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Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884055/the-association-of-forefoot-varus-deformity-with-patellofemoral-cartilage-damage-in-older-adult-cadavers
#1
Rebecca S Lufler, Joshua J Stefanik, Jingbo Niu, F Kip Sawyer, Todd M Hoagland, K Douglas Gross
INTRODUCTION: Forefoot alignment may contribute to patellofemoral joint (PFJ) osteoarthritis (OA) via its influence on the closed chain kinematics of the lower limb. The purpose of this cadaveric study was to investigate the relationship between forefoot varus and ipsilateral cartilage damage in the medial and lateral PFJ. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forefoot alignment measurements were obtained from the feet of 25 cadavers (n=50). Cartilage damage in the medial and lateral PFJ of each knee was scored using the Outerbridge scale...
November 24, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884046/effect-of-lycopene-and-rosmarinic-acid-on-gentamicin-induced-renal-cortical-oxidative-stress-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-adult-male-albino-rat
#2
Naglaa A Bayomy, Reda H Elbakary, Marwa A A Ibrahim, Eman Z Abdelaziz
Gentamicin nephrotoxicity accounts for 10-15% of all cases of acute renal failure. Several natural antioxidants were found to be effective against drug-induced toxicity. The possible protective effects of lycopene (Lyc) and rosmarinic acid (RA) alone or combined on gentamicin (Gen) induced renal cortical oxidative stress, apoptosis and autophagy were evaluated. Sixty three rats were randomly divided into seven groups named: control, group II received RA 50 mg/kg/day, group III received Lyc 4 mg/kg/day, group IV received Gen 100 mg/kg/day, group V (RA + Gen), group VI (Lyc + Gen) and group VII (RA + Lyc + Gen)...
November 24, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875640/an-untold-story-the-important-contributions-of-muslim-scholars-for-the-understanding-of-human-anatomy
#3
REVIEW
Malak A Alghamdi, Janine M Ziermann, Rui Diogo
It is usually assumed that Galen is one of the fathers of anatomy and that between the Corpus Galenicum and the Renaissance there was no major advance in anatomical knowledge. However, it is also consensually accepted that Muslim scholars had the intellectual leadership from the 8th/9th to 13th centuries, and that they made remarkable progresses in numerous scientific fields including medicine. So, how is it possible that they did not contribute to advance human anatomy during that period? According to the dominant view Muslim scholars exclusively had a passive role: their transmission of knowledge from the Greeks to the West...
November 22, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874267/human-digital-meissner-corpuscles-display-immunoreactivity-for-the-multifunctional-ion-channels-trpc6-and-trpv4
#4
P Alonso-González, R Cabo, I San José, A Gago, I C Suazo, O García-Suárez, J Cobo, J A Vega
Ion channels are at the basis of the sensory processes including mechanosensing. Some members of the transient receptor (TRP) ion channel superfamily have been proposed as mechanosensors, but their putative role in mechanotransduction is controversial. Among them there are TRP canonical 6 (TRPC6) and TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) ion channels, which are known to cooperate in mechanical hyperalgesia. Here we investigated the occurrence, distribution and possible co-localization of TRPC6 and TRPV4 in human digital Meissner sensory corpuscles using immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence (associate with markers for specific corpuscular constituents)...
November 22, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860365/fetal-development-of-the-incisive-canal-especially-of-the-delayed-closure-due-to-the-nasopalatine-duct-a-study-using-serial-sections-of-human-fetuses
#5
Ji Hyun Kim, Kyoko Oka, Zhe Wu Jin, Gen Murakami, José Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Sung Woo Ahn, Hong Pil Hwang
The incisive canal of the incisive bone or premaxilla is a narrow bony canal through which pass the nasopalatine nerve and its concomitant vessels. However, its fetal development remains obscure. To assess its development, serial frontal sections of the heads of 26 human fetuses, of gestational age 9-20 weeks (crown-rump length, 46-183 mm), were examined. The nerve initially passed through a wide loose tissue space, but after ossification of the upper part of the incisive bone at 12-15 weeks, the canal became narrow and filled with tight fibrous tissue...
November 18, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860408/ionized-calcium-binding-adaptor-molecule-1-positive-macrophages-and-ho-1-up-regulation-in-intestinal-muscularis-resident-macrophages
#6
Hanne B Mikkelsen, Jan D Huizinga, Jytte O Larsen, Svend Kirkeby
: Small intestinal muscularis externa macrophages have been associated with interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). They have been proposed to play various roles in motility disorders and to take part in a microbiota-driven regulation of gastrointestinal motility. Our objective was to understand the reaction of resident macrophages of the musculature to a pro-inflammatory stimulator, lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Mice were injected with LPS or saline and sacrificed after 6 hours. Whole mounts were stained with antibodies toward CD169, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (iba1) (microglial/macrophage marker) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)...
November 16, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863117/unique-turbinal-morphology-in-horseshoe-bats-chiroptera-rhinolophidae
#7
Abigail A Curtis, Nancy B Simmons
The mammalian nasal fossa contains a set of delicate and often structurally complex bones called turbinals. Turbinals and associated mucosae function in regulating respiratory heat and water loss, increasing surface area for olfactory tissue, and directing airflow within the nasal fossa. We used high-resolution micro-CT scanning to investigate a unique maxilloturbinal morphology in thirty-seven species from the bat family Rhinolophidae, which we compared with those of families Hipposideridae, Megadermatidae, and Pteropodidae...
November 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860464/vertebral-development-and-ossification-in-the-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii-with-new-insights-on-bone-histology-and-ultrastructure-of-vertebral-elements-and-scutes
#8
Amandine Leprévost, Thierry Azaïs, Michael Trichet, Jean-Yves Sire
In order to improve our knowledge on the vertebral development, structure and mineralization in Acipenseriformes, we undertook a study in a growth series of reared Siberian sturgeons (Acipenser baerii) using in toto clear and stain specimens, histological and ultrastructural observations, X-ray micro-tomography, and solid state NMR analyses. Scutes were also studied to compare the tissue structure and mineralization of endoskeletal and dermal skeletal elements. This study completes and clarifies previous investigations on vertebral development and architecture in sturgeons, and brings original data on the structure of (i) the perichondral bone that is progressively deposited around the vertebral elements during ontogeny, (ii) the typical cartilage composing these elements, and (iii) the scutes...
November 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863121/quantitative-evaluation-of-normal-aqueductal-cerebrospinal-fluid-flow-using-phase-contrast-cine-mri-according-to-age-and-sex
#9
Zulal Oner, Aysegul Sagir Kahraman, Evren Kose, Serkan Oner, Ahmet Kavakli, Mahmut Cay, Davut Ozbag
AIM: The aim of this study was cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow quantification in the cerebral aqueduct using Phase-Contrast Cine Magnetic Resonance Imaging (PCC-MRI) according to both sexes and three different age groups to obtain normative data. MATERIAL AND METHOD: 72 volunteers with no cerebral pathology were included in this study. Subjects were divided into three age groups: 20-34 years, 35-49 years and 50-65 years including equal gender groups. CSF flow's quantitatively evaluation was performed with images that were obtained by 1...
November 11, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860379/behavior-associated-neuronal-activation-after-kainic-acid-induced-hippocampal-neurotoxicity-is-modulated-in-time
#10
Andrea Aguilar-Arredondo, Fernanda López-Hernández, Lizbeth García-Velázquez, Clorinda Arias, Angélica Zepeda
Kainic acid-induced (KA) hippocampal damage leads to neuronal death and further synaptic plasticity. Formation of aberrant as well as of functional connections after such procedure has been documented. However, the impact of such structural plasticity on cell activation along time after damage and in face of a behavioral demand has not been explored. We evaluated if the mRNA and protein levels of plasticity-related protein synaptophysin (Syp and SYP, respectively) and activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein mRNA and protein levels (Arc and Arc, respectively) in the dentate gyrus were differentially modulated in time in response to a spatial-exploratory task after KA-induced hippocampal damage...
November 11, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813325/renoprotection-from-diabetic-complications-in-ove-transgenic-mice-by-endothelial-cell-specific-overexpression-of-metallothionein-a-tem-stereological-analysis
#11
LETTER
Edward C Carlson, Jennifer M Chhoun, Bryon D Grove, Donna I Laturnus, Shirong Zheng, Paul N Epstein, Yi Tan
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that OVE transgenic diabetic mice are susceptible to chronic complications of diabetic nephropathy (DN) including substantial oxidative damage to the renal glomerular filtration barrier (GFB). Importantly, the damage was mitigated significantly by overexpression of the powerful antioxidant, metallothionein (MT) in podocytes. METHODS: To test our hypothesis that GFB damage in OVE mice is the result of endothelial oxidative insult, a new JTMT transgenic mouse was designed in which MT overexpression was targeted specifically to endothelial cells...
November 4, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788294/streptozotocin-induced-maternal-hyperglycemia-increases-the-expression-of-antioxidant-enzymes-and-mast-cell-number-in-offspring-rat-ventral-prostate
#12
Ana C L Camargo, Sérgio A A Dos Santos, Jaqueline C Rinaldi, Flavia B Constantino, Ketlin T Colombelli, Wellerson R Scarano, Sérgio L Felisbino, Luis A Justulin
Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has increased in recent years. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in GDM-increased risk factors to offspring remained poorly understood, some studies suggested an association between an increase in oxidative stress induced by maternal hyperglycemia and complications for both mothers and newborns. Here, we investigated the impact of maternal hyperglycemia followed by maternal insulin replacement during lactation on the expression of antioxidant enzymes and mast cell number in offspring ventral prostate (VP) at puberty...
October 27, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788289/brachial-plexus-in-the-pampas-fox-lycalopex-gymnocercus-a-descriptive-and-comparative-analysis
#13
Paulo de Souza Junior, Natan da Cruz de Carvalho, Karine de Mattos, Marcelo Abidu Figueiredo, André Luiz Quagliatto Santos
Twenty thoracic limbs of ten Lycalopex gymnocercus were dissected to describe origin and distribution of the nerves forming brachial plexuses. The brachial plexus resulted from the connections between the ventral branches of the last three cervical nerves (C6, C7 and C8) and first thoracic nerve (T1). These branches connected the suprascapular, subscapular, axillary, musculocutaneous, radial, median and ulnar nerves to the intrinsic musculature and connected the brachiocephalic, thoracodorsal, lateral thoracic, long thoracic, cranial pectoral and caudal pectoral nerves to the extrinsic musculature...
October 27, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788285/trend-toward-individualization-of-the-endocrine-and-exocrine-portions-of-the-giant-anteater-pancreas-myrmecophaga-tridactyla-xenarthra
#14
Luciana Pedrosa Iglesias, Phelipe Oliveira Favaron, Jéssica Borghesi, Ana Claudia Oliveira Carreira, Maria Angelica Miglino, Alan Perez Ferraz de Melo
Considering the physiological importance of the pancreas as an endocrine and exocrine organ, this study described the characteristics of the gross and microscopic morphology of this organ using 16 Myrmecophaga tridactyla individuals. The pancreas was located in the left antimere of the body, was pale in colour and exhibited an elongated shape with a central body and lobulated surface. It was positioned in the abdomen, following the curvatura ventriculi major of the stomach, and was attached to the initial portion of the duodenum...
October 27, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788281/locomotor-hand-postures-carpal-kinematics-during-wrist-extension-and-associated-morphology-in-anthropoid-primates
#15
Caley M Orr
The biomechanics of wrist extension (or dorsiflexion) are important for understanding functional adaptation of the primate hand because extension mobility varies with habitual locomotor hand posture and facilitates certain manipulative tasks. Here, intercarpal kinematics are employed to investigate mechanisms underlying wrist extension in a sample of anthropoids representing various arboreal and terrestrial locomotor modes. Carpal kinematics are studied using computed-tomography of cadaveric forelimbs, and these data are combined with a morphometric analysis of biomechanically-informative anatomical features...
October 27, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779826/mystacial-whisker-layout-and-musculature-in-the-guinea-pig-cavia-porcellus-a-social-diurnal-mammal
#16
Robyn A Grant, Mariane G Delaunay, Sebastian Haidarliu
All mammals (apart from apes and humans) have whiskers that make use of a similar muscle arrangement. Whisker specialists, such as rats and mice, tend to be nocturnal and arboreal, relying on their whisker sense of touch to guide exploration around tree canopies at night. As such, nocturnal arboreal rodents have many whiskers that are organised into a grid-like pattern, and moved using a complex array of muscles. Indeed, most arboreal, nocturnal mammals tend to have specialised whiskers that are longer and arranged in a dense, regular grid, compared to terrestrial, diurnal mammals...
October 25, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775878/identification-and-expression-analysis-of-tryptophan-hydroxylase-in-the-brain-and-ventral-nerve-cord-of-ragworm-neanthes-japonica-polychaeta-annelida
#17
Shun Wang, Zhe Dong, Shen Li, Haotian Yin, Zhifu Zhao, Dongmei Gao, Guimin Ren, Xuexiang Bao
Tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) was stained in the central nervous system of the Neanthes japonica (Polychaeta, Annelida), using sheep anti-tryptophan hydroxylase antibody by the Streptavidin-Peroxidase immunohistochemical method and Colophony-Paraffin embedded section technique. The immunohistochemistry results revealed that the TPH is distributed in the brain and ventral nerve cord, which is consistent with that of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) that labeled by anti-serotonin antibody. Using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technique, TPH cDNA cloned from Neanthes japonica's central nervous system was 1778bp, which encodes predicted protein of 463 amino acid residues...
October 24, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770506/spermatogonia-germline-cells-and-testicular-organization-in-the-characiform-prochilodus-lineatus-studied-using-histological-stereological-and-morphometric-approaches
#18
Gisele Cristiane de Melo Dias, Mônica Cassel, Lázaro Wender Oliveira de Jesus, Sergio Ricardo Batlouni, Maria Inês Borella
Prochilodus lineatus is an important representative of the order Characiformes and a species that offers great advantages to fish farming. Therefore, detailed knowledge of its reproductive biology can be applied to various fields of production and biotechnology. In this study, we have identified testicular germ cells during spermatogenesis and have evaluated the volumetric proportion of the testes occupied by structures of the tubular and intertubular compartments. In addition, the individual volume of type A spermatogonia was measured and used to estimate the mean number of these cells per testis...
October 22, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762077/in-vivo-3d-analysis-of-thoracic-kinematics-changes-in-size-and-shape-during-breathing-and-their-implications-for-respiratory-function-in-recent-humans-and-fossil-hominins
#19
Markus Bastir, Daniel García-Martínez, Nicole Torres-Tamayo, Juan Alberto Sanchis-Gimeno, Paul O'Higgins, Cristina Utrilla, Isabel Torres Sánchez, Francisco García Río
The human ribcage expands and contracts during respiration as a result of the interaction between the morphology of the ribs, the costo-vertebral articulations and respiratory muscles. Variations in these factors are said to produce differences in the kinematics of the upper thorax and the lower thorax, but the extent and nature of any such differences and their functional implications have not yet been quantified. Applying geometric morphometrics we measured 402 three-dimensional (3D) landmarks and semilandmarks of 3D models built from computed tomographic scans of thoraces of 20 healthy adult subjects in maximal forced inspiration (FI) and expiration (FE)...
October 19, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741569/skin-of-the-red-eye-tree-frog-agalychnis-callidryas-hylidae-phyllomedusinae-contains-lipid-glands-of-the-type-described-in-the-genus-phyllomedusa
#20
Elisa Rota, Gianfranco Tanteri, Gilberto Montori, Filippo Giachi, Giovanni Delfino, David M Sever
Several anuran species of the genus Phyllomedusa are known to possess specialized cutaneous glands producing lipids and exhibit a peculiar wiping behavior. This behavior is a stereotyped repertory of fore and hind limb movements distributing hydrophobic molecules onto the body surface and reducing evaporative water loss. No reports are presently available on the occurrence of lipid glands in other phyllomedusine genera, and data on the structure of the secretory units specialized for the production of cutaneous lipids are still unclear...
October 14, 2016: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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