure, and a social service investment for parents as they age; and there may be religious and moral objections to contraception...
April 6, 2018: Disaster Medicine and Public Health Preparedness
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