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Sara G Mina, Peter Huang, Bruce T Murray, Gretchen J Mahler
Tumor development is influenced by stromal cells in aspects including invasion, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Activated fibroblasts are one group of stromal cells involved in cancer metastasis, and one source of activated fibroblasts is endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EndMT). EndMT begins when the endothelial cells delaminate from the cell monolayer, lose cell-cell contacts, lose endothelial markers such as vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), gain mesenchymal markers like alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and acquire mesenchymal cell-like properties...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Jia-Wei Yeh, Kylan Szeto
Stretching single chromosomal DNA fibers in nanofluidic devices has become a valuable tool for studying the genome and more recently the epigenome. Although nanofluidic technology has been extensively used in single molecular DNA analysis, compared to bare DNA, much less work has been done to elongate chromatin, and only a few studies utilize more biologically relevant samples such as native eukaryotic chromatin. Here, we provide a method for stretching and imaging individual chromatin fibers within a micro- and nanofluidic device...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Mohsen Karbaschi, Payam Shahi, Adam R Abate
Droplet microfluidics can form and process millions of picoliter droplets with speed and ease, allowing the execution of huge numbers of biological reactions for high-throughput studies. However, at the conclusion of most experiments, the emulsions must be broken to recover and analyze their contents. This is usually achieved with demulsifiers, like perfluorooctanol and chloroform, which can interfere with downstream reactions and harm cells. Here, we describe a simple approach to rapidly and efficiently break microfluidic emulsions, which requires no chemicals...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Chenyu Wang, Wenwen Liu, Manqing Tan, Hongbo Sun, Yude Yu
Cellular heterogeneity represents a fundamental principle of cell biology for which a readily available single-cell research tool is urgently required. Here, we present a novel method combining cell-sized well arrays with sequential inkjet printing. Briefly, K562 cells with phosphate buffer saline buffer were captured at high efficiency (74.5%) in a cell-sized well as a "primary droplet" and sealed using fluorinated oil. Then, piezoelectric inkjet printing technology was adapted to precisely inject the cell lysis buffer and the fluorogenic substrate, fluorescein-di-β-D-galactopyranoside, as a "secondary droplet" to penetrate the sealing oil and fuse with the "primary droplet...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Wei-Chieh Kao, Yen-Wen Chen, Chia-Ho Chu, Wen-Hsin Chang, Shu-Chu Shiesh, Yu-Lin Wang, Gwo-Bin Lee
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) cause more than 17 × 10(6) deaths worldwide on a yearly basis. Early diagnosis of CVDs is therefore of great need. The C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important biomarker for analyzing the risks of CVDs. In this work, CRP-specific aptamers with high sensitivity and specificity and field-effect-transistor (FET) devices were used to recognize and detect CRP by using an integrated microfluidic system automatically while consuming less volumes of reagents and samples (about 5 μm)...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Katharina Walczuch, Peter Renze, Claudia Ingensiep, Rudolf Degen, Thanh Phong Bui, Uwe Schnakenberg, Peter Bräunig, Katrin Bui-Göbbels
A new triangle-shaped microfluidic channel system for defined cell trapping is presented. Different variants of the same basic geometry were produced to reveal the best fitting parameter combinations regarding efficiency and sensitivity. Variants with differences in the trap gap width and the inter-trap distance were analyzed in detail by Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and in experiments with artificial beads of different sizes (30, 60, 80 μm). Simulation analysis of flow dynamics and pressure profiles revealed strongly reduced pressure conditions and balanced flow rates inside the microfluidic channels compared to commonly used systems with meandering channels...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Bingzhao Xia, Zhongliang Jiang, Daniel Debroy, Dongmei Li, John Oakey
Encapsulating cells within biocompatible materials is a widely pursued and promising element of tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. Recently, extensive interest in microfluidic-enabled cell encapsulation has emerged as a strategy to structure hydrogels and establish custom cellular microenvironments. In particular, it has been shown that the microfluidic-enabled photoencapsulation of cells within PEG diacrylate (PEGDA)-based microparticles can be performed cytocompatibly within gas-permeable, nitrogen-jacketed polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices, which mitigate the oxygen inhibition of radical chain growth photopolymerization...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Priya Gopinathan, Lien-Yu Hung, Chih-Hung Wang, Nai-Jung Chiang, Yu-Chun Wang, Yan-Shen Shan, Gwo-Bin Lee
An integrated microfluidic system capable of automatically identifying aptamers specific to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells was developed herein. The developed system was capable of performing cell-based systematic evolution of ligands via an exponential enrichment (Cell-SELEX) process on-chip, and only six rounds of Cell-SELEX were required to identify high specificity aptamers; this represents a significant improvement in speed over conventional SELEX, in which 15-20 rounds are typically required. Using the microfluidic chip developed, three aptamers specific to CCA cells (one for SNU-478 cells and two for HuCCT-1 cells) were successfully screened...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Rongcong Luo, Ngoc-Duy Dinh, Chia-Hung Chen
Chemically synthesized functional hydrogels have been recognized as optimized soft pumps for on-demand fluidic regulation in micro-systems. However, the challenges regarding the slow responses of hydrogels have very much limited their application in effective fluidic flow control. In this study, a heterobifunctional crosslinker (4-hydroxybutyl acrylate)-enabled two-step hydrothermal phase separation process for preparing a highly porous hydrogel with fast response dynamics was investigated for the fabrication of novel microfluidic functional units, such as injectable valves and pumps...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Stanley E R Bilatto, Nouran Y Adly, Daniel S Correa, Bernhard Wolfrum, Andreas Offenhäusser, Alexey Yakushenko
A simple lab-on-a-chip method for blood plasma separation was developed by combining stereolithographic 3D printing with inkjet printing, creating a completely sealed microfluidic device. In some approaches, one dilutes the blood sample before separation, reducing the concentration of a target analyte and increasing a contamination risk. In this work, a single drop (8 μl) of heparinized whole blood could be efficiently filtered using a capillary effect without any external driving forces and without dilution...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Sung-Chi Tsai, Lien-Yu Hung, Gwo-Bin Lee
Gynecological cancer is difficult to be diagnosed at early stages. The relatively high mortality rate has been a serious issue accordingly. We herein reported a diagnosis method by using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which have been extensively explored as a potential tool for diagnostics and prognostics of ovarian cancers. Nonetheless, the detection of CTCs still remains a challenge because of the difficulty in isolating them from whole blood samples since they are shed into the vasculature from primary tumors and circulate irregularly in the bloodstream in extremely low concentrations...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Junchao Wang, Victor G J Rodgers, Philip Brisk, William H Grover
Computer simulation plays a growing role in the design of microfluidic chips. However, the particle tracers in some existing commercial computational fluid dynamics software are not well suited for accurately simulating the trajectories of particles such as cells, microbeads, and droplets in microfluidic systems. To address this issue, we present a microfluidics-optimized particle simulation algorithm (MOPSA) that simulates the trajectories of cells, droplets, and other particles in microfluidic chips with more lifelike results than particle tracers in existing commercial software...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Zhengyi Zhang, Changxue Xu, Ruitong Xiong, Douglas B Chrisey, Yong Huang
Laser-induced forward transfer has been a promising orifice-free bioprinting technique for the direct writing of three-dimensional cellular constructs from cell-laden bioinks. In order to optimize the printing performance, the effects of living cells on the bioink printability must be carefully investigated in terms of the ability to generate well-defined jets during the jet/droplet formation process as well as well-defined printed droplets on a receiving substrate during the jet/droplet deposition process...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Jiazhong Zhou, Sangjin Ryu, David Admiraal
Vorticella convallaria is a protozoan attached to a substrate by a stalk which can contract in less than 10 ms, translating the zooid toward the substrate with a maximum Reynolds number of ∼1. Following contraction, the stalk slowly relaxes, moving the zooid away from the substrate, which results in creeping flow. Although Vorticella has long been believed to contract to evade danger, it has been suggested that its stalk may contract to enhance food transport near the substrate. To elucidate how Vorticella utilizes its contraction-relaxation cycle, we investigated water flow caused by the cycle, using a computational fluid dynamics model validated with an experimental scale model and particle tracking velocimetry...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
A Bonabi, S Cito, P Tammela, V Jokinen, T Sikanen
This work describes the fabrication of concave micromirrors to improve the sensitivity of fluorescence imaging, for instance, in single cell analysis. A new approach to fabrication of tunable round (concave) cross-sectional shaped microchannels out of the inorganic-organic hybrid polymer, Ormocomp(®), via single step optical lithography was developed and validated. The concave micromirrors were implemented by depositing and patterning thin films of aluminum on top of the concave microchannels. The round cross-sectional shape was due to residual layer formation, which is inherent to Ormocomp(®) upon UV exposure in the proximity mode...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Ya Gai, Minkyu Kim, Ming Pan, Sindy K Y Tang
This paper describes the break-up behavior of a concentrated emulsion comprising drops stabilized by amphiphilic silica nanoparticles flowing in a tapered microchannel. Such geometry is often used in serial droplet interrogation and sorting processes in droplet microfluidics applications. When exposed to high viscous stresses, drops can undergo break-up and compromise their physical integrity. As these drops are used as micro-reactors, such compromise leads to a loss in the accuracy of droplet-based assays...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Po-Jung Huang, Haley L Marks, Gerard L Coté, Jun Kameoka
A microfluidic device utilizing magnetically activated nickel (Ni) micropads has been developed for controlled localization of plasmonic core-shell magnetic nanoparticles, specifically for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. Magnetic microfluidics allows for automated washing steps, provides a means for easy reagent packaging, allows for chip reusability, and can even be used to facilitate on-chip mixing and filtration towards full automation of biological sample processing and analysis...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Westley S Bauer, Kelly A Richardson, Nicholas M Adams, Keersten M Ricks, David J Gasperino, Simon J Ghionea, Mathew Rosen, Kevin P Nichols, Bernhard H Weigl, Frederick R Haselton, David W Wright
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) designed to function at the point of care are becoming more prevalent in malaria diagnostics because of their low cost and simplicity. While many of these tests function effectively with high parasite density samples, their poor sensitivity can often lead to misdiagnosis when parasitemia falls below 100 parasites/μl. In this study, a flow-through pipette-based column was explored as a cost-effective means to capture and elute more Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II (HRPII) antigen, concentrating the biomarker available in large-volume lysed whole blood samples into volumes compatible with Plasmodium falciparum-specific RDTs...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Zhongyu Li, Wentao Su, Yujuan Zhu, Tingting Tao, Dong Li, Xiaojun Peng, Jianhua Qin
Drug absorption in the intestine is tightly related to drug-induced nephrotoxicity, which is a relatively common side effect in clinical practice. It highlights a great need to develop predictive models with high accuracy in the early stage during new drug discovery and development. Herein, we presented a novel intestine-kidney chip, which recapitulated drug absorption in the intestine and its resultant drug toxicity on the kidney. This work aims to provide an integrated tool for accurate assessment of drug absorption-related nephrotoxicity in vitro...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
J R Haliburton, S C Kim, I C Clark, R A Sperling, D A Weitz, A R Abate
Droplet microfluidic techniques can perform large numbers of single molecule and cell reactions but often require controlled, periodic flow to merge, split, and sort droplets. Here, we describe a simple method to convert aperiodic flows into periodic ones. Using an oil extraction module, we efficiently remove oil from emulsions to readjust the droplet volume fraction, velocity, and packing, producing periodic flows. The extractor acts as a universal adaptor to connect microfluidic modules that do not operate under identical flow conditions, such as droplet generators, incubators, and merger devices...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
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