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Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752872/functional-neuroimaging-of-nociceptive-and-pain-related-activity-in-the-spinal-cord-and-brain-insights-from-neurovascular-coupling-studies
#1
Thierry Paquette, Renaud Jeffrey-Gauthier, Hugues Leblond, Mathieu Piché
Spinal cord and brain processes underlie pain perception, which produces systemic cardiovascular changes. In turn, the autonomic nervous system regulates vascular function in the spinal cord and brain in order to adapt to these systemic changes, while neuronal activity induces local vascular changes. Thus, autonomic regulation and pain processes in the brain and spinal cord are tightly linked and interrelated. The objective of this topical review is to discuss work on neurovascular coupling during nociceptive processing in order to highlight supporting evidence and limitations for the use of cerebral and spinal fMRI to investigate pain mechanisms and spinal nociceptive processes...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752870/morphological-and-cellular-characterization-of-the-fetal-canine-canis-lupus-familiaris-subventricular-zone-rostral-migratory-stream-and-olfactory-bulb
#2
Dailiany Orechio, Bruna Andrade Aguiar, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Carlos A Haemmerle, Ii-Sei Watanabe, Maria Angelica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
The existence of neurogenesis in the adult brain is a widely recognized phenomenon, occurring in the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles and the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in several vertebrate species. Neural precursors originated in the SVZ migrate to the main olfactory bulb (MOB), originating the rostral migratory stream (RMS) in the process. To better understand the formation of the adult neurogenic niches in dogs, we investigated the cellular composition and morphological organization of these areas in 57 days-old dog fetuses...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752865/anti-arthritic-effects-of-sorafenib-in-rats-with-adjuvant-induced-arthritis
#3
Zhen-Zhen Wang, Fei Liu, Yong-Fang Gong, Tian-Yu Huang, Xiao-Ming Zhang, Xue-Ying Huanga
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the synovial membrane of joints. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether sorafenib exerts anti-arthritic effects on RA in vivo. Adjuvant arthritis (AA) was induced (day 0) in male Sprague-Dawley rats by intradermal injection of 0.1 ml of complete Freund's complete adjuvant into the left hind paw. Sorafenib (10, 20, or 40 mg/kg/day) was administered intragastrically from day 10 to 24. Body weight, paw volume, synovial inflammation, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-10, and IL-17 serum levels were detected...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752863/3d-mri-modeling-of-thin-and-spatially-complex-soft-tissue-structures-without-shrinkage-lamprey-myosepta-as-an-example
#4
Bradley M Wood, Guang Jia, Owen Carmichael, Kevin McKlveen, Dominique G Homberger
3D imaging techniques enable the non-destructive analysis and modeling of complex structures. Among these, MRI exhibits good soft tissue contrast, but is currently less commonly used for non-clinical research than x-ray CT, even though the latter requires contrast-staining that shrinks and distorts soft tissues. When the objective is the creation of a realistic and complete 3D model of soft tissue structures, MRI data are more demanding to acquire and visualize and require extensive post-processing because they comprise non-cubic voxels with dimensions that represent a trade-off between tissue contrast and image resolution...
May 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740965/comparative-evaluation-of-chitosan-nerve-guides-with-regular-or-increased-bendability-for-acute-and-delayed-peripheral-nerve-repair-a-comprehensive-comparison-with-autologous-nerve-grafts-and-muscle-in-vein-grafts
#5
Maria Stößel, Vivien M Wildhagen, Olaf Helmecke, Jennifer Metzen, Charlotte B Pfund, Thomas Freier, Kirsten Haastert-Talini
Reconstruction of joint-crossing digital nerves requires the application of nerve guides with a much higher flexibility than used for peripheral nerve repair along larger bones. Nevertheless, collapse-resistance should be preserved to avoid secondary damage to the regrowing nerve tissue. In recent years, we presented chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) to be highly supportive for the regeneration of critical gap length peripheral nerve defects in the rat. Now, we evidently increased the bendability of regular CNGs (regCNGs) by developing a wavy wall structure, that is, corrugated CNGs (corrCNGs)...
May 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740961/expression-of-regeneration-associated-proteins-in-primary-sensory-neurons-and-regenerating-axons-after-nerve-injury-an-overview
#6
Petr Dubový, Ilona Klusáková, Ivana Hradilová-Svíženská, Marek Joukal
Peripheral nerve injury results in profound alterations of the affected neurons resulting from the interplay between intrinsic and extrinsic molecular events. Restarting the neuronal regenerative program is an important prerequisite for functional recovery of the injured peripheral nerve. The primary sensory neurons with their cell bodies in the dorsal root ganglia provide a useful in vivo and in vitro model for studying the mechanisms that regulate intrinsic neuronal regeneration capacity following axotomy...
May 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729220/post-hatching-growth-of-the-pectoralis-muscle-in-pigeon-and-its-functional-implications
#7
Xinxin Liang, Jiali Yu, Huan Wang, Zihui Zhang
The avian pectoralis muscle is responsible for the wing's downstroke, which provides birds with lift and thrust for flight. In the present study, architectural parameters were investigated through growth in the pigeon (Columba livia), an altricial bird species, from the ages of 4 days to 12 months, in order to assess the morphological changes and effects of increasing body mass. Muscle mass, fascicle length, and physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) increased with strong positive allometry. As an indicator of force production capacity, the PCSA increased 30-fold with the changes in body mass; it grew rapidly during the nesting period and post-fledging period into sexual maturity...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729218/neonatal-growth-restriction-slows-cardiomyocyte-development-and-reduces-adult-heart-size
#8
Madeline H Knott, Sarah E Haskell, Payton E Strawser, Olivia M Rice, Natalie T Bonthius, Vani C Movva, Benjamin E Reinking, Robert D Roghair
OBJECTIVES: Prematurity is associated with reduced cardiac dimensions and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. While prematurity is typically associated with ex utero neonatal growth restriction (GR), the independent effect of neonatal GR on cardiac development has not been established. We tested the hypothesis that isolated neonatal GR decreases cardiomyocyte growth and proliferation, leading to long-term alterations in cardiac morphology. METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fostered in litters ranging in size from 6 to 12 pups to accentuate normal variation in neonatal growth...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729212/nerve-regeneration-in-conditions-of-hsv-infection-and-an-antiviral-drug-influence
#9
Alla Gumenyuk, Svetlana Rybalko, Alona Ryzha, Sergey Savosko, Dmytro Labudzynskyi, Natalia Levchuk, Yuri Chaikovsky
Herpes simplex virus type I (HSV-I) is a latent neuroinfection which can cause focal brain lesion. The role of HSV-infection in nerve regeneration has not been studied so far. The aim of the work was to study sciatic nerve regeneration in the presence of HSV-infection and the influence of an antiviral drug. BALB/c line mice were divided into five groups. Group 1 animals were infected with HSV-I. After resolution of neuroinfection manifestations the sciatic nerve of these animals was crushed. Group 2 mice were administered acyclovir following the same procedures...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729209/gaze-stability-dynamic-balance-and-participation-deficits-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-at-fall-risk
#10
Hina Garg, Leland E Dibble, Michael C Schubert, Jim Sibthorp, K Bo Foreman, Eduard Gappmaier
Despite the common complaints of dizziness and demyelination of afferent or efferent pathways to and from the vestibular nuclei which may adversely affect the angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (aVOR) and vestibulo-spinal function in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS), few studies have examined gaze and dynamic balance function in PwMS. OBJECTIVES: 1) Determine the differences in gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation measures between PwMS and controls, 2) Examine the relationships between gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710430/the-nasal-cavity-of-the-rat-and-mouse-source-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-treatment-of-peripheral-nerve-injury
#11
Rui Damásio Alvites, Ana Rita Caseiro, Sílvia Santos Pedrosa, Mariana Esteves Vieira, Artur S P Varejão, Ana Colette Maurício
The nasal cavity performs several crucial functions in mammals, including rodents, being involved in respiration, behavior, reproduction and olfaction. Its anatomical structure is complex and divided into several regions, including the olfactory recess where the olfactory mucosa is located and where the capture and interaction with the environmental odorants occurs. Among the cells of this region are the olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells, whose location raises the possibility that these cells could be involved in the peculiar ability of the olfactory nerve to regenerate continuously throughout life, although this relationship has not yet been confirmed...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710422/minocycline-does-not-reduce-the-regenerative-capacity-of-peripheral-motor-and-sensory-neurons-after-a-conditioning-injury-in-mice
#12
I Sanchez-Brualla, A Calls-Cobos, E Udina
Minocycline has been reported to be both beneficial and detrimental for nerve regeneration after peripheral nerve injury. By reducing the inflammatory response, minocycline administration reduces pain and has neuroprotective effects, but it also inhibits Wallerian degeneration in the distal stump, and reduces microglia and macrophages activity on motor and sensory neurons, which could reduce their intrinsic regenerative capacity. The aim of this study was to determine if the administration of minocycline after nerve injury inhibits the regenerative capacity of motoneurons and sensory neurons after a conditioning lesion...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710417/evaluation-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-and-its-family-member-expression-after-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-and-denervation
#13
L Muratori, S Gnavi, F Fregnan, A Mancardi, S Raimondo, I Perroteau, S Geuna
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) represents one of the main factor involved not only in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis but also in neuritogenesis, VEGF plays its function acting via different receptors: VEGF receptor1 (VEGFR-1), VEGF receptor2 (VEGFR-2), VEGF receptor3 (VEGFR-3) and co-receptors Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) and Neuropilin-2 (NRP2). This study reports on the first in vivo analysis of the expression of VEGF and VEGF family molecules in peripheral nerve degeneration and regeneration: for this purpose, different model of nerve lesion in rat were adopted, the median nerve crush injury and the median nerve transaction followed or not by end-to end microsurgical repair...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710414/combined-influence-of-gelatin-fibre-topography-and-growth-factors-on-cultured-dorsal-root-ganglia-neurons
#14
Sara Gnavi, Michela Morano, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Claudio Riccobono, Chiara Tonda-Turo, Marco Zanetti, Gianluca Ciardelli, Giovanna Gambarotta, Isabelle Perroteau, Stefano Geuna, Stefania Raimondo
Nerve guidance channels facilitate nerve regeneration and represent an attractive alternative to nerve graft. Actually, nano- and micro-structured biomaterials for nerve reconstruction have gained much attention, thanks to recent discoveries about topography effects on cell behaviour and morphology. Electrospun fibres have been proposed as filler or structural component for nerve guidance channels, principally due to their similarity with extracellular matrices which facilitate nerve regeneration. Among several tested biomaterials, gelatin has been used to prepare fibres able to support Schwann cell migration and neurite outgrowth...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710409/papillary-architecture-and-functional-characterization-of-mucosubstances-in-the-sheep-tongue
#15
Serkan Erdoğan, Hakan Sağsöz
This research aimed to reveal the general morphology and topographic distribution of lingual papillae, epithelial characteristics, mucosal structure, and glands with their mucin content in the sheep tongue, with consideration of species-specific characteristics. The tongues of ten sheep were analyzed for this purpose. Filiform and fungiform papillae existed within the borders of the ventral surface of the lingual apex. The majority of the filiform papillae had multiple secondary projections. Fungiform papillae were also seen on the lingual torus among lenticular papillae, as well as 6 to 10 circumvallate papillae arranged on its caudal border...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710394/adipose-derived-stem-cells-reduce-fibrosis-and-promote-nerve-regeneration-in-rats
#16
Pietro G di Summa, Luigi Schiraldi, Mario Cherubino, Carlo M Oranges, Daniel F Kalbermatten, Wassim Raffoul, Srinivas Madduri
Peripheral nerve regeneration is critical and challenging in the adult humans. High level of collagen infiltration (i.e., scar tissue), in the niche of injury, impedes axonal regeneration and path finding. Unfortunately, studies focusing on the modulation of scar tissue in the nerves are scarce. To address part of this problem, we have evaluated the differentiated adipose derived stem cells (dASCs) for their anti-fibrotic and regenerative effects in a 10 mm nerve gap model in rats. Three different animal groups (n=5) were treated with fibrin nerve conduits (empty), or seeded with dASCs (F+dASCs) and autograft respectively...
April 30, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698581/segmental-analysis-of-the-vestibular-nerve-and-the-efferents-of-the-vestibular-complex
#17
Carmen Díaz, Luis Puelles
Use of a segmental approach in the study of vestibular centers in the hindbrain improves morphological and functional understanding of this region controlled by Hox genes, among other molecular determinants. Here we review accrued data about segmental organization of vestibular afferents and efferents. Inner ear-originated vestibular fibers enter the hindbrain, together with auditory ones, through the alar plate of rhombomere 4, then branch into descending and ascending branches to reach appropriate vestibular nuclei along the vestibular column...
April 26, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698579/regulation-of-integrated-stress-response-sensitizes-u87mg-glioblastoma-cells-to-temozolomide-through-the-mitochondrial-apoptosis-pathway
#18
Yichun He, Hao Meng, Linghua Fan, Huadan Xu, Zijian Zhou, Bo Xu, Liankun Sun, Yufei Gao
Glioblastomas are the most frequently diagnosed and worst primary malignancy of the central nervous system, with very poor prognosis. The first-line anti-glioma drug temozolomide shows decreasing therapeutic efficacy as treatment progresses. As the integrated stress response (ISR) may be a resistance factor and severe stress might transform the protective effect of the ISR into a damage effect, pharmacological regulation of ISR may be an effective way to sensitize glioma to temozolomide. The aim of the present study was to investigate the mechanisms of the ISR in regulating the therapeutic effect of temozolomide in the human glioblastoma multiforme cell line U87MG...
April 26, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682905/novel-imaging-modalities-for-human-embryology-and-applications-in-education
#19
Shigehito Yamada, Shiori Nakano, Haruyuki Makishima, Tamaki Motoki
Advances in imaging technology and development have recently enabled high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) imaging of embryos and fetuses. Embryos and fetuses stored at the Congenital Anomaly Research Center (Kyoto Collection of Human Embryos, Kyoto, Japan) were imaged using multiple modalities including magnetic resonance imaging, episcopic fluorescence image capture, and X-ray computed tomography, both in absorption and phase-contrasted configurations. Using the acquired images, 3D computer graphics were generated and a movie was created to gain further insight into understanding the developmental process...
April 23, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682894/3d-analysis-of-human-embryos-and-fetuses-using-digitized-datasets-from-the-kyoto-collection
#20
Tetsuya Takakuwa
Three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the human embryonic and early-fetal period has been performed using digitized datasets obtained from the Kyoto Collection, in which the digital datasets play a primary role in research. Datasets include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquired with 1.5 T, 2.35 T, and 7 T magnet systems, phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography (CT), and digitized histological serial sections. Large, high-resolution datasets covering a broad range of developmental periods obtained with various methods of acquisition are key elements for the studies...
April 23, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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