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Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery

Keye Du, Jia Liu, Ruth Broering, Xiaoyong Zhang, Dongliang Yang, Ulf Dittmer, Mengji Lu
Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands remain as promising antiviral drug candidates for the treatment of chronic viral infections. Basic research on the mechanisms of antiviral activity of TLR ligands in preclinical animal models and clinical testing of drug candidates have been carried out in recent years. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the preclinical and clinical testing of TLR ligands in two major viral infections: hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Recent results have further demonstrated the potent antiviral activity of various TLR ligands ...
May 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Wilian Augusto Cortopassi, Tanos Celmar Costa Franca, Antoniana Ursine Krettli
In spite of significant efforts to reduce malaria deaths, this disease still kills around 445,000 people every year. Overcoming drug resistance is one of the main goals of current malaria research programs. This is challenging, since the biology of Plasmodium is not fully understood, requiring the development of advanced models for data analysis in the search for new antimalarials. Areas covered: In this review the authors introduce the importance of computational models to address the challenges of drug discovery, presenting examples of pioneering systems biology approaches in the search for new antimalarial drugs and their role in the future of drug research programs...
May 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Anna Wesołowska, Anna Partyka, Magdalena Jastrzębska-Więsek, Marcin Kołaczkowski
Cariprazine is approved in the United States and Europe for the treatment of manic or mixed episodes associated with bipolar I disorder and for the treatment of schizophrenia in adult patients. It is typically administered orally once a day (a dose range 1.5 - 6 mg/day), does require titration, and may be given with or without food. It has a half-life of 2 - 4 days with an active metabolite that has a terminal half-life of 2 - 3 weeks. Areas covered: This review article focuses on the preclinical discovery of cariprazine providing details regarding its pharmacological, behavioral, and neurochemical mechanisms and its contribution to clinical therapeutic benefits...
May 3, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Dani Setiawan, Jeffrey Brender, Yang Zhang
Protein function is determined by protein structure which is in turn determined by the corresponding protein sequence. If the rules that cause a protein to adopt a particular structure are understood, it should be possible to refine or even redefine the function of a protein by working backwards from the desired structure to the sequence. Automated protein design attempts to calculate the effects of mutations computationally with the goal of more radical or complex transformations than are accessible by experimental techniques...
April 25, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Feng Li, Yongli Wang, Dapeng Li, Yilun Chen, Xuguang Qiao, Rania Fardous, Ashton Lewandowski, Jinbao Liu, Tak-Hang Chan, Q Ping Dou
Increasing evidence has expanded the role of green tea from a traditional beverage to a source of pharmacologically active molecules with diverse health benefits. However, conclusive clinical results are needed to better elucidate the cancer-preventive and therapeutic effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs). Areas covered: The authors describe GTPs' chemical compositions and metabolic biotransformations, and their recent developments in drug discovery, focusing on their cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic effects...
April 24, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Yibin Lin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Sun-Hwa Lee, Kyoungho Suk
Despite the considerable social and economic burden on the healthcare system worldwide due to neurodegenerative diseases, there are currently few disease-altering treatment options for many of these conditions. Therefore, new approaches for both prevention and intervention for neurodegenerative diseases are urgently required. Microglia-mediated neurotoxicity is one of the pathologic hallmarks common to Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Current therapeutic approaches to target microglia-mediated neurotoxicity are focused on the identification of glia phenotype modulators (GPMs), which can inhibit the 'classical' pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic phenotypes of microglia...
April 20, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Martin Vogt
Activity landscapes (ALs) are representations and models of compound data sets annotated with a target-specific activity. In contrast to quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models, ALs aim at characterizing structure-activity relationships (SARs) on a large-scale level encompassing all active compounds for specific targets. The popularity of AL modeling has grown substantially with the public availability of large activity-annotated compound data sets. AL modeling crucially depends on molecular representations and similarity metrics used to assess structural similarity...
April 19, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Erik Gawehn, Jan A Hiss, J B Brown, Gisbert Schneider
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Miguel Ángel Cabrera-Pérez, Hai Pham-The
The oral route is the most convenient way of administrating drugs. Therefore, accurate determination of oral bioavailability is paramount during drug discovery and development. Quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR), rule-of-thumb (RoT) and physiologically based-pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approaches are promising alternatives to the early oral bioavailability prediction. Areas covered: The authors give insight into the factors affecting bioavailability, the fundamental theoretical framework and the practical aspects of computational methods for predicting this property...
April 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Shih-Yi Chuang, Chih-Hung Lin, Calvin T Sung, Jia-You Fang
Psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease characterized by red plaques with silver or white multilayered scales with a thickened acanthotic epidermis. Using mouse models of cutaneous inflammation, IL-23/Th17 was identified to have a potential key role in psoriasis. New treatments to slow this inflammatory skin disorder are urgently needed. To aid their discovery, a psoriasis animal model mimicking human psoriasis is urgently needed for their early preclinical evaluation. Areas covered: The authors review animal models of psoriasis and analyze the features and molecular mechanisms involved in these mouse models...
April 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Bernard T Golding, Michael J Waring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Achuta Kumar Guddati
Modulating the androgen axis by different agents has been one of the most successful therapeutic interventions in the field of prostate cancer therapy. Newer agents such as abiraterone and enzalutamide have been widely adapted and have contributed to an increase in the overall survival of prostate cancer patients. However, most of these patients will develop resistance to these agents and will need chemotherapy. Areas covered: In this review, this author discusses current agents which modulate the androgen axis, the mechanisms of resistance to these agents and investigative agents which are designed to bypass these mechanisms of resistance...
April 6, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Mario Malerba, Alessandro Radaeli, Giuseppe Santini, Jaymin Morjaria, Nadia Mores, Chiara Mondino, Giuseppe Macis, Paolo Montuschi
Bronchodilators, including long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonists (LAMAs), are a mainstay of the pharmacological treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). LAMAs act as bronchodilators principally by antagonizing airway smooth muscle cells M3 muscarinic receptors. Aclidinium bromide is a twice-daily LAMA which was developed to improve on the efficacy and/or safety of previous LAMAs. Area covered: Herein, the authors present the pharmacotherapeutic role of aclidinium in COPD and point out unmet need in this research area...
April 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Ramón Cacabelos
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most important neurodegenerative disorder with a global cost worldwide of over $700 billion. Pharmacological treatment accounts for 10-20% of direct costs; no new drugs have been approved during the past 15 years; and the available medications are not cost-effective. Areas covered: A massive scrutiny of AD-related PubMed publications (ps)(2013-2017) identified 42,053ps of which 8,380 (19.60%) were associated with AD treatments. The most prevalent pharmacological categories included neurotransmitter enhancers (11...
April 1, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Isabelle Coornaert, Sam Hofmans, Lars Devisscher, Koen Augustyns, Pieter Van Der Veken, Guido R Y De Meyer, Wim Martinet
Formation and enlargement of a necrotic core play a pivotal role in atherogenesis. Since the discovery of necroptosis, which is a regulated form of necrosis, prevention of necrotic cell death has become an attractive therapeutic goal to reduce plaque formation. Areas covered: This review highlights the triggers and consequences of (unregulated) necrosis and necroptosis in atherosclerosis. The authors discuss different pharmacological strategies to inhibit necrotic cell death in advanced atherosclerotic plaques...
March 29, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Chloe J Jordan, Zheng-Xiong Xi
Tobacco use causes one premature death every six seconds. Current smoking cessation aids include nicotine replacement therapies, bupropion, and varenicline. Although more than 70% of smokers express a desire to quit, fewer than 3% remain abstinent for more than one year, highlighting a critical need for more efficacious smoking cessation treatments. Areas covered: The authors discuss the rationale, preclinical and clinical development of varenicline for smoking cessation. They cover the formulation of varenicline as a partial agonist at α4 β2 receptors, the primary neural substrate for nicotine reward...
March 28, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Minna Allarakhia
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 23, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Davide Benedetto Tiz, Danijel Kikelj, Nace Zidar
Bacterial cell walls and membranes provide essential protection for bacteria against environmental influences. Different bacteria possess different cell envelopes and understanding each of these structures is crucial for the design of effective antibacterial drugs whose targets are intracellular. Optimal properties of drugs that are required for their entry into bacteria are still hard to predict. The guidelines that are suitable and well established for the penetration of a drug into eukaryotic cells are poorly adaptable to the complex world of pathogens...
March 23, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
W J van den Brink, T Hankemeier, P H van der Graaf, E C M de Lange
Diseases of the Central Nervous System (CNS) affect millions of people worldwide, with the number of people affected quickly growing. Unfortunately, the successful development of CNS-acting drugs is less than 10%, and this is attributed to the complexity of the CNS, unexpected side effects, difficulties in penetrating the blood-brain barrier and lack of biomarkers. Areas covered: Herein, the authors first review how pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models are designed to predict the dose-dependent time course of effect, and how they are used to translate drug effects from animal to man...
June 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
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