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Bioinspiration & Biomimetics

Sen Lin, Yi Min Xie, Qing Li, Xiaodong Huang, Zhe Zhang, Guowei Ma, Shiwei Zhou
Being one of the commonest deformation modes for soft matters, shell buckling is the primary reason for the growth and nastic movement of many plants, as well as the formation of complex natural morphology. On-demand regulation of buckling-induced deformation associated with wrinkling, ruffling, folding, creasing and delaminating has profound implications for diverse scopes, which can be seen in its broad applications in microfabrication, 4D printing, actuator and drug delivery. This paper reviews the recent remarkable developments in the shell buckling of soft matters to explain the most representative natural morphogenesis from the perspectives of theoretical analysis in continuum mechanics, finite element analysis, and experimental validations...
June 20, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Luhui Yang, Allison Yu, Rolf Mueller
The ultrasonic emission in the biosonar systems of bats such as the Old World leaf-nosed bats (family Hipposideridae) and the related horseshoe bats (family Rhinolophidae) is characterized by a unique dynamics where baffle shapes ("noseleaves") deform while diffracting the outgoing wave packets. As of now, nothing comparable to this dynamics has been used in any related engineering application (e.g., sonar or radar). Prior work with simple concave baffle shapes has demonstrated an impact of the dynamics on the emission characteristics, but it has remained unclear if this was simply due to the change in aperture size or also influenced by geometrical shape detail...
June 19, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ruoxin Li, Qing Xiao, Yuanchuan Liu, Jianxin Hu, Lijun Li, Gen Li, Hao Liu, Kainan Hu, Li Wen
In this paper, a versatile Multi-Body Dynamic (MBD) algorithm is developed to integrate an incompressible fluid flow with a bio-inspired multibody dynamic system. Of particular interest to the biomimetic application, the algorithm is developed via four properly selected benchmark verifications. The present tool has shown its powerful capability for solving a variety of biomechanics fish swimming problems, including self-propelled multiple degrees of freedom with a rigid undulatory body, multiple deformable fins and an integrated system with both undulatory fish body and flexible fins...
June 19, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Hanlin Liu, Oscar M Curet
Undulatory fin propulsion exhibits high degree of maneuver control -- an ideal for underwater vessels exploring complex environments. In this work, we developed and tested a self-contained, free-swimming robot with a single undulating fin running along the length of the robot, which controls both forward motion and directional maneuvers. We successfully replicated several maneuvers including forward swimming, reversed motion, diving, station-keeping and vertical swimming. For each maneuver, a series of experiments were performed as a function of fin frequency, wavelength and traveling wave direction to measure swimming velocities, orientation angles and mean power consumption...
June 18, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Chen Rao, Hao Liu
Owls are a master to achieve silent flight in gliding and flapping flights under natural turbulent environments owing to their unique wing morphologies. While the leading-edge serrations are recently revealed, as a passive flow control micro-device, to play a crucial role in aerodynamic force production and sound suppression [25], the characteristics of wind-gust rejection associated with leading-edge serrations remain unclear. Here we address a large-eddy simulation (LES)-based study of aerodynamic robustness in owl-inspired leading-edge serrations, which is conducted with clean and serrated wing models through mimicking wind-gusts under a longitudinal fluctuation in free-stream inflow and a lateral fluctuation in pitch angle over a broad range of angles of attack (AoAs) over 0° ≤ Φ ≤ 20°...
June 8, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Rolf Mueller, Nicole Abaid, Jonathan B Boreyko, Charless Fowlkes, Ashok Goel, Cindy Grimm, Sunghwan Jung, Brook Kennedy, Christin Murphy, Nathan D Cushing, Jin-Ping Han
Bioinspiration - using insights into the function of biological systems for the development of new engineering concepts - is already a successful and rapidly growing field. However, only a small portion of the world's biodiversity has thus far been considered as a potential source for engineering inspiration. This means that vast numbers of biological systems of potentially high value to engineering have likely gone unnoticed. Even more important, insights into form and function that reside in the evolutionary relationships across the tree of life have not yet received attention by engineers...
June 1, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
E-F Markus Henke, Katherine Wilson, Iain Anderson
Biomimetic, entirely soft robots with animal-like behavior and integrated artificial nervous systems will open up totally new perspectives and applications. However, until now, most presented studies on soft robots were limited to only partly soft designs, since all solutions at least needed conventional, stiff electronics to sense, process signals and activate actuators. We present a novel approach for a set up and the experimental validation of an artificial pace maker that is able to drive basic robotic structures and act as artificial central pattern generator (aCPG)...
May 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Peter Andras Kovacs Szabo, Gabriele M T D'Eleuterio
An experimental investigation of the lift performance of an artificial platform at the scale of the dragonfly species Sympetrum sanguineum is presented. The platform, as well as the lift sensor, was custom designed and built. The flapping mechanism consisted of a piezoelectric bending-beam actuator, a transmission using carbon-fiber elements and polymide-film joints, and wings constructed of polyester film with a carbon-fiber support structure. The flapping kinematics of the Sympetrum sanguineum was replicated as closely as possible although only a pair of forewings were used in these experiments...
May 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
James E Bluman, Jeremy Pohly, Madhu Sridhar, Chang-Kwon Kang, David Brian Landrum, Farbod Fahimi, Hikaru Aono
Achieving atmospheric flight on Mars is challenging due to the low density of the Martian atmosphere. Aerodynamic forces are proportional to the atmospheric density, which limits the use of conventional aircraft designs on Mars. Here, we show using numerical simulations that a flapping wing robot can fly on Mars via bioinspired dynamic scaling. Trimmed, hovering flight is possible in a simulated Martian environment when dynamic similarity with insects on earth is achieved by preserving the relevant dimensionless parameters while scaling up the wings three to four times its normal size...
May 29, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Philip Caspers, Rolf Mueller
The noseleaf and pinnae of horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum)
 have both been shown to actively deform during biosonar
 operation. Since these baffle structures directly affect the
 properties of the animal's biosonar system, this work mimics horseshoe
 bat sonar system with the goal of developing a platform to study the
 dynamic sensing principles horseshoe bats employ. Consequently, two
 robotic devices were developed to mimic the dynamic emission and
 reception characteristics of horseshoe bats...
May 24, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Chris Roh, Morteza Gharib
Aquatic Anisopteran dragonfly larvae achieve respiration and propulsion by repetitive water jets flowing through their anal openings. Previous studies have shown that the tri-leaflet anal valves modulate the emerging jet by varying the opening size. We discovered that the valves are also capable of controlling the opening asymmetry by independent retraction of a leaflet. This study shows the effects of their valve asymmetry control on the respiratory and propulsive flows. Furthermore, the effects of size variation are re-evaluated using fluid momentum and power equations...
May 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Melike Kurt, Keith W Moored
We present experiments that examine the modes of interaction, the collective performance and the role of three-dimensionality in two pitching propulsors in an in-line arrangement. Both two-dimensional foils and three-dimensional rectangular wings of AR  =  2 are examined. In contrast to previous work, two interaction modes distinguished as the coherent and branched wake modes are not observed to be directly linked to the propulsive efficiency, although they are linked to peak thrust performance and minimum power consumption as previously described (Boschitsch et al 2014 Phys...
May 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Atrouli Chatterjee, Brenna Norton-Baker, Laura E Bagge, Priyam Patel, Alon A Gorodetsky
Cephalopods possess unrivaled camouflage and signaling abilities that are enabled by their sophisticated skin, wherein multiple layers contain chromatophore pigment cells (as part of larger chromatophore organs) and different types of reflective cells called iridocytes and leucophores. The optical functionality of these cells (and thus cephalopod skin) critically relies upon subcellular structures partially composed of unusual structural proteins known as reflectins. Herein, we highlight studies that have investigated reflectins as materials within the context of color-changing coatings...
May 25, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Martyn Dade-Robertson, Helen Mitrani, Javier Rodriguez Corral, Meng Zhang, Luis Hernan, Aurelie Guyet, Anil Wipat
In this paper, we describe the first steps in the design of a synthetic biological system based on the use of genetically modified bacteria to detect elevated pressures in soils and respond by cementing soil particles. Such a system might, for example, enable a self- constructed foundation to form in response to load using engineered bacteria which could be seeded and grown in the soils. This process would reduce the need for large-scale excavations and may be the basis for a new generation of self-assembling and responsive bio-based materials...
May 25, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Chenglei Wang, Hui Tang
In this study, we explore the use of synthetic jet (SJ) in manipulating the vortices around a rigid heaving airfoil, so as to enhance its aerodynamic performance. The airfoil heaves at two fixed pitching angles, with the Strouhal number, reduced frequency and Reynolds number chosen as St  =  0.3, k  =  0.25 and Re  =  100, respectively, all falling in the ranges for natural flyers. As such, the vortex force plays a dominant role in determining the airfoil's aerodynamic performance. A pair of in-phase SJs is implemented on the airfoil's upper and lower surfaces, operating with the same strength but in opposite directions...
May 25, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Jeffrey A Tuhtan, Juan Francisco Fuentes-Perez, Gert Toming, Matthias Schneider, Richard Schwarzenberger, Martin Schletterer, Maarja Kruusmaa
The lateral line system provides fish with advanced mechanoreception over a wide range of flow conditions. Inspired by the abilities of their biological counterparts, artificial lateral lines have been developed and tested exclusively under laboratory settings. Motivated by the lack of flow measurements taken in the field which consider fluid-body interactions, we built a fish-shaped lateral line probe. The device is outfitted with 11 high-speed (2.5 kHz) time-synchronized pressure transducers, and designed to capture and classify flows in fish passage structures...
May 25, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Brian K Taylor
Diverse taxa use Earth's magnetic field in conjunction with other sensory modalities to accomplish navigation tasks ranging from local homing to long-distance migration across continents and ocean basins. However, despite extensive research, the mechanisms that underlie animal magnetoreception are not clearly understood, and how animals use Earth's magnetic field to navigate is an active area of investigation. Concurrently, Earth's magnetic field offers a signal that engineered systems can leverage for navigation in environments where man-made systems such as GPS are unavailable or unreliable...
May 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Katsuhiko Shimizu
Silk produced by the silkworm Bombyx mori is an attractive material because of its luster, smooth and soft texture, conspicuous mechanical strength, good biocompatibility, slow biodegradation, and carbon neutral synthesis. Silkworms have been domesticated and bred for production of better quality and quantity of silk, resulting in the development of sericulture and the textile industry. Silk is generally white, so dyeing is required to obtain colored fiber. However, the dyeing process involves harsh conditions and generates a large volume of waste water, which have environmentally and economically negative impacts...
May 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Zachary W White, Franck J Vernerey
The development of armour is as old as the dawn of civilization. Early man looked to natural structures to harvest or replicate for protection, leaning on millennia of evolutionary developments in natural protection. Since the advent of more modern weaponry, Armor development has seemingly been driven more by materials research than bio-inspiration. However, parallels can still be drawn between modern bullet-protective armours and natural defensive structures. Soft armour for handgun and fragmentation threats can be likened to mammalian skin, and similarly, hard armour can be compared with exoskeletons and turtle shells...
May 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Yagiz Bayiz, Mohammad Ghanaatpishe, Hosam Fathy, Bo Cheng
In this work, a multi-objective optimization framework is developed for optimizing low Reynolds number ([Formula: see text]) hovering flight. This framework is then applied to compare the efficiency of rigid revolving and flapping wings with rectangular shape under varying [Formula: see text] and Rossby number ([Formula: see text], or aspect ratio). The proposed framework is capable of generating sets of optimal solutions and Pareto fronts for maximizing the lift coefficient and minimizing the power coefficient in dimensionless space, explicitly revealing the trade-off between lift generation and power consumption...
May 8, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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