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Bioinspiration & Biomimetics

Jacques Duysens, Arturo Forner-Cordero
This paper provides an update on the neural control of bipedal walking in relation to bioinspired models and robots. It is argued that most current models or robots are based on the construct of a symmetrical CPG (central pattern generator). However, new evidence suggests that CPG functioning is basically asymmetrical with its flexor half linked more tightly to the rhythm generator. The stability of bipedal gait, which is an important problem for robots and biological systems, is also addressed. While it is not possible to determine how biological biped systems guarantee stability, robot solutions can be useful to propose new hypothesis for biology...
August 15, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ning Li, Tie Yang, Peng Yu, Junling Chang, Liao Zhao, Xingang Zhao, Imad H Elhajj, Ning Xi, Lianqing Liu
Stroke has become the leading cause of disability and the second-leading cause of mortality worldwide. Dyskinesia complications are the major reason of these high death and disability rates. As a tool for rapid motion function recovery in stroke patients, exoskeleton robots can reduce complications and thereby decrease stroke mortality rates. However, existing exoskeleton robots interfere with the wearer's natural motion and damage joints and muscles due to poor human-machine coupling. In this paper, a novel ergonomic soft bionic exoskeleton robot with 7 degrees of freedom was proposed to address these problems based on the principles of functional anatomy and sports biomechanics...
August 8, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Deepa Kodali, Chang-Kwon Kang
This corrigendum provides a correction to the manuscript. We show that a higher order fluid-structure interaction term that accounts for the transversal flow oscillations, induced by the compliant motion of the airfoil, leads to the Theodorsen's lift equation with a sign reversal for one of the terms. This modified Theodorsen's equation was used in the manuscript.
August 7, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
William Thielicke, Eize Jan Stamhuis
In aircraft propellers that are used to propel aircraft forward at some speed, propeller blade twist is important to make the individual propeller 'wings' operate at a relatively constant effective angle of attack over the full span. Wing twist is sometimes also assumed to be essential in flapping flight, especially in bird flight. For small insects, it has however been shown that wing twist has little effect on the forces generated by a flapping wing. The unimportance of twist was attributed to the prominent role of unsteady aerodynamic mechanisms...
July 25, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Sehyeong Oh, Haecheon Choi
A predictive model of the drag coefficient for a revolving wing at low Reynolds number is suggested. Unlike the previous model (Wang et al 2016 J. Fluid Mech. 800 688-719), the present model includes a viscous drag on the wing from laminar boundary layer theory and thus predicts the drag force more accurately at low angles of attack and low Reynolds numbers. Also, in determining the model constants, we consider the attack angle of π/4 at which the resultant force on the wing is assumed to be perpendicular to the wing chord...
August 8, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
L Roque, J Alopaeus, Claudia Reis, P Rijo, J Molpeceres, E Hagesaether, I Tho, Catarina Reis
Oral candidiasis is an important opportunistic fungal infection and polyenes and azoles are still the most used antifungal agents. However, the oral absorption resulting from most available treatments is generally poor and, consequently, a very high frequency of administrations of antifungal agents is strongly required. Therefore, the major challenge is to improve the retention of the antifungal agents in buccal mucosa, and the encapsulation into mucoadhesive systems may be considered as a possible strategy to achieve this objective...
August 8, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
William Stewart, Warren Weisler, Marc MacLeod, Thomas Powers, Aaron Defreitas, Richard Gritter, Mark Anderson, Kara Peters, Ashok Gopalarathnam, Matthew Bryant
This paper looks to the natural world for solutions to many of the challenges associated with the design of fixed-wing cross-domain vehicles. One example is the common murre, a seabird that flies from nesting locations to feeding areas, dives underwater to catch prey and returns. This hunting expedition provides an outline of a possible mission for a cross-domain vehicle. While the challenges of cross-domain vehicles are many, the focus of this paper was on buoyancy management and propulsion. Potential solutions to each challenge, inspired by multiple animals that cross between aerial and underwater domains, are investigated...
August 2, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
August G Domel, Gino Domel, James C Weaver, Mehdi Saadat, Katia Bertoldi, George V Lauder
Biomechanists and biologists alike have yet to fully understand the complex morphology and function of shark denticles, morphologically intricate tooth-like structures embedded into the skin of sharks. Denticles vary in many ways (such as size and shape) depending on shark species, and studies on denticle hydrodynamics have suggested that they may aid in drag reduction as well as increase both lift and thrust. Although previous studies have analyzed the effect of different denticle patterns on hydrodynamic performance, no previous work has focused on the effects of denticle size...
August 2, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Felix Russell, Yipeng Zhu, William Hey, Ravi Vaidyanathan, Peter Ellison
In this paper we present a new bioinspired bicondylar knee joint that requires a smaller actuator size when compared to a constant moment arm joint. Unlike existing prosthetic joints, the proposed mechanism replicates the elastic, rolling and sliding elements of the human knee. As a result, the moment arm that the actuators can impart on the joint changes as function of the angle, producing the equivalent of a variable transmission. By employing a similar moment arm-angle profile as the human knee the peak actuator force for stair ascent can be reduced by 12% compared to a constant moment arm joint addressing critical impediments in weight and power for robotics limbs...
August 2, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Longzhen Dai, Guowei He, Xiang Zhang, Xing Zhang
The intermittent locomotion performance of a fish-like elastic swimmer is studied numerically in this paper. The actuation is imposed only at the head and the locomotion is indirectly driven by passive elastic mechanism. For intermittent swimming, certain time durations of passive coasting are interspersed between two half-periods of active bursting. To facilitate the comparison of energy efficiencies in continuous and intermittent swimming at the same cruising speed, we consider both intermittent swimming at various duty cycles and also continuous swimming at reduced actuation frequencies...
July 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
A J Sobey, P A Grudniewski
Genetic algorithms are integral to a range of applications. They utilise Darwin's theory of evolution to find optimal solutions in large complex spaces such as engineering, to visualise the design space, artificial intelligence, for pattern classification, and financial modelling, improving predictions. Since the original genetic algorithm was developed, new theories have been proposed which are believed to be integral to the evolution of biological systems. However, genetic algorithm development has focused on mathematical or computational methods as the basis for improvements to the mechanisms, moving it away from its original evolutionary inspiration...
July 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Chong Shen, Yanpeng Liu, Mao Sun
We measured the wing kinematics of fruitflies in both vertically-ascending and hovering flights and studied the aerodynamic forces and power in the two flight modes. The average ascending velocity is 0.45 m s-1 ; the stroke plane angle and the stroke frequency are the same as that in hovering flight, whilst the stroke amplitude is increased by 12% and the wing angle of attack in the latter half of a down- and upstroke both increased by 10%. Flow analysis shows that during ascending, the flies experience a downward inflow which reduces the effective angle of attack considerably...
July 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
William Coral, Claudio Rossi, Oscar M Curet, Diego Castro
In this paper, we present a fish-like underwater robot inspired by the black bass fish. This robot is composed of a deformable structure and muscle-like linear actuators based on shape memory alloy wires. Such actuators are used to bend a continuous structure representing the backbone of the fish. The prototype is also equipped with a bio-inspired synthetic skin made of liquid silicone rubber and Lycra microfiber mesh. We present the mechatronics of the prototype and its control scheme, which take advantage of flex sensors for proprioception...
July 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Christopher Graf, Antonia B Kesel, Elena V Gorb, Stanislav N Gorb, Jan-Henning Dirks
Most insects with smooth or hairy adhesive pads have very little problems in attaching to smooth substrates. A careful selection of surface roughness, however, can effectively limit the contact area of the adhesive organs with the surface. In comparison to conventional toxin-based insect repelling methods, biologically inspired micro- and nanostructured insect repellent surface structures, thus, offer a great potential to effective and environmentally-friendly control insect pests. We here present a simple experimental approach to qualitatively and quantitatively analyse the efficiency of a micro- and nanorough surface structure...
July 31, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Xiaobo Bi, Qiang Zhu
Inspired by recent studies about the fluid dynamics of cephalopods in their escaping swimming mode, we propose a novel design of an underwater propulsion system using a deformable body with pressure chamber, which propels itself in burst-coast cycles through a combined effect of pulsed jet and added-mass related thrust. To investigate the performance of this system we create a free-swimming computational model-the body deformation is prescribed yet the forward motion is driven by hydrodynamic forces. Our focus is on a single bursting cycle, which corresponds to the case that the system rests between bursts...
July 20, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Sen Lin, Yi Min Xie, Qing Li, Xiaodong Huang, Zhe Zhang, Guowei Ma, Shiwei Zhou
Being one of the commonest deformation modes for soft matter, shell buckling is the primary reason for the growth and nastic movement of many plants, as well as the formation of complex natural morphology. On-demand regulation of buckling-induced deformation associated with wrinkling, ruffling, folding, creasing and delaminating has profound implications for diverse scopes, which can be seen in its broad applications in microfabrication, 4D printing, actuator and drug delivery. This paper reviews the recent remarkable developments in the shell buckling of soft matter to explain the most representative natural morphogenesis from the perspectives of theoretical analysis in continuum mechanics, finite element analysis, and experimental validations...
July 20, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Luhui Yang, Allison Yu, Rolf Müller
The ultrasonic emission of the biosonar systems of bats, such as Old World leaf-nosed bats (family Hipposideridae) and the related horseshoe bats (family Rhinolophidae), is characterized by a unique dynamics where baffle shapes ('noseleaves') deform while diffracting the outgoing wave packets. As of now, nothing comparable to this dynamics has been used in any related engineering application (e.g. sonar or radar). Prior work with simple concave baffle shapes has demonstrated the impact of the dynamics on the emission characteristics, but it has remained unclear whether this was simply due to the change in aperture size or also influenced by the geometrical shape detail...
July 20, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Hanlin Liu, Oscar Curet
Undulatory fin propulsion exhibits a high degree of maneuver control-an ideal feature for underwater vessels exploring complex environments. In this work, we developed and tested a self-contained, free-swimming robot with a single undulating fin running along the length of the robot, which controls both forward motion and directional maneuvers. We successfully replicated several maneuvers including forward swimming, reversed motion, diving, station-keeping and vertical swimming. For each maneuver, a series of experiments was performed as a function of fin frequency, wavelength and traveling wave direction to measure swimming velocities, orientation angles and mean power consumption...
July 20, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Sjoerd Tijmons, Matěj Karásek, Guido de Croon
Robust attitude control is an essential aspect of research on autonomous flight of flapping wing Micro Air Vehicles. The mechanical solutions by which the necessary control moments are realised come at the price of extra weight and possible loss of aerodynamic efficiency. Stable flight of these vehicles has been shown by several designs using a conventional tail, but also by tailless designs that use active control of the wings. In this study a control mechanism is proposed that provides active control over the wings...
July 20, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
Ruoxin Li, Qing Xiao, Yuanchuan Liu, Jianxin Hu, Lijun Li, Gen Li, Hao Liu, Kainan Hu, Li Wen
In this paper, a versatile multi-body dynamic algorithm is developed to integrate an incompressible fluid flow with a bio-inspired multibody dynamic system. Of particular interest to the biomimetic application, the algorithm is developed via four properly selected benchmark verifications. The present tool has shown its powerful capability for solving a variety of biomechanics fish swimming problems, including self-propelled multiple degrees of freedom with a rigid undulatory body, multiple deformable fins and an integrated system with both undulatory fish body and flexible fins...
July 3, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
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