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Neuroradiology Journal

Ahmed H El Beltagi, Ahmed H Elsotouhy, Ahmed M Own, Wael Abdelfattah, Kavitha Nair, Surjith Vattoth
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumors of the head and neck usually encompasses diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and intravenous (IV) contrast T1 dynamic perfusion imaging (DCE-MRI or PWI). Both techniques can characterize different tissues by probing into their microstructure, providing a novel approach in oncological imaging. In this pictorial review, we will cover the important technical aspects of DWI and PWI, the pathophysiological background and the current applications and potential of these functional MRI techniques in the imaging of head and neck cancer...
November 6, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Shahine Goulam-Houssein, Jeffrey L Grenville, Katerina Mastrocostas, David G Munoz, Amy Lin, Aditya Bharatha, Paraskevi A Vlachou
IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a multi-organ chronic inflammatory process caused by infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells in one or more organs. Intracranial involvement has only recently become better recognized. Our case series adds to the growing literature on the varying presentations of intracranial IgG4 by describing the clinical and imaging findings of three patients who presented to our institution with intracranial involvement. Our first patient presented with a mass-forming IgG4 pachymeningitis mimicking a sphenoid wing meningioma, which is to our knowledge the largest mass-forming pachymeningitis published in the literature...
October 15, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Neetu Soni, Girish Bathla, Ravishankar Pillenahalli Maheshwarappa
Purpose Spinal sarcoidosis, referring to involvement of the spine in sarcoidosis, is relatively rare and may mimic other neurological disease affecting the spine. The authors present a clinic radiological review of 18 spinal sarcoidosis patients who presented to a tertiary hospital, with emphasis on initial imaging and radiological response to treatment. Materials and methods We retrospectively reviewed our departmental imaging archives over a 15-year period and found 49 cases of neurosarcoidosis out of which 18 patients had spinal magnetic resonance imaging...
October 12, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Elham Shobeiri, Behnam Torabinejad
Objectives The objectives were to determine the frequency of abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with postpartum headache and related factors. Methods A total of 102 patients with postpartum headache underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging study. The images were examined by a blinded radiologist. The related demographic, obstetric and headache-related factors were recorded. The multiple logistic regression model was used to determine the predictive factors. Results Abnormal magnetic resonance imaging findings were observed in 42 of 102 patients (41...
October 10, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Eshagh Bahrami, Morteza Taheri, Mohsen Benam
Introduction Calcification in brain metastasis occurs rarely so it is reported in approximately 1% of surgical and 6.6% of autopsy specimens. Here we report a new case of brain metastasis with calcification. Case presentation A 44-year-old woman presented with a generalized tonic-clonic seizure with no neurological deficit on physical examination. Brain imaging demonstrated a hyperdense lesion on computed tomography scan and hyposignal and rim enhancement on T1, T2 and T1 with gadolinium injection sequence images in the right parieto-occipital lobe...
October 10, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Francesca Di Giuliano, Eliseo Picchi, Fabrizio Sallustio, Valentina Ferrazzoli, Fana Alemseged, Laura Greco, Silvia Minosse, Valerio Da Ros, Marina Diomedi, Francesco Garaci, Simone Marziali, Roberto Floris
Background and purpose Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) and multiphase CT angiography (mCTA) help selection for endovascular treatment (EVT) in anterior ischemic stroke (AIS). Our aim was to investigate the ability of perfusion maps and collateral score to predict functional outcome after EVT. Patients and methods Patients with M1-middle cerebral artery occlusion, evaluated by mCTA and CTP and treated with EVT within six hours of onset, were enrolled. Perfusion parametric maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and time to maximum of tissue residue function ( Tmax ) were generated; areas of altered perfusion were manually outlined to obtain volumes CBFv , CBVv , [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]...
October 10, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Riti Kanesa-Thasan, Mougnyan Cox, Manisha Patel, Brian Curtis, Robert W Hurst, David Kung, Adam E Flanders
Providing a fast and accurate diagnosis of acute large-vessel occlusion on computed tomography angiograms (CTAs) is essential for timely intervention and good stroke outcomes. However, the detection and appropriate management of incidental findings are also important parts of any clinical radiology practice and can greatly affect patient care. The intricate anatomy covered by CTAs of the head and neck coupled with the time pressures of acute stroke diagnosis creates an environment in which unrelated, important findings can potentially be missed...
September 21, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Seyedmehdi Payabvash, Tarik Tihan, Soonmee Cha
Purpose We applied voxelwise apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram analysis in addition to structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and patients' age for differentiation of intraaxial posterior fossa tumors involving the fourth ventricle. Participants and methods Pretreatment MRIs of 74 patients with intraaxial brain neoplasm involving the fourth ventricle, from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2015, were reviewed. The tumor solid components were segmented and voxelwise ADC histogram variables were determined...
September 19, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Misun Hwang, Becky J Riggs, Sandra Saade-Lemus, Thierry Agm Huisman
Imaging diagnosis of brain death is performed with either four-vessel cerebral angiography or radionuclide cerebral blood flow studies. Unfortunately, timely performance of either study at a critically ill period is not only cumbersome but not feasible in many cases. We present a case of a 6-month-old male three hours status post-cardiac arrest of unknown etiology who underwent contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for diagnosis of near absent perfusion, or near brain death. The patient passed away 30 minutes after the exam and clinical diagnosis of brain death was confirmed...
September 7, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Emil Jernstedt Barkovich, Matthew Jernstedt Barkovich, Christopher Hess
While the ferromagnetic properties of metallic objects, implantable medical devices, and cosmetics are well known, sand is not generally considered a consequential substance. Beaches in specific geographic regions, including the San Francisco Bay Area, have a propensity for ferromagnetic sand because of their geologic history. We describe a case in which ferromagnetic sand in a patient's hair coated the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner bore and caused significant imaging artifact, fortunately with no harm to the patient...
August 20, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
V Vinje, J Brucker, M E Rognes, K A Mardal, V Haughton
Purpose How fluid moves during the cardiac cycle within a syrinx may affect its development. We measured syrinx fluid velocities before and after craniovertebral decompression in a patient and simulated syrinx fluid velocities for different heart rates, syrinx sizes and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocities in a model of syringomyelia. Materials and methods With phase-contrast magnetic resonance we measured CSF and syrinx fluid velocities in a Chiari patient before and after craniovertebral decompression...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
M D Alexander, N Hughes, D L Cooke, C P Hess, I J Frieden, A S Phelps, C F Dowd
Introduction Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is most sensitive and specific for characterizing venous malformations (VMs). VMs typically demonstrate central enhancement on delayed-contrast imaging. Fluid-fluid levels (FFLs) are uncommon in VMs and common in lymphatic malformations (LMs). Technology has advanced since the initial description of these findings. Rates of detection of these MRI findings in VMs may have changed as MRI technology and techniques have evolved. Methods and methods A prospectively maintained database from a multidisciplinary vascular anomalies clinic was reviewed to identify patients with final diagnosis of VM or LM...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Nirmeen A Kishk, Asmaa M Ebraheim, Amal S Ashour, Nashwa M Badr, Mohamed A Eshra
Purpose Monitoring of raised intracranial pressure (ICP) in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is required to prevent secondary optic nerve damage. Sonographic measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is a noninvasive method to evaluate intracranial hypertension. Different ONSD cut-off values have been reported probably due to ethnic variations. Our aim was to determine optic nerve sonographic examination cut-off points to predict raised ICP in IIH patients. Methods This case-control study was conducted on 99 IIH post-pubertal female patients (both probable and definite) and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Ferdinand Seith, Holger Schmidt, Konstantin Nikolaou, Ulrike Ernemann, Georg Bier
Aim To evaluate voxelwise computed diffusion-weighted imaging (vcDWI) for the detection of cytotoxic oedema in brain imaging and to quantify the benefit of lesion contrast in comparison to standard b = 1000 s/mm2 by the example of acute ischaemic stroke. Materials and methods A retrospective evaluation of 66 patients (63 ± 15.9 years) suspected for acute ischaemic stroke who received diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence. A neuroradiologist evaluated all examinations for acute ischaemic stroke based on diffusion-weighted imaging, the apparent diffusion coefficient and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (reference standard) and 6 weeks later the vcDWI in a randomised manner...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Muhammad Azeemuddin, Muhammad Awais, Fatima Mubarak, Abdul Rehman, Noor Ul-Ain Baloch
Introduction In patients with cranial venous sinus thrombosis, the occurrence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in association with haemorrhagic venous infarcts is a well described phenomenon. However, the presence of subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients with cranial venous sinus thrombosis in the absence of a haemorrhagic venous infarct is exceedingly rare. Methods We retrospectively reviewed charts and scans of all patients who had cranial venous sinus thrombosis confirmed by magnetic resonance venography at our hospital between September 2004 and May 2015...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Spencer Summers, Jean Jose, Carlos M Barrera, Juan Pretell-Mazzini, Ty Subhawong, Nguyen V Nguyen, Darcy Kerr, G Petur Nielsen, Andrew E Rosenberg
Background and purpose Sacral intraosseous schwannomas represent a rare subset of schwannomas. The existing literature detailing the radiographic appearance of intraosseous schwannomas is limited. The aim of this study is to formally characterize the radiological appearance of sacral intraosseous schwannomas to differentiate them from other lytic lesions. Materials and methods Imaging studies of 13 pathologically proven intraosseous schwannomas were reviewed from multiple institutions by fellowship-trained radiologists...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Jerry Me Koovor, Gloria V Lopez, Kalen Riley, Juan Tejada
Purpose Transverse sinus stenosis is commonly seen in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension. It is not clear whether it is the cause or the result of idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Stenting for idiopathic intracranial hypertension has been carried out in several prior series. Our goal was to evaluate the clinical and imaging follow-up results of patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension that underwent stenting for this condition at our center. Materials and Methods We reviewed the clinical, venographic and follow-up imaging data in patients who underwent elective transverse sinus stenting during the period from 2011 to 2017...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Kerem Ozturk, Esra Soylu, Mufit Parlak
Aim The aim of this article is to determine whether a combination of noncontrast CT (NCCT), three-dimensional-phase contrast magnetic resonance venography (3D PC-MRV), T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences can help to identify acute and subacute dural venous sinus thrombosis (DVST) with greater accuracy. Methods A total of 147 patients with DVST ( n = 30) and a control group ( n = 117) underwent NCCT, T1- and T2-weighted MRI sequences, and 3D PC-MRV from 2012 to 2016. Two experienced observers interpreted the images retrospectively for the presence of DVST...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Kotaro Kohara, Tatsuya Ishikawa, Tomonori Kobayashi, Takakazu Kawamata
Retinal artery occlusion associated with carotid artery stenosis is well known. Although it can also occur at the time of carotid artery stenting, retinal artery occlusion via the collateral circulation of the external carotid artery is rare. We encountered two cases of retinal artery occlusion that were thought to be caused by an embolus from the external carotid artery during carotid artery stenting with a distal embolic protection device for the internal carotid artery. A 71-year-old man presented with central retinal artery occlusion after carotid artery stenting using the Carotid Guardwire PS and a 77-year-old man presented with branch retinal artery occlusion after carotid artery stenting using the FilterWire EZ...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
Adrienne Thompson, Ryan Zea, Victor Haughton
Background Spinal canal tapering, which can be measured as taper ratios, affects cerebrospinal fluid flow dynamics. We calculated the tolerance interval for normal cervical spine taper ratios to facilitate the detection of abnormal taper ratios. Methods We collected a series of patients who had cervical spine magnetic resonance studies reported as normal. We measured anteroposterior diameters of the cervical spine and calculated C1-C4, C4-C7, and C1-C7 taper by standard methodology. We calculated the normal tolerance limits for taper ratios and compared results of this study with data in previous reports on taper ratios...
October 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
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