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Bioinspiration & Biomimetics

Kaley Ann Sheppard, David Emory Rival
A bio-inspired, slotted delta wing was abstracted from a multi-vane propulsor geometry ubiquitous in nature, and analysed to investigate aerodynamic performance during acceleratory and steady-state motions. Evolutionary convergence of slotted geometries in nature suggests an aerodynamic benefit in manoeuvrability, as exemplified in the fins and wings of a broad range of extant and extinct swimmers and flyers, respectively. Through direct force measurements and stereoscopic particle image velocimetry, it was found that the abstracted, slotted geometry exhibited a region of steady-state lift and drag enhancement at angles of attack greater than 25° when compared to a reference profile based on a delta-wing plate...
February 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ramneet K Nagi, Danielle E Montanari, Michael Bartl
The origin of the brilliant near angle-independent coloration of the weevil Eupholus chevrolati was investigated by a combination of optical and electron microscopy tools, photonic band structure calculations, and color mixing analysis. Optical microscopy and scanning micro-spectroscopy revealed the presence of micrometer-sized red, yellow, green, and blue reflective pixels covering the entire exoskeleton of the weevil. Scanning electron microscopy in combination with focused ion beam milling showed that each micro-pixel consisted of a diamond-based photonic crystal structure and the different reflective colors were the result of different orientations of the photonic crystal...
February 14, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Olga Kuksenok, Awaneesh Singh, Anna Balazs
Inspired by the adaptive behavior of photo-responsive biological organisms, we use theory and simulation to design polymer gels and composites that can be dynamically reconfigured and driven to move with the application of light. We focus on gels formed from poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm) and functionalized with spirobenzopyran (SP) chromophores, which become hydrophobic under blue light in acidic aqueous solution. We demonstrate that these gels can be patterned remotely and reversibly by illuminating the samples through photomasks and thus, "molded" into a variety of shapes with features sizes that are on the sub-mm length scale...
February 6, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Michael Lynch, Boris Mandadzhiev, Aimy Wissa
Birds are highly capable and maneuverable fliers, traits not currently shared with current small unmanned aerial vehicles. They are able to achieve these flight capabilities by adapting the shape of their wings during flight in a variety of complex manners. One feature of bird wings, the primary feathers, separate to form wingtip gaps at the distal end of the wing. This paper presents bio-inspired wingtip devices with varying wingtip gap sizes, defined as the chordwise distance between wingtip devices, for operation in low Reynolds number conditions of Re = 100,000, where many bird species operate...
February 1, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Junjiang Fu, Xiaohui Liu, Wei Shyy, Huihe Qiu
In the current study, we experimentally investigated the flexibility effects on the aerodynamic performance of flapping wings and the correlation with aspect ratio at angle of attack α = 45<sup>o</sup>. The Reynolds number based on the chord length and the wing tip velocity is maintained at Re = 5.3x10<sup>3</sup>. Our result for compliant wings with an aspect ratio of 4 shows that wing flexibility can offer improved aerodynamic performance compared to that of a rigid wing. Flexible wings are found to offer higher lift-to-drag ratios; in particular, there is significant reduction in drag with little compromise in lift...
January 26, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy, William Yang, Christian David Remy
Inspired by the locomotive advantages that an articulated spine enables in quadrupedal animals, we explore and quantify the energetic effect that an articulated spine has in legged robots. We compare two model instances of a conceptual planar quadruped: one with a traditional rigid main body and one with an articulated main body with an actuated spinal joint. Both models feature four distinct legs, series elastic actuation, distributed mass in all body segments, and limits on actuator torque and speed...
January 25, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Pan Liao, Shiwu Zhang, Dong Sun
This paper presents the development of a biomimetic robotic fish that uses an integrated oscillation and jet propulsive mechanism to enable good swimming performance for small robotic fish. The designed robotic fish is driven by two caudal fins that flap oppositely, which are equipped in parallel at the fish tail. The propulsive mechanism of dual caudal fins is characterized by using numerical analysis, in which the distance between the two caudal fins is a key factor to the integrated mechanism and plays an important role to swimming performance...
January 23, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Brian Anderson Free, Derek Paley
Obstacles and swimming fish in flow create a wake with an alternating left/right vortex pattern known as a Karman vortex street and reverse Karman vortex street, respectively. An energy-efficient fish behavior resembling slaloming through the vortex street is called Karman gaiting. This paper describes the use of a bioinspired array of pressure sensors on a Joukowski foil to estimate and control flow-relative position in a Karman vortex street using potential flow theory, recursive Bayesian filtering, and trajectory-tracking feedback control...
January 22, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Felipe Viela, Iván Navarro-Baena, Jaime J Hernández, Manuel R Osorio, Isabel Rodriguez
The rapid emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria has prompted the need for radically different approaches to combat bacterial infections. Among these, bioinspired surface topographies have emerged as an effective sustainable strategy to deter bacterial infection. This study demonstrates the bactericidal activity and cytocompatibility of the moth eye mimetic topography produced by thermal polymer nanoimprinting. The moth eye topography was found to have bactericidal capabilities against Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria...
January 19, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Axiu Cao, Jiazhou Wang, Pang Hui, Zhang Man, Lifang Shi, Qiling Deng, Song Hu
Miniaturized bionic compound eyes featured with multi-aperture imaging have potential applications in the areas of micro opto-electro-mechanical-system (MOEMS). In this manuscript, we present a novel structure of the bionic compound eye with multiple focal lengths consists of an array of individual lenses with 1000 μm diameter. The simulation results of the designed MBCE with two focal lengths of 190 mm and 44.4 mm demonstrate excellent two-order focusing abilities. Moving mask exposure technology was used to fabricate the designed MBCE with the corresponding imaging experiments conducted to validate the two-order imaging ability of the fabricated MBCE...
January 19, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ben J Wolf, Jonathan A S Morton, William Bill N MacPherson, Sietse M van Netten
We present the design, fabrication and testing of a novel all-optical 2D flow velocity sensor, inspired by a fish lateral line neuromast. This artificial neuromast consists of optical fibres inscribed with Bragg gratings supporting a fluid force recipient sphere. Its dynamic response is modelled based on the Stokes solution for unsteady flow around a sphere and found to agree with experimental results. Tuneable mechanical resonance is predicted, allowing a deconvolution scheme to accurately retrieve fluid flow speed and direction from sensor readings...
January 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Brendan Colvert, Mohamad Alsalman, Eva Kanso
Unsteady flows contain information about the objects creating them. Aquatic organisms offer intriguing paradigms for extracting flow information using local sensory measurements. In contrast, classical methods for flow analysis require global knowledge of the flow field. Here, we train neural networks to classify flow patterns using local vorticity measurements. Specifically, we consider vortex wakes behind an oscillating airfoil and we evaluate the accuracy of the network in distinguishing between three wake types, 2S, 2P+2S and 2P+4S...
January 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Vani Virdyawan, Matthew Oldfield, Ferdinando Rodriguez Y Baena
Puncturing blood vessels during percutaneous intervention in minimally invasive brain surgery can be a life threatening complication. Embedding a forward looking sensor in a rigid needle has been proposed to tackle this problem but, when using a rigid needle, the procedure needs to be interrupted and the needle extracted if a vessel is detected. As an alternative, we propose a novel optical method to detect a vessel in front of a steerable needle. The needle itself is based on a biomimetic, multi-segment design featuring four hollow working channels...
January 11, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Christophe Baley, Camille Goudenhooft, Marianne Gibaud, Alain Bourmaud
The present paper proposes to carefully study and describe the reinforcement mechanisms within a flax stem, which is an exceptional natural model of composite structure. Thanks to accurate microscopic investigations, with both optical and SEM method, we finely depicted the flax stem architecture, which can be view as a composite structure with an outer protection, a unidirectional ply on the periphery and a porous core; each component has a specific function, such as mechanical reinforcement for the unidirectional ply and the porous core...
January 10, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Thomas Wells Cronin, Missael Garcia, Viktor Gruev
Multispectral, hyperspectral, polarimetric, and other types of multichannel imaging spectrometers are coming into common use for a variety of applications, including remote sensing, material identification, forensics, and medical diagnosis. These instruments are often bulky and intolerant of field abuse, so designing compact, reliable, portable, and robust devices is a priority. In contrast to most engineering designs, animals have been building compact and robust multichannel imaging systems for millennia - their eyes...
January 9, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Benjamin Felbrich, Frederik Wulle, Christoph Allgaier, Achim Menges, Alexander Verl, Karl-Heinz Wurst, James Nebelsick
State of the art rapid additive manufacturing (RAM), specifically Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF) has gained popularity among architects, engineers and designers for quick prototyping of technical devices, rapid production of small series and even construction scale fabrication of architectural elements. The spectrum of producible shapes and the resolution of detail, however, are determined and constrained by the layer-based nature of the fabrication process. These aspects significantly limit FFF-based approaches for the prefabrication and in-situ fabrication of freeform shells at the architectural scale...
January 4, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Lawren L Gamble, Daniel J Inman
Motivated by the lack of research in tailless morphing aircraft in addition to the current inability to measure the resultant aerodynamic forces and moments of bird control maneuvers, this work aims to develop and test a multi-functional morphing control surface based on the horizontal tail of birds for a low-radar-signature UAV. Customized Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) actuators were designed to achieve yaw control across a range of sideslip angles by inducing three dimensional curvature as a result of bending-twisting coupling, a well-known phenomenon in classical fiber composite theory...
January 4, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Roger Hanlon, Lydia M Mathger, George R R Bell, Alan M Kuzirian, Steven L Senft
The highly diverse and changeable body patterns of cephalopods require the production of whiteness of varying degrees of brightness for their large repertoire of communication and camouflage behaviors. Leucophores are structural reflectors that produce whiteness in cephalopods; they are dermal aggregates of numerous leucocytes containing spherical leucosomes ranging in diameter from 200-2000nm. In Sepia officinalis leucophores, leucocytes always occur in various combinations with iridocytes, cells containing plates that function as Bragg stacks to reflect light of particular wavelengths...
December 22, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Akhil Kandhari, Yifan Huang, Kathryn A Daltorio, Hillel J Chiel, Roger D Quinn
Earthworms locomote using traveling waves of segment contraction and expansion, which when symmetric result in straight-line locomotion and when biased result in turning. The mechanics of the soft body permit a large range of possible body shapes which both comply with the environment and contribute to directed locomotion. Inspired by earthworms, our new platform Compliant Modular Mesh Worm robot with Steering (CMMWorm-S) has been developed to study this type of locomotion. Compared with our previous robots, CMMWorm-S is capable of an entirely new movement (turning) using two actuated degrees of freedom per segment (a total of 12 motors)...
December 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Mohammad Sahlabadi, Parsaoran Hutapea
The focus of this paper is to present new designs of innovative bioinspired needles to be used during percutaneous procedures. Insect stingers have been known to easily penetrate soft tissues. Bioinspired needles mimicking the barbs in a honeybee stinger were developed for a smaller insertion force, which can provide a less invasive procedure. Decreasing the insertion force will decrease the tissue deformation, which is essential for a more accurate targeting. In this study, some design parameters, in particular, barb shape and geometry (i...
December 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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