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Nihal G Maremanda, Kislay Roy, Rupinder K Kanwar, Vidyarani Shyamsundar, Vijayalakshmi Ramshankar, Arvind Krishnamurthy, Subramanian Krishnakumar, Jagat R Kanwar
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1063/1.4930983.].
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Richard Syms
Airflow-enhanced evaporation is investigated as a method for rapid chemical preconcentration on a thin porous substrate. The mechanism is described by combining 1D models of capillary rise, chromatography, and pervaporation concentration. It is shown that the effective length of the column can be shorter than its actual length, allowing concentrate to be held at a stagnation point and then released for separation, and that the Péclet number, which determines the concentration performance, is determined only by the substrate properties...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Logeeshan Velmanickam, Michael Fondakowski, Ivan T Lima, Dharmakeerthi Nawarathna
We present an integrated dielectrophoretic (DEP) and surface plasmonic technique to quantify ∼1 pM of fluorescent molecules in low conductivity buffers. We have established a DEP force on target molecules to bring those molecules and place them on the nanometallic structures (hotspots) for quantification through surface plasmonic effects. Our results show that the DEP is capable of placing the fluorescent molecules on the hotspots, which are depicted as a significant reduction in the fluorescence lifetime of those molecules...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Wu Shang, Chen-Yu Tsao, Xiaolong Luo, Mairan Teodoro, Ryan McKay, David N Quan, Hsuan-Chen Wu, Gregory F Payne, William E Bentley
We have developed a user-friendly microfluidic device for the study of gradient-mediated bacterial behaviors, including chemotaxis. This device rapidly establishes linear concentration gradients by exploiting solute diffusion through porous membranes in the absence of convective flows. As such, the gradients are created rapidly and can be sustained for long time periods (e.g., hours), sufficient to evaluate cell phenotype. The device exploits a unique simple bilayer configuration that enables rapid setup and quick reproducible introduction of cells...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Michelle Brann, Jonathan D Suter, R Shane Addleman, Curtis Larimer
There is a need for imaging and sensing instrumentation that can monitor transitions in a biofilm structure in order to better understand biofilm development and emergent properties such as anti-microbial resistance. Herein, we describe the design, manufacture, and use of a microfluidic flow cell to visualize the surface structure of bacterial biofilms with white-light interferometry (WLI). The novel imaging chip enabled the use of this non-disruptive imaging method for the capture of high resolution three-dimensional profile images of biofilm growth over time...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
S Malvar, R G Gontijo, B S Carmo, F R Cunha
This work presents theoretical and experimental analyses on the kinematics-wave motion of suspended active particles in a biological fluid. The fluid is an active suspension of nematodes immersed in a gel-like biological structure, moving at a low Reynolds number. The nematode chosen for the study is Caenorhabditis elegans. Its motion is subjected to the time reversibility of creeping flows. We investigate how this worm reacts to this reversibility condition in order to break the flow symmetry and move in the surrounding fluid...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Amid Shakeri, Nick Sun, Maryam Badv, Tohid F Didar
This study reports a microfluidic device for generating 2-dimensional concentration gradients of biomolecules along the width and length of a chamber and conventional 1-dimensional gradients along the width of its lateral parallel channels. The gradient profile can be precisely controlled by the applied flow rate. The proposed design is simple and straightforward, has a small footprint size compared to previously reported devices such as tree-shape designs, and for the first time, provides capability of generating desired 2D and 1D gradients, simultaneously...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
C M Austin, D M Caro, S Sankar, W F Penniman, J E Perdomo, L Hu, S Patel, X Gu, S Watve, B K Hammer, C R Forest
Genetically engineered bacteria can be used for a wide range of applications, from monitoring environmental toxins to studying complex communication networks in the human digestive system. Although great strides have been made in studying single strains of bacteria in well-controlled microfluidic environments, there remains a need for tools to reliably control and measure communication between multiple discrete bacterial populations. Stable long-term experiments (e.g., days) with controlled population sizes and regulated input (e...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Solange Massa, Mahmoud Ahmed Sakr, Jungmok Seo, Praveen Bandaru, Andrea Arneri, Simone Bersini, Elaheh Zare-Eelanjegh, Elmira Jalilian, Byung-Hyun Cha, Silvia Antona, Alessandro Enrico, Yuan Gao, Shabir Hassan, Juan Pablo Acevedo, Mehmet R Dokmeci, Yu Shrike Zhang, Ali Khademhosseini, Su Ryon Shin
To develop biomimetic three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs for drug screening and biological studies, engineered blood vessels should be integrated into the constructs to mimic the drug administration process in vivo. The development of perfusable vascularized 3D tissue constructs for studying the drug administration process through an engineered endothelial layer remains an area of intensive research. Here, we report the development of a simple 3D vascularized liver tissue model to study drug toxicity through the incorporation of an engineered endothelial layer...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Shohei Kaneda, Jiro Kawada, Hidenori Akutsu, Justin Ichida, Yoshiho Ikeuchi, Teruo Fujii
We developed a compartmentalized culture system of single embryoid bodies (EBs) utilizing a through-hole on a membrane to induce spatially patterned differentiation. An EB derived from mouse pluripotent stem cells was immobilized on the through-hole. By introducing a stem cell maintenance medium and a differentiation medium into upper and lower culture compartments, respectively, a localized differentiated state was achieved only in the lower part of EB, which is exposed to the medium in the lower compartment...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Sara G Mina, Peter Huang, Bruce T Murray, Gretchen J Mahler
Tumor development is influenced by stromal cells in aspects including invasion, growth, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Activated fibroblasts are one group of stromal cells involved in cancer metastasis, and one source of activated fibroblasts is endothelial to mesenchymal transformation (EndMT). EndMT begins when the endothelial cells delaminate from the cell monolayer, lose cell-cell contacts, lose endothelial markers such as vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cadherin), gain mesenchymal markers like alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), and acquire mesenchymal cell-like properties...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Jia-Wei Yeh, Kylan Szeto
Stretching single chromosomal DNA fibers in nanofluidic devices has become a valuable tool for studying the genome and more recently the epigenome. Although nanofluidic technology has been extensively used in single molecular DNA analysis, compared to bare DNA, much less work has been done to elongate chromatin, and only a few studies utilize more biologically relevant samples such as native eukaryotic chromatin. Here, we provide a method for stretching and imaging individual chromatin fibers within a micro- and nanofluidic device...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Mohsen Karbaschi, Payam Shahi, Adam R Abate
Droplet microfluidics can form and process millions of picoliter droplets with speed and ease, allowing the execution of huge numbers of biological reactions for high-throughput studies. However, at the conclusion of most experiments, the emulsions must be broken to recover and analyze their contents. This is usually achieved with demulsifiers, like perfluorooctanol and chloroform, which can interfere with downstream reactions and harm cells. Here, we describe a simple approach to rapidly and efficiently break microfluidic emulsions, which requires no chemicals...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Chenyu Wang, Wenwen Liu, Manqing Tan, Hongbo Sun, Yude Yu
Cellular heterogeneity represents a fundamental principle of cell biology for which a readily available single-cell research tool is urgently required. Here, we present a novel method combining cell-sized well arrays with sequential inkjet printing. Briefly, K562 cells with phosphate buffer saline buffer were captured at high efficiency (74.5%) in a cell-sized well as a "primary droplet" and sealed using fluorinated oil. Then, piezoelectric inkjet printing technology was adapted to precisely inject the cell lysis buffer and the fluorogenic substrate, fluorescein-di-β-D-galactopyranoside, as a "secondary droplet" to penetrate the sealing oil and fuse with the "primary droplet...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Wei-Chieh Kao, Yen-Wen Chen, Chia-Ho Chu, Wen-Hsin Chang, Shu-Chu Shiesh, Yu-Lin Wang, Gwo-Bin Lee
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) cause more than 17 × 10(6) deaths worldwide on a yearly basis. Early diagnosis of CVDs is therefore of great need. The C-reactive protein (CRP) is an important biomarker for analyzing the risks of CVDs. In this work, CRP-specific aptamers with high sensitivity and specificity and field-effect-transistor (FET) devices were used to recognize and detect CRP by using an integrated microfluidic system automatically while consuming less volumes of reagents and samples (about 5 μm)...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Katharina Walczuch, Peter Renze, Claudia Ingensiep, Rudolf Degen, Thanh Phong Bui, Uwe Schnakenberg, Peter Bräunig, Katrin Bui-Göbbels
A new triangle-shaped microfluidic channel system for defined cell trapping is presented. Different variants of the same basic geometry were produced to reveal the best fitting parameter combinations regarding efficiency and sensitivity. Variants with differences in the trap gap width and the inter-trap distance were analyzed in detail by Computational Fluid Dynamics simulations and in experiments with artificial beads of different sizes (30, 60, 80 μm). Simulation analysis of flow dynamics and pressure profiles revealed strongly reduced pressure conditions and balanced flow rates inside the microfluidic channels compared to commonly used systems with meandering channels...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Bingzhao Xia, Zhongliang Jiang, Daniel Debroy, Dongmei Li, John Oakey
Encapsulating cells within biocompatible materials is a widely pursued and promising element of tissue engineering and cell-based therapies. Recently, extensive interest in microfluidic-enabled cell encapsulation has emerged as a strategy to structure hydrogels and establish custom cellular microenvironments. In particular, it has been shown that the microfluidic-enabled photoencapsulation of cells within PEG diacrylate (PEGDA)-based microparticles can be performed cytocompatibly within gas-permeable, nitrogen-jacketed polydimethylsiloxane microfluidic devices, which mitigate the oxygen inhibition of radical chain growth photopolymerization...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Priya Gopinathan, Lien-Yu Hung, Chih-Hung Wang, Nai-Jung Chiang, Yu-Chun Wang, Yan-Shen Shan, Gwo-Bin Lee
An integrated microfluidic system capable of automatically identifying aptamers specific to cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) cells was developed herein. The developed system was capable of performing cell-based systematic evolution of ligands via an exponential enrichment (Cell-SELEX) process on-chip, and only six rounds of Cell-SELEX were required to identify high specificity aptamers; this represents a significant improvement in speed over conventional SELEX, in which 15-20 rounds are typically required. Using the microfluidic chip developed, three aptamers specific to CCA cells (one for SNU-478 cells and two for HuCCT-1 cells) were successfully screened...
July 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Rongcong Luo, Ngoc-Duy Dinh, Chia-Hung Chen
Chemically synthesized functional hydrogels have been recognized as optimized soft pumps for on-demand fluidic regulation in micro-systems. However, the challenges regarding the slow responses of hydrogels have very much limited their application in effective fluidic flow control. In this study, a heterobifunctional crosslinker (4-hydroxybutyl acrylate)-enabled two-step hydrothermal phase separation process for preparing a highly porous hydrogel with fast response dynamics was investigated for the fabrication of novel microfluidic functional units, such as injectable valves and pumps...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Stanley E R Bilatto, Nouran Y Adly, Daniel S Correa, Bernhard Wolfrum, Andreas Offenhäusser, Alexey Yakushenko
A simple lab-on-a-chip method for blood plasma separation was developed by combining stereolithographic 3D printing with inkjet printing, creating a completely sealed microfluidic device. In some approaches, one dilutes the blood sample before separation, reducing the concentration of a target analyte and increasing a contamination risk. In this work, a single drop (8 μl) of heparinized whole blood could be efficiently filtered using a capillary effect without any external driving forces and without dilution...
May 2017: Biomicrofluidics
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