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A Dawson, C Dyer, J Macfie, J Davies, L Karsai, J Greenman, M Jacobsen
The study of inflammatory bowel disease, including Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease, has relied largely upon the use of animal or cell culture models; neither of which can represent all aspects of the human pathophysiology. Presented herein is a dual flow microfluidic device which holds full thickness human intestinal tissue in a known orientation. The luminal and serosal sides are independently perfused ex vivo with nutrients with simultaneous waste removal for up to 72 h. The microfluidic device maintains the viability and integrity of the tissue as demonstrated through Haematoxylin & Eosin staining, immunohistochemistry and release of lactate dehydrogenase...
November 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Zhen Xu, Huawei Jiang, Binod Bihari Sahu, Sekhar Kambakam, Prashant Singh, Xinran Wang, Qiugu Wang, Madan K Bhattacharyya, Liang Dong
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1063/1.4950998.].
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Christopher J Hayes, Catriona M Dowling, Susan Dwane, Mary E McCumiskey, Shona M Tormey, B Anne Merrigan, John C Coffey, Patrick A Kiely, Tara M Dalton
In cancer, biomarkers have many potential applications including generation of a differential diagnosis, prediction of response to treatment, and monitoring disease progression. Many molecular biomarkers have been put forward for different diseases but most of them do not possess the required specificity and sensitivity. A biomarker with a high sensitivity has a low specificity and vice versa. The inaccuracy of the biomarkers currently in use has led to a compelling need to identify more accurate markers with diagnostic and prognostic significance...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Xinjie Zhang, Zhixian Zhu, Nan Xiang, Zhonghua Ni
Pressure fluctuations, which invariably occur in microfluidic systems, usually result in the unstable fluid delivery in microfluidic channels. In this work, a novel microfluidic gas damper is proposed and applied for providing stable fluid-driving pressures. Then, a pressure-driven flow setup is constructed to investigate the gas damping characteristics of our damper. Since the pressure-driven flow setup functions as a resistor-capacitor low-pass filter, the damper significantly decreases the amplitude of the input pressures via self-regulating its pneumatic resistance...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
S Sakamoto, K O Okeyo, S Yamazaki, O Kurosawa, H Oana, H Kotera, M Washizu
Although fusion of somatic cells with embryonic stem (ES) cells has been shown to induce reprogramming, single-cell level details of the transitory phenotypic changes that occur during fusion-based reprogramming are still lacking. Our group previously reported on the technique of one-to-one electrofusion via micro-slits in a microfluidic platform. In this study, we focused on developing a novel air-lock patterning technique for creating localized adhesion zones around the micro-slits for cell localization and real-time imaging of post fusion events with a single-cell resolution...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Michael Göllner, Adriana C Toma, Natalja Strelnikova, Siddharth Deshpande, Thomas Pfohl
Existing approaches to red blood cell (RBC) experiments on the single-cell level usually rely on chemical or physical manipulations that often cause difficulties with preserving the RBC's integrity in a controlled microenvironment. Here, we introduce a straightforward, self-filling microfluidic device that autonomously separates and isolates single RBCs directly from unprocessed human blood samples and confines them in diffusion-controlled microchambers by solely exploiting their unique intrinsic properties...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
W Lee, J Song, J H Son, M P Gutierrez, T Kang, D Kim, L P Lee
Smart city and innovative building strategies are becoming increasingly more necessary because advancing a sustainable building system is regarded as a promising solution to overcome the depleting water and energy. However, current sustainable building systems mainly focus on energy saving and miss a holistic integration of water regeneration and energy generation. Here, we present a theoretical study of a solar optics-based active panel (SOAP) that enables both solar energy storage and photothermal disinfection of greywater simultaneously...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Hyung Woo Kim, Seonjin Han, Wonkyoung Kim, Jiwon Lim, Dong Sung Kim
This study introduces an equilateral triangular channel (ETRIC), a novel microfluidic channel with an equilateral triangular cross-section, for cell adhesion assay by modulating the wall shear stress (WSS) gradient. The channel can generate a parabolic WSS gradient perpendicular to the flow direction at a single flow rate, and cell detachment can be in situ screened in response to spatially different levels of WSS. The existence of a simple form of exact solution for the velocity field inside the entire ETRIC region enables the easy design and modulation of the WSS levels at the bottom surface; therefore, the detachment of the cells can be investigated at the pre-defined observation window in real time...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
S Pieprzyk, D M Heyes, A C Brańka
Solute transport and intermixing in microfluidic devices is strongly dependent on diffusional processes. Brownian Dynamics simulations of pressure-driven flow of model microgel particles in microchannels have been carried out to explore these processes and the factors that influence them. The effects of a pH-field that induces a spatial dependence of particle size and consequently the self-diffusion coefficient and system thermodynamic state were focused on. Simulations were carried out in 1D to represent some of the cross flow dependencies, and in 2D and 3D to include the effects of flow and particle concentration, with typical stripe-like diffusion coefficient spatial variations...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Aashish Jain, Julian Sheats, Jeffrey G Reifenberger, Han Cao, Kevin D Dorfman
We have developed a multi-scale model describing the dynamics of internal segments of DNA in nanochannels used for genome mapping. In addition to the channel geometry, the model takes as its inputs the DNA properties in free solution (persistence length, effective width, molecular weight, and segmental hydrodynamic radius) and buffer properties (temperature and viscosity). Using pruned-enriched Rosenbluth simulations of a discrete wormlike chain model with circa 10 base pair resolution and a numerical solution for the hydrodynamic interactions in confinement, we convert these experimentally available inputs into the necessary parameters for a one-dimensional, Rouse-like model of the confined chain...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
David M Hoganson, Eric B Finkelstein, Gwen E Owens, James C Hsiao, Kurt Y Eng, Katherine M Kulig, Ernest S Kim, Tatiana Kniazeva, Irina Pomerantseva, Craig M Neville, James R Turk, Bernard Fermini, Jeffrey T Borenstein, Joseph P Vacanti
In pre-clinical safety studies, drug-induced vascular injury (DIVI) is defined as an adverse response to a drug characterized by degenerative and hyperplastic changes of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. Inflammation may also be seen, along with extravasation of red blood cells into the smooth muscle layer (i.e., hemorrhage). Drugs that cause DIVI are often discontinued from development after considerable cost has occurred. An in vitro vascular model has been developed using endothelial and smooth muscle cells in co-culture across a porous membrane mimicking the internal elastic lamina...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
S Sarkar, P Sabhachandani, D Stroopinsky, K Palmer, N Cohen, J Rosenblatt, D Avigan, T Konry
Cell-cell communication mediates immune responses to physiological stimuli at local and systemic levels. Intercellular communication occurs via a direct contact between cells as well as by secretory contact-independent mechanisms. However, there are few existing methods that allow quantitative resolution of contact-dependent and independent cellular processes in a rapid, precisely controlled, and dynamic format. This study utilizes a high-throughput microfluidic droplet array platform to analyze cell-cell interaction and effector functions at single cell level...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Staci Hill, Weiyi Qian, Weiqiang Chen, Jianping Fu
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer has emerged as one of the most frequently applied materials in microfluidics. However, precise and large-scale surface micromachining of PDMS remains challenging, limiting applications of PDMS for microfluidic structures with high-resolution features. Herein, surface patterning of PDMS was achieved using a simple yet effective method combining direct photolithography followed by reactive-ion etching (RIE). This method incorporated a unique step of using oxygen plasma to activate PDMS surfaces to a hydrophilic state, thereby enabling improved adhesion of photoresist on top of PDMS surfaces for subsequent photolithography...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Kimberly Plevniak, Matthew Campbell, Timothy Myers, Abby Hodges, Mei He
Clinical diagnosis requiring central facilities and site visits can be burdensome for patients in resource-limited or rural areas. Therefore, development of a low-cost test that utilizes smartphone data collection and transmission would beneficially enable disease self-management and point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. In this paper, we introduce a low-cost iPOC(3D) diagnostic strategy which integrates 3D design and printing of microfluidic POC device with smartphone-based disease diagnosis in one process as a stand-alone system, offering strong adaptability for establishing diagnostic capacity in resource-limited areas and low-income countries...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Pin-Chuan Chen, Chih-Chun Chen, Kung-Chia Young
In this study, we developed a fully thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood. Spiral microchannels were manufactured on a PMMA substrate using a micromilling machine, and a commercial polycarbonate membrane was bonded between two thermoplastic substrates. To achieve an excellent bonding between the commercial membrane and the thermoplastic substrates, we used a two-step injection and curing procedure of UV adhesive into a ring-shaped structure around the microchannel to efficiently prevent leakage during blood filtration...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Jingjing Zhao, Zheng You
This work introduces three rectangular quasi-flat-top spots, which are provided by binary optical elements (BOEs) and utilized for the illumination in a microflow cytometer. The three spots contain, respectively, one, two, and three rectangles (R1, R2, and R3). To test the performance of this mechanism, a microflow cytometer is established by integrating the BOEs and a three-dimensional hydrodynamic focusing chip. Through the experiments of detecting fluorescence microbeads, the three spots present good fluorescence coefficients of variation in comparison with those derived from commercial instruments...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Zongjie Wang, Roya Samanipour, Mohamed Gamaleldin, Kabilan Sakthivel, Keekyoung Kim
Microdroplets have been widely used in various biomedical applications. During droplet generation, parameters are manually adjusted to achieve the desired size of droplets. This process is tedious and time-consuming. In this paper, we present a fully automated system for controlling the size of droplets to optimize droplet generation parameters in a microfluidic flow-focusing device. The developed system employed a novel image processing program to measure the diameter of droplets from recorded video clips and correspondingly adjust the flow rates of syringe pumps to obtain the required diameter of droplets...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Steven A Roberts, Kyle A DiVito, Frances S Ligler, André A Adams, Michael A Daniele
Integrating a perfusable microvasculature system in vitro is a substantial challenge for "on-chip" tissue models. We have developed an inclusive on-chip platform that is capable of maintaining laminar flow through porous biosynthetic microvessels. The biomimetic microfluidic device is able to deliver and generate a steady perfusion of media containing small-molecule nutrients, drugs, and gases in three-dimensional cell cultures, while replicating flow-induced mechanical stimuli. Here, we characterize the diffusion of small molecules from the perfusate, across the microvessel wall, and into the matrix of a 3D cell culture...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
M Sneha Maria, P E Rakesh, T S Chandra, A K Sen
We report capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for the separation of a plasma from sample blood and subsequent on-chip detection of glucose present in a plasma. A rectangular polydimethylsiloxane microchannel with hydrophilic walls (on three sides) achieved by using oxygen plasma exposure enables capillary flow of blood introduced at the device inlet through the microchannel. A hydrophobic region (on all four sides) in the microchannel impedes the flow of sample blood, and the accumulated blood cells at the region form a filter to facilitate the separation of a plasma...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
Katherine N Clayton, Janelle W Salameh, Steven T Wereley, Tamara L Kinzer-Ursem
As the field of colloidal science continues to expand, tools for rapid and accurate physiochemical characterization of colloidal particles will become increasingly important. Here, we present Particle Scattering Diffusometry (PSD), a method that utilizes dark field microscopy and the principles of particle image velocimetry to measure the diffusivity of particles undergoing Brownian motion. PSD measures the diffusion coefficient of particles as small as 30 nm in diameter and is used to characterize changes in particle size and distribution as a function of small, label-free, surface modifications of particles...
September 2016: Biomicrofluidics
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