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Priya Gopinathan, Lien-Yu Hung, Chih-Hung Wang, Nai-Jung Chiang, Yu-Chun Wang, Yan-Shen Shan, Gwo-Bin Lee
An integrated microfluidic system capable of automatically identifying aptamers specific to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells was developed herein. The developed system was capable of performing cell-based systematic evolution of ligands via an exponential enrichment (Cell-SELEX) process on-chip, and only six rounds of Cell-SELEX were required to identify high specificity aptamers; this represents a significant improvement in speed over conventional SELEX, in which 15-20 rounds are typically required. Using the microfluidic chip developed, three aptamers specific to CCA cells (one for SNU-478 cells and two for HuCCT-1 cells) were successfully screened...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Sung-Chi Tsai, Lien-Yu Hung, Gwo-Bin Lee
Gynecological cancer is difficult to be diagnosed at early stages. The relatively high mortality rate has been a serious issue accordingly. We herein reported a diagnosis method by using circulating tumor cells (CTCs) which have been extensively explored as a potential tool for diagnostics and prognostics of ovarian cancers. Nonetheless, the detection of CTCs still remains a challenge because of the difficulty in isolating them from whole blood samples since they are shed into the vasculature from primary tumors and circulate irregularly in the bloodstream in extremely low concentrations...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Junchao Wang, Victor G J Rodgers, Philip Brisk, William H Grover
Computer simulation plays a growing role in the design of microfluidic chips. However, the particle tracers in some existing commercial computational fluid dynamics software are not well suited for accurately simulating the trajectories of particles such as cells, microbeads, and droplets in microfluidic systems. To address this issue, we present a microfluidics-optimized particle simulation algorithm (MOPSA) that simulates the trajectories of cells, droplets, and other particles in microfluidic chips with more lifelike results than particle tracers in existing commercial software...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Zhengyi Zhang, Changxue Xu, Ruitong Xiong, Douglas B Chrisey, Yong Huang
Laser-induced forward transfer has been a promising orifice-free bioprinting technique for the direct writing of three-dimensional cellular constructs from cell-laden bioinks. In order to optimize the printing performance, the effects of living cells on the bioink printability must be carefully investigated in terms of the ability to generate well-defined jets during the jet/droplet formation process as well as well-defined printed droplets on a receiving substrate during the jet/droplet deposition process...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Jiazhong Zhou, Sangjin Ryu, David Admiraal
Vorticella convallaria is a protozoan attached to a substrate by a stalk which can contract in less than 10 ms, translating the zooid toward the substrate with a maximum Reynolds number of ∼1. Following contraction, the stalk slowly relaxes, moving the zooid away from the substrate, which results in creeping flow. Although Vorticella has long been believed to contract to evade danger, it has been suggested that its stalk may contract to enhance food transport near the substrate. To elucidate how Vorticella utilizes its contraction-relaxation cycle, we investigated water flow caused by the cycle, using a computational fluid dynamics model validated with an experimental scale model and particle tracking velocimetry...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
A Bonabi, S Cito, P Tammela, V Jokinen, T Sikanen
This work describes the fabrication of concave micromirrors to improve the sensitivity of fluorescence imaging, for instance, in single cell analysis. A new approach to fabrication of tunable round (concave) cross-sectional shaped microchannels out of the inorganic-organic hybrid polymer, Ormocomp(®), via single step optical lithography was developed and validated. The concave micromirrors were implemented by depositing and patterning thin films of aluminum on top of the concave microchannels. The round cross-sectional shape was due to residual layer formation, which is inherent to Ormocomp(®) upon UV exposure in the proximity mode...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Ya Gai, Minkyu Kim, Ming Pan, Sindy K Y Tang
This paper describes the break-up behavior of a concentrated emulsion comprising drops stabilized by amphiphilic silica nanoparticles flowing in a tapered microchannel. Such geometry is often used in serial droplet interrogation and sorting processes in droplet microfluidics applications. When exposed to high viscous stresses, drops can undergo break-up and compromise their physical integrity. As these drops are used as micro-reactors, such compromise leads to a loss in the accuracy of droplet-based assays...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Po-Jung Huang, Haley L Marks, Gerard L Coté, Jun Kameoka
A microfluidic device utilizing magnetically activated nickel (Ni) micropads has been developed for controlled localization of plasmonic core-shell magnetic nanoparticles, specifically for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications. Magnetic microfluidics allows for automated washing steps, provides a means for easy reagent packaging, allows for chip reusability, and can even be used to facilitate on-chip mixing and filtration towards full automation of biological sample processing and analysis...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Westley S Bauer, Kelly A Richardson, Nicholas M Adams, Keersten M Ricks, David J Gasperino, Simon J Ghionea, Mathew Rosen, Kevin P Nichols, Bernhard H Weigl, Frederick R Haselton, David W Wright
Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) designed to function at the point of care are becoming more prevalent in malaria diagnostics because of their low cost and simplicity. While many of these tests function effectively with high parasite density samples, their poor sensitivity can often lead to misdiagnosis when parasitemia falls below 100 parasites/μl. In this study, a flow-through pipette-based column was explored as a cost-effective means to capture and elute more Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein II (HRPII) antigen, concentrating the biomarker available in large-volume lysed whole blood samples into volumes compatible with Plasmodium falciparum-specific RDTs...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Zhongyu Li, Wentao Su, Yujuan Zhu, Tingting Tao, Dong Li, Xiaojun Peng, Jianhua Qin
Drug absorption in the intestine is tightly related to drug-induced nephrotoxicity, which is a relatively common side effect in clinical practice. It highlights a great need to develop predictive models with high accuracy in the early stage during new drug discovery and development. Herein, we presented a novel intestine-kidney chip, which recapitulated drug absorption in the intestine and its resultant drug toxicity on the kidney. This work aims to provide an integrated tool for accurate assessment of drug absorption-related nephrotoxicity in vitro...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
J R Haliburton, S C Kim, I C Clark, R A Sperling, D A Weitz, A R Abate
Droplet microfluidic techniques can perform large numbers of single molecule and cell reactions but often require controlled, periodic flow to merge, split, and sort droplets. Here, we describe a simple method to convert aperiodic flows into periodic ones. Using an oil extraction module, we efficiently remove oil from emulsions to readjust the droplet volume fraction, velocity, and packing, producing periodic flows. The extractor acts as a universal adaptor to connect microfluidic modules that do not operate under identical flow conditions, such as droplet generators, incubators, and merger devices...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Naveen Ramalingam, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani, Thomas Hai-Qing Gong
Bovine serum albumin (BSA) is widely used as an additive in polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based microfluidic devices to passivate reactors and alleviate nucleic-acid amplification. BSA is available commercially in two types: either acetylated or non-acetylated. A survey of literature indicates that both types of BSA are used in PCR-based microfluidic devices. Our study results reveal that the use of acetylated BSA in PCR micro-devices leads to differential inhibition of PCR, compared to non-acetylated BSA...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Wen-Yen Huang, Ching-An Liu, Rong-Syuan Fan, Zhi-Da Lin, Kuan Wang, Gwo-Bin Lee
Drug cocktails have been popular for a variety of therapies of complicated diseases. Nevertheless, it is a tediously challenging task to optimize formulations, especially using traditional methods. Hence, an automatic system capable of precise dispensing multiple drugs is of great need. Herein, a new integrated microfluidic system combined with a two-axis traverse module was developed to dispense and mix a small amount of drug combination precisely and automatically. This on-chip dispensing process could be performed with a precise and accurate manner when compared to the manual operations...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Reza Ghaemi, Pouya Rezai, Fatemeh Rafiei Nejad, Ponnambalam Ravi Selvaganapathy
Drosophila melanogaster is a well-established model organism to understand biological processes and study human diseases at the molecular-genetic level. The central nervous system (CNS) of Drosophila larvae is widely used as a model to study neuron development and network formation. This has been achieved by using various genetic manipulation tools such as microinjection to knock down certain genes or over-express proteins for visualizing the cellular activities. However, visualization of an intact-live neuronal response in larva's Central Nervous System (CNS) is challenging due to robust digging/burrowing behaviour that impedes neuroimaging...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Kari J Storslett, Susan J Muller
Two size-based separation strategies are evaluated for suspensions consisting of giant unilamellar vesicles with a broad, continuous distribution of diameters. Microfluidic devices were designed to separate an initial suspension into larger and smaller particles via either filtration or inertial focusing. These separation mechanisms were tested with suspensions of vesicles and suspensions of rigid spheres separately to illustrate the effect of deformability on separation ability. We define several separation metrics to assess the separation ability and to enable comparison between separation strategies...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Anna Fornell, Mathias Ohlin, Fabio Garofalo, Johan Nilsson, Maria Tenje
To transfer cell- and bead-assays into droplet-based platforms typically requires the use of complex microfluidic circuits, which calls for methods to switch the direction of the encapsulated particles. We present a microfluidic chip where the combination of acoustic manipulation at two different harmonics and a trident-shaped droplet-splitter enables direction-switching of microbeads and yeast cells in droplet microfluidic circuits. At the first harmonic, the encapsulated particles exit the splitter in the center daughter droplets, while at the second harmonic, the particles exit in the side daughter droplets...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Shilun Feng, Alison M Skelley, Ayad G Anwer, Guozhen Liu, David W Inglis
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1063/1.4981014.].
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Fang Yu, Shuangmu Zhuo, Yinghua Qu, Deepak Choudhury, Zhiping Wang, Ciprian Iliescu, Hanry Yu
We have developed a microfluidic system suitable to be incorporated with a metabolic imaging method to monitor the drug response of cells cultured on a chip. The cells were perfusion-cultured to mimic the blood flow in vivo. Label-free optical measurements and imaging of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide fluorescence intensity and morphological changes were evaluated non-invasively. Drug responses calculated using redox ratio imaging were compared with the drug toxicity testing results obtained with a traditional well-plate system...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Siddharth Deshpande, Anthony Birnie, Cees Dekker
Due to their cell membrane-mimicking properties, liposomes have served as a versatile research tool in science, from membrane biophysics and drug delivery systems to bottom-up synthetic cells. We recently reported a novel microfluidic method, Octanol-assisted Liposome Assembly (OLA), to form cell-sized, monodisperse, unilamellar liposomes with excellent encapsulation efficiency. Although OLA provides crucial advantages over alternative methods, it suffers from the presence of 1-octanol droplets, an inevitable by-product of the production process...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Sinéad T Morley, Michael T Walsh, David T Newport
The lymphatic system is an extensive vascular network that serves as the primary route for the metastatic spread of breast cancer cells (BCCs). The dynamics by which BCCs travel in the lymphatics to distant sites, and eventually establish metastatic tumors, remain poorly understood. Particle tracking techniques were employed to analyze the behavior of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 BCCs which were exposed to lymphatic flow conditions in a 100 μm square microchannel. The behavior of the BCCs was compared to rigid particles of various diameters (η = dp/H= 0...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
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