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Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30414250/actin-microridges
#1
Joseph A Depasquale
Microridges are highly distinctive "fingerprint"-patterned structures situated on the outer surface of superficial layer cells of the epithelium. An F-actin-based cytoskeleton is the underlying core structural component of microridges. The basis for much of what is known about microridges has been provided by in vivo and in vitro fish epithelial systems. Nonetheless the microridge literature is quite small, especially when compared with other actin-based cellular structures such as those involved in cell motility...
November 9, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412368/disruption-of-rhoa-rock-signaling-results-in-atrioventricular-block-and-disturbed-development-of-the-putative-atrioventricular-node
#2
Tim P Kelder, Rebecca Vicente-Steijn, Robert E Poelmann, Martin J Schalij, Marco C Deruiter, Monique R M Jongbloed, Adriana C Gittenberger-de Groot
The RHOA-ROCK signaling pathway is involved in numerous developmental processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. RHOA is expressed in the atrioventricular node (AVN) and altered expression of RHOA results in atrioventricular (AV) conduction disorders in mice. The current study aims to detect functional AVN disorders after disturbing RHOA-ROCK signaling in chicken embryos. RHOA-ROCK signaling was inhibited chemically by using the Rho-kinase inhibitor compound Y-27632 in avian embryos (20 experimental and 29 control embryos)...
November 9, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412364/dynamic-expression-profiles-of-sox9-in-embryonic-post-natal-and-adult-heart-valve-cell-populations
#3
Donika Gallina, Joy Lincoln
Heart valves are dynamic structures and abnormalities during embryonic development can lead to premature lethality or congenital malformations present at birth. The transcription factor Sox9 has been shown to be critical for early and late stages of valve formation, but its defined expression pattern throughout embryonic, post natal, and adult growth and maturation is incomplete. Here we use an antibody to detect 1-100 amino acids of Sox9 and show that in the developing embryo, Sox9 is not detected in valve endothelial cells (VECs) lining the primitive valve structures, but is highly expressed in the endothelial-derived valve interstitial cell population following endothelial-to-mesenchymal transformation...
November 9, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412363/overview-of-the-history-of-the-cranial-nerves-from-galen-to-the-21st-century
#4
M I Porras, A Peña, F Viejo, T Hernández, E Puelles, D Echevarria, J Sanudo
Throughout history the description and classification of the cranial nerves has been linked to the development and characteristics of anatomy and the role that it played as a tool in providing rationality to medicine, together with social, cultural, religious, and philosophical factors. Anatomists were interested in the cranial nerves, but they disagreed on their number and their paths. We can divide the history of the cranial nerves into three different periods: the first, early or macroscopic period; the second or microscopic period; and the third period or ontogenesis and genoarchitecture...
November 9, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412359/control-interventions-can-impact-alveolarization-and-the-transcriptome-in-developing-mouse-lungs
#5
Joshua Fehl, Agnieszka Pozarska, Claudio Nardiello, Philipp Rath, David E Surate Solaligue, István Vadász, Konstantin Mayer, Susanne Herold, Werner Seeger, Rory E Morty
There is currently much interest in understanding the mechanisms of normal and aberrant lung alveolarization, particularly in the context of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a common complication of preterm birth where alveolarization is impeded. To this end, the parenteral administration of pharmacological agents that modulate biochemical pathways, or facilitate modulation of gene expression in transgenic animals, has facilitated the discovery and validation of mechanisms that direct lung development. Such studies include control interventions, where the solvent vehicle, perhaps containing an inactive form of the agent applied, is administered; thereby providing a well-controlled point of reference for the analysis of the partner experiment...
November 9, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30412348/maximum-bony-gape-in-primates
#6
Ellen E I Fricano, Jonathan M G Perry
Maximum jaw gape has important functional implications for behavior and feeding habits in primates. It has been suggested that gape is correlated to canine height and ingested food size. Extending these correlations to the fossil record would provide insights about the diets and/or social behavior of extinct primates. However, this can be problematic due to uncertainty about size and location of musculature, and it depends on reliability and repeatability of maximum gape estimation using only skeletal elements...
November 9, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408340/remodeling-of-the-embryonic-interventricular-communication-in-regard-to-the-description-and-classification-of-ventricular-septal-defects
#7
Robert H Anderson, Diane E Spicer, Timothy J Mohun, Jill P J M Hikspoors, Wouter H Lamers
Ventricular septal defects are the commonest congenital cardiac malformations. It is axiomatic that appropriate knowledge of the steps involved in formation and completion of ventricular septation should provide clues as to the morphology of the different types of such defects. Currently, however, consensus is lacking regarding the components of the developing ventricular septum, and how best to describe the different phenotypes seen in postnatal life. In this review, therefore, we have re-assessed the previous investigations devoted to closure of the embryonic interventricular communication...
November 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408335/malformations-in-the-murine-kidney-caused-by-loss-of-cenp-f-function
#8
Chanell O Haley, Aoife M Waters, D M Bader
Centromere-binding protein F (CENP-F) is a large and complex protein shown to play critical roles in mitosis and various other interphase functions. Previous studies have shown that the disruption of CENP-F function leads to detrimental effects on human development. Still, it is important to note the lack of studies focusing on the effects that the loss of this essential protein may have on specific adult organs. In the current study, we used a novel global knockout murine model to analyze the potential consequences deletion of CENP-F has on adult kidney structure and function...
November 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408334/disparate-growth-strategies-within-aetosauria-novel-histologic-data-from-the-aetosaur-coahomasuchus-chathamensis
#9
Devin K Hoffman, Andrew B Heckert, Lindsay E Zanno
Aetosaurs comprise a clade of quadrupedal, armored, omnivores to herbivores that lived across much of the supercontinent of Pangea during the Late Triassic. Their relative abundance in many units, and the rarity of other Triassic herbivores, points to them as key components of Late Triassic ecosystems. Debate persists about whether they were growing more or less slowly when compared to extant crocodylians, and bone histology is sparsely sampled within the group. We undertook a histological examination of Coahomasuchus chathamensis in order to address its ontogenetic trajectory and characterize its histology...
November 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383337/morphological-features-of-the-glossopharyngeal-nerve-in-the-peripharyngeal-space-the-oropharynx-and-the-tongue
#10
Yujiro Sakamoto
The glossopharyngeal nerve comprises sensory, motor and parasympathetic fibers, and its problem results in several disorders. This study investigated the glossopharyngeal nerve to elucidate the characteristics of its extracranial course and branching pattern. The nerve and adjacent structures were gross anatomically examined in 32 cadavers. The glossopharyngeal nerve descended from the jugular foramen in the peripharyngeal space. It dodged between the carotid arteries and the internal jugular vein and distributed the carotid and pharyngeal branches that formed the plexus with the branches of the vagus and sympathetic nerves...
November 1, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30382612/different-glycoconjugate-content-in-mucus-secreting-cells-of-the-rat-fundic-gastric-glands
#11
Laura Gómez-Santos, Edurne Alonso, Lucio Díaz-Flores, Juan Francisco Madrid, Francisco José Sáez
The fundic glands of the stomach contain two types of mucous cells: surface mucous cells (SMCs) located at the surface of the stomach and the pits, and mucous neck cells (MNCs) situated in the neck of the glands. They produce mucins, highly glycosylated proteins. Very little is known about the glycan composition of these mucins and of gastric secretion in general. We used several lectins combined with deglycosylation pretreatments to analyze the glycan composition of SMCs and MNCs. The results showed the presence of terminal sialic acid and subterminal Gal and GalNAc, which is consistent with previous knowledge about glycosylation in mucins...
November 1, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378772/systematization-description-and-territory-of-the-middle-cerebral-rostral-and-cerebroethmoidal-arteries-on-the-surface-of-the-brain-of-the-ostrich-struthio-camelus
#12
M B Nazer, R Campos, J Voll
Thirty ostrich specimens were injected with red-dyed latex via the internal carotid arteries (Aa.) The middle cerebral and cerebroethmoidal arteries and their branches were systematized. The middle cerebral artery (a.) was always a single large vessel. On the right side, it had two, three or one developed medial hemispheric branches in 46.6%, 26.7% and 26.7% of cases, respectively. On the left side, one (36.7%), two (33.3%) and three (30%) developed medial hemispheric branches were observed. The middle cerebral artery had eight (40%), nine (20%), seven (16...
October 31, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378771/description-of-tooth-ontogeny-and-replacement-patterns-in-a-juvenile-tarbosaurus-bataar-dinosauria-theropoda-using-ct-scan-data
#13
Tomoya Hanai, Takanobu Tsuihiji
Teeth are continually replaced in most of non-mammalian gnathostomes to maintain their functional dentitions. To clarify the tooth replacement patterns in tyrannosaurid theropod dinosaurs, we examined well-preserved dentitions (both premaxillae, left maxilla, partial right maxilla, and both dentaries) of a juvenile Tarbosaurus bataar (MPC-D 107/7) using X-ray computed tomographic (CT) imaging. Three-dimensional (3D) rendering of the dentitions and staging of replacement teeth allowed quantitative analyses of the tooth ontogeny and replacement patterns in this specimen...
October 31, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378769/the-neuropilin-1-ligand-sema3a-acts-as-a-tumor-suppressor-in-the-pathogenesis-of-acute-leukemia
#14
Zhi-Gang Yang, Rui-Ting Wen, Kai Qi, Jun Li, Gui-Xian Zheng, Yu-Feng Wang, Yun-Guang Hong, Yu-Ming Zhang
Semaphorin-3A (Sema3A) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF165) are ligands of neuropilin-1 (NRP-1 or CD304) and are related to immunoregulation and tumor angiogenesis, respectively. However, possible interactions between NRP-1 and Sema3A and VEGF165 in acute leukemia remain unclear, especially whether Sema3A plays a role in acute leukemia. In this study, both of the proportion of regulatory T cells (Tregs) and their expression of NRP-1 were found to increase in acute leukemia patients compared with healthy controls...
October 31, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378297/study-on-the-role-of-histochemical-stains-in-identifying-merkel-cells-in-dogs
#15
Gustavo A Ramírez, Antonio Espinosa de Los Monteros
Merkel cells (MCs) are neuroendocrine cells involved with tactile sense, growth, differentiation and homeostasis of the skin as well as in different cutaneous diseases. Specific staining techniques are required for their identification because they are not easily visible in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The present study assess the histochemical features of the MCs in dogs comparing with those described for other mammals in the literature and with the use of immunohistochemistry. A systematic study of samples from MCs-rich areas from healthy dogs was carried out by use of several histologic stains, including metachromatic staining, silver stains, methylene blue, periodic acid-Schiff stain, and osmium-based staining method...
October 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30378275/ghrelin-and-nucb2-nesfatin-1-co-localization-with-digestive-enzymes-in-the-intestine-of-pejerrey-odontesthes-bonariensis
#16
Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Aida Sánchez-Bretaño, Suraj Unniappan, Luis Fabián Canosa
Ghrelin (orexigenic) and nesfatin-1 (anorexigenic) are two peptides with opposite actions on food intake regulation and are mainly expressed in the hypothalamus and gut form mammals and fish. Both are involved in the regulation of a wide range of physiological processes in vertebrates, including metabolism, growth and reproduction. However, the anatomical relationship between these peptides and the nutrient assimilation processes are not well understood. Thus, the aim of this work was to determine the localization of ghrelin, nesfatin-1 and several enzymes involved in the digestive process (lipoprotein lipase, aminopeptidase A, trypsin and sucrase-isomaltase) in the intestine of pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis), a species with commercial importance in South America...
October 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30376699/characteristics-of-muscle-fiber-type-distribution-in-moles
#17
Hiroshi Ichikawa, Taiki Matsuo, Yasuo Higurashi, Hiroshi Nagahisa, Hirofumi Miyata, Takao Sugiura, Naomi Wada
Moles are a strictly fossorial Soricomorpha species and possess a suite of specialized adaptations to subterranean life. However, the contractile function of skeletal muscles in moles remains unclear. We compared muscle fiber type distribution in two mole species (the large Japanese mole and lesser Japanese mole) with that in four other Soricomorpha species that are semi-fossorial, terrestrial, or semi-aquatic (the Japanese shrew-mole, House shrew, Japanese white-toothed shrew, and Japanese water shrew). For a single species, the fiber type distribution in up to 38 muscles was assessed using immunohistochemical staining and/or gel electrophoresis...
October 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30369084/tet2-mediated-spatiotemporal-changes-of-5-hydroxymethylcytosine-during-organogenesis-in-the-late-mouse-fetus
#18
Xiangjun Li, Fangfang Xie, Junfeng Jin, Yuqiong Wu, Ziwei Luo, Fengxue Zhang, Saixia Zhang, Dongfeng Chen, Aijun Liu
Genomic DNA demethylation is important for mammalian embryonic development and organ function. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is considered a novel epigenetic marker. Ten-eleven translocation (TET) enzymes convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5hmC. To explore the dynamic changes of epigenetic modifications during organogenesis in the late mouse fetus, the regional distribution and histological localization of 5hmC and TET enzymes was investigated by immunohistochemical method. The liver of mouse fetus gradually matured from embryonic day (E) 12...
October 28, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30369075/the-influence-of-leaping-frequency-on-secondary-bone-in-cercopithecid-primates
#19
Susan E Lad, James D Pampush, W Scott McGraw, David J Daegling
Bone remodeling is at least partially mediated by the mechanical environment created by an animal's behavior. Here, we test the hypothesis that bone remodeling is primarily induced by high magnitude loads, likely encountered during leaping/bounding behaviors. Osteon population density (OPD), osteon cross-sectional area (On.Ar), and relative osteonal area (%HAV) were measured from femoral and humeral midshaft thin sections of four cercopithecids (N = 5 per species) from Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire: Colobus polykomos, Piliocolobus badius, Cercopithecus diana, and Cercocebus atys...
October 28, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30369073/biomechanical-study-of-the-development-of-long-bones-finite-element-structure-synthesis-of-the-human-second-proximal-phalanx-under-growth-conditions
#20
Andreas Lipphaus, Ulrich Witzel
Torsional loads are a possible mechanical explanation for the architecture of long bone. Finite element structure synthesis (FESS) has previously successfully been used as a deductive technique using Wolff's Law by applying expected loads to an unspecific homogeneous solid and eliminating stress free parts to verify muscle forces. The extended approach presented in this paper includes further mechanobiological rules to model the development from a cartilage model to a finger bone. In contrast to former computational models, simulation of processes leading to both external growth and internal differentiation are included...
October 28, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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