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Bioinspiration & Biomimetics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820140/clarity-of-objectives-and-working-principles-enhances-the-success-of-biomimetic-programs
#1
Jonas Wolff, David Wells, Chris Reid, Sean John Blamires
Biomimetics, the transfer of functional principles from living systems into product designs, is increasingly being utilized by engineers. Nevertheless, recurring problems must be overcome if it is to avoid becoming a short-lived fad. Here we assess the efficiency and suitability of methods typically employed by examining three flagship examples of biomimetic design approaches from different disciplines: (1) the creation of gecko-inspired adhesives; (2) the synthesis of spider silk, and (3) the derivation of computer algorithms from natural self-organizing systems...
August 18, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795949/a-comprehensive-gaze-stabilization-controller-based-on-cerebellar-internal-models
#2
Lorenzo Vannucci, Egidio Falotico, Silvia Tolu, Vito Cacucciolo, Paolo Dario, Henrik Hautop Lund, Cecilia Laschi
Gaze stabilization is essential for clear vision; it is the combined effect of two reflexes relying on vestibular inputs: the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which stabilizes the visual axis to minimize retinal image motion. The VOR works in conjunction with the opto-kinetic reflex (OKR), which is a visual feedback mechanism that allows to move the eye at the same speed as the observed scene. Together they keep the image stationary on the retina...
August 10, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782735/dynamical-analysis-and-development-of-a-biologically-inspired-sma-caterpillar-robot
#3
Christopher A Daily-Diamond, Alyssa Novelia, Oliver O'Reilly
With the goal of robustly designing and fabricating a soft robot based on a caterpillar featuring shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators, analytical and numerical models for a soft robot were created based on the forward crawling motion of the Manduca sexta caterpillar. The analytical model features a rod theory and the mechanics of undulation were analyzed using a motion pattern based on the "Witch of Agnesi" curve. Complementing these models, experiments on a SMA actuator sample were performed in order to determine its flexural rigidity and curvature as a function of the actuation voltage...
August 7, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777744/the-effect-of-wing-flexibility-on-sound-generation-of-flapping-wings
#4
Biao Geng, Qian Xue, Xudong Zheng, Geng Liu, Yan Ren, Haibo Dong
In this study, the unsteady flow and acoustic characteristics of a three-dimensional (3D) flapping wing model of Tibicen linnei cicada at forward flight condition are numerically investigated. A single cicada wing is modelled as a membrane with prescribed motion reconstructed from high-speed videos of a live insect. The numerical solution takes a hydrodynamic/acoustic splitting approach: the flow field is solved with an incompressible Navier-Stokes flow solver based on immersed boundary method and the acoustic field is solved with linearized perturbed compressible equations (LPCEs)...
August 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777743/origami-based-earthworm-like-locomotion-robots
#5
Hongbin Fang, Yetong Zhang, Kon-Well Wang
Inspired by the morphology characteristics of the earthworms and the excellent deformability of origami structures, this research creates a novel earthworm-like locomotion robot through exploiting the origami techniques. In this innovation, appropriate actuation mechanisms are incorporated with origami ball structures into the earthworm-like robot 'body', and the earthworm's locomotion mechanism is mim-icked to develop a gait generator as the robot 'centralized controller'. The origami ball, which is a peri-odic repetition of waterbomb units, could output significant bidirectional (axial and radial) deformations in an antagonistic way similar as the earthworm's body segment...
August 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767049/learning-dynamic-models-for-open-loop-predictive-control-of-soft-robotic-manipulators
#6
Thomas George Thuruthel, Egidio Falotico, Federico Renda, Cecilia Laschi
The soft capabilities of biological appendages like the arms of Octopus Vulgaris and Elephant trunk have inspired roboticists to develop their robotic equivalents. Although there have been considerable efforts to replicate their morphology and behaviour patterns, we are still lagging behind in replicating the dexterity and efficiency of these biological systems. This is mostly due to the lack of development and application of dynamic controllers on these robots which could exploit the morphological properties that a soft bodied manipulator possesses...
August 2, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752821/lotus-on-chip-computer-aided-design-and-3d-direct-laser-writing-of-bioinspired-surfaces-for-controlling-the-wettability-of-materials-and-devices
#7
Andres Diaz Lantada, Stefan Hengsbach, Klaus Bade
In this study we present the combination of a math-based design strategy with direct laser writing as high-precision technology for promoting solid free-form fabrication of multi-scale biomimetic surfaces. Results show a remarkable control of surface topography and wettability properties. Different examples of surfaces inspired on the lotus leaf, which to our knowledge are obtained for the first time following a computer-aided design with this degree of precision, are presented. Design and manufacturing strategies towards microfluidic systems whose fluid driving capabilities are obtained just by promoting a design-controlled wettability of their surfaces, are also discussed and illustrated by means of conceptual proofs...
July 28, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749380/handling-interference-effects-in-foraging-with-bucket-brigades
#8
Wonki Lee, DaeEun Kim
Many kinds of bio-inspired tasks have been tested with swarm robotics and task partitioning is one of challenging subjects. In nature, it is well known that some colonies of social insects such as honeybees, termites, and ants use task partitioning strategies for their survival. In this paper, we demonstrate an effect of task partitioning strategy called bucket brigade that uses the direct transfer of materials or food between a pair of workers. We propose a task partitioning strategy based on moving speeds of agents for the foraging task...
July 27, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749372/3d-printing-a-family-of-biomimetic-models-to-explain-armored-grasping-in-syngnathid-fishes
#9
Michael M Porter, Nakul Ravikumar
Seahorses and pipehorses evolved at least two independent strategies for tail grasping, despite being armored with a heavy body plating. To help explain mechanical trade-offs associated with the different designs, we created a "family" of 3D-printed models that mimic variations in the presence and size of their armored plates. We measured the performance of the biomimetic proxies across seven mechanical metrics, representative of their protective and prehensile capacities. Our results show that the models mimicking the tails of seahorses are the best all-around performers, while those of the distal-most, prehensile region of pipehorses are more flexible, but less protected...
July 27, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748830/a-neural-network-with-central-pattern-generators-entrained-by-sensory-feedback-controls-walking-of-a-bipedal-model
#10
Wei Li, Nicholas Stephen Szczecinski, Roger D Quinn
A neuromechanical simulation of a planar, bipedal walking robot has been developed. It is constructed as a simplified, planar musculoskeletal model of the biomechanics of the human lower body. The controller consists of a dynamic neural network with central pattern generators (CPGs) entrained by force and movement sensory feedback to generate appropriate muscle forces for walking. The CPG model is a two-level architecture, which consists of separate rhythm generator (RG) and pattern formation (PF) networks...
July 27, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726670/solid-state-nanopore-based-biomimetic-voltage-gated-ion-channels
#11
Matthew Pevarnik, Weibin Cui, Sukru Yemenicioglu, Justin Rofeh, Luke Theogarajan
Voltage gating is essential to the computational ability of neurons. We show this effect can be mimicked in a solid-state nanopore by functionalizing the pore interior with a redox active molecule. We study the integration of an active biological molecule, a quinone, into a solid state nanopore and its subsequent induced voltage gating. We show that the voltage gating effect mimics biological gating systems in its classic sigmoidal voltage response, unlike previous synthetic voltage gating systems. Initially the quinone undergoes a reduction due to radicals in the bulk solution and is converted to the hydroquinone state...
July 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718780/biarticular-elements-as-a-contributor-to-energy-efficiency-biomechanical-review-and-application-in-bio-inspired-robotics
#12
Karen Junius, Marta Moltedo, Pierre Cherelle, Carlos David Rodriguez-Guerrero, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
Despite the increased interest in exoskeleton research in the last decades, not much progress has been made on the successful reduction of user effort. In humans, biarticular elements have been identied as one of the reasons for the energy economy of locomotion. This document gives an extensive literature overview concerning the function of biarticular mus- cles in human beings. The exact role of these muscles in the efficiency of human locomotion is reduced to three elementary functions: energy transfer towards distal joints, efficient control of output force direction and double joint actuation...
July 18, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707626/performance-of-neural-networks-for-localizing-moving-objects-with-an-artificial-lateral-line
#13
Luuk H Boulogne, Ben J Wolf, Marco A Wiering, Sietse M van Netten
Fish are able to sense water flow velocities relative to their body with their mechanoreceptive lateral line organ. This organ consists of an array of flow detectors distributed along the fish body. Using the excitation of these individual detectors, fish can determine the location of nearby moving objects. Inspired by this sensory modality, it is shown here how neural networks can be used to extract an object's location from simulated excitation patterns, such as can be measured along arrays of stationary artificial flow velocity sensors...
July 14, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699620/aerodynamics-and-flow-features-of-a-damselfly-in-takeoff-flight
#14
Ayodeji Toluwanimi Bode-Oke, Samane Zeyghami, Haibo Dong
Flight initiation is fundamental for survival, escape from predators and lifting payload from one place to another in biological fliers and can be broadly classified into jumping and non-jumping takeoffs. During jumping takeoffs, the legs generate most of the initial impulse. Whereas the wings generate most of the forces in non-jumping takeoffs, which are usually voluntary, slow, and stable. It is of great interest to understand how these non-jumping takeoffs occur and what strategies insects use to generate large amount of forces required for this highly demanding flight initiation mode...
July 12, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696337/memristive-device-based-learning-for-navigation-in-robots
#15
Mohammad Sarim, Manish Kumar, Rashmi Jha, Ali A Minai
Biomimetic robots have gained attention recently for various applications ranging from resource hunting to search and rescue operations during disasters. Biological species are known to intuitively learn from the environment, gather and process data, and make appropriate decisions. Such sophisticated computing capabilities in robots are difficult to achieve, especially if done in real-time with ultra- low energy consumption. Here, we present a novel memristive device based learning architecture for robots. Two terminal memristive devices with resistive switching of oxide layer are modeled in a crossbar array to develop a neuromorphic platform that can impart active real-time learning capabilities in a robot...
July 11, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696330/artificial-insect-wings-with-biomimetic-wing-morphology-and-mechanical-properties
#16
Zhiwei Liu, Xiaojun Yan, Mingjing Qi, Yangsheng Zhu, Dawei Huang, X Y Zhang, Liwei Lin
The pursuit of high lift force for insect-scale Flapping-wing Micro Aerial Vehicle (FMAV) requires its artificial wings to own biomimetic wing features which are close to its nature counterpart. In this work, we present both fabrication and testing methods for artificial insect wings with biomimetic wing morphology and mechanical properties. The artificial cicada (Hyalessa maculaticollis) wing is fabricated through high precision laser cutting technique and bonding process of multilayer materials. Through controlling the shape of wing venation, the fabrication method can achieve 3-D (three dimensional) wing architecture including cambers or corrugations...
July 11, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691925/design-and-analysis-of-aerodynamic-force-platforms-for-free-flight-studies
#17
Ben Hightower, Rivers Ingersoll, Diana Chin, Carl Lawhon, Andreas Haselsteiner, David Lentink
We describe and explain new advancements in the design of the aerodynamic force platform, a novel instrument that can directly measure the aerodynamic forces generated by freely flying animals and robots. Such <i>in vivo</i> recordings are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of flapping wings in nature, which can critically inform the design of new bioinspired robots. By designing the aerodynamic force platform to be stiff yet lightweight, the natural frequencies of all structural components can be made over five times greater than the frequencies of interest...
July 10, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691920/artificial-i-manduca-sexta-i-forewings-for-flapping-wing-micro-aerial-vehicles-how-wing-structure-affects-performance
#18
Kenneth Moses, Simone C Michaels, Mark Willis, Roger D Quinn
A novel approach to fabricating and testing artificial insect wings has been developed. Utilizing these new techniques, locally harvested hawk moth (<i>Manduca sexta</i>) forewings are compared to engineered forewings with varying wing structures. A number of small, flexible engineered forewings were fabricated with identical planform size and shape but with variations in camber, ribbing, thickness and composition. A series of static and dynamic assessments compares the forewings in terms of structure and performance...
July 10, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691919/modeling-and-analysis-of-a-meso-hydraulic-climbing-robot-with-artificial-muscle-actuation
#19
Edward M Chapman, Tyler E Jenkins, Matthew Bryant
This paper presents a fully coupled electro-hydraulic model of a bio-inspired climbing robot actuated by fluidic artificial muscles (FAMs). This analysis expands upon previous FAM literature by considering not only the force and contraction characteristics of the actuator, but the complete hydraulic and electromechanical circuits as well as the dynamics of the climbing robot. This analysis allows modeling of the time-varying applied pressure, electrical current, and actuator contraction for accurate prediction of the robot motion, energy consumption, and mechanical work output...
July 10, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675149/uas-stealth-target-pursuit-at-constant-distance-using-a-bio-inspired-motion-camouflage-guidance-law
#20
Reuben Strydom, Mandyam Srinivasan
The aim of this study is to derive a guidance law by which an Unmanned Aerial System(s) (UAS) can pursue a moving target at a constant distance, while concealing its own motion. We derive a closed-form solution for the trajectory of the UAS by imposing two key constraints: (1) the shadower moves in such a way as to be perceived as a stationary object by the shadowee, and (2) the distance between the shadower and shadowee is kept constant. Additionally, the theory presented in this paper considers constraints on the maximum achievable speed and acceleration of the shadower...
July 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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