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Neuroradiology Journal

Misun Hwang, Becky J Riggs, Sandra Saade-Lemus, Thierry Agm Huisman
Imaging diagnosis of brain death is performed with either four-vessel cerebral angiography or radionuclide cerebral blood flow studies. Unfortunately, timely performance of either study at a critically ill period is not only cumbersome but not feasible in many cases. We present a case of a 6-month-old male three hours status post-cardiac arrest of unknown etiology who underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for diagnosis of near absent perfusion, or near brain death. The patient passed away 30 minutes after the exam and clinical diagnosis of brain death was confirmed...
September 7, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Emil Jernstedt Barkovich, Matthew Jernstedt Barkovich, Christopher Hess
While the ferromagnetic properties of metallic objects, implantable medical devices, and cosmetics are well known, sand is not generally considered a consequential substance. Beaches in specific geographic regions, including the San Francisco Bay Area, have a propensity for ferromagnetic sand because of their geologic history. We describe a case in which ferromagnetic sand in a patient's hair coated the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner bore and caused significant imaging artifact, fortunately with no harm to the patient...
August 20, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Suliana Teoh, Monika Hofer, Richard Kerr, Nicola Warner, Wilhelm Kueker, Peter M Rothwell, Giovanna Zamboni
This article describes an unusual presentation of disseminated oligodendroglial-like leptomeningeal tumour. A previously healthy 23-year-old Caucasian woman presented with headache, photophobia and recurrent seizures. Initial investigations were suggestive of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Her symptoms deteriorated rapidly and within weeks she developed complete blindness and diffuse sensory ataxia. The aim of this article is to increase awareness of this rare disease, especially in patients who present with acute, rapidly progressive neurological symptoms with signs of acute or chronic central nervous system bleeding...
August 9, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Diogo G Corrêa, Nicolle Zimmermann, Rafael S Borges, Denis B Pereira, Thomas M Doring, Gustavo Tukamoto, Rochele P Fonseca, Emerson L Gasparetto
Purpose Cognitive dysfunction is common in neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Memory is a commonly affected cognitive domain. Clinically, however, it is difficult to detect memory deficits. The objective of this study is to evaluate whether normal controls and SLE patients with and without memory deficit differ in terms of white-matter integrity. Methods Twenty SLE patients with memory deficit were compared to 47 SLE patients without memory deficit and 22 sex-, age-, and education-matched control individuals...
August 9, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Valeria Onofrj, Carina Vallejo, Paulo Puac, Carlos Zamora, Mauricio Castillo
Purpose Although symptoms are expected to improve after the resection of pituitary macroadenomas, tumor resection volume does not always correlate with the patient's symptoms. Our objectives were to assess the pre and postoperative volumes of pituitary macroadenomas before, immediately after surgery and at follow-up, and to explore possible associations and correlations among these changes and symptoms. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records and the preoperative and postoperative magnetic resonance imaging studies at 24 hours and at 3, 6 and 9 months follow-up of 146 patients who underwent surgery for pituitary macroadenomas...
August 9, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
V Vinje, J Brucker, M E Rognes, K A Mardal, V Haughton
Purpose How fluid moves during the cardiac cycle within a syrinx may affect its development. We measured syrinx fluid velocities before and after craniovertebral decompression in a patient and simulated syrinx fluid velocities for different heart rates, syrinx sizes and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocities in a model of syringomyelia. Materials and methods With phase-contrast magnetic resonance we measured CSF and syrinx fluid velocities in a Chiari patient before and after craniovertebral decompression...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
M D Alexander, N Hughes, D L Cooke, C P Hess, I J Frieden, A S Phelps, C F Dowd
Introduction Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is most sensitive and specific for characterizing venous malformations (VMs). VMs typically demonstrate central enhancement on delayed-contrast imaging. Fluid-fluid levels (FFLs) are uncommon in VMs and common in lymphatic malformations (LMs). Technology has advanced since the initial description of these findings. Rates of detection of these MRI findings in VMs may have changed as MRI technology and techniques have evolved. Methods and methods A prospectively maintained database from a multidisciplinary vascular anomalies clinic was reviewed to identify patients with final diagnosis of VM or LM...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Nirmeen A Kishk, Asmaa M Ebraheim, Amal S Ashour, Nashwa M Badr, Mohamed A Eshra
Purpose Monitoring of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is required to prevent secondary optic nerve damage. Sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is a noninvasive method to evaluate intracranial hypertension. Different ONSD cut-off values have been reported probably due to ethnic variations. Our aim was to determine optic nerve sonographic examination cut-off points to predict raised ICP in IIH patients. Methods This case-control study was conducted on 99 IIH post-pubertal female patients (both probable and definite) and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Ferdinand Seith, Holger Schmidt, Konstantin Nikolaou, Ulrike Ernemann, Georg Bier
Aim To evaluate voxelwise computed diffusion-weighted imaging (vcDWI) for the detection of cytotoxic oedema in brain imaging and to quantify the benefit of lesion contrast in comparison to standard b = 1000 s/mm2 by the example of acute ischaemic stroke. Materials and methods A retrospective evaluation of 66 patients (63 ± 15.9 years) suspected for acute ischaemic stroke who received diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence. A neuroradiologist evaluated all examinations for acute ischaemic stroke based on diffusion-weighted imaging, the apparent diffusion coefficient and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (reference standard) and 6 weeks later the vcDWI in a randomised manner...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Muhammad Azeemuddin, Muhammad Awais, Fatima Mubarak, Abdul Rehman, Noor Ul-Ain Baloch
Introduction In patients with cranial venous sinus thrombosis, the occurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in association with haemorrhagic venous infarcts is a well described phenomenon. However, the presence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients with cranial venous sinus thrombosis in the absence of a haemorrhagic venous infarct is exceedingly rare. Methods We retrospectively reviewed charts and scans of all patients who had cranial venous sinus thrombosis confirmed by magnetic resonance venography at our hospital between September 2004 and May 2015...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Spencer Summers, Jean Jose, Carlos M Barrera, Juan Pretell-Mazzini, Ty Subhawong, Nguyen V Nguyen, Darcy Kerr, G Petur Nielsen, Andrew E Rosenberg
Background and purpose Sacral intraosseous schwannomas represent a rare subset of schwannomas. The existing literature detailing the radiographic appearance of intraosseous schwannomas is limited. The aim of this study is to formally characterize the radiological appearance of sacral intraosseous schwannomas to differentiate them from other lytic lesions. Materials and methods Imaging studies of 13 pathologically proven intraosseous schwannomas were reviewed from multiple institutions by fellowship-trained radiologists...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Jerry Me Koovor, Gloria V Lopez, Kalen Riley, Juan Tejada
Purpose Transverse sinus stenosis is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. It is not clear whether it is the cause or the result of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension has been carried out in several prior series. Our goal was to evaluate the clinical and imaging follow-up results of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension that underwent stenting for this condition at our center. Materials and Methods We reviewed the clinical, venographic and follow-up imaging data in patients who underwent elective transverse sinus stenting during the period from 2011 to 2017...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Kerem Ozturk, Esra Soylu, Mufit Parlak
Aim The aim of this article is to determine whether a combination of noncontrast CT (NCCT), three-dimensional-phase contrast magnetic resonance venography (3D PC-MRV), T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences can help to identify acute and subacute dural venous sinus thrombosis (DVST) with greater accuracy. Methods A total of 147 patients with DVST ( n = 30) and a control group ( n = 117) underwent NCCT, T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences, and 3D PC-MRV from 2012 to 2016. Two experienced observers interpreted the images retrospectively for the presence of DVST...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Kotaro Kohara, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Tomonori Kobayashi, Takakazu Kawamata
Retinal artery occlusion associated with carotid artery stenosis is well known. Although it can also occur at the time of carotid artery stenting, retinal artery occlusion via the collateral circulation of the external carotid artery is rare. We encountered two cases of retinal artery occlusion that were thought to be caused by an embolus from the external carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with a distal embolic protection device for the internal carotid artery. A 71-year-old man presented with central retinal artery occlusion after carotid artery stenting using the Carotid Guardwire PS and a 77-year-old man presented with branch retinal artery occlusion after carotid artery stenting using the FilterWire EZ...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Adrienne Thompson, Ryan Zea, Victor Haughton
Background Spinal canal tapering, which can be measured as taper ratios, affects cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics. We calculated the tolerance interval for normal cervical spine taper ratios to facilitate the detection of abnormal taper ratios. Methods We collected a series of patients who had cervical spine magnetic resonance studies reported as normal. We measured anteroposterior diameters of the cervical spine and calculated C1-C4, C4-C7, and C1-C7 taper by standard methodology. We calculated the normal tolerance limits for taper ratios and compared results of this study with data in previous reports on taper ratios...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Robert A Frank, Santanu Chakraborty, Trevor McGrath, Alexander Mungham, James Ross, Dar Dowlatshahi, Michel Shamy, Grant Stotts
Mild and minor acute neurological symptoms may lead to diagnostic uncertainty, resulting in a heterogeneous group of patients with true ischemic events and stroke mimics with a potential for poor outcomes. More than half of ischemic stroke patients present as minor strokes (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score <6). Whole-brain computed tomography perfusion can be used as a diagnostic test for minor stroke, offering a potential method of reducing diagnostic uncertainty in these patients. We hypothesize that whole-brain computed tomography perfusion imaging features could accurately predict infarction in patients with minor neurological deficits...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Orlando Galego, Joana Jesus-Ribeiro, Mariana Baptista, João Sargento-Freitas, Ana Inês Martins, Fernando Silva, Gustavo Cordeiro Santos, Luís Cunha, César Nunes, Egídio Machado
Background Cerebral edema is frequent in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) who undergo reperfusion therapy and is associated with high mortality. The impact of collateral pial circulation (CPC) status on the development of edema has not yet been determined. Methods We studied consecutive patients with AIS and documented M1-middle cerebral artery (MCA) and/or distal internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion who underwent reperfusion treatment. Edema was graded on the 24-hour non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) scan...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Mark A Buller, Cory M Pfeifer
49,XXXXY is a rare aneuploidy with neuroanatomic findings scarcely reported in the literature. Given the fact that many of its phenotypic characteristics are similar to Klinefelter patients, 49,XXXXY has been treated as a variant of Klinefelter syndrome in the past. Newer studies have shown that intellectual disabilities and cardiac sequelae are more common in 49,XXXXY making the need for more precise characterization of the disorder essential. Prior case studies have demonstrated focal (and to a lesser extent confluent) white abnormalities as well as enlarged perivascular cysts (often in clustered arrangements) in the brains of these patients, but high resolution magnetic resonance images of severe myelinopathy are infrequently documented...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Nina Ventura, Linda Douw, Diogo G Correa, Tania M Netto, Rafael F Cabral, Fernanda Cristina Rueda Lopes, Emerson L Gasparetto
Purpose Despite antiretroviral therapy, approximately half of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) will develop HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). Efficiency of brain networks is of great importance for cognitive functioning, since functional networks may reorganize or compensate to preserve normal cognition. This study aims to compare efficiency of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) between patients with and without HAND and controls. We hypothesize HAND negative (HAND-) patients will show higher PCC efficiency than HAND positive (HAND+) patients...
August 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Zachary B Jenner, Nuruddin Husein, Roy Riascos, Yoshua Esquenazi
Introduction Orbital meningoencephalocele formation is primarily a result of congenital defects in the pediatric population and trauma of the anterior cranial fossa in adults. We present a unique case of nontraumatic nasal and orbital meningoencephaloceles presenting as bilateral proptosis with exotropia secondary to chronic hydrocephalus. Clinical presentation A 20-year-old male with a history of tuberous sclerosis, X-linked intellectual disability, and epilepsy presented to the emergency department with two days of nausea, emesis, seizures, and two months of progressive proptosis...
August 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
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