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Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710834/ultrastructure-of-skeletal-muscles-in-mice-lacking-muscle-specific-vegf-expression
#1
Oliver Baum, Lena Jentsch, Adolfo Odriozola, Stefan A Tschanz, I Mark Olfert
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) influences several physiological processes including endothelial cell function and maintenance of organ/tissue capillarity. While the functional aspects of VEGF were vigorously investigated, only little detail is known on structural integrity of skeletal muscle fibers and capillaries in mice lacking VEGF expression in their muscles. Therefore, we assessed systematically the architecture of the glycolytic plantaris and the oxidative soleus muscles obtained from muscle-specific VEGF knockout (mVEGF-KO, n=7) mice and their wild-type (WT, n=7) littermates by morphometry after transmission electron microscopy...
July 15, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710803/expression-of-the-major-vault-protein-mvp-and-cellular-vault-particles-in-fish
#2
Alyssa L Margiotta, Lisa J Bain, Charles D Rice
Cellular vaults are ubiquitous 13 mega Da multi-subunit ribonuceloprotein particles that may have a role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Seventy percent of the vault's mass consists of a ≈100 kDa protein, the major vault protein. In humans, a drug resistance -associated protein, originally identified as lung resistance protein in metastatic lung cancer, was ultimately shown to be the previously described major vault protein. In this study, a partial major vault protein sequence was cloned from channel catfish...
July 15, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696502/linking-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-with-anorectal-hemorrhoids-a-clinical-and-anatomical-review
#3
REVIEW
Joshua A Cuoco, Christopher L Hoehmann, Kyle Hitscherich, Sherry M Zakhary, Joerg R Leheste, German Torres
Patients who harbor brain arteriovenous malformations are at risk for intracranial hemorrhage. These malformations are often seen in inherited vascular diseases such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. However, malformations within the brain also sporadically occur without a hereditary-coding component. Here, we review recent insights into the pathophysiology of arteriovenous malformations, in particular, certain signaling pathways that might underlie endothelial cell pathology. To better interpret the origins, determinants and consequences of brain arteriovenous malformations, we present a clinical case to illustrate the phenotypic landscape of the disease...
July 11, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681554/black-scorpionfish-scorpaena-porcus-hemopoiesis-analysis-by-flow-cytometry-and-light-microscopy
#4
Aleksandra Y Andreyeva, Aleksander A Soldatov, Tatiana A Kukhareva
Cell suspensions of head kidney and spleen of black scorpionfish (Scorpaena porcus L.) have been studied using flow cytometry and light microscopy. On the basis of forward scatter (FS) and side scatter (SS) distribution and light microscopy two main types of cells in the hemopoietic organs were identified: "small cells" (5,1-8,9 µm) and "large cells" (10,8-15,3 µm). Subpopulation of small cells was formed by thrombocytes, lymphocytes and elements with functionally inactive nuclei. Euchromatin level in their nuclei was low and acidophilic cytoplasm corresponded to negligible nucleic acids content...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681539/morphometric-variations-in-the-skin-layers-of-frogs-an-exploration-into-their-relation-with-ecological-parameters-in-leptodactylus-anura-leptodactylidae-with-an-emphasis-on-the-eberth-kastschenko-layer
#5
María Laura Ponssa, J Sebastián Barrionuevo, Franco Pucci Alcaide, Ana Pucci Alcaide
Leptodactylus is a genus of frogs known to live in diverse habitats and to show both aquatic and terrestrial breeding habits. We studied 21 species of Leptodactylus to explore whether skin structure specialization relates to habitats and habit variation. Morphometric analyses of the skin thickness revealed that phylogeny has a strong influence on variations in the thickness of the epidermis, stratum spongiosum, Eberth-Kastschenko layer, and stratum compactum, while habitat and habits display no significant correlation...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681530/clarification-of-the-terminology-of-the-olfactory-lamellae-in-chondrichthyes
#6
Sara Ferrando, Lorenzo Gallus, Laura Ghigliotti, Andrea Amaroli, Ghulam Abbas, Marino Vacchi
Several papers regard the anatomy of the peripheral olfactory organ, the olfactory rosette, in the class of Chondrichtyes. The complex shape of this organ and the differences among species give clues to functional, evolutionary, and ecological observations; data on a larger number of species are needed in order to have a more complete insight. The rosette is made up of a central support and of numerous lamellae, which are lined by the sensory epithelium. The size, shape and number of these lamellae, which are highly variable among species, are noteworthy because they affect the sensory surface area, the water dynamic within the olfactory chamber, and the organization of the olfactory bulb...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681493/changes-in-the-pancreas-in-experimental-diabetes-and-the-effect-of-lycopene-on-these-changes-proliferating-apoptotic-and-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-positive-cells
#7
Mustafa Sandıkcı, Levent Karagenc, Mustafa Yıldız
This study aimed to investigate the changes occurring in estrogen receptor (ER) α-positive cells, proliferating cells, apoptotic cells and malondialdehyde expression in the pancreas of experimentally induced adult diabetic rats and to determine the effect of orally administered lycopene on these changes. Experimental diabetes was induced using a single dose of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ). Following the administration of STZ, four groups of animals were established: Control+corn oil, control+lycopene, diabetic+corn oil and diabetic+lycopene...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681490/a-novel-method-for-observation-of-the-mandibular-foramen-application-to-a-better-understanding-of-dental-anatomy
#8
Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, R Shane Tubbs, Kengo Tanaka, Shogo Kikuta, Yoko Tabira, Chistian Fisahn, Yasuhiko Kamura, Jingo Kusukawa, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
INTRODUCTION: Cone-beam computed tomography gives us much useful morphological information about the mandibular bone. Many studies of the mandible include findings from this technique. However, there have been no endoscopic studies of the mandible. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixteen sides of eight dry mandibles resected from cadavers (age range 38-83 years) were examined by endoscopy. The head of the endoscope was 2.0 mm in diameter. We examined the mandibular foramen, lingula, mylohyoid groove and mandibular canal...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681486/ultrastructural-alterations-of-von-economo-neurons-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-schizophrenia
#9
Martin Krause, Carsten Theiss, Martin Brüne
Von Economo neurons (VEN) are large bipolar projection neurons mainly located in layer Vb of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and anterior insula. Both regions are involved in cognitive and emotional procedures and are functionally and anatomically altered in schizophrenia. Although the detailed function of VEN remains unclear, it has been suggested that these neurons are involved in the pathomechanism of schizophrenia. Here, we were interested in the question whether or not the VEN of schizophrenia patients would show abnormalities at the ultrastructural level...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681462/sex-determination-according-to-the-lengths-of-hand-bones-in-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta
#10
Huaxiang Tian, Xiaojin Zhao, Fengxia Hu, Haiyang Hu
Measurement of hand bone length has been used for sex determination in humans and non-human primates (El-Morsi et al., 2013; McFadden and Bracht, 2005). The aim of this study was to determine the sex of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) on the basis of the lengths of corresponding rows of metacarpals and phalanges in a macaque population by means of developing discriminant functions. Measurements on direct dry bones only included lengths for 19 bones of the left hand in 39 macaques (consisting of 13 adult males and 26 adult females)...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681461/the-role-of-the-primitive-lateral-basilovertebral-anastomosis-of-padget-in-variations-of-the-vertebrobasilar-arterial-system
#11
Lydia Gregg, Philippe Gailloud
PURPOSE: The primitive lateral basilovertebral anastomosis (PLBA) is an embryonic longitudinal anastomotic channel that transiently interconnects the developing branches of the vertebrobasilar system. This study reviews the anatomy of the PLBA and describes several variants associated with its partial persistence. METHODS: Four types of vertebrobasilar anomalies linked to the PLBA are illustrated by 13 angiographic observations. RESULTS: The angiographic appearances of (i) typical and atypical persistent trigeminal artery variants, (ii) common trunks of origin for one, two or three cerebellar arteries, (iii) aberrant origins of the cerebellar arteries, and (iv) vertebrobasilar duplications are described...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681434/arterial-patterns-of-the-face-in-perissodactyla
#12
Karolina Kowalczyk, Hieronim Frąckowiak
Considerable consistency in the arterial pattern of the head has been observed in species of Artiodactyla, but few studies have examined the order Perissodactyla. Here we describe arteries supplying the intermandibular, mental, masseteric, buccal, labial and nasal regions in eight perissodactylans, including representing of all families comprising this order. Observations were made on a total of 45 preparations of head arteries, obtained by injection of arteries with acetone-dissolved stained vinyl superchloride or stained latex LBS3060...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681425/localization-of-relm-%C3%AE-fizz2-is-associated-with-cementum-formation
#13
Akihiro Hosoya, Akira Takahama, Hiroaki Nakamura
Resistin-like molecule-β/found in inflammatory zone 2 (RELM-β/FIZZ2) is a cysteine-rich secretory protein that is localized in the epithelium of the gastrointestinal tract and lung alveoli. Previous reports have suggested that this protein regulates glucose metabolism and inflammation. In the present study, to analyze the involvement of RELM-β/FIZZ2 in tooth development, we immunohistochemically examined the localization of RELM-β/FIZZ2 in tooth germs of embryonic days (E) 15-20 and postnatal days (P) 7-42 rats...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681399/distribution-of-calretinin-immunoreactivity-in-the-lateral-nucleus-of-the-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus-amygdala
#14
A M Rambaldi, B Cozzi, A Grandis, M Canova, M Mazzoni, C Bombardi
The amgdaloid complex consists of different nuclei, each with unique cytoarchitectonic, chemoarchitectonic and connectional characteristics. Most of the inputs coming from cortical and subcortical areas enter the amygdala via the lateral nucleus, which makes it the main receiving structure of the complex. The activity of its neurons is coordinated and modulated by different inhibitory, GABAergic-interneurons, which can be classified for their expression of various calcium-binding proteins, as well as by morphological characteristics...
July 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667704/growth-and-development-at-the-sphenoethmoidal-junction-in-perinatal-primates
#15
Timothy D Smith, Matthew J McMahon, Michelle E Millen, Catherine Llera, Serena M Engel, Ly Li, Kunwar P Bhatnagar, Anne M Burrows, Michael P Zumpano, Valerie B DeLeon
Integration of the sphenoid and ethmoid bones during early postnatal development is poorly described in the literature. A uniquely prolonged patency of sphenoethmoidal synchondrosis, or prespheno-septal synchondrosis (PSept) has been attributed to humans. However, the sphenoethmoidal junction has not been studied using a comparative primate sample. Here, we examined development of the sphenoethmoidal interface using ontogenetic samples of Old and New World monkeys, strepsirrhine primates (lemurs and lorises), and a comparative sample of other mammals...
July 1, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667697/sexual-and-regional-differences-in-myosin-heavy-chain-expression-in-the-rat-external-urethral-sphincter
#16
Toshiko Tsumori, Wakako Tsumiyama
The external urethral sphincter is a unique striated muscle surrounding the urethra that plays a crucial role in urinary continence, and a comprehensive understanding of its morphology is needed to determine the pathophysiology underlying urinary incontinence and find suitable therapies. Differences between the sexes and among species regarding the fiber types present remain controversial. This study used triple immunofluorescence labeling to visualize one slow (type 1) and two fast (types 2A and 2B) myosin isoforms in rat external urethral sphincters from both sexes...
July 1, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667681/escapees-from-rhombomeric-lineage-restriction-extensive-migration-rostral-to-the-r4-r5-border-of-hox-a3-expression
#17
Charles Watson, Gayeshika Leanage, Nadja Makki, Petr Tvrdik
The rhombomeric compartments of the hindbrain are characterized by lineage restriction; cells born in one compartment generally remain there and do not migrate to neighboring rhombomeres. Two well-known exceptions are the substantial migrations of the pontine nuclei and the mammalian facial nucleus. In this study we used Hoxa3-Cre lineage to permanently mark cells that originate in rhombomeres caudal to r4. We found that cells born caudal to the r4/r5 border migrate forwards to a number of different locations in rhombomeres 1-4; the final locations include the interfascicular trigeminal nucleus, the principal trigeminal nucleus, the pontine nuclei, the reticulotegmental nucleus, the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the lateral and medial vestibular nuclei...
July 1, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667673/on-the-presence-of-the-patella-in-frogs
#18
Virginia Abdala, Miriam C Vera, María Laura Ponssa
The patella is one of the most studied sesamoids. Historically, the patella is described as a big sesamoid embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps femoris muscle. This sesamoid is studied from developmental, functional, clinical and anatomical perspectives. The presence of a patella is reported in squamatans, birds and mammals. Lissamphibians are identified as the major lineage that fail to develop a patella. However, this sesamoid is reported at least once in anurans, but without detailed anatomical discussions...
July 1, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658561/spermatogenic-cycle-and-steroidogenic-control-of-spermatogenesis-in-mytilus-galloprovincialis-collected-in-the-bay-of-naples
#19
Marina Prisco, Marisa Agnese, Adriano De Marino, Piero Andreuccetti, Luigi Rosati
The aim of the present paper was to study the spermatogenic cycle of Mytilus galloprovincialis collected in the bay of Naples during a whole year and to acquire new insights into the mechanism of control. Knowledge of the Mytilus cycle in this geographic area is of particular interest as, to the best of our knowledge, the male gonad cycle has been hitherto unexplored. Testis organization was evaluated together with the localization of the enzymes 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD and P450-aromatase, which are strictly connected to the synthesis of two key hormones involved in the testis activity: testosterone and 17β-estradiol...
June 28, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632922/comparison-of-manual-and-automated-measurements-of-tracheobronchial-airway-geometry-in-three-balb-c-mice
#20
Asef Islam, Michael Oldham, Anthony Wexler
Mammalian lungs are comprised of large numbers of tracheobronchial airways that transition from the trachea to alveoli. Studies as wide ranging as pollutant deposition and lung development rely on accurate characterization of these airways. Advancements in CT imaging and the value of computational approaches in eliminating the burden of manual measurement are providing increased efficiency in obtaining this geometric data. In this study, we compare an automated method to a manual one for the first six generations of three Balb/c mouse lungs...
June 20, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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