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Neuroradiology Journal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424017/computed-tomography-perfusion-based-selection-of-endovascularly-treated-acute-ischaemic-stroke-patients-are-there-lessons-to-be-learned-from-the-pre-evidence-era
#1
Marios-Nikos Psychogios, Michael Knauth, Raya Bshara, Katharina Schregel, Ioannis Tsogkas, Ismini Papageorgiou, Ilko Maier, Jan Liman, Daniel Behme
Introduction Some of the latest groundbreaking trials suggest that noncontrast cranial computed tomography and computed tomography-angiography are sufficient tools for patient selection within six hours of symptom onset. Before endovascular stroke therapy became the standard of care, patient selection was one of the most useful tools to avoid futile reperfusions. We report the outcomes of endovascularly treated stroke patients selected with a perfusion-based paradigm and discuss the implications in the current era of endovascular treatment...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424016/acute-brain-injury-following-illicit-drug-abuse-in-adolescent-and-young-adult-patients-spectrum-of-neuroimaging-findings
#2
Shai Shrot, Andrea Poretti, Elizabeth W Tucker, Bruno P Soares, Thierry Agm Huisman
The use of illicit drugs is currently a major medical problem among adolescents. Several illicit drugs have a high abuse potential and can be neurotoxic causing high morbidity and mortality. The clinical manifestation of adolescents with acute drug-induced neurotoxicity is often characterized by non-specific symptoms and findings. Early diagnosis is important to prevent death and permanent long-term neurological impairments. We report on clinical and neuroimaging findings in five adolescents with acute brain imaging following illicit drug intoxication to highlight the role of neuroimaging findings in the diagnostic work-up of pediatric acute drug-induced neurotoxicity...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424015/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-in-acute-cerebral-ischemia-review-of-emerging-technical-concepts-and-clinical-applications
#3
REVIEW
Charlie Chia-Tsong Hsu, Gigi Nga Chi Kwan, Sachintha Hapugoda, Michelle Craigie, Trevor William Watkins, E Mark Haacke
Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is an essential magnetic resonance imaging sequence in the assessment of acute ischemic stroke. In this article, we discuss the physics principals and clinical application of conventional SWI and multi-echo SWI sequences. We review the research evidence and practical approach of SWI in acute ischemic stroke by focusing on the detection and characterization of thromboembolism in the cerebral circulation. In addition, we discuss the role of SWI in the assessment of neuroparenchyma by depiction of asymmetric hypointense cortical veins in the ischemic territory (surrogate tissue perfusion), detection of existing microbleeds before stroke treatment and monitoring for hemorrhagic transformation post-treatment...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424014/semi-quantitative-analysis-of-cerebral-fdg-pet-reveals-striatal-hypermetabolism-and-normal-cortical-metabolism-in-a-case-of-vgkcc-limbic-encephalitis
#4
Patrick Moloney, Ruth Boylan, Marwa Elamin, Sean O'Riordan, Ronan Killeen, Christopher McGuigan
In the context of delayed autoimmune encephalitis antibody results, functional imaging can support the diagnosis of limbic encephalitis associated with anti-voltage-gated potassium channel complex (VGKCC) antibodies. Here we present a typical case of VGKCC encephalitis in a 69-year-old woman whose symptoms responded to plasmapheresis. A cerebral 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scan performed prior to commencing treatment revealed striatal hypermetabolism assessed qualitatively and semi-quantitatively, with normal uptake in the cortex and cerebellum when analysed semi-quantitatively...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424013/anterior-spinal-artery-aneurysm-in-aortic-stenosis-of-different-etiology-report-of-three-cases
#5
Vivek Singh, Suprava Naik, Sanjeev K Bhoi, R V Phadke
Isolated aneurysms of spinal arteries are rare. Spinal artery aneurysms are commonly found in association with spinal cord arteriovenous malformation and coarctation of aorta and rarely with aortic arch interruption and Klippel-Trenaunay syndrome. Spinal angiograms are the gold standard for diagnosing these spinal artery aneurysms but with the advances in computed tomography technology these aneurysms can also be very well demonstrated in computed tomography angiograms. We describe three cases of anterior spinal artery aneurysm, those are flow related aneurysms, associated with coarctation of aorta and with Takayasu arteritis...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424012/internal-carotid-artery-agenesis-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#6
REVIEW
Shuo Li, Kusum Hooda, Nishant Gupta, Yogesh Kumar
Congenital agenesis of the internal carotid artery is a very rare anomaly. Intracranial circulation in the involved internal carotid artery territory is maintained by collateral circulation from the contralateral internal carotid artery through the anterior communicating artery and from the vertebrobasilar system through the posterior communicating artery. Usually, patients with internal carotid artery agenesis are asymptomatic due to collateral circulation, but they may present with headache, seizures, or transient ischemic attack...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424011/endovascular-treatment-evolution-for-pure-intraorbital-arteriovenous-fistula-three-case-reports-and-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Xianli Lv, Wei Li, Aihua Liu, Ming Lv, Chuhan Jiang
Background and importance Intraorbital arteriovenous fistulas (IOAVFs) are rare and cause eye redness, exophthalmos, blurry vision and bruit. Whereas in the past they were treated conservatively, surgically or transarterially, recent developments in transvenous embolization have improved their treatment. In this paper the authors report three cases of IOAVFs treated endovascularly and review the evolution of treatment options. Methods Three cases of purely IOAVF enrolled in our center were reported and a PubMed literature search was performed using "pure intraorbital arteriovenous fistula" and "arteriovenous fistula of the optic nerve sheath...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151094/spontaneous-resolution-of-ruptured-intracranial-pial-arteriovenous-fistula-following-spinal-surgery
#8
Mark K Lyons, Joseph M Hoxworth, Jamal McClendon, Chandan X Krishna, Naresh P Patel
Pial arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs) are rare vascular abnormalities that are distinct from arteriovenous malformations and dural AVFs. These vascular lesions have been linked with trauma, ischemic syndromes, venous thrombotic diseases, and intracranial surgical procedures. In this report we describe a case of an intracranial ruptured pial AVF immediately following uneventful spinal surgery in an elderly patient with subsequent spontaneous resolution. He was a previous heavy smoker with a 60-pack-year history and alcohol abuse...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071288/vulnerable-carotid-plaque-imaging-and-histopathology-without-a-dedicated-mri-receiver-coil
#9
Laura A Fitzpatrick, Nadav Berkovitz, Marlise P Dos Santos, Nevin Majeed, Rafael Glikstein, Santanu Chakraborty, John P Veinot, Grant Stotts, Alain Berthiaume, Robert Chatelain
Stroke is associated with vulnerable carotid artery plaques showing specific histopathologic features, namely a lipid-rich necrotic core, intraplaque hemorrhage, ulceration, and thin fibrous cap. While ultrasound and computed tomography (CT) can identify carotid plaques and determine the extent of stenosis, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides further information regarding plaque composition and morphology. In this feasibility study, three patients with symptomatic, moderately stenosed plaques were imaged with CT angiography (CTA) and MRI (3T and 1...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059632/pseudoaneurysm-formation-due-to-rupture-of-intracranial-aneurysms-case-series-and-literature-review
#10
REVIEW
Motohiro Nomura, Kentaro Mori, Akira Tamase, Tomoya Kamide, Syunsuke Seki, Yu Iida, Tatsu Nakano, Yuichi Kawabata, Taro Kitabatake, Teruyuki Nakajima, Kiyoyuki Yasutake, Kei Egami, Tatsunori Takahashi, Mitsuyuki Takahashi, Kunio Yanagimoto
Background Intracranial pseudoaneurysm formation due to a ruptured non-traumatic aneurysm is extremely rare. We describe the radiological findings and management of pseudoaneurysms due to ruptured cerebral aneurysms in our case series and previously reported cases. Patients and methods Four additional and 20 reported patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are included. Radiological findings and clinical features of these patients were reviewed. Results In our series, three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography (3D-CTA) and/or angiography showed an irregular- or snowman-shaped cavity extending from the parent artery...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059631/acute-necrotizing-encephalopathy-causing-human-bocavirus
#11
Ayse Betul Ergul, Umit Altug, Kursad Aydin, Ahmet Sami Guven, Yasemin Altuner Torun
Acute necrotizing encephalopathy is characterized by multiple, symmetrical lesions involving the thalamus, brainstem, cerebellum, and white matter and develops secondarily to viral infections. Influenza viruses are the most common etiological agents. Here, we present the first case of acute necrotizing encephalopathy to develop secondarily to human bocavirus. A 3-year-old girl presented with fever and altered mental status. She had had a fever, cough, and rhinorrhea for five days. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit with an initial diagnosis of encephalitis when vomiting, convulsions, and loss of consciousness developed...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059630/carotid-ultrasound-features-of-anomalous-left-vertebral-artery-originating-from-the-aortic-arch-proximal-to-the-left-subclavian-artery
#12
Masayuki Wakita, Ran Takei, Fumio Miyashita, Yuki Hamada, Satoshi Ohyama, Hideki Matsuoka, Hiroshi Takashima
We present three cases of anomalous origin of the left vertebral artery (LVA) detected during the evaluation of stroke. The VA usually enters the transverse foramen of the sixth cervical vertebra (C6), but an anomalous LVA originating from the aorta frequently enters at a higher level. In our series, ultrasound of the LVA showed entry at C4 in two patients and at C5 in one patient. These findings suggested anomalous LVA origin, and three-dimensional computed tomography demonstrated the LVA arising from the aorta proximal to the left subclavian arteries...
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059620/persistent-trigeminal-artery-communicating-with-a-fetal-posterior-communicating-artery-a-case-report
#13
Florence L Chiang, Abdul M Zafar, Carlos Bazan
A persistent trigeminal artery (PTA) is the most common carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis. PTA variants terminating on cerebellar arteries instead of the basilar artery have been reported previously. We present the first case of a PTA communicating with a fetal posterior communicating artery identified on a magnetic resonance angiogram. An understanding of these anatomical variants is important to clarify pathological processes that can help guide neurosurgical and endovascular procedures.
April 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059675/extra-pontine-myelinolysis-secondary-to-hypernatremia-induced-by-postpartum-water-restriction
#14
A Chhabra, R Kaushik, R M Kaushik, D Goel
A young adult female with restricted water intake during the postpartum period presented with history of progressive weakness, dizziness and tendency to fall with generalized slowing of movement. On examination, patient was anaemic, febrile and stuporous. Investigations revealed hypernatremia, delta waves in electroencephalogram (EEG) and features suggestive of extra-pontine myelinolysis on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain. After correcting hypernatremia and instituting anti-cholinergic therapy, there was a gradual but steady improvement in neurological symptoms of the patient over a period of one week and the patient was discharged in a conscious, oriented and ambulant state...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059673/quantification-of-image-contrast-of-infarcts-on-computed-tomography-scans
#15
R S Gomolka, R M Chrzan, A Urbanik, R Kazmierski, A D Grzanka, W L Nowinski
Introduction Accurate identification of infarcts in non-contrast computed tomography (NC-CT) scans of the brain is fundamental in the diagnosis and management of patients with stroke. Quantification of image contrast properties at the boundaries of ischemic infarct regions in NC-CT can contribute to a more precise manual or automatic delineation of these regions. Here we explore these properties quantitatively. Methods We retrospectively investigated 519 NC-CT studies of 425 patients with clinically confirmed ischemic strokes...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059672/spontaneous-occlusion-of-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation-following-partial-embolization-with-onyx
#16
Omer Fatih Nas, Kerem Ozturk, Gokhan Gokalp, Bahattin Hakyemez
Management options for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are surgery, radiosurgery, and endovascular embolization. The aim of partial embolization in endovascular treatment is to make total resection possible. However, increased risk of bleeding in partial embolization creates some controversies about treatment options. Spontaneous total occlusion of cerebral AVMs following partial obliteration with embolization agents is a rarely seen condition. We present a case with an AVM vanishing from right posterior cerebral artery which spontaneously occluded following partial embolization with Onyx liquid agent...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059671/radiologic-and-histologic-features-of-the-t2-hyperintensity-rim-of-meningiomas-on-magnetic-resonance-images
#17
Hiroyuki Uchida, Hirofumi Hirano, F M Moinuddin, Ryosuke Hanaya, Yuko Sadamura, Hiroshi Hosoyama, Hajime Yonezawa, Hiroshi Tokimura, Hitoshi Yamahata, Kazunori Arita
A hyperintensity rim is often seen at the brain-tumor interface of meningiomas upon T2-weighted (T2WI) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and it is referred to as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) space; however, the true nature of the rim remains unclear. We surveyed the MRI findings and the histopathologic characteristics of such rims. Our study population consisted of 53 consecutive patients who underwent meningioma removal at our hospital. The intensity of the rim on MRI scans obtained with different imaging sequences was assessed in all patients...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058985/magnetic-resonance-imaging-tractography-as-a-diagnostic-tool-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury-treated-with-human-embryonic-stem-cells
#18
Geeta Shroff
Introduction Spinal cord injury is a cause of severe disability and mortality. The pharmacological and non-pharmacological methods used, are unable to improve the quality of life in spinal cord injury. Spinal disorders have been treated with human embryonic stem cells. Magnetic resonance imaging and tractography were used as imaging modality to document the changes in the damaged cord, but the magnetic resonance imaging tractography was seen to be more sensitive in detecting the changes in the spinal cord. The present study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic modality of magnetic resonance imaging tractography to determine the efficacy of human embryonic stem cells in chronic spinal cord injury...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045327/neuroimaging-of-ocular-involvement-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease-and-review-of-the-literature
#19
REVIEW
José Fernando Vallejo Diaz, Rafael Glikstein, Marlise Peruzzo Dos Santos, Carlos Torres
Endophthalmitis is a rare cause of ocular infection that can be associated with immunocompromising conditions and, more rarely, with sickle cell disease. In this case report and review of the literature, we present a case of a young male with sickle cell disease who presented with rapidly progressive ocular pain, edema, erythema, and decreased visual acuity. The key radiological findings to suggest endophthalmitis were demonstrated using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903923/stent-assisted-coil-embolization-of-a-recurrent-posterior-cerebral-artery-aneurysm-following-surgical-clipping
#20
Tomonori Takeshita, Tomoaki Nagamine, Kohei Ishihara, Yasuhiko Kaku
Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms are rare, and direct surgery of these is considered difficult. Coil embolization of PCA aneurysms is becoming popular. However, it is difficult to completely obliterate the aneurysm while preserving the flow of the parent artery in large or giant PCA aneurysms with a wide neck with this technique. We report a case of a large and wide-necked PCA aneurysm with multiple recurrences following successful surgical clipping and coil embolization. A 77-year-old man with a large unruptured right PCA (P2) aneurysm was successfully treated by surgical clipping...
February 2017: Neuroradiology Journal
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