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Bioinspiration & Biomimetics

Lucas Brely, Federico Bosia, Nicola M Pugno
Biological adhesion, in particular the mechanisms by which animals and plants "stick" to surfaces has been widely studied in recent years, and some of the structural principles have been successfully applied to bioinspired adhesives. However, modelling of adhesion such as in single or multiple peeling theories, have in most cases been limited to ideal cases and due consideration of the role of substrate geometry and mechanical properties has been limited. In this paper, we propose a numerical model to evaluate these effects, including substrate roughness, patterning, curvature and deformability...
December 12, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Alexander Tibbs, Ilse Daly, Dave R Bull, Nicholas Roberts
The accuracy of calculations of both the degree and angle of polarization depend strongly on the noise in the measurements used. The noise in the measurements recorded by both camera based systems and spectrometers can lead to significant artefacts and incorrect conclusions about high degrees of polarization when in fact none exist. Three approaches are taken in this work: Firstly, the absolute error introduced as a function of the signal to noise ratio for polarization measurements is quantified in detail...
November 29, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ivana Kovacic, Miodrag Zukovic, Dragi Radomirovic
This study deals with tree-like structures that mimic a trunk with either first-order branches or both first and second-order branches of a sympodial tree. The corresponding mechanical model comprises physical pendula coupled with torsional springs and viscous dampers. Natural frequencies and modal shapes are obtained analytically and the effects of a branching angle and a stiffness ratio on their change is analysed. Then, the trunk is harmonically excited and the corresponding structural response is investigated, both for small undamped and damped vibrations, focusing on the concept of dynamic absorbers and the attenuation of the amplitude of the trunk and first-order branches as this attenuation is beneficial for practical engineering applications...
November 26, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Bryan Donald Todd, Rolf Mueller
Sonar is an important sensory modality for engineers as well as in nature. In engineering, sonar is the dominating modality for underwater sensing. In nature, biosonar is likely to have been a central factor behind the unprecedented evolutionary success of bats, a highly diverse group that accounts for over 20% of all mammal species. However, it remains unclear to what extent engineered and biosonar follow similar design and operational principles. In the current work, the key sonar design characteristic of beamwidth is examined in technical and biosonar...
November 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Dominic McCafferty, Guillaume Pandraud, Jérôme Gilles, Maria Fabra-Puchol, Pierre-Yves Henry
Birds and mammals have evolved many thermal adaptations that are relevant for bioinspired design of temperature control systems and energy management in buildings. Similar to many buildings, endothermic animals generate internal metabolic heat, are well insulated, regulate their temperature within set limits, modify microclimate and adjust thermal exchange with their environment. Here, we review the major components of animal thermoregulation in endothermic birds and mammals that are pertinent for building engineering, in a world where climate is changing and reduction in energy use is needed...
November 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Emanuela Del Dottore, Alessio Mondini, Ali Sadeghi, Virgilio Mattoli, Barbara Mazzolai
This paper presents a comparative analysis in terms of energy required by an artificial probe to penetrate soil implementing two different strategies: a straight penetration movement; and a circumnutation, which is a peculiar root movement in plants. The role of circumnutations in plant roots is still reason of debate. We hypothesized that circumnutation movements can help roots in penetrating soil and we validated our assumption testing the probe at three distinct soil densities and using various combinations of circumnutation amplitude and period for each soil...
November 10, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Sanjay Tapse, Anup S
Unidirectional composites inspired from biological materials such as nacre, are composed of stiff platelets arranged in a staggered manner within a soft matrix. Elaborate analyses have been conducted on the aforementioned composites and they are found to have excellent mechanical properties like stiffness, strength and fracture toughness. The superior properties exhibited by these composites have been proved to be the result of its unique structure. An emerging development in the field of composite structures is Functionally Graded Composites(FGC), whose properties vary spatially and possess enhanced thermo-mechanical properties...
November 9, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Gundula Schieber, Larissa Born, Paavo Bergmann, Axel Hannes Körner, Anja Mader, Saman Saffarian, Oliver Betz, Markus Milwich, Goetz Gresser, Jan Knippers
Hingeless shading systems inspired by nature are increasingly the focus of architectural research. In contrast to traditional systems, these compliant mechanisms can reduce the amount of maintenance-intensive parts and can easily be adapted to irregular, doubly curved, facade geometries. Previous mechanisms rely merely on the reversible material deformation of composite structures with almost homogeneous material properties. This leads to large actuation forces and an inherent conflict between the requirements of movement and the capacity to carry external loads...
November 2, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
John Dayton Tovar
Self-assembling peptides with covalent pi-electron functionality offer new ways to create delocalized conduits within protein-based nanomaterials. Our recent research is summarized in this regard, detailing foundational self-assembly and photophysical characterizations that validate the electronic couplings existing within the resulting peptidic nanomaterials. Using these initial studies as a benchmark, ongoing studies to create even more complex photonic energy delocalization schemes are presented, spanning excitonic and Förster energy transfer to low-bandgap dopant sites (whereby 46% of the observed photoluminescence could be quenched by the addition of 1 mol% of an energy acceptor), the creation of charge separated states following photoinduced electron transfer that persisted for over a nanosecond, and use of kinetic control to dictate self-sorting (at long time scales, ca...
October 27, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Mingxia Sun, Esther Appel, Alexander Kovalev, Elena V Gorb, Aiping Liang, Stanislav N Gorb
The elytral surface of dung beetles is generally accepted to be self-cleaning due to its anti-adhesive properties. In this article, the wettability and adhesive properties of elytral surface (intact and treated with Acetone and Ethanol) of the beetle Geotrupes stercorarius were characterized. Since these properties are influenced by the surface structure and chemistry, the micro- and nanostructure of the elytra were observed using scanning electron microscopy and the surface roughness were estimated with white light interferometery, whereas the water contact angle (CA) and adhesion force of the elytra were evaluated using contact angle measurement device and force transducer, respectively...
October 24, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Di Chen, Dmitry Kolomenskiy, Toshiyuki Nakata, Hao Liu
In many flying insects, forewings and hindwings are coupled mechanically to achieve flapping flight synchronously while being driven by action of the forewings. How the forewings and hindwings as well as their morphologies contribute to aerodynamic force production and flight control remains unclear yet. Here we demonstrate that the forewings can produce most of the aerodynamic forces even with the hindwings removed through a computational fluid dynamic study of three revolving insect wing models, which are identical to the wing morphologies and Reynolds numbers of hawkmoth (Manduca sexta), bumblebee (Bombus ignitus) and fruitfly (Drosophila melanogaster)...
October 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Zhuoyu Zhou, Rajat Mittal
Incompressible flow simulations are used to study the swimming of a Spanish Dancer (Hexabranchus sanguineus), a soft-bodied invertebrate marine gastropod that swims by combining body pitching with undulations of its large mantle. A simple model based on a field video is employed as the basis for the model and coupling of the flow with the body acceleration enables us to examine the free swimming of this animal. Simulations indicate propulsive efficiencies of up to about 57% and terminal swimming speeds of 1...
October 16, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Chong Shen, Mao Sun
In this paper, we analyzed the body and wing kinematics and mechanics in fruit flies' landings on a vertical pole. By high-speed video techniques and CFD method, we exhibited the detailed process of landing as follows. A fruit fly first decelerates and enters a near-hover state approximately 25 mm away from the vertical pole, then starts approaching the pole in acceleration till one of its front-legs touches the pole (touchdown). Just before touchdown, the fly's acceleration is around 6 ms<sup>-2</sup>; at touchdown, it experiences an almost instant deceleration of several g (gravitational acceleration), approximately all of which results from the leg force...
October 13, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Marta Espina Palanco, Nils Skovgaard, Jesper Søndergaard Hansen, Kirstine Berg-Sorensen, Claus Helix-Nielsen
The barrier properties of cellular membranes are increasingly attracting attention as a source of inspiration for designing biomimetic membranes. The broad range of potential technological applications makes the use of lipid and lately also polymeric materials a popular choice for constructing biomimetic membranes, where the barrier properties can be controlled by the composition of the membrane constituent elements. Here we investigate the membrane properties reported by the light-induced proton pumping activity of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) reconstituted in three vesicle systems of different membrane composition...
October 11, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Marta Scali, Tim Philipp Pusch, Paul Breedveld, D Dodou
Flexible steerable needles have the potential to allow surgeons to reach deep targets inside the human body with higher accuracy than rigid needles do. Furthermore, by maneuvering around critical anatomical structures, steerable needles could limit the risk of tissue damage. However, the design of a thin needle (e.g., diameter under 2 mm) with a multi-direction steering mechanism is challenging. The goal of this paper is to outline the design and experimental evaluation of a biologically inspired needle with a diameter under 2 mm that advances through straight and curved trajectories in a soft substrate without being pushed, without buckling, and without the need of axial rotation...
October 11, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Marcello Calisti, Cecilia Laschi
This paper presents the self-stabilisation features of a hopping gait during underwater legged locomotion. We used a bio-inspired fundamental model of this gait, the underwater spring-loaded inverted pendulum model, to numerically derive quantitative (dimension of the basin of attraction, Floquet multipliers, mean horizontal speed) and qualitative (shape of the basin) features which characterise the self-stability of the system. Furthermore, we compared the results obtained with a terrestrial self-stable running model (i...
October 4, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Leo Cazenille, Bertrand Collignon, Yohann Chemtob, Frank Bonnet, Alexey Gribovskiy, Francesco Mondada, Nicolas Bredeche, José Halloy
Biomimetic robots are promising tools in animal behavioural studies. If they are socially integrated in a groupof animals, they can produce calibrated social stimuli to test the animal responses. However, the design of suchsocial robots is challenging as it involves both a luring capability including appropriate robot behaviours, and theacceptation of the robots by the animals as social companions. Here, we investigate the integration of a biomimeticrobotic lure driven by biomimetic behavioural models into a group of zebrafish (Danio rerio)...
September 27, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Xingwen Zheng, Chen Wang, Ruifeng Fan, Guangming Xie
Lateral line system (LLS) is a mechanoreceptive organ system with which fish and aquatic amphibians can effectively sense the surrounding flow field. The reverse Kármán vortex street (KVS), known as a typical thrust-producing wake, is commonly observed in fish-like locomotion and is known to be generated by fish tail. The vortex street generally reflects the motion information of fish. Fish can use LLS to detect such vortex streets generated by its neighboring fish, thus sensing its own states and the states of its neighbors in fish school...
September 26, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Hisashi Ishihara, Nobuyuki Ota, Minoru Asada
It is quite difficult for android robots to replicate the numerous and various types of human facial expressions owing to limitations in terms of space, mechanisms, and materials. This situation could be improved with greater knowledge regarding these expressions and their deformation rules, i.e., by using the biomimetic approach. In a previous study, we investigated 16 facial deformation patterns and found that each facial point moves almost only in its own principal direction and different deformation patterns are created with different combinations of moving lengths...
September 26, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
W Brandon Goodwin, Donglee Shin, Daniel Sabo, Sunghwan Hwang, Z John Zhang, J Carson Meredith, Kenneth H Sandhage
3D replicas of sunflower pollen microparticles, comprised of a multicomponent magnetic spinel ferrite (CoFe2O4) with tailorable adhesive properties, have been synthesized for the first time via a conformal layer-by-layer (LbL) surface sol-gel (SSG) deposition process followed by organic pyrolysis and oxide compound formation at a peak temperature of 600 °C-900 °C. These high-fidelity ferrite pollen replicas exhibited multimodal (van der Waals, vdW, and magnetic) adhesion that could be tuned via control of the CoFe2O4 nanoparticle and crystal sizes...
November 6, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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