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Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941363/maintenance-of-distal-intestinal-structure-in-the-face-of-prolonged-fasting-a-comparative-examination-of-species-from-five-vertebrate-classes
#1
Marshall D McCue, Celeste A Passement, David K Meyerholz
It was recently shown that fasting alters the composition of microbial communities residing in the distal intestinal tract of animals representing five classes of vertebrates [i.e., fishes (tilapia), amphibians (toads), reptiles (leopard geckos), birds (quail), and mammals (mice)]. In the current study, we tested the hypothesis that the extent of tissue reorganization in the fasted distal intestine was correlated with the observed changes in enteric microbial diversity. Segments of intestine adjacent to those used for the microbiota study were examined histologically to quantify cross-sectional and mucosal surface areas as well as thicknesses of mucosa, submucosa, and tunica muscularis...
September 23, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926201/effect-of-topical-application-of-black-seed-oil-on-imiquimod-induced-psoriasis-like-lesions-in-the-thin-skin-of-adult-male-albino-rats
#2
Ebtsam F Okasha, Naglaa A Bayomy, Eman Z Abdelaziz
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease that affects about 1-3% of the world's population. Black seed oil, i.e the oil extracted from black seeds (Nigella sativa seeds), possesses a broad spectrum of pharmacological actions including anti-inflammatory, immunostimulatory and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to investigate the effect of black seed oil on imiquimod (IMQ) induced psoriasis-like skin lesions. To this end, 30 male albino rats were divided into three groups: group I, control group; group II, psoriasis-induced group receiving daily topical applications of IMQ cream (5%) on the shaved back skin for 10 consecutive days; and group III, black seed oil group receiving a daily topical dose of black seed oil 5 mg/kg body weight for 10 days after induction of psoriasis...
September 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921926/inhibition-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-receptor-decreases-regenerative-angiogenesis-in-axolotls
#3
Angela M Ritenour, Renee Dickie
Angiogenesis is crucial for tissue growth and repair in mammals, and is chiefly regulated by Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) signaling. We evaluated the effect of chemical inhibition of VEGF receptor signaling in animals with superior regenerative ability, axolotl salamanders, to determine the impact on vascularization and regenerative outgrowth. Following tail amputation, treated animals (100nM PTK787) and controls were examined microscopically and measured over the month-long period of regeneration...
September 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921917/changes-on-the-pancreas-in-experimental-diabetes-and-the-effect-of-lycopene-on-these-changes-pdx-1-ngn-3-and-nestin-expressions
#4
Mustafa Sandıkcı, Levent Karagenc, Mustafa Yıldız
The aim of the present study was to investigate changes occurring in the number of beta cells, as well as the expressions of Ngn-3, nestin and Pdx-1 of pancreatic progenitor cells in the pancreas of experimentally-induced adult diabetic rats and to determine the effect of orally-administered lycopene on these changes. Following the administration of 50 mg/kg streptozotocin to rats, four groups of animals were established: control+corn oil, control+lycopene, diabetic+corn oil and diabetic+lycopene. The animals in the control+lycopene and diabetic+lycopene groups received 4 mg/kg lycopene for a period of four weeks...
September 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921916/inversed-expression-patterns-of-s100a4-and-e-cadherin-in-cervical-cancers-implication-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#5
Ming Liu, Jia Liu, Bin Yang, Xue Gao, Ling-Lu Gao, Qing-You Kong, Peng Zhang, Hong Li
Cervical cancer/CC is the third commonest female malignancy worldwide. The aggressive growth and distal metastases are the leading causes of CC mortality, which is largely due to epithelial-mesenchymal transition/EMT. Fibroblast specific protein S100A4 promotes cancer metastasis and epithelial type cadherin/E-cadherin play pivotal roles in cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interaction. Therefore, the expression patterns of S100A4 and E-cadherin reflect statuses of EMT of carcinoma cells. However, S100A4 expression and its relevance with E-cadherin and HPV16 infection in cervical cancers remain unknown...
September 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921912/fate-of-worn-out-functional-teeth-in-the-upper-jaw-dentition-of-sicyopterus-japonicus-gobioidei-sicydiinae-during-tooth-replacement
#6
Noriyuki Sahara, Keita Moriyama, Midori Iida, Shun Watanabe
Mochizuki and Fukui (1983) studied the development and replacement of the upper jaw teeth in a Japanese fish species, Sicyopterus japonicus (Gobioidei: Sicydiinae), and they reported that worn-out functional teeth in the upper jaw were not shed outside the skin but were taken into the soft tissue of the upper jaw and completely resorbed there. To date, however, this phenomenon appears poorly documented. Furthermore, the mechanism for the resorption of these teeth remains to be determined. In the present study, we examined this phenomenon by using 3D micro-computed tomography (m-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and various techniques of light (LM) and electron (EM) microcopy...
September 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921909/first-natural-endocranial-cast-of-a-fossil-snake-cretaceous-of-patagonia-argentina
#7
Laura N Triviño, Adriana M Albino, María T Dozo, Jorge D Williams
In this study, we describe a natural endocranial cast included in a partially preserved medium-sized skull of the Upper Cretaceous South American snake Dinilysia patagonica. The endocast is composed of sedimentary filling of the cranial cavity in which the posterior brain, the vessels, the cranial nerves, and the inner ear surrounded by delicate semicircular canals, are represented. It is simple in form, with little differentiation between the three main areas (Forebrain, Midbrain and Hindbrain), and without flexures...
September 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902469/time-dependent-changes-in-the-structure-of-calcified-fibrocartilage-in-the-rat-achilles-tendon-bone-interface-with-sciatic-denervation
#8
Hideaki Takahashi, Hiroyuki Tamaki, Mineo Oyama, Noriaki Yamamoto, Hideaki Onishi
The enthesis transmits a physiological load from soft to hard tissue via fibrocartilage. The histological alterations induced by this physiological loading remain unclear. This study was performed to examine the histomorphological alterations in the collagen fiber bundle alignment and depth of collagen interdigitation between the calcified fibrocartilage and the bone. We examined the Achilles enthesis of rats with sciatic denervation to explore the mechanical effects of structural changes in the enthesis. The parallelism of the collagen fiber bundles was significantly reduced 8 weeks after denervation...
September 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865185/developmental-morphology-and-topography-of-the-components-of-the-cervical-sympathetic-trunk-in-sheep-ovis-aries-during-the-fetal-period
#9
Jamal Nourinezhad, Saleh Bamohabat, Yazdan Mazaheri
The objective of this study was to clarify the typical architecture and morphological variations of cervical sympathetic trunk (CST) in sheep during fetal period. Components of CST were examined on both sides of 40 male and female sheep fetuses aged from 60-140 days under a stereomicroscope. Skeletotopy and frequency of presence of cranial cervical ganglion (CCG), syntopy of cervical ganglia, and composition and topography of vagosympathetic trunk were consistent among specimens whereas the shape of cervical ganglia, the skeletotopy and number of three middle cervical ganglia (MG), and the frequency of communicating branches of CCG to the first cervical spinal nerve exhibited differences during fetal period...
September 2, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837758/natural-development-of-dermal-ectopic-bone-in-the-american-alligator-alligator-mississippiensis-resembles-heterotopic-ossification-disorders-in-humans
#10
Brooke H Dubansky, Benjamin D Dubansky
Heterotopic ossification (HO) occurs when soft tissues are inappropriately converted to bony tissue. Several human diseases result in HO with few reliable treatment options. Animal models that naturally produce dermal ectopic bone (i.e., osteoderms), such as crocodilians, have never been utilized as models for studying these disorders in humans. Here, a histological evaluation and staging criteria for osteoderm development is described for the first time in the American alligator (Alligator mississipiensis)...
August 24, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834374/differential-distribution-of-renal-nerves-in-the-sympathetic-ganglia-of-the-rat
#11
Seishi Maeda, Mayumi Fujihira, Yusuke Minato, Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Koichi Tanaka, Tetsu Hayakawa, Hideshi Yagi
The renal nerve plexus comprises efferent and afferent fibers. It controls urine production and bodily fluid homeostasis. Efferent fibers to the kidney include sympathetic nerve fibers from their main ganglia, the prevertebral suprarenal ganglia (SrG), and the paravertebral sympathetic chain ganglia (ChG). In the present study, we examined topological innervation from these ganglia to the renal parenchymal segments of the left kidney of the rat. Fluoro-Gold was injected into the rostral or caudal poles of the left kidney...
August 17, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806500/doxepin-mitigates-noise-induced-neuronal-damage-in-primary-auditory-cortex-of-mice-via-suppression-of-acid-sphingomyelinase-ceramide-pathway
#12
Yu-Ting Su, Xing-Xing Meng, Xi Zhang, Yi-Bin Guo, Hai-Jun Zhang, Yao-Ping Cheng, Xiao-Ping Xie, Yao-Ming Chang, Jun-Xiang Bao
Neuronal damage in primary auditory cortex (A1) underlies complex manifestations of noise exposure, prevention of which is critical for health maintenance. Acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) catalyzes generation of ceramide (Cer) which if over-activated mediates neuronal disorders in various diseases. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), by restraining ASM/Cer, benefits multiple neuronal anomalies, so we aimed to elucidate the effect of TCA on noise induced hearing loss and auditory cortex derangement, unraveling mechanism involved...
August 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806499/hibernating-little-pocket-mice-show-few-seasonal-changes-in-bone-properties
#13
Noellyn Pineda, Marjorie Owen, Claire Tucker, Samantha Wojda, Stanley Kitchen, Hal Black, Seth Donahue
Periods of disuse or physical inactivity increases bone porosity and decreases bone mineral density, resulting in a loss of bone mechanical competence in many animals. Although large hibernators like bears and marmots prevent bone loss during hibernation, despite long periods of physical inactivity, some small hibernators do lose bone during hibernation. Little pocket mice (Perognathus longimembris) remain underground during winter hibernation and undergo bouts of torpor and interbout arousals, but the torpor bout duration is shorter than other rodent hibernators...
August 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806498/pacinian-corpuscles-in-human-lymph-nodes
#14
J Feito, J L Cobo, A Santos-Briz, J A Vega
The occurrence of Pacinian corpuscles associated to lymph nodes is an anatomical rarity and very scarce information exists in this regard. Here we examined immunohistochemically four Pacinian corpuscles found in the close vicinity of the hiliar blood vessels of lymph nodes (2 cervical, 1 axillary, and 1 inguinal) during routine surgical pathology. Pacinian corpuscles were normally arranged and displayed a pattern of protein distribution as follows: the axon was positive for neurofilament proteins and neuron specific enolase, the inner core cells showed intense S100 protein and vimentin immunostaining while they were negative for glial fibrillary acidic protein, type IV collagen and glucose transporter 1; vimentin, type IV collagen, and glucose transporter 1 were also observed also in the outer-core and the capsule...
August 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806497/tooth-morphogenesis-and-fgf4-expression-during-development-of-molar-tooth-in-three-muroid-rodents-calomyscus-elburzensis-calomyscidae-mesocricetus-auratus-cricetidae-and-mus-musculus-muridae
#15
Kordiyeh Hamidi, Jamshid Darvish, Maryam M Matin, Athar Sadat Javanmard, C William Kilpatrick
To date, no studies have examined the tooth formation during developmental stages of brush-tailed mice (Calomyscidae) and true hamsters (Cricetidae). Herein, we compared the timing of tooth morphogenesis and FGF4 expression pattern during development of the first lower molar in Goodwin's brush-tailed mouse, Calomyscus elburzensis with two other muroid rodents; the house mouse, Mus musculus (Muridae), model organism for tooth morphogenesis, and the golden hamster, Mesocricetus auratus which shares great similarities in cusp pattern with brush-tailed mice...
August 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805956/morphology-and-postnatal-development-of-lower-hindlimbs-in-desmodus-rotundus-chiroptera-phyllostomidae-a-comparative-study
#16
Nicolás Reyes-Amaya, Adriana Jerez, David Flores
The hindlimbs in bats are functionally adapted to serve as a hook to attach to the mother from birth, and to roost during independent life. Although bats exhibit different terrestrial locomotion capabilities involving hindlimbs, hindlimb morphology and postnatal development have been poorly studied. We describe in detail the postnatal development and bone morphology of hindlimbs of the nimble walker vampire bat, Desmodus rotundus, and compare adult characters with the insectivorous Molossus molossus (erratic walker) and the frugivorous Artibeus lituratus (non-walker)...
August 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758359/aggregation-of-snd1-in-stress-granules-is-associated-with-the-microtubule-cytoskeleton-during-heat-shock-stimulus
#17
Jie Shao, Fei Gao, Bingbing Zhang, Meng Zhao, Yunli Zhou, Jinyan He, Li Ren, Zhi Yao, Jie Yang, Chao Su, Xingjie Gao
Stress granules (SGs) are dynamic dense structures in the cytoplasm that form in response to a variety of environmental stress stimuli. Staphylococcal nuclease and Tudor domain containing 1 (SND1) is a type of RNA-binding protein and has been identified as a transcriptional co-activator. Our previous studies have shown that SND1 is a component of the stress granule, which forms under stress conditions. Here, we observed that SND1 granules were often surrounded by ɑ-tubulin-microtubules in 45°C-treated HeLa cells at 15 min or colocalized with microtubules at 30 or 45 min...
July 31, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710834/ultrastructure-of-skeletal-muscles-in-mice-lacking-muscle-specific-vegf-expression
#18
Oliver Baum, Lena Jentsch, Adolfo Odriozola, Stefan A Tschanz, I Mark Olfert
Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) influences several physiological processes including endothelial cell function and maintenance of organ/tissue capillarity. While the functional aspects of VEGF were vigorously investigated, only little detail is known on structural integrity of skeletal muscle fibers and capillaries in mice lacking VEGF expression in their muscles. Therefore, we assessed systematically the architecture of the glycolytic plantaris and the oxidative soleus muscles obtained from muscle-specific VEGF knockout (mVEGF-KO, n=7) mice and their wild-type (WT, n=7) littermates by morphometry after transmission electron microscopy...
July 15, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710803/expression-of-the-major-vault-protein-mvp-and-cellular-vault-particles-in-fish
#19
Alyssa L Margiotta, Lisa J Bain, Charles D Rice
Cellular vaults are ubiquitous 13 mega Da multi-subunit ribonuceloprotein particles that may have a role in nucleocytoplasmic transport. Seventy percent of the vault's mass consists of a ≈100 kDa protein, the major vault protein. In humans, a drug resistance -associated protein, originally identified as lung resistance protein in metastatic lung cancer, was ultimately shown to be the previously described major vault protein. In this study, a partial major vault protein sequence was cloned from channel catfish...
July 15, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696502/linking-brain-arteriovenous-malformations-with-anorectal-hemorrhoids-a-clinical-and-anatomical-review
#20
REVIEW
Joshua A Cuoco, Christopher L Hoehmann, Kyle Hitscherich, Sherry M Zakhary, Joerg R Leheste, German Torres
Patients who harbor brain arteriovenous malformations are at risk for intracranial hemorrhage. These malformations are often seen in inherited vascular diseases such as hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia. However, malformations within the brain also sporadically occur without a hereditary-coding component. Here, we review recent insights into the pathophysiology of arteriovenous malformations, in particular, certain signaling pathways that might underlie endothelial cell pathology. To better interpret the origins, determinants and consequences of brain arteriovenous malformations, we present a clinical case to illustrate the phenotypic landscape of the disease...
July 11, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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