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Soft Matter

Roman Forker, Matthias Meissner, Torsten Fritz
Early investigations of epitaxy focused on inorganic adsorbates consisting of atoms or few-atom molecules, where commensurate registries are predominantly encountered. Expanding such studies to larger (organic) molecules has revealed hitherto unknown types of epitaxy with coherence between adlayer and substrate lattices in just one direction. Here we review recent contributions to the fundamental understanding and modeling of epitaxy. By sorting the ideas brought forward in the literature and amending some basic algebraic considerations a universal scheme for the classification of lattice epitaxy is presented...
February 17, 2017: Soft Matter
B Dersoir, A B Schofield, H Tabuteau
Particles that flow through porous environments like soils, inside a filter or within our arteries, often lead to pore clogging. Even though tremendous efforts have been made in analysing this to circumvent this issue, the clog formation and its dynamics remain poorly understood. Coupling two experimental techniques, we elucidate the clogging mechanism at the particle scale of a slit pore with its height slightly larger than the particle diameter. We identify all the particle deposition modes during the clog formation and accurately predict the corresponding deposition rate...
February 17, 2017: Soft Matter
Joseph D Berry, Srinivas Mettu, Raymond R Dagastine
Application of elastic theory to experimental data of capsule and particle compression under-predicts the value of material properties such as the Young's modulus by up to 100% when the effect of the rigid substrate is neglected, as is commonly done in the literature. Results of numerical simulations, spanning the range from thin-shelled capsules to solid particles, are presented in terms of correction factors that account for the substrate. In addition, the scaling relationship between indentation force and displacement is characterised for arbitrary shell thicknesses and indenter radii...
February 16, 2017: Soft Matter
Teodor Burghelea, Miguel Moyers-Gonzalez, Raazesh Sainudiin
A nonlinear dynamical system model that approximates a microscopic Gibbs field model for the yielding of a viscoplastic material subjected to varying external stresses recently reported in R. Sainudiin, M. Moyers-Gonzalez and T. Burghelea, Soft Matter, 2015, 11(27), 5531-5545 is presented. The predictions of the model are in fair agreement with microscopic simulations and are in very good agreement with the micro-structural semi-empirical model reported in A. M. V. Putz and T. I. Burghelea, Rheol. Acta, 2009, 48, 673-689...
February 15, 2017: Soft Matter
Teresa Liberto, Marie Le Merrer, Catherine Barentin, Maurizio Bellotto, Jean Colombani
We address the mechanical characterization of a calcite paste as a model system to investigate the relation between the microstructure and macroscopic behavior of colloidal suspensions. The ultimate goal is to achieve control of the elastic and yielding properties of calcite which will prove valuable in several domains, from paper coating to paint manufacture and eventually in the comprehension and control of the mechanical properties of carbonate rocks. Rheological measurements have been performed on calcite suspensions over a wide range of particle concentrations...
February 15, 2017: Soft Matter
H Almohammadi, A Amirfazli
In this paper, a systematic study was performed to understand the drop impact on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces that were moving in the horizontal direction. Drops (D0 = 2.5 mm) of liquids with three different viscosities were used. Wide ranges of drop normal velocity (0.5 to 3.4 m s(-1)) and surface velocity (0 to 17 m s(-1)) were studied. High speed imaging from the top and side was used to capture the impact phenomena. It was found that drop impact behavior on a moving surface significantly differs from that on a stationary surface at both the lamella extension stage (i...
February 15, 2017: Soft Matter
Ju E Morozova, V V Syakaev, Ya V Shalaeva, A M Ermakova, I R Nizameev, M K Kadirov, A D Voloshina, V V Zobov, I S Antipin, A I Konovalov
The association of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) micelles in the presence of octaacetated tetraphenyleneoxymethylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CR) leads to the formation of unusual spherical supramolecular nanoparticles (SNPs). Within the range of CR/CPC molar ratios from 10/1 to 1/10 (except for 1/8), CR, acting as a counterion, decreases the critical micelle concentration of CPC by one order of magnitude and leads to the formation of SNPs with an average hydrodynamic radius of 164 nm and an average zeta potential of -60 mV...
February 15, 2017: Soft Matter
Ralph Neubauer, Sebastian Höhn, Martin Dulle, Alain Lapp, Christoph Schulreich, Thomas Hellweg
We study the diffusion of an enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP+) in bicontinuous sugar-surfactant based microemulsions. The size of the water domains in such systems is controlled by changes of the oil-to-water ratio. Hence, microemulsions allow to produce confinement effects in a controlled way. At high water content the protein is found to exhibit Fickian diffusion. Decreasing the water domain size leads to a slowing down of the protein diffusion and sub-diffusive behavior is obtained on the scale observed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy...
February 15, 2017: Soft Matter
Shoya Yasuda, Masayuki Hayakawa, Hiroaki Onoe, Masahiro Takinoue
This paper reports a twisting microfluidic method utilising a centrifuge-based fluid extruding system in a planetary centrifuge which simultaneously generates an orbital rotation and an axial spin. In this method, fluid extrusion from a micro-scale capillary to an 'open-space' solution or air enables release of the fluid from the capillary-based microchannel, which physically means that there is a release of fluids from a confined low-Reynolds-number environment to an open non-low-Reynolds-number environment...
February 13, 2017: Soft Matter
Lynna Chen, Kai Xi Wang, Patrick S Doyle
The study of how soft particles deform to pass through narrow openings is important for understanding the transit of biological cells, as well as for designing deformable drug delivery carriers. In this work, we systematically explore how soft microparticles with various internal architectures deform during passage through microfluidic constrictions. We synthesize hydrogel particles with well-defined internal structure using lithography-based UV polymerization in microfluidic channels (stop-flow lithography)...
February 10, 2017: Soft Matter
N Parveen, M Schönhoff
Controlling the uptake of specific ions in polyelectrolyte multilayers is of interest for various fields of application. Here, we quantify the amount of cation of an ionic liquid, namely 1,3-bis(cyanomethyl)imidazolium chloride, incorporated into polyelectrolyte multilayers upon contact with an ionic liquid solution. The ion partition equilibrium is determined depending on concentration in solution, employing attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. Generating an excess charge in multilayers by post-preparative manipulation of their charge balance, one can control the incorporated amount...
February 10, 2017: Soft Matter
Awaneesh Singh, Olga Kuksenok, Jeremiah A Johnson, Anna C Balazs
Using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), we developed a computational approach to model the light-induced regeneration of a gel matrix when a significant portion of the material is severed. We considered photo-controlled radical polymerization (photo-CRP) within polymer networks with embedded iniferter groups: the "photo-growth" strategy. Absorption of light by the iniferter groups turns on the polymerization process, which inserts monomers and cross-linkers into the network strands. Photo-growth allows us to effectively regenerate a severed gel under the application of light even when the severed parts are not in direct contact...
February 10, 2017: Soft Matter
Catherine Colquhoun, Emily R Draper, Ralf Schweins, Marco Marcello, Devkee Vadukul, Louise C Serpell, Dave J Adams
We show that the same low molecular weight gelator can form gels using three different methods. Gels were formed from a high pH solution either by adding a salt or by adding an acid; gels were also formed by adding water to a solution of the gelator in an organic solvent. The mechanical properties for the gels formed by the different methods are different from one another. We link this to the network type that is formed, as well as the fibrous structures that are formed. The salt-triggered gels show a significant number of fibres that tend to align...
February 10, 2017: Soft Matter
Taraknath Mandal, Wenjun Huang, Jodi M Mecca, Ashley Getchell, William W Porter, Ronald G Larson
We present a multi-scale simulation method for modeling crystal growth in the presence of polymer excipients. The method includes a coarse-grained (CG) model for small molecules of known crystal structure whose force field is obtained using structural properties from atomistic simulations. This CG model is capable of stabilizing the molecular crystal structure and capturing the crystal growth from the melt for a wide range of small organic molecules, as demonstrated by application of our method to the molecules isoniazid, urea, sulfamethoxazole, prilocaine, oxcarbazepine, and phenytoin...
February 9, 2017: Soft Matter
Andrey Milchev, Sergei A Egorov, Kurt Binder
Semiflexible polymers under good solvent conditions interacting with attractive planar surfaces are investigated by Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations and classical Density Functional Theory (DFT). A bead-spring type potential complemented by a bending potential is used, allowing variation of chain stiffness from completely flexible coils to rod-like polymers whose persistence length by far exceeds their contour length. Solvent is only implicitly included, monomer-monomer interactions being purely repulsive, while two types of attractive wall-monomer interactions are considered: (i) a strongly attractive Mie-type potential, appropriate for a strictly structureless wall, and (ii) a corrugated wall formed by Lennard-Jones particles arranged on a square lattice...
February 9, 2017: Soft Matter
Yaqian Wu, Haike Yan, Xuefeng Shi, Jinben Wang
An efficient method was developed to encapsulate water insoluble organic particles of Sudan red III (SR) in aqueous suspensions by using a polymerizable cationic gemini surfactant, 1,3-bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-cetylammonium)-2-(propylacrylate dibromide) (AGC16). The AGC16 coated SR microcapsules (AGC16@SR) were prepared by absorption of AGC16 on the surface of SR, followed by in situ homopolymerization (PAGC16). Several measurements, including transmission and scanning electron microscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry, zeta potential, electron paramagnetic resonance and small angle X-ray scattering, were performed to determine the adsorption amount of AGC16, and the layer structures and the molecular assembly mechanism in the AGC16@SR and PAGC16@SR systems, respectively...
February 9, 2017: Soft Matter
Martha E Grady, Emmabeth Parrish, Matthew A Caporizzo, Sarah C Seeger, Russell J Composto, David M Eckmann
The cell interior is a crowded chemical space, which limits the diffusion of molecules and organelles within the cytoplasm, affecting the rates of chemical reactions. We provide insight into the relationship between non-specific intracellular diffusion and cytoskeletal integrity. Quantum dots entered the cell through microinjection and their spatial coordinates were captured by tracking their fluorescence signature as they diffused within the cell cytoplasm. Particle tracking revealed significant enhancement in the mobility of biocompatible quantum dots within fibrosarcoma cells versus their healthy counterparts, fibroblasts, as well as in actin destabilized fibroblasts versus untreated fibroblasts...
February 8, 2017: Soft Matter
Kun Wang, Zongxia Guo, Li Zhang, Kai Sun, Ping Yu, Shenghua Zhou, Wenpin Wang, Zhibo Li
Co-assembly of n-type semiconductors NDI and PDI with p-type pyrene derivatives resulted in the formation of stable organogels, which was induced by the strong charge transfer (CT) interactions between acceptors and donors in chloroform. The dimension size of the aromatic core from the acceptors was found to have a significant impact on the organogels. The width of the fibers from CT gels with NDI is about twice that from gels with PDI. It was found that the acceptor NDI preferred an alternate stacking with donors, intercalated with each other via CT interactions...
February 8, 2017: Soft Matter
Vignesh S Balaraj, Philip C H Zeng, Sean P Sanford, Samantha A McBride, Aditya Raghunandan, Juan M Lopez, Amir H Hirsa
Amyloidogenesis of proteins is of wide interest because amyloid structures are associated with many diseases, including Alzheimer's and type II diabetes. Dozens of different proteins of various sizes are known to form amyloid fibrils. While there are numerous studies on the fibrillization of insulin induced by various perturbations, shearing at fluid interfaces has not received as much attention. Here, we present a study of human insulin fibrillization at room temperature using a deep-channel surface viscometer...
February 8, 2017: Soft Matter
Rangarajan Radhakrishnan, Thibaut Divoux, Sébastien Manneville, Suzanne M Fielding
Motivated by recent experimental studies of rheological hysteresis in soft glassy materials, we study numerically strain rate sweeps in simple yield stress fluids and viscosity bifurcating yield stress fluids. Our simulations of downward followed by upward strain rate sweeps, performed within fluidity models and the soft glassy rheology model, successfully capture the experimentally observed monotonic decrease of the area of the rheological hysteresis loop with sweep time in simple yield stress fluids, and the bell shaped dependence of hysteresis loop area on sweep time in viscosity bifurcating fluids...
February 8, 2017: Soft Matter
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