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Bioinspiration & Biomimetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30255849/a-theorem-of-target-point-for-ground-reaction-force-in-a-planar-serial-linked-walking-limb
#1
Alexander Kuznetsov
One of important energy expenses in legged locomotion of both animals and robots is the mechanical antagonism between actuators/muscles, which is the positive mechanical work of some muscles opposed by the simultaneous negative work of the others. One known way to minimize the mechanical antagonism is the proper employment of redundant degrees of freedom of the limb. Here I present and analyze a generalized model of planar serial-linked limb composed of any number of segments and conclude that minimization of the inter-actuator antagonism requires fixation of all the joint angles except the two defined by simple geometric considerations...
September 26, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226470/application-of-reduced-sensor-movement-sequences-as-a-precursor-for-search-area-partitioning-and-a-selection-of-discrete-eev-contour-ring-fragments-for-active-electrolocation
#2
Sabine Wolf-Homeyer, Jacob Engelmann, Axel Schneider
Additionally to the visual sense, weakly electric fish use active electrolocation to detect and analyze objects in their nearby environment. Their ability to generate and sense electric fields combined with scanning-like swimming movements are intended to extract further parameters like size, shape and material properties of objects. Inspired by the biological example, this work introduces an application for active electrolocation based on reduced sensor movement sequences as presented in (Wolf-Homeyer et al...
September 18, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221628/control-of-a-muscle-like-soft-actuator-via-a-bioinspired-approach
#3
Jiawei Cao, Wenyu Liang, Jian Zhu, Qinyuan Ren
Soft actuators have played an indispensable role in generating compliant motions of soft robots. Among the various soft actuators explored for soft robotic applications, dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) have caught the eye with their intriguing attributes similar to biological muscles. However, the control challenge of DEAs due to their strong nonlinear behaviors has hindered the development of DEA-based soft robots. To overcome the control challenge, this paper proposes a bioinspired control approach of DEAs...
September 17, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221625/hebbian-learning-for-online-prediction-neural-recall-and-classical-conditioning-of-anthropomimetic-robot-arm-motions
#4
Benedikt Feldotto, Florian Walter, Florian Röhrbein, Alois Knoll
Classical Conditioning plays a vital role for learning in every mammal. It is is based on unsupervised neural
 learning embodied in a physical body that is in continuous interaction with the environment. Embedding the
 Hierarchical Temporal Memory (HTM) in the closed-loop of the sensorimotor space of a Myorobotics tendondriven
 robotic arm we demonstrate learning, prediction and control of biomimetic body motions. Experiments
 finally lead to conditioned reactions in natural interaction with a human partner...
September 17, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221623/luminescence-light-collection-technology-in-aragonite-of-stone-corals
#5
Nicolas Neumann-Micheau, Helmut Tributsch
Stone corals do not use calcium carbonate in form of calcite, which has a calculated energy 
 gap of 3.93 eV, but in form of aragonite, which has a calculated energy gap of 2.88 eV (here 
 experimentally determined to amount to 2.46 eV) as a building material. This enables the 
 coral to harvest blue light, which is penetrating and filtering deep into the surface water of the 
 ocean. White luminescence, which is composed of different wave lengths, is generated, and 
 then conducted and redistributed within the aragonite structure to be supplied to the symbiotic 
 photosynthetic algae...
September 17, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30210061/3d-printed-lattice-microstructures-to-mimic-soft-biological-materials
#6
Luke Kobler Johnson, Chris Richburg, Madelyn Lew, William R Ledoux, Patrick Aubin, Eric Rombokas
OBJECTIVE: Our group has developed a method for 3D printing mechanically-realistic soft tissue, as a building block towards developing anatomically realistic 3D-printed biomechanical testbed models. METHODS: A Polyjet 3D printer was used to print lattice microstructures, which were tested in compression to evaluate the elastic profile. Lattice properties including element diameter, element spacing, element cross-sectional geometry, element arrangement, and lattice rotation were varied to determine their effect on the stress-strain curve...
September 13, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30187893/effect-of-toe-joint-stiffness-and-toe-shape-on-walking-biomechanics
#7
Eric C Honert, Gerasimos Bastas, Karl E Zelik
During typical human walking, the metatarsophalangeal joints undergo flexion/extension, which we term toe joint articulation. This toe joint articulation impacts locomotor performance, as evidenced by prior studies on prostheses, footwear, sports and humanoid robots. However, a knowledge gap exists in our understanding of how individual toe properties (e.g., shape, joint stiffness) affect bipedal locomotion. To address this gap, we designed and built a pair of adjustable foot prostheses that enabled us to independently vary different toe properties, across a broad range of physiological and non-physiological values...
September 6, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30084386/corrigendum-an-analytical-model-and-scaling-of-chordwise-flexible-flapping-wings-in-forward-flight-2016-bioinspir-and-biomim-12-016006
#8
Deepa Kodali, Chang-Kwon Kang
This corrigendum provides a correction to the manuscript. We show that a higher order fluid-structure interaction term that accounts for the transversal flow oscillations, induced by the compliant motion of the airfoil, leads to the Theodorsen's lift equation with a sign reversal for one of the terms. This modified Theodorsen's equation was used in the manuscript.
August 7, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156566/critical-roughness-in-animal-hairy-adhesive-pads-a-numerical-modeling-approach
#9
Alexander Kovalev, Alexander E Filippov, Stanislav N Gorb
General understanding of adhesion failure of setal attachment pads at some particular substrate roughness is important for construction of biologically active adhesive and anti-adhesive surfaces. Here we present a numerical model which is capable of explaining experimentally found effects of the adhesion drop on the level of an individual adhesive spatula. The model incorporates the interaction of an elastic spatula with a rough substrate in 2D. The contact area and the work of adhesion have been determined for two different types of the model substrates...
September 21, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30226216/thrust-force-characterization-of-free-swimming-soft-robotic-jellyfish
#10
Jennifer Frame, Nick Lopez, Oscar Curet, Erik D Engeberg
Five unique soft robotic jellyfish were manufactured with eight pneumatic network tentacle actuators extending radially from their centers. These jellyfish robots were able to freely swim untethered in the ocean, to steer from side to side, and to swim through orifices more narrow than the nominal diameter of the jellyfish. Each of the five jellyfish robots were manufactured with a different composition of body and tentacle actuator Shore hardness. A three-factor study was performed with these five jellyfish robots to determine the impact that actuator material Shore hardness, actuation frequency, and tentacle stroke actuation amplitude had upon the measured thrust force...
September 18, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30156563/a-bio-inspired-model-for-bidirectional-polarisation-detection
#11
Qifan Zhu, Yuegang Fu, Zhiying Liu
This study investigated a novel polarisation detection model based on the microstructure of rhabdom in mantis shrimp eyes, in which a single unit can detect two directions of orthogonal polarisation. The bionic model incorporated multi-layered orthogonal Si wire grids, and the finite-difference time-domain method was used to simulate light absorption. A single-layer Si wire grid was simulated to study the effects of thickness and duty cycle on extinction ratios. A multi-layer orthogonal wire grid was simulated to study the effects of distance between adjacent layers...
September 14, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30141414/effect-of-shear-stress-on-the-reduction-of-bacterial-adhesion-to-antifouling-polymers
#12
Betina Lopez-Mila, Patrícia Alves, Tomáš Riedel, Barbara Dittrich, Filipe Mergulhão, Cesar Rodriguez-Emmenegger
In this work, two antifouling polymer brushes were tested at different shear stress conditions to evaluate their performance in reducing the initial adhesion of Escherichia coli. Assays were performed using a parallel plate flow chamber and a shear stress range between 0.005 and 0.056 Pa. These shear stress values are found in different locations in the human body where biomedical devices are placed. The poly(MeOEGMA) and poly(HPMA) brushes were characterized and it was shown that they can reduce initial adhesion up to 90% when compared to glass...
September 14, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30132443/wing-wake-interaction-comparison-of-2d-and-3d-flapping-wings-in-hover-flight
#13
Y J Lee, K B Lua
The wing-wake interaction of flapping wings while hovering has been investigated, with the focus on the difference in wing-wake interaction between 2D and 3D flapping wings. Numerical simulations are conducted at a Reynolds number of 100, and the flapping configurations are divided into the 2D, quasi-3D and 3D categories. Variations of the aspect ratio and Rossby number allow the flapping configuration to morph gradually between categories. The wing-wake interaction mechanisms are identified and the effect of three-dimensionality on these mechanisms is discussed...
September 14, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109860/walking-with-perturbations-a-guide-for-biped-humans-and-robots
#14
Jacques Duysens, Arturo Forner-Cordero
This paper provides an update on the neural control of bipedal walking in relation to bioinspired models and robots. It is argued that most current models or robots are based on the construct of a symmetrical central pattern generator (CPG). However, new evidence suggests that CPG functioning is basically asymmetrical with its flexor half linked more tightly to the rhythm generator. The stability of bipedal gait, which is an important problem for robots and biological systems, is also addressed. While it is not possible to determine how biological biped systems guarantee stability, robot solutions can be useful to propose new hypotheses for biology...
September 4, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088477/bio-inspired-upper-limb-soft-exoskeleton-to-reduce-stroke-induced-complications
#15
Ning Li, Tie Yang, Peng Yu, Junling Chang, Liang Zhao, Xingang Zhao, Imad H Elhajj, Ning Xi, Lianqing Liu
Stroke has become the leading cause of disability and the second-leading cause of mortality worldwide. Dyskinesia complications are the major reason of these high death and disability rates. As a tool for rapid motion function recovery in stroke patients, exoskeleton robots can reduce complications and thereby decrease stroke mortality rates. However, existing exoskeleton robots interfere with the wearer's natural motion and damage joints and muscles due to poor human-machine coupling. In this paper, a novel ergonomic soft bionic exoskeleton robot with 7 degrees of freedom was proposed to address these problems based on the principles of functional anatomy and sports biomechanics...
August 24, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043756/the-effects-of-wing-twist-in-slow-speed-flapping-flight-of-birds-trading-brute-force-against-efficiency
#16
William Thielicke, Eize J Stamhuis
In aircraft propellers that are used to propel aircraft forward at some speed, propeller blade twist is important to make the individual propeller 'wings' operate at a relatively constant effective angle of attack over the full span. Wing twist is sometimes also assumed to be essential in flapping flight, especially in bird flight. For small insects, it has however been shown that wing twist has little effect on the forces generated by a flapping wing. The unimportance of twist was attributed to the prominent role of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms...
August 16, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30039801/a-predictive-model-of-the-drag-coefficient-for-a-revolving-wing-at-low-reynolds-number
#17
Sehyeong Oh, Haecheon Choi
A predictive model of the drag coefficient for a revolving wing at low Reynolds number is suggested. Unlike the previous model (Wang et al 2016 J. Fluid Mech. 800 688-719), the present model includes a viscous drag on the wing from laminar boundary layer theory and thus predicts the drag force more accurately at low angles of attack and low Reynolds numbers. Also, in determining the model constants, we consider the attack angle of π/4 at which the resultant force on the wing is assumed to be perpendicular to the wing chord...
August 8, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024385/mucoadhesive-assessment-of-different-antifungal-nanoformulations
#18
L Roque, J Alopaeus, Claudia Reis, P Rijo, J Molpeceres, E Hagesaether, I Tho, Catarina Reis
Oral candidiasis is an important opportunistic fungal infection and polyenes and azoles are still the most used antifungal agents. However, the oral absorption resulting from most available treatments is generally poor and, consequently, a very high frequency of administrations of antifungal agents is strongly required. Therefore, the major challenge is to improve the retention of the antifungal agents in buccal mucosa, and the encapsulation into mucoadhesive systems may be considered as a possible strategy to achieve this objective...
August 8, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024386/design-and-demonstration-of-a-seabird-inspired-fixed-wing-hybrid-uav-uuv-system
#19
William Stewart, Warren Weisler, Marc MacLeod, Thomas Powers, Aaron Defreitas, Richard Gritter, Mark Anderson, Kara Peters, Ashok Gopalarathnam, Matthew Bryant
This paper looks to the natural world for solutions to many of the challenges associated with the design of fixed-wing cross-domain vehicles. One example is the common murre, a seabird that flies from nesting locations to feeding areas, dives underwater to catch prey and returns. This hunting expedition provides an outline of a possible mission for a cross-domain vehicle. While the challenges of cross-domain vehicles are many, the focus of this paper was on buoyancy management and propulsion. Potential solutions to each challenge, inspired by multiple animals that cross between aerial and underwater domains, are investigated...
August 2, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018184/hydrodynamic-properties-of-biomimetic-shark-skin-effect-of-denticle-size-and-swimming-speed
#20
August G Domel, Gino Domel, James C Weaver, Mehdi Saadat, Katia Bertoldi, George V Lauder
Biomechanists and biologists alike have yet to fully understand the complex morphology and function of shark denticles, morphologically intricate tooth-like structures embedded into the skin of sharks. Denticles vary in many ways (such as size and shape) depending on shark species, and studies on denticle hydrodynamics have suggested that they may aid in drag reduction as well as increase both lift and thrust. Although previous studies have analyzed the effect of different denticle patterns on hydrodynamic performance, no previous work has focused on the effects of denticle size...
August 2, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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