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Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25504975/a-meta-epidemiological-study-to-examine-the-association-between-bias-and-treatment-effects-in-neonatal-trials
#1
Liza Bialy, Ben Vandermeer, Thierry Lacaze-Masmonteil, Donna M Dryden, Lisa Hartling
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials are considered the gold standard for evidence on therapeutic interventions; however, they are susceptible to bias. The objectives of this observational study were to describe the methodological quality of neonatal randomized controlled trials and quantify the bias related to specific methodological and study-level characteristics. METHODS: Twenty-five systematic reviews yielding 208 neonatal trials were included. Two independent reviewers assessed risk of bias (RoB) on seven domains consisting of nine items...
December 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25504974/cochrane-in-context-inhaled-corticosteroids-in-children-with-persistent-asthma-effects-on-growth-and-dose-response-effects-on-growth
#2
COMMENT
Linjie Zhang, Aniela I Pruteanu, Sílvio O M Prietsch, Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Francine M Ducharme
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25504973/inhaled-corticosteroids-in-children-with-persistent-asthma-dose-response-effects-on-growth
#3
Aniela I Pruteanu, Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Linjie Zhang, Sílvio O M Prietsch, Francine M Ducharme
BACKGROUND: Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the first-line treatment for children with persistent asthma. Their potential for growth suppression remains a matter of concern for parents and physicians. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether increasing the dose of ICS is associated with slower linear growth, weight gain and skeletal maturation in children with asthma. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of trials (CAGR) and the ClinicalTrials...
December 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25504972/inhaled-corticosteroids-in-children-with-persistent-asthma-effects-on-growth
#4
Linjie Zhang, Sílvio O M Prietsch, Francine M Ducharme
BACKGROUND: Treatment guidelines for asthma recommend inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) as first-line therapy for children with persistent asthma. Although ICS treatment is generally considered safe in children, the potential systemic adverse effects related to regular use of these drugs have been and continue to be a matter of concern, especially the effects on linear growth. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of ICS on the linear growth of children with persistent asthma and to explore potential effect modifiers such as characteristics of available treatments (molecule, dose, length of exposure, inhalation device) and of treated children (age, disease severity, compliance with treatment)...
December 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25504971/cochrane-in-context-interventions-for-treating-femoral-shaft-fractures-in-children-and-adolescents
#5
COMMENT
Vrisha Madhuri, Abhay Gahukamble
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25504970/interventions-for-treating-femoral-shaft-fractures-in-children-and-adolescents
#6
Vrisha Madhuri, Vivek Dutt, Abhay D Gahukamble, Prathap Tharyan
BACKGROUND: Fractures of the femoral shaft in children are relatively uncommon but serious injuries that disrupt the lives of children and their carers and can result in significant long-term disability. Treatment involves either surgical fixation, such as intramedullary nailing or external fixation, or conservative treatment involving prolonged immobilisation, often in hospital. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of interventions for treating femoral shaft fractures in children and adolescents...
December 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25504969/formoterol-or-salmeterol-for-asthma-should-they-be-used-as-monotherapy
#7
EDITORIAL
Mike Steiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25504968/pros-and-cons-%C3%A2
#8
EDITORIAL
Michael B H Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25236311/the-cochrane-library-and-safety-of-systemic-corticosteroids-for-acute-respiratory-conditions-in-children-an-overview-of-reviews
#9
REVIEW
Ricardo M Fernandes, Marta Oleszczuk, Charles R Woods, Brian H Rowe, Christopher J Cates, Lisa Hartling
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory conditions are a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. Corticosteroids are effective and established treatments in some acute respiratory infections (e.g. croup) and asthma exacerbations; however, their role is controversial in other conditions owing to inconsistent effectiveness or safety concerns (e.g. bronchiolitis, acute wheeze). OBJECTIVES: To examine clinically relevant short-term safety outcomes related to acute single or recurrent systemic short-term (<2 weeks) corticosteroid use based on systematic reviews of acute respiratory conditions...
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25236310/cochrane-in-context-combined-and-alternating-paracetamol-and-ibuprofen-therapy-for-febrile-children
#10
Tiffany Wong, Antonia S Stang, Heather Ganshorn, Lisa Hartling, Ian K Maconochie, Anna M Thomsen, David W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Health-care professionals frequently recommend fever treatment regimens for children who either combine paracetamol and ibuprofen or alternate them.However, there is uncertainty about whether these regimens are better than using single agents and about the adverse effect profile of combination regimens. OBJECTIVES: To assess the results and side effects of combining paracetamol and ibuprofen, or alternating them in consecutive treatments, compared with monotherapy for treating fever in children...
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25236309/combined-and-alternating-paracetamol-and-ibuprofen-therapy-for-febrile-children
#11
REVIEW
Tiffany Wong, Antonia S Stang, Heather Ganshorn, Lisa Hartling, Ian K Maconochie, Anna M Thomsen, David W Johnson
BACKGROUND: Health professionals frequently recommend fever treatment regimens for children that either combine paracetamol and ibuprofen or alternate them. However, there is uncertainty about whether these regimens are better than the use of single agents, and about the adverse effect profile of combination regimens. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects and side effects of combining paracetamol and ibuprofen, or alternating them on consecutive treatments, compared with monotherapy for treating fever in children...
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25236308/cochrane-in-context-probiotics-for-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#12
Joan Robinson
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and nosocomial sepsis are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Through prevention of bacterial migration across the mucosa, competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria and by enhancing the immune responses of the host, prophylactic enteral probiotics (live microbial supplements) may play a role in reducing NEC and the associated morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of prophylactic enteral probiotics administration versus placebo or no treatment in the prevention of severe NEC or sepsis, or both, in preterm infants...
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25236307/probiotics-for-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#13
REVIEW
Khalid AlFaleh, Jasim Anabrees
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and nosocomial sepsis are associated with increased morbidity and mortality in preterm infants. Through prevention of bacterial migration across the mucosa, competitive exclusion of pathogenic bacteria, and enhancing the immune responses of the host, prophylactic enteral probiotics (live microbial supplements) may play a role in reducing NEC and the associated morbidity. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of prophylactic enteral probiotics administration versus placebo or no treatment in the prevention of severe NEC or sepsis, or both, in preterm infants...
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25236306/cochrane-in-context-pharmacological-interventions-for-hypertension-in-children
#14
REVIEW
Swasti Chaturvedi, Deborah H Lipszyc, Christoph Licht, Jonathan C Craig, Rulan S Parekh
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary artery disease and kidney damage in adults. There is a paucity of data on the long-term sequelae of persistent hypertension in children, but it is known that children with hypertension have evidence of end-organ damage and are at risk of hypertension into adulthood. The prevalence of hypertension in children is increasing, most likely owing to a concurrent rise in obesity. In children with hypertension, nonpharmacological measures are often recommended as first-line therapy, but a significant proportion of children will eventually require pharmacological treatment to reduce blood pressure, especially those with evidence of end-organ damage at presentation or during follow-up...
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25236305/pharmacological-interventions-for-hypertension-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Swasti Chaturvedi, Deborah H Lipszyc, Christoph Licht, Jonathan C Craig, Rulan Parekh
BACKGROUND: Hypertension is a major risk factor for stroke, coronary artery disease and kidney damage in adults. There is a paucity of data on the long-term sequelae of persistent hypertension in children, but it is known that children with hypertension have evidence of end organ damage and are at risk of hypertension into adulthood. The prevalence of hypertension in children is rising, most likely due to a concurrent rise in obesity rates. In children with hypertension, non-pharmacological measures are often recommended as first-line therapy, but a significant proportion of children will eventually require pharmacological treatment to reduce blood pressure, especially those with evidence of end organ damage at presentation or during follow-up...
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25236304/glucocorticoids-for-bronchiolitis-should-they-be-used-%C3%A2-reducing-waste-in-child-health-one-intervention-at-a-time
#16
EDITORIAL
Eyal Cohen
Eco-paediatrics is an occasional feature in Evidence-Based Child Health: A Cochrane Review Journal. Our goal is to contribute to the worldwide discussion on reducing waste in health care. In each instalment, we will select a recent Cochrane review highlighting a practice, still in use, which the available evidence tells us should be discontinued.
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25236303/an-issue-full-of-issues
#17
EDITORIAL
Joan Robinson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25404611/systematic-reviews-overviews-of-reviews-and-comparative-effectiveness-reviews-a-discussion-of-approaches-to-knowledge-synthesis
#18
REVIEW
Lisa Hartling, Ben Vandermeer, Ricardo M Fernandes
BACKGROUND: The Cochrane Collaboration has been at the forefront of developing methods for knowledge synthesis internationally. OBJECTIVES: We discuss three approaches to synthesize evidence for healthcare interventions: systematic reviews (SRs), overviews of reviews and comparative effectiveness reviews. METHODS: We illustrate these approaches with examples from knowledge syntheses on interventions for bronchiolitis, a common acute paediatric condition...
June 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25404610/cochrane-in-context-maternal-dietary-antigen-avoidance-during-pregnancy-or-lactation-or-both-for-preventing-or-treating-atopic-disease-in-the-child
#19
COMMENT
Michael S Kramer, Ritsuko Kakuma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25404609/maternal-dietary-antigen-avoidance-during-pregnancy-or-lactation-or-both-for-preventing-or-treating-atopic-disease-in-the-child
#20
Michael S Kramer, Ritsuko Kakuma
BACKGROUND: Some breastfed infants with atopic eczema benefit from elimination of cow milk, egg, or other antigens from their mother's diet. Maternal dietary antigens are also known to cross the placenta. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prescribing an antigen avoidance diet during pregnancy or lactation, or both, on maternal and infant nutrition and on the prevention or treatment of atopic disease in the child. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (6 July 2012)...
June 2014: Evidence-based Child Health: a Cochrane Review Journal
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