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Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317283/radiological-and-microsurgical-anatomy-for-variation-of-the-mandible-comparative-study-of-human-and-macaca-fascicularis
#1
Joe Iwanaga, Koichi Watanabe, Tsuyoshi Saga, Yoko Tabira, Eishi Hirasaki, Christian Fisahn, R Shane Tubbs, Jingo Kusukawa, Koh-Ichi Yamaki
Recent studies using cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT) have added to our understanding of anatomical variation in the mandible of humans. However, the distribution of nerves cannot be revealed by CBCT. There have been investigations of the distribution of nerves relating to the mandible, but some proposed causes of these variations remain controversial. In this study, we observed a total of 10 sides from five mandibles of Macaca fascicularis of unknown age and sex using CBCT and dissection under stereomicroscopy...
March 20, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296336/a-comprehensive-study-of-palate-development-in-miniature-pig
#2
Lindong Sun, Jiangyi Wang, Huina Liu, Zhipeng Fan, Songlin Wang, Juan Du
Palate development is an important morphogenetic event in facial development, including the fusion of the lateral and medial nasal portions of the frontonasal process and maxilla. Derailments of any of these events may result in cleft palate, the most frequent congenital craniofacial abnormality. Recent research has shown that the microanatomy of the miniature pig oral maxillofacial region is quite similar to that of humans, and the use of miniature pigs as a large animal model for dental and orofacial research is increasing...
March 15, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296289/congenital-anatomical-variant-of-the-clavicle
#3
Joan Viciano, Vincenzo Urbani, Ruggero D'Anastasio
The aim of this study is to present a rare abnormality of the clavicle (Code: SGS01) that was discovered in an ossuary in the Church of San Gaetano (Sulmona, central Italy; XVII-XIX centuries CE). In the middle third, the clavicle had three areas with losses of substance in the form of oval-shaped foramina with maximum diameters of 1-2 cm that were located in the anterior and superior surfaces of the diaphysis. The margins of these foramina were well defined and rounded, and the surfaces of the canal walls were smooth...
March 15, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296236/development-of-the-endocrine-pancreas-in-the-beagle-dog-from-fetal-to-adult-life
#4
Emilie Bricout-Neveu, Severine Pechberty, Karine Reynaud, Cindy Maenhoudt, Marie José Lecomte, Philippe Ravassard, Paul Czernichow
Our objectives were to describe, in Beagle dogs, the ontogenesis of beta (insulin-producing) and alpha (glucagon-producing) cells from fetal to early postnatal life and adulthood. In addition, to have some insight into interspecies comparison, Beagle dog pancreases were compared to pancreases from a Labrador and Chow Chow. At midgestation, the epithelium was dense, beta cells scarce, and alpha cells numerous and concentrated in the center of the pancreatic bud. From 36 to 45 days post conception (pc), beta cell numbers increased and the epithelium expanded and branched out...
March 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296189/tlr4-promotes-breast-cancer-metastasis-via-akt-gsk3%C3%AE-%C3%AE-catenin-pathway-upon-lps-stimulation
#5
Jun Li, Jing Yin, Wenzhi Shen, Ruifang Gao, Yanhua Liu, Yanan Chen, Xiru Li, Chenghu Liu, Rong Xiang, Na Luo
Bacteria/virus-induced chronic inflammation is involved in both tumor initiation and tumor progression. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been implicated in the development of several types of cancer. In this study, we explored the impact of TLR4 activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on breast cancer metastasis and associated signaling molecules. We first examined TLR4 expression levels in breast tissue using a human breast tissue microarray and breast cell lines. We then studied the role of TLR4 activation by LPS stimulation in breast cancer metastasis using both in vitro and in vivo models...
March 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296166/bony-pits-in-the-ostrich-struthio-camelus-and-emu-dromaius-novaehollandiae-bill-tip
#6
Martina R Crole, John T Soley
A specialized region of the bill tip characterized by a complex arrangement of mechanoreceptors and referred to as a bill tip organ, has been identified in numerous avians. A bill tip organ was initially inferred in kiwi species by the presence of numerous, bony pits in the rostrum of the bill, and later confirmed histologically. This study enumerates and compares the number and distribution of pits present in the bill tip in the ostrich and emu. The heads from 10 ostrich and 5 emu were prepared for osteological examination...
March 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296356/positional-changes-of-the-ocular-organs-during-craniofacial-development
#7
Miho Osaka, Aoi Ishikawa, Shigehito Yamada, Chigako Uwabe, Hirohiko Imai, Tetsuya Matsuda, Akio Yoneyama, Tohoru Takeda, Tetsuya Takakuwa
The present study aimed to describe the positional changes of the ocular organs during craniofacial development; moreover, we examined the relationships among the ocular organs and other internal structures. To do this, we traced the positions of the ocular organs in 56 human early fetal samples at different stages of development using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and phase-contrast X-ray computed tomography. The eyes were located on the lateral side in the ventral view at Carnegie stage (CS) 16, and then changed their positions medially during development...
March 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296279/an-immunohistochemical-approach-to-identify-the-sex-of-young-marine-turtles
#8
Boris M Tezak, Kathleen Guthrie, Jeanette Wyneken
Marine turtles exhibit temperature-dependent sex determination (TSD). During critical periods of embryonic development, the nest's thermal environment directs whether an embryo will develop as a male or female. At warmer sand temperatures nests tend to produce female-biased sex ratios. The rapid increase of global temperature highlights the need for a clear assessment of its effects on sea turtle sex ratios. However, estimating hatchling sex ratios at rookeries remains imprecise due to the lack of sexual dimorphism in young marine turtles...
March 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263454/neuroplasticity-of-supraspinal-structures-associated-with-pathological-pain
#9
Pere Boadas-Vaello, Judit Homs, Francisco Reina, Anna Carrera, Enrique Verdú
Peripheral nerve and spinal cord injuries, along with other painful syndromes such as fibromyalgia, diabetic neuropathy, chemotherapeutic neuropathy, trigeminal neuralgia, complex regional pain syndrome, and/or irritable bowel syndrome, cause several neuroplasticity changes in the nervous system along its entire axis affecting the different neuronal nuclei. This paper reviews these changes, focusing on the supraspinal structures that are involved in the modulation and processing of pain, including the periaqueductal gray matter, red nucleus, locus coeruleus, rostral ventromedial medulla, thalamus, hypothalamus, basal ganglia, cerebellum, habenula, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, motor cortex, mammillary bodies, hippocampus, septum, amygdala, cingulated and prefrontal cortex...
March 6, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257606/morphology-and-ultrastructure-of-the-amazon-river-dolphin-inia-geoffrensis-spermatozoa
#10
Rodrigo S Amaral, Vera M F da Silva, Fabíola X Valdez Domingos, Anthony R Martin
The spermatozoa from seven adult Amazon river dolphins (Inia geoffrensis, CETACEA: INIIDAE) were analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The spermatozoa showed an elongated ellipsoid shaped head and a long tail with a well distinguishable midpiece. The head spermatozoa have a smooth surface like other odontocetes examined, with the exception of the Delphinidae family. The mean dimensions of the spermatozoa were within the range already reported for other cetaceans. The spermatozoa midpiece, as in other cetaceans, showed a random pattern of mitochondria, different from that described for other mammals...
March 3, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244238/peripheral-arteries-may-be-reliable-indicators-of-coronary-vascular-disease
#11
Christopher L Hoehmann, Bennett Futterman, Brian Lee Beatty
Atherosclerosis is a stronger predictor for ischemic cardiovascular events than traditional risk factors such as race, age, sex, history, and metabolic profile. Previous research had primarily used ultrasound; however, we performed a study using histopathology to more accurately grade atherosclerosis development using the American Heart Association's grading scale. We cross-sectioned 13 different arteries from 48 cadavers and placed them into three separate groups based on anatomic location: central arteries, peripheral arteries, and carotid arteries...
February 28, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28233432/triptolide-suppresses-alkali-burn-induced-corneal-angiogenesis-along-with-a-downregulation-of-vegfa-and-vegfc-expression
#12
Geng Wang, Na Li, Xiaohong Lv, Naila Ahmed, Xinlei Li, Huidong Liu, Jing Ma, Yafang Zhang
Triptolide (TPL) is an active compound extracted from a Chinese herbal medicine tripterygium wilfordii Hook. f. (Celastraceae), which has been used as an anti-inflammatory drug for years. It also inhibits the growth and proliferation of different types of cancer cells. The inhibitory effect of TPL on angiogenesis after chemical induced corneal inflammation was studied in vivo. The effects of TPL on the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and tube formation of rat aortic endothelial cells (RAECs) were studied in vitro...
February 24, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220619/the-palatal-interpterygoid-vacuities-of-temnospondyls-and-the-implications-for-the-associated-eye-and-jaw-musculature
#13
Florian Witzmann, Ingmar Werneburg
A diagnostic feature of temnospondyls is the presence of an open palate with large interpterygoid vacuities, unlike the closed palate of most other early tetrapods, in which the vacuities are either slit-like or completely absent. Attachment sites on neurocranium and palatal bones in temnospondyls allow the reconstruction of a powerful m. retractor bulbi and a large, sheet-like m. levator bulbi that formed the elastic floor of the orbit. This muscle arrangement indicates that temnospondyls were able to retract the eyeballs through the interpterygoid vacuities into the buccal cavity, like extant frogs and salamanders...
February 21, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214332/comparison-of-several-white-matter-tracts-in-feline-and-canine-brain-by-using-magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#14
Olivier Jacqmot, Bert Van Thielen, Alex Michotte, Inneke Willekens, Filip Verhelle, Peter Goossens, Filip De Ridder, Jan Pieter Clarys, Anne Vanbinst, Cindy Peleman, Johan de Mey
Recently, we published a first anatomical Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) atlas regarding white matter tracts in the canine brain. The purpose of this study was to show the significance of DTI in the revelation of the white matter fibres in the feline brain (i.e. to obtain an anatomical DTI atlas of images) and to descriptively compare these to previously obtained white matter fibre images of the canine brain. DTI MR Images of 4 cats euthanised for reasons other than neurological disorders were obtained with a 3 T system...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214291/segmental-distribution-of-myosin-heavy-chain-isoforms-within-single-muscle-fibers
#15
Ming Zhang, Maree Gould
Despite many studies looking at the distribution of myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms across a transverse section of muscle, knowledge of MHC distribution along the longitudinal axis of a single skeletal muscle fiber has been relatively overlooked. Immunocytochemistry was performed on serial sections of rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle to identify MHC types I, IIA, IIX, IIY and IIB. Sixteen fascicles which contained a total of 362 fibers were randomly and systematically sampled from the 3 EDL muscles...
February 18, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205407/collagen-fiber-orientation-in-primate-long-bones
#16
Johanna Warshaw, Timothy G Bromage, Carl J Terranova, Donald H Enlow
Studies of variation in orientation of collagen fibers within bone have lead to the proposition that these are preferentially aligned to accommodate different kinds of load, with tension best resisted by fibers aligned longitudinally relative to the load, and compression best resisted by transversely aligned fibers. However, previous studies have often neglected to consider the effect of developmental processes, including constraints on collagen fiber orientation (CFO), particularly in primary bone. Here we use circularly polarized light microscopy to examine patterns of CFO in cross-sections from the midshaft femur, humerus, tibia, radius and ulna in a range of living primate taxa with varied body sizes, phylogenetic relationships and positional behaviors...
February 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196403/morphologic-patterns-formed-by-the-anomalous-fibers-occurring-along-the-anterior-capsule-of-the-crystalline-lens-in-people-with-the-long-anterior-zonule-trait
#17
Daniel K Roberts, Yongyi Yang, Christina E Morettin, Tricia L Newman, Mary F Roberts, Jacob T Wilensky
People with the long anterior zonule (LAZ) trait, which may have prevalence near 2%, have zonular fibers that extend more central than usual along the anterior capsule of the crystalline lens. The anomalous fibers can be observed in vivo with clinical slit lamp biomicroscopy after pharmacologic pupil dilation, and although minimally studied, the LAZ trait may have importance to glaucoma, retinal degeneration, and cataract surgery. To further characterize LAZ morphology, a custom computer program was used to trace LAZ fibers seen on retro-illumination photos acquired during previous study at an academic, urban eye care facility in Chicago, IL...
February 14, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192873/overview-of-human-salivary-glands-highlights-of-morphology-and-developing-processes
#18
REVIEW
Fernanda de Paula, Tathyane Harumi Nakajima Teshima, Ricardo Hsieh, Milena Monteiro Souza, Marcello Menta Simonsen Nico, Silvia Vanessa Lourenco
Salivary glands are essential organs that produce and secrete saliva to the oral cavity. During gland morphogenesis, many developmental processes involve a series of coordinated movements and reciprocal interactions between the epithelium and mesenchyme that generate the ductal system and the secretory units. Recent studies have shown new findings about salivary gland development, particularly regarding lumen formation and expansion, with the involvement of apoptosis and cell polarization, respectively. Moreover, it has been observed that human minor salivary glands start forming earlier than previously published and that distinct apoptotic mediators can trigger duct lumen opening in humans...
February 13, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187501/anatomical-study-of-the-brachial-plexus-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#19
Kenji Emura, Takamitsu Arakawa, Toshio Terashima
To elucidate the forelimb phylogeny of primates, anatomical analysis of the brachial plexus in platyrrhines is beneficial. In the present study, six brachial plexuses and the surrounding arteries of four common marmosets were dissected. In five specimens, the brachial plexus consisted of five ventral rami from the fifth cervical nerve (C5) to the first thoracic nerve (T1). In one specimen, the ventral ramus of the fourth cervical nerve joined with the brachial plexus. In five specimens, the upper trunk was composed of C5 and the sixth cervical nerve (C6)...
February 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187500/basement-membrane-type-iv-collagen-and-laminin-an-overview-of-their-biology-and-value-as-fibrosis-biomarkers-of-liver-disease
#20
REVIEW
Ki M Mak, Rena Mei
Basement membranes provide structural support to epithelium, endothelium, muscles, fat cells, Schwann cells and axons. Basement membranes are multifunctional: they modulate cellular behavior, regulate organogenesis, promote tissue repair, form a barrier to filtration and tumor metastasis, bind growth factors and mediate angiogenesis. All basement membranes contain type IV collagen (Col IV), laminin, nidogen, and perlecan. Col IV and laminin self-assemble into two independent supramolecular networks that are linked to nidogen and perlecan to form a morphological discernable basement membrane/basal lamina...
February 10, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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