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Hagit Stauber, Dan Waisman, Netanel Korin, Josué Sznitman
The pulmonary capillary networks (PCNs) embody organ-specific microvasculatures, where blood vessels form dense meshes that maximize the surface area available for gas exchange in the lungs. With characteristic capillary lengths and diameters similar to the size of red blood cells (RBCs), seminal descriptions coined the term "sheet flow" nearly half a century ago to differentiate PCNs from the usual notion of Poiseuille flow in long straight tubes. Here, we revisit in true-scale experiments the original "sheet flow" model and devise for the first time biomimetic microfluidic platforms of organ-specific PCN structures perfused with RBC suspensions at near-physiological hematocrit levels...
January 10, 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Xiaoxiao Chen, Thomas F Leary, Charles Maldarelli
Arrays of probe molecules integrated into a microfluidic cell are utilized as analytical tools to screen the binding interactions of the displayed probes against a target molecule. These assay platforms are useful in enzyme or antibody discovery, clinical diagnostics, and biosensing, as their ultraminiaturized design allows for high sensitivity and reduced consumption of reagents and target. We study here a platform in which the probes are first grafted to microbeads which are then arrayed in the microfluidic cell by capture in a trapping course...
January 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Cristina Gaspar, Tiina Sikanen, Sami Franssila, Ville Jokinen
We demonstrate a combined printing process utilizing inkjet printing of silver electrodes and solid-ink technology for printing hydrophobic wax barriers for fabricating paper microfluidic devices with integrated electrodes. Optimized printing parameters are given for achieving conducting silver lines on the top of macroporous chromatography paper down to 250 μm-300 μm resolution. Electrical characterization and wicking experiments demonstrate that the printed silver patterns are simultaneously conductive and porous enough to allow reliable capillary wicking across the electrodes...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Yingying Zhao, Qin Li, Xiaoming Hu, Yuhwa Lo
A microfluidic cytometer with integrated on-chip optical systems was designed for red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) counting. The design, fabrication, and characterization of the microfluidic cytometer with on-chip optical signal detection were described. With process using only a single mask, the device that integrates optical fibers and on-chip microlens with microfluidic channels on a polydimethylsiloxane layer by standard soft photolithography. This compact structure increased the sensitivity of the device and eliminated time-consuming free-space optical alignments...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Hoyoon Lee, Gyehyu Kim, Chaeseung Lim, ByoungKwon Lee, Sehyun Shin
High-shear stimulation is well known as one of the key factors affecting platelet activation and aggregation, which can lead to the formation of a thrombus. In one of our previous studies, we introduced migration distance-based platelet function analysis in a microfluidic system. In this study, we set out to examine the effects of stirring on shear-induced platelet activation and aggregation in a chamber system by using a rotating stirrer. We found that the rotating stirrer caused not only rotational shear flow but also a strong radial secondary flow...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Yousef M F El Hasadi, Martin Crapper
Self-propelled clusters are involved in many technological applications such as in material science and biotechnology, and understanding their interaction with the fluid that surrounds them is of a great importance. We present results of swimming velocity and energy dissipation obtained through Stokesian dynamics simulations of self-propelled clusters. The clusters are of diffusion limited aggregates, consisting of force- and torque-free spherical particles. The number of particles per cluster ranges from 100 to 400, and with two fractal dimensions of 2...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
H Cai, M A Stott, D Ozcelik, J W Parks, A R Hawkins, H Schmidt
We have developed an optofluidic analysis system that processes biomolecular samples starting from whole blood and then analyzes and identifies multiple targets on a silicon-based molecular detection platform. We demonstrate blood filtration, sample extraction, target enrichment, and fluorescent labeling using programmable microfluidic circuits. We detect and identify multiple targets using a spectral multiplexing technique based on wavelength-dependent multi-spot excitation on an antiresonant reflecting optical waveguide chip...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Qiushui Chen, Dong Chen, Jing Wu, Jin-Ming Lin
Designing cell-compatible, bio-degradable, and stimuli-responsive hydrogels is very important for biomedical applications in cellular delivery and micro-scale tissue engineering. Here, we report achieving flexible control of cellular microencapsulation, permeability, and release by rationally designing a diblock copolymer, alginate-conjugated poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (Alg-co-PNiPAM). We use the microfluidic technique to fabricate the bifunctional copolymers into thousands of mono-disperse droplet-templated hydrogel microparticles for controlled encapsulation and triggered release of mammalian cells...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
David Dannhauser, Filippo Causa, Edmondo Battista, Angela M Cusano, Domenico Rossi, Paolo A Netti
We present an in-flow ultrasensitive fluorescence detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) using spectrally encoded microgels. We researched and employed a viscoelastic fluid to achieve an optimal alignment of microgels in a straight measurement channel and applied a simple and inexpensive microfluidic layout, allowing continuous fluorescence signal acquisitions with several emission wavelengths. In particular, we chose microgels endowed with fluorescent emitting molecules designed for multiplex spectral analysis of specific miRNA types...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Zhen Li, Qiaohui Luo, Jianmin Wu
A label-free optical sensor was constructed by integrating electrochemically etched porous silicon (pSi) and supported phospholipid bilayers in a microfluidic chip. The translocation of peptides through the phospholipid bilayers could induce a red shift in effective optical thickness of the pSi layer, which could be monitored by reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy. By measuring the kinetic data of membrane translocating on the phospholipid bilayers/pSi chip, the relationship between the behavior of membrane-translocating peptides (MTPs) and translocating mechanism was established...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Debarati De, Madhuri Mandal Goswami
This paper reports a very simple yet better method for synthesis of cube shaped magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) and their application in the drug delivery system (DDS). Structural analysis was done by XRD measurements to confirm the phase of the material, and morphological information was obtained through TEM analysis to confirm the shape and size of the particles. It has been shown that these particles can be decomposed in acid medium. These acid-decomposable magnetite nano-particles have been used for heat triggered, remote-controlled, on demand delivery and release of a cancer drug doxorubicin for research and therapeutic purposes...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Ramtin Ardeshiri, Ben Mulcahy, Mei Zhen, Pouya Rezai
C. elegans is a well-known model organism in biology and neuroscience with a simple cellular (959 cells) and nervous (302 neurons) system and a relatively homologous (40%) genome to humans. Lateral and longitudinal manipulation of C. elegans to a favorable orientation is important in many applications such as neural and cellular imaging, laser ablation, microinjection, and electrophysiology. In this paper, we describe a micro-electro-fluidic device for on-demand manipulation of C. elegans and demonstrate its application in imaging of organs and neurons that cannot be visualized efficiently under natural orientation...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Young Kwon Kim, Ju An Park, Woong Hee Yoon, Joonwon Kim, Sungjune Jung
We present drop-on-demand inkjet-based mammalian cell printing with a 30-μm nozzle diameter for cell-level accuracy. High-speed imaging techniques have been used to analyze the go-and-stop movement of cells inside the nozzle under a pulsed pressure generated by a piezo-actuator and the jet formation after ejection. Patterning of an array of 20 × 20 dots on a glass substrate reveals that each printed drop contains 1.30 cells on average at the cell concentration of 5.0 × 10(6) cells ml(-1) for the very small nozzle, whereas larger nozzles with the diameter of 50 and 80 μm deliver 2...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Timothy Lannin, Wey-Wey Su, Conor Gruber, Ian Cardle, Chao Huang, Fredrik Thege, Brian Kirby
We used automated electrorotation to measure the cytoplasmic permittivity, cytoplasmic conductivity, and specific membrane capacitance of pancreatic cancer cells under environmental perturbation to evaluate the effects of serum starvation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and evolution of chemotherapy resistance which may be associated with the development and dissemination of cancer. First, we compared gemcitabine-resistant BxPC3 subclones with gemcitabine-naive parental cells. Second, we serum-starved BxPC3 and PANC-1 cells and compared them to untreated counterparts...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Minsub Han, Byoung Choul Kim, Toshiki Matsuoka, M D Thouless, Shuichi Takayama
This paper uses computer simulations to reveal unprecedented details about linearization of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) inside dynamic nanochannels that can be repeatedly widened and narrowed. We first analyze the effect of rate of channel narrowing on DNA linearization dynamics. Quick (∼0.1 s) narrowing of nanoscale channels results in rapid overstretching of the semi-flexible chain followed by a slower (∼0.1-10 s) relaxation to an equilibrium extension. Two phenomena that induce linearization during channel narrowing, namely, elongational-flow and confinement, occur simultaneously, regardless of narrowing speed...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
J Greener, M Parvinzadeh Gashti, A Eslami, M P Zarabadi, S M Taghavi
Straight, low-aspect ratio micro flow cells are used to support biofilm attachment and preferential accumulation at the short side-wall, which progressively reduces the effective channel width. The biofilm shifts downstream at measurable velocities under the imposed force from the constant laminar co-flowing nutrient stream. The dynamic behaviour of the biofilm viscosity is modeled semi-analytically, based on experimental measurements of biofilm dimensions and velocity as inputs. The technique advances the study of biofilm mechanical properties by strongly limiting biases related to non-Newtonian biofilm properties (e...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Shuai Li, Yuanyuan Liu, Yu Li, Change Liu, Yuanshao Sun, Qingxi Hu
Vascularization plays a crucial role in the regeneration of different damaged or diseased tissues and organs. Vascularized networks bring sufficient nutrients and oxygen to implants and receptors. However, the fabrication of engineered structures with branched micro-channels (ESBM) is still the main technological barrier. To address this problem, this paper introduced a novel method for fabricating ESBM; the manufacturability and feasibility of this method was investigated. A triaxial nozzle with automatic cleaning function was mounted on a homemade 3D bioprinter to coaxially extrude sodium alginate (NaAlg) and calcium chloride (CaCl2) to form the hollow hydrogel fibers...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Paul Brakeman, Simeng Miao, Jin Cheng, Chao-Zong Lee, Shuvo Roy, William H Fissell, Nicholas Ferrell
Most current microfluidic cell culture systems are integrated single use devices. This can limit throughput and experimental design options, particularly for epithelial cells, which require significant time in culture to obtain a fully differentiated phenotype. In addition, epithelial cells require a porous growth substrate in order to fully polarize their distinct apical and basolateral membranes. We have developed a modular microfluidic system using commercially available porous culture inserts to evaluate polarized epithelial cells under physiologically relevant fluid flow conditions...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Fan Liu, Li Jiang, Huei Ming Tan, Ashutosh Yadav, Preetika Biswas, Johan R C van der Maarel, Christian A Nijhuis, Jeroen A van Kan
Brownian ratchet based particle separation systems for application in lab on chip devices have drawn interest and are subject to ongoing theoretical and experimental investigations. We demonstrate a compact microfluidic particle separation chip, which implements an extended on-off Brownian ratchet scheme that actively separates and sorts particles using periodically switching magnetic fields, asymmetric sawtooth channel sidewalls, and Brownian motion. The microfluidic chip was made with Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft lithography of SU-8 molds, which in turn was fabricated using Proton Beam Writing...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
A Pinsolle, F Charmantray, L Hecquet, F Sarrazin
We present a continuous-flow reactor at the millifluidic scale coupled with an online, non-intrusive spectroscopic monitoring method for determining the kinetic parameters of an enzyme, transketolase (TK) used in biocatalysis for the synthesis of polyols by carboligation. The millifluidic system used is based on droplet flow, a well-established method for kinetic chemical data acquisition. The TK assay is based on the direct quantitative measurement of bicarbonate ions released during the transketolase-catalysed reaction in the presence of hydroxypyruvic acid as the donor, thanks to an irreversible reaction: bicarbonate ions react with phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) in the presence of PEP carboxylase as the first auxiliary enzyme...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
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