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Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150987/therapeutic-effect-of-curcumin-and-methylprednisolone-in-the-rat-spinal-cord-injury
#1
Xuehong Liu, Yong Zhang, Yang Yang, Jingquan Lin, Xue Huo, Xiaoxue Du, Benson O A Botchway, Marong Fang
In addition to imperiling an individual's daily life, spinal cord injury (SCI), a catastrophic medical damage, can permanently impair an individual's body function. Methylprednisolone (MP), a medically accepted therapeutic drug for SCI, is highly controversial for the lack of consensus on its true therapeutic effect. In recent years, curcumin has served as a potential and novel therapeutic drug in SCI. Our study was intended to investigate the precise effect of MP and curcumin in SCI. We examined the function of MP and curcumin in a SCI model rat, both in vivo and in vitro, and found that there was a momentous improvement in Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) scores in the MP-treated group when compared to Cur-treated group within 14 days...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150983/ontogeny-of-the-post-cranial-axial-skeleton-of-melanosuchus-niger-crocodylia-alligatoridae
#2
Lucélia Gonçalves Vieira, Fabiano Campos Lima, Sônia Helena Santesso Teixeira de Mendonça, Lorena Tannús Menezes Dos Reis, Líria Queiroz Luz Hirano, André Luiz Quagliatto Santos
This study proposes the description of the development of the post-cranial axial skeleton, including vertebrae, gastralium, ribs, sternum and interclavicle, in Melanosuchus niger. Six nests were marked and two eggs removed from each nest at 24-hour intervals until hatching. For post-hatching evaluation, 30 hatchlings were kept in captivity and one exemplar was euthanized at three-day intervals. Samples were diaphanized using potassium hydroxide (KOH), alizarin red S and Alcian blue. A routinely generally used method was applied for histological evaluation...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150982/visualization-within-the-ventricles-of-the-brain-a-micro-focus-x-ray-study
#3
Edwin John de Jager, André Francois du Plessis, Jakobus Willem Hoffman, Anna Catherina Oettlé, Marius Casparus Bosman
Conceptualization of the ventricular system of the brain by macroscopic studies is complicated by the lack of physical structure of these interconnected cavities. Dissection procedures designed to display the structures in the walls of the ventricles are destructive and not conducive for the appreciation of the ventricular system in its entirety. The application of Micro-focus X-ray tomography affords the possibility to appreciate hidden structures in a non-destructive manner. The aim of this study was to explore the possibility of using micro-focus X-ray tomography in the three-dimensional (3D) visualization of the ventricular system as well as the various neuroanatomical structures within its walls for educational purposes...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150977/the-cellular-composition-and-glia-neuron-ratio-in-the-spinal-cord-of-a-human-and-a-non-human-primate-comparison-with-other-species-and-brain-regions
#4
Jami Bahney, Christopher S von Bartheld
The cellular composition of brains shows largely conserved, gradual evolutionary trends between species. In the primate spinal cord, however, the glia-neuron ratio was reported to be greatly increased over that in the rodent spinal cord. Here, we re-examined the cellular composition of the spinal cord of one human and one non-human primate species by employing two different counting methods, the isotropic fractionator and stereology. We also determined whether segmental differences in cellular composition, possibly reflecting increased fine motor control of the upper extremities, may explain a sharply increased glia-neuron ratio in primates...
November 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149775/lentiviral-vectors-and-adeno-associated-virus-vectors-useful-tools-for-gene-transfer-in-pain-research
#5
REVIEW
Zheng Chen-Xi, Wang Sheng-Ming, Bai Yun-Hu, Luo Ting-Ting, Wang Jia-Qi, Dai Chun-Qiu, Guo Bao-Lin, Luo Shi-Cheng, Wang Dong-Hui, Yang Yan-Ling, Wang Ya-Yun
Pain, especially chronic pain, has always been a heated point in both basic and clinical researches since it puts heavy burdens on both individuals and the whole society. A better understanding of the role of biological molecules and various ionic channels involved in pain can shed light on the mechanism under pain and advocate the development of pain management. Using viral vectors to transfer specific genes at targeted sites is a promising method for both research and clinical applications. Lentiviral vectors and adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors which allow stable and long-term expression of transgene in non-dividing cells are widely applied in pain research...
November 17, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149773/war-horse-whistlejacket-and-an-anatomist
#6
LETTER
Kun Hwang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 17, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149771/hoxc13-and-hsp27-expression-in-skin-and-the-periodic-growth-of-secondary-fiber-follicles-from-longdong-cashmere-goats-raised-in-different-production-systems
#7
Jiqing Wang, Ping Yu, Haifang Wang, Yanyu He
This experiment was conducted to identify periodic changes in secondary follicles (SFs) over one year of extensive (grazed) and intensive (housed and fed supplement) farming of Longdong cashmere goats. One-year old goats (n = 24, 12 extensively fed and 12 intensively fed) were studied. The diameter, depth, density, activity, and ultra-structural features of SFs were assessed using light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). HOXC13 and HSP27 expression were studied using immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence method...
November 17, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059718/the-first-record-of-incidences-of-ankylosis-in-seven-triplefin-fishes-pisces-tripterygiidae-from-new-zealand
#8
Laith A Jawad
Different cases of vertebral ankylosis were examined in seven tripterygiid species obtained from waters around New Zealand. The skeletal deformities observed are located in the caudal region of the vertebral column. Those occurred in Forsterygion nigripenne, Matanui bathytaton and in one specimen of Ruanoho whero were severe cases. The mechanism of the formation of vertebral ankylosis and the causes behind such anomaly were discussed. Further studies are needed to relate specific pollutants with the observed types of deformities...
October 23, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059716/morphological-characterization-of-the-myenteric-plexus-of-the-ileum-and-distal-colon-of-dogs-affected-by-muscular-dystrophy
#9
Bárbara Tavares Schäfer, Mariana Póvoa Silveira, Kelly Palombit, Cristina Eusébio Mendes, Ii Sei Watanabe, Maria Angélica Miglino, Patricia Castelucci
Duchenne-like muscular dystrophy (canine dystrophinopathy) is a hereditary degenerative disease characterized by muscle changes similar to those described for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) and by alterations in the smooth muscles of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Some authors have suggested that these abnormalities may be associated with intestinal motility. This study analyzed the nitrergic and cholinergic neurons and P2X7 receptor expression in the myenteric plexus of the ileum and distal colon of dogs with muscular dystrophy...
October 23, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059706/pacinian-corpuscles-in-the-human-fetal-finger-and-thumb-a-study-using-3d-reconstruction-and-immunohistochemistry
#10
Ji Hyun Kim, Channy Park, Xiaopeng Yang, Gen Murakami, Hiroshi Abe, Shunichi Shibata
The detailed distribution of Pacinian corpuscles was evaluated by viewing the transverse sections of all fingers and thumbs, including the interdigital areas, from eight hands of five fetuses of gestational age 28-33 weeks (crown-rump length 230-290 mm). Among the 40 fingers and thumbs, serial sections were prepared for 3D reconstructions of nerve elements in the distal and middle phalangeal segments of three fifth fingers; in these three fingers, the distal segment contained 45-75 Pacinian corpuscles. These Pacinian corpuscles were 0...
October 23, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055969/asymmetry-in-the-cortical-and-trabecular-bone-of-the-human-humerus-during-development
#11
Bernadette Perchalski, Arielle Placke, Simone M Sukhdeo, Colin N Shaw, James H Gosman, David A Raichlen, Timothy M Ryan
Many studies have noted that the bones of the human upper limb display bilateral asymmetry, commonly linking this asymmetry in external and internal morphology to handedness and lateralization. Few studies, however, have attempted to track asymmetry throughout ontogeny. This study assesses the ontogenetic development of cortical and trabecular bone asymmetry in the humerus. We predict that directional asymmetry in structural properties will emerge in concert with hand preference and increased activity levels during the juvenile period...
October 22, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048776/jackie-robinson-the-anatomical-record-and-the-gift-of-building-bridges
#12
EDITORIAL
Jeffrey T Laitman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034606/do-mid-crown-enamel-formation-front-angles-reflect-factors-linked-to-the-pace-of-primate-growth-and-development
#13
Debbie Guatelli-Steinberg, James D Pampush, Mackie C O'Hara, Song Xing, W Scott McGraw, Rebecca J Ferrell
Enamel formation front (EFF) angles represent the leading edge of enamel matrix secretion at particular points in time. These angles are influenced by rates of enamel extension (the rates at which tooth crowns grow in height), rates of enamel matrix secretion and the angles that prisms make with the enamel-dentine junction. Previous research suggests, but has not yet established, that these angles reflect aspects of primate biology related to their pace of growth and development, most notably brain and body size...
October 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024578/morpho-functional-features-of-the-gonads-of-danio-rerio-the-role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#14
Pietro Cacialli, Livia D'Angelo, Paolo de Girolamo, Luigi Avallone, Carla Lucini, Elisabeth Pellegrini, Luciana Castaldo
Zebrafish, a suitable and widely used teleost fish model in basic biomedical research, displays morphophysiological features of adult gonads that share some commonalities with those of mammalian species. In mammals, gametogenesis is regulated, among several factors, by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). This neurotrophin has a well-established role in the developing and adult nervous system, as well as gonads development and functions in vertebrate species. We hypothesize that BDNF has a role also in the gonadal functions of zebrafish...
October 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024547/equine-endometrial-explants-undergo-significant-degenerative-changes-in-culture
#15
Rose Schwinghamer, Alessandro Massolo, Cameron Knight, Claudia Klein
The current study evaluated equine endometrial explants following 12, 24, and 48 hours in culture. Measurement of an indicator of cell death in explant supernatant, light microscopy, and gene expression of biomarkers of endometrial function and cellular stress, were used to compare the effect of six different media on explant viability and morphology. Viability of explants was assessed indirectly through measuring LDH activity in the culture supernatant. Regardless of culture medium composition, a significant increase in LDH activity was observed within 12 hours of culture, indicating occurrence of cell damage...
October 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024541/development-and-assessment-of-fully-automated-and-globally-transitive-geometric-morphometric-methods-with-application-to-a-biological-comparative-dataset-with-high-interspecific-variation
#16
Tingran Gao, Gabriel S Yapuncich, Ingrid Daubechies, Sayan Mukherjee, Doug M Boyer
Automated geometric morphometric methods are promising tools for shape analysis in comparative biology, improving researchers' abilities to quantify variation extensively (by permitting more specimens to be analyzed) and intensively (by characterizing shapes with greater fidelity). Although use of these methods has increased, published automated methods have some notable limitations: pairwise correspondences are frequently inaccurate and pairwise mappings are not globally consistent (i.e., they lack transitivity across the full sample)...
October 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024517/germ-cell-migration-proliferation-and-differentiation-during-gonadal-morphogenesis-in-all-female-japanese-flounder-paralichthys-olivaceus
#17
Yang Yang, Qinghua Liu, Yongshuang Xiao, Xueying Wang, Hao An, Zongcheng Song, Feng You, Yanfeng Wang, Daoyuan Ma, Jun Li
In this study, all genetic female(XX)broods of Japanese flounder were produced artificially by mating the females with sex-reversed males. The proliferation and migration of primordial germ cells (PGCs), formation of ovary and oogenesis were described in detail. After hatching, around 20 individual PGCs migrated from the lateral to the dorsal of trunk region. At 15 days post hatching (dph), a part of PGCs were covered by a single layer somatic cells and formed the genital ridge. By 22 dph, the elongated gonadal primordia appeared under the ventral kidney, where the PGCs were totally enclosed by somatic cells...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024511/the-relationship-between-linear-osteological-and-radiographic-measurements-of-the-human-calcaneus-and-talus
#18
David Agoada
Plain radiographs of the foot are a common form of examination in individuals when medical evaluation is indicated. Their availability makes them useful for studying human variation where large sample sizes are crucial. Calcaneal and talar morphology are critical in the understanding of human foot form and function, but few studies have examined the accuracy of linear measurements of these bones taken from radiographs. If linear measurements are to be used in quantitative analysis, their accuracy must first be demonstrated...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024479/partite-hallux-sesamoid-bones-relationship-with-sesamoid-bones-at-other-metatarsophalangeal-joints
#19
Tao Sun, Haitao Zhao, Lingxiang Wang, Wenjuan Wu
Introduction - Partite hallux sesamoids are clinically meaningful but their association with other sesamoids is not clear. The objective was to relate the prevalence of the partite hallux sesamoid bones to sesamoid bones at other metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints. Methods - We conducted a retrospective review of plain radiographs of 7946 adult feet between November 2005 and September 2012 in order to identify partite hallux sesamoids and sesamoids at other MTP joints. Coexistence patterns of the partition and extra sesamoids were studied...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024431/the-cytoarchitecture-of-the-telencephalon-of-betta-splendens-regan-1910-perciformes-anabantoidei-with-a-stereological-approach-to-the-supracommissural-and-postcommissural-nuclei
#20
Ângelo Cássio Magalhães Horn, Alberto A Rasia-Filho
Teleostean fish brains are useful models to study cellular and functional specializations along the phylogenesis. The Betta splendens Regan 1910 (Siamese fighting fish; Perciformes:Anabantoidei) is known for its aggressive display, courtship behavior, nest building, and offspring care. Here, we present novel and detailed data about the cytoarchitecture of the olfactory bulb and the telencephalic hemispheres of this fish. The hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl techniques served to identify brain nuclei (n = 19 males and n = 21 females) and for the stereological evaluation of the numerical density of cells and the proportion of neurons and glial cells in the ventral telencephalon supracommissural (Vs) and postcommissural (Vp) nuclei of adult males and females...
October 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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