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Neuroradiology Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195512/neuroradiological-findings-of-trisomy-13-in-a-rare-long-term-survivor
#1
Ryan D Goff, Bruno P Soares
Patau syndrome remains a difficult diagnosis for parents and a challenging conversation for clinicians due to the overall poor prognosis. Previous population-based reports have documented the sobering life expectancies of these patients, with few surviving to 1 year of age. Despite the high mortality rate in infants born with trisomy 13, there are several reports of survival into late childhood and early adulthood. While clinical outcomes have been well documented, there has been a paucity of literature describing postnatal imaging findings in long-term survivors...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195509/reduced-subarachnoid-fluid-diffusion-in-enlarged-subarachnoid-spaces-of-infancy
#2
Matthew T Whitehead, Bonmyong Lee, Audrey McCarron, Stanley T Fricke, Gilbert Vezina
Background and purpose Enlargement of the subarachnoid spaces in infancy (ESSI) is a common cause of macrocephaly without proven explanation. We have observed subarachnoid diffusion to be decreased in these patients. We aim to quantify the diffusivity of ventricular and subarachnoid cerebrospinal fluid in ESSI patients, to determine if diffusion characteristics deviate from normocephalic infants, and to propose a unique mechanism for ESSI. Materials and methods 227 consecutive brain magnetic resonance exams from different macrocephalic children were retrospectively reviewed after institutional review board waiver...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151094/spontaneous-resolution-of-ruptured-intracranial-pial-arteriovenous-fistula-following-spinal-surgery
#3
Mark K Lyons, Joseph M Hoxworth, Jamal McClendon, Chandan X Krishna, Naresh P Patel
Pial arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are rare vascular abnormalities that are distinct from arteriovenous malformations and dural AVFs. These vascular lesions have been linked with trauma, ischemic syndromes, venous thrombotic diseases, and intracranial surgical procedures. In this report we describe a case of an intracranial ruptured pial AVF immediately following uneventful spinal surgery in an elderly patient with subsequent spontaneous resolution. He was a previous heavy smoker with a 60-pack-year history and alcohol abuse...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134024/diagnosis-in-subdural-myeloid-sarcoma
#4
Alan Lackey, Barbara Laing, Andrew Perkins, Michael Bryant
Introduction A 74-year-old man presented to hospital with a headache, thrombocytopaenia and an acute deterioration in cognition on a background of acute monocytic leukaemia in remission. Method This is a case report with computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) and histopathology imaging. Results Preoperative CT and limited MR demonstrated a subdural lesion with marked midline shift. Craniotomy performed for evacuation of the presumed subdural haematoma revealed a solid tumour-like lesion. Histopathology identified the presence of a myeloid sarcoma (chloroma)...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071288/vulnerable-carotid-plaque-imaging-and-histopathology-without-a-dedicated-mri-receiver-coil
#5
Laura A Fitzpatrick, Nadav Berkovitz, Marlise P Dos Santos, Nevin Majeed, Rafael Glikstein, Santanu Chakraborty, John P Veinot, Grant Stotts, Alain Berthiaume, Robert Chatelain
Stroke is associated with vulnerable carotid artery plaques showing specific histopathologic features, namely a lipid-rich necrotic core, intraplaque hemorrhage, ulceration, and thin fibrous cap. While ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) can identify carotid plaques and determine the extent of stenosis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides further information regarding plaque composition and morphology. In this feasibility study, three patients with symptomatic, moderately stenosed plaques were imaged with CT angiography (CTA) and MRI (3T and 1...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059674/coronal-clival-cleft-in-charge-syndrome
#6
Eman Mahdi, Matthew T Whitehead
CHARGE syndrome is a genetic disorder with multi-systemic congenital anomalies, most commonly including coloboma, heart malformations, choanal atresia, developmental delay, and genital and ear anomalies. The diagnostic criteria for CHARGE syndrome has been refined over the years. However, there are limited reports describing skullbase and craniocervical junction abnormalities. These osseous malformations are often under recognized, especially on MRI. We report here a case of CHARGE syndrome with colobomas, cleft lip and palate, patent ductus arteriosus, undescended testes, and a coronal clival cleft which has not been previously depicted in CHARGE syndrome...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059632/pseudoaneurysm-formation-due-to-rupture-of-intracranial-aneurysms-case-series-and-literature-review
#7
Motohiro Nomura, Kentaro Mori, Akira Tamase, Tomoya Kamide, Syunsuke Seki, Yu Iida, Tatsu Nakano, Yuichi Kawabata, Taro Kitabatake, Teruyuki Nakajima, Kiyoyuki Yasutake, Kei Egami, Tatsunori Takahashi, Mitsuyuki Takahashi, Kunio Yanagimoto
Background Intracranial pseudoaneurysm formation due to a ruptured non-traumatic aneurysm is extremely rare. We describe the radiological findings and management of pseudoaneurysms due to ruptured cerebral aneurysms in our case series and previously reported cases. Patients and methods Four additional and 20 reported patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are included. Radiological findings and clinical features of these patients were reviewed. Results In our series, three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) and/or angiography showed an irregular- or snowman-shaped cavity extending from the parent artery...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059631/acute-necrotizing-encephalopathy-causing-human-bocavirus
#8
Ayse Betul Ergul, Umit Altug, Kursad Aydin, Ahmet Sami Guven, Yasemin Altuner Torun
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is characterized by multiple, symmetrical lesions involving the thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and white matter and develops secondarily to viral infections. Influenza viruses are the most common etiological agents. Here, we present the first case of acute necrotizing encephalopathy to develop secondarily to human bocavirus. A 3-year-old girl presented with fever and altered mental status. She had had a fever, cough, and rhinorrhea for five days. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with an initial diagnosis of encephalitis when vomiting, convulsions, and loss of consciousness developed...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059630/carotid-ultrasound-features-of-anomalous-left-vertebral-artery-originating-from-the-aortic-arch-proximal-to-the-left-subclavian-artery
#9
Masayuki Wakita, Ran Takei, Fumio Miyashita, Yuki Hamada, Satoshi Ohyama, Hideki Matsuoka, Hiroshi Takashima
We present three cases of anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery (LVA) detected during the evaluation of stroke. The VA usually enters the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra (C6), but an anomalous LVA originating from the aorta frequently enters at a higher level. In our series, ultrasound of the LVA showed entry at C4 in two patients and at C5 in one patient. These findings suggested anomalous LVA origin, and three-dimensional computed tomography demonstrated the LVA arising from the aorta proximal to the left subclavian arteries...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059629/extra-axial-ependymoma-of-the-cerebral-convexity-a-very-rare-intracranial-adult-tumor
#10
Soufiane Berhili, Abdellah Aissa, Selma Kadiri, Nadia Cherradi, Sanae El Majjaoui, Hanan El Kacemi, Tayeb Kebdani, Noureddine Benjaafar
Background Ependymomas are rare adult tumors that originate from the ventricular system or the ependymal surface of the central canal. Extra-axial supratentorial ependymomas are extremely rare, and only five cases have been reported to date in the English literature. Case presentation A 46-year-old previously healthy male presented with a gradual painless loss of vision in the right eye. Cerebral MRI showed a right parietal-occipital lesion resembling an atypical meningioma. Surgical resection was performed, and immunohistochemical staining results concluded that it was a very uncommon location of a grade 3 ependymoma...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059626/giant-multi-compartmental-suprasellar-rathke-s-cleft-cyst-with-restriction-on-diffusion-weighted-images
#11
Laxminadh Sivaraju, Narayanam Anantha Sai Kiran, Arun S Rao, Nandita Ghosal, Alangar S Hegde
Rathke's cleft cysts are congenital lesions seen in sellar-suprasellar regions. We report a case of giant Rathke cyst in a 43-year-old patient with multi-compartmental involvement who presented with seizures with almost normal visual acuity. We discuss radiological and pathological features of various differential diagnoses for the giant suprasellar Rathke's cyst.
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059621/imaging-of-sialadenitis
#12
Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel Razek, Suresh Mukherji
Sialadenitis is an inflammation or infection of the salivary glands that may affect the parotid, submandibular and small salivary glands. Imaging findings vary among unilateral or bilateral salivary gland enlargement, atrophy, abscess, ductal dilation, cysts, stones and calcification. Imaging can detect abscess in acute bacterial suppurative sialadenitis, ductal changes with cysts in chronic adult and juvenile recurrent parotitis. Imaging is sensitive for detection of salivary stones and stricture in obstructive sialadenitis...
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059620/persistent-trigeminal-artery-communicating-with-a-fetal-posterior-communicating-artery-a-case-report
#13
Florence L Chiang, Abdul M Zafar, Carlos Bazan
A persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis. PTA variants terminating on cerebellar arteries instead of the basilar artery have been reported previously. We present the first case of a PTA communicating with a fetal posterior communicating artery identified on a magnetic resonance angiogram. An understanding of these anatomical variants is important to clarify pathological processes that can help guide neurosurgical and endovascular procedures.
January 1, 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059675/extra-pontine-myelinolysis-secondary-to-hypernatremia-induced-by-postpartum-water-restriction
#14
A Chhabra, R Kaushik, R M Kaushik, D Goel
A young adult female with restricted water intake during the postpartum period presented with history of progressive weakness, dizziness and tendency to fall with generalized slowing of movement. On examination, patient was anaemic, febrile and stuporous. Investigations revealed hypernatremia, delta waves in electroencephalogram (EEG) and features suggestive of extra-pontine myelinolysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain. After correcting hypernatremia and instituting anti-cholinergic therapy, there was a gradual but steady improvement in neurological symptoms of the patient over a period of one week and the patient was discharged in a conscious, oriented and ambulant state...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059673/quantification-of-image-contrast-of-infarcts-on-computed-tomography-scans
#15
R S Gomolka, R M Chrzan, A Urbanik, R Kazmierski, A D Grzanka, W L Nowinski
Introduction Accurate identification of infarcts in non-contrast computed tomography (NC-CT) scans of the brain is fundamental in the diagnosis and management of patients with stroke. Quantification of image contrast properties at the boundaries of ischemic infarct regions in NC-CT can contribute to a more precise manual or automatic delineation of these regions. Here we explore these properties quantitatively. Methods We retrospectively investigated 519 NC-CT studies of 425 patients with clinically confirmed ischemic strokes...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059672/spontaneous-occlusion-of-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation-following-partial-embolization-with-onyx
#16
Omer Fatih Nas, Kerem Ozturk, Gokhan Gokalp, Bahattin Hakyemez
Management options for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are surgery, radiosurgery, and endovascular embolization. The aim of partial embolization in endovascular treatment is to make total resection possible. However, increased risk of bleeding in partial embolization creates some controversies about treatment options. Spontaneous total occlusion of cerebral AVMs following partial obliteration with embolization agents is a rarely seen condition. We present a case with an AVM vanishing from right posterior cerebral artery which spontaneously occluded following partial embolization with Onyx liquid agent...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059671/radiologic-and-histologic-features-of-the-t2-hyperintensity-rim-of-meningiomas-on-magnetic-resonance-images
#17
Hiroyuki Uchida, Hirofumi Hirano, F M Moinuddin, Ryosuke Hanaya, Yuko Sadamura, Hiroshi Hosoyama, Hajime Yonezawa, Hiroshi Tokimura, Hitoshi Yamahata, Kazunori Arita
A hyperintensity rim is often seen at the brain-tumor interface of meningiomas upon T2-weighted (T2WI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and it is referred to as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space; however, the true nature of the rim remains unclear. We surveyed the MRI findings and the histopathologic characteristics of such rims. Our study population consisted of 53 consecutive patients who underwent meningioma removal at our hospital. The intensity of the rim on MRI scans obtained with different imaging sequences was assessed in all patients...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058985/magnetic-resonance-imaging-tractography-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-treated-with-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Geeta Shroff
Introduction Spinal cord injury is a cause of severe disability and mortality. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods used, are unable to improve the quality of life in spinal cord injury. Spinal disorders have been treated with human embryonic stem cells. Magnetic resonance imaging and tractography were used as imaging modality to document the changes in the damaged cord, but the magnetic resonance imaging tractography was seen to be more sensitive in detecting the changes in the spinal cord. The present study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic modality of magnetic resonance imaging tractography to determine the efficacy of human embryonic stem cells in chronic spinal cord injury...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045327/neuroimaging-of-ocular-involvement-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
José Fernando Vallejo Diaz, Rafael Glikstein, Marlise Peruzzo Dos Santos, Carlos Torres
Endophthalmitis is a rare cause of ocular infection that can be associated with immunocompromising conditions and, more rarely, with sickle cell disease. In this case report and review of the literature, we present a case of a young male with sickle cell disease who presented with rapidly progressive ocular pain, edema, erythema, and decreased visual acuity. The key radiological findings to suggest endophthalmitis were demonstrated using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903923/stent-assisted-coil-embolization-of-a-recurrent-posterior-cerebral-artery-aneurysm-following-surgical-clipping
#20
Tomonori Takeshita, Tomoaki Nagamine, Kohei Ishihara, Yasuhiko Kaku
Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms are rare, and direct surgery of these is considered difficult. Coil embolization of PCA aneurysms is becoming popular. However, it is difficult to completely obliterate the aneurysm while preserving the flow of the parent artery in large or giant PCA aneurysms with a wide neck with this technique. We report a case of a large and wide-necked PCA aneurysm with multiple recurrences following successful surgical clipping and coil embolization. A 77-year-old man with a large unruptured right PCA (P2) aneurysm was successfully treated by surgical clipping...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
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