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Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30635991/building-an-artificial-stem-cell-niche-prerequisites-for-future-3d-formation-of-inner-ear-structures-towards-3d-inner-ear-biotechnology
#1
Simon C de Groot, Karen Sliedregt, Peter Paul G van Benthem, Marcelo N Rivolta, Margriet A Huisman
In recent years there has been an increased interest in stem cells for the purpose of regenerative medicine to deliver a wide range of therapies to treat many diseases. However, 2D cultures of stem cells are of limited use when studying the mechanism of pathogenesis of diseases and the feasibility of a treatment. Therefore, research is focusing on the strengths of stem cells in three-dimensional (3D) structures mimicking organs, i.e., organoids, or organ-on-chip, for modeling human biology and disease. As 3D technology advances, it is necessary to know which signals stem cells need to multiply and differentiate into complex structures...
January 11, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30635981/imaging-bioluminescent-exogenous-stem-cells-in-the-intact-guinea-pig-cochlea
#2
Timo Schomann, Laura Mezzanotte, John C M J de Groot, Clemens W G M Löwik, Johan H M Frijns, Margriet A Huisman
Stem-cell-based therapy may be used to replace damaged or lost neurons in the cochlear nerve of patients suffering from severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss. In order to achieve functional recovery in future clinical trials, knowledge about survival of grafted cells and their differentiation into functional neurons is a prerequisite. This calls for non-invasive in vivo visualization of cells and long-term monitoring of their survival and fate after cochlear transplantation. We have investigated if molecular optical imaging enables visualization of exogenous cells in the intact cochlea of guinea pig cadaver heads...
January 11, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30635974/differential-changes-in-the-number-and-morphology-of-the-new-neurons-after-chronic-infusion-of-wnt7a-wnt5a-and-dkk-1-in-the-adult-hippocampus-in-vivo
#3
Abril Ortiz-Matamoros, Clorinda Arias
In the adult hippocampus of many mammals, a particular microenvironment in the neurogenic niche regulates the proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation of neuronal stem cells. In this proliferative niche, a variety of molecules provide a finely regulated molecular signaling that controls stem cell properties. During development, Wnt signaling has been implicated in cell fate determination and proliferation, in the establishment of cell polarity, as well as a cue for axonal growth and dendrite orientation...
January 11, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632705/tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-wnt-signaling-pathways-collaboration-associated-with-cochlear-implantation-trauma-induced-fibrosis
#4
Esperanza Bas, Mir R Anwar, Thomas R Van De Water
The crosstalk between TGF-β1 and WNT pathways has been proven to regulate aspects of the development and tissue homeostasis processes. Recently it has been demonstrated this collaboration also takes place during fibrotic diseases, where TGF-β1 activates the WNT/β-catenin pathway that results in dedifferentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts, increased production of extracellular matrix components and fibrosis. Independent studies show the functions of these molecules during the development of the inner ears in several different species...
January 11, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632702/acute-n-acetylcysteine-administration-ameliorates-loss-of-olfactory-neurons-following-experimental-injury-in-vivo
#5
Stefania Goncalves, Bradley J Goldstein
The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the peripheral organ for the sense of smell, housing primary sensory neurons that project axons from the nose to the brain. Due the presence of a basal stem cell niche, the adult mammalian OE is a dynamic tissue capable of replacing neurons following their loss. Nonetheless, certain conditions, such as blunt head trauma, can result in persistent olfactory loss, thought to be due to shearing of olfactory nerve filaments at the skull base, degeneration, and failures in proper regeneration/reinnervation...
January 11, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632683/effect-of-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-cochlear-function-in-an-experimental-rat-model
#6
Rahul Mittal, Emre Ocak, Angela Zhu, Mario M Perdomo, Stefanie A Pena, Jeenu Mittal, Jorge Bohorquez, Adrien A Eshraghi
Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy is an emerging treatment modality for various human diseases. Although induced pluripotent stem cells have been explored for the restoration of hearing, the potential of MSCs as a therapeutic strategy for various cochlear insults is not precisely known. MSCs possess anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective properties, making them an attractive target for the treatment of inner ear disorders such as hair cell damage in response to inflammation. Most of the previous studies have used immunosuppression or the complex surgical techniques to deliver stem cells into the cochlea...
January 11, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30632312/bone-marrow-stromal-cells-accelerate-hearing-recovery-via-regeneration-or-maintenance-of-cochlear-fibrocytes-in-mouse-spiral-ligaments
#7
Shinpei Kada, Kiyomi Hamaguchi, Juichi Ito, Koichi Omori, Takayuki Nakagawa
Mammalian cochleae have limited capacity for regeneration, which is one of the major difficulties in the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. In the current study, we examined the potential of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (BMSCs) for functional restoration of mouse cochleae through regeneration or maintenance of cochlear fibrocytes in the spiral ligament. We used a mouse model of degeneration of cochlear fibrocytes in the spiral ligament (SL) using local application of 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NP), in which disruption of the gap junction network in the SL resulted in reduction of the endocochlear potential (EP)...
January 11, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30623594/feeding-biomechanics-in-billfishes-investigating-the-role-of-the-rostrum-through-finite-element-analysis
#8
M L Habegger, P J Motta, D H Huber, D Pulaski, I R Grosse, E R Dumont
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30620128/mysticetes-to-miniconference-to-manuscripts-introduction-to-thematic-issue-on-mysticete-anatomy
#9
Joy S Reidenberg
This issue of the Anatomical Record is focused on the theme of Mysticete Anatomy. There are six included articles that explore the anatomy of the nasal region (Marquez et al., Maust-Mohl et al.), larynx (Damien et al.), lungs (Fetherston et al.), sublingual fascia (Werth et al.), and brain (Raghanti et al.). These papers document anatomical features exhibited by mysticetes (baleen whales) and their related cousins (including other whales, and the semiaquatic moose and hippopotamus). This theme stems from a two day MiniConference on Mysticete Anatomy, hosted at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York City on May 2016...
January 8, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30614661/is-the-mole-rat-vomeronasal-organ-functional
#10
John C Dennis, Natalie K Stilwell, Timothy D Smith, Thomas J Park, Kunwar P Bhatnagar, Edward E Morrison
The colonial naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber is a subterranean, eusocial rodent. The H. glaber vomeronasal organ neuroepithelium (VNE) displays little postnatal growth yet the VNE remains neuronal in contrast to some mammals that possess non-functional vomeronasal organ remnants, e.g. catarrhine primates and some bats. Here, we describe the VNO microanatomy in the naked mole rat and we make preliminary observations to determine if H. glaber shares its minimal postnatal VNE growth with other African mole rats...
January 7, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30614659/all-in-the-family-touch-versus-olfaction-in-moles
#11
Kenneth C Catania
Here I review, compare, and contrast the neurobiology and behavior of the common, eastern mole (Scalopus aquaticus) and the star-nosed mole (Condylura cristata). These two species are part of the same family (Talpidae) and have similar body size and general morphology. But they differ in sensory specializations, complexity of neocortical organization, and behavior. The star-nosed mole has an elaborate mechanosensory organ - the star - consisting of 22 epidermal appendages (rays) covered with 25,000 touch domes called Eimer's organs...
January 7, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30614637/sigma-1-receptor-expression-in-drg-neurons-during-a-carrageenan-provoked-inflammation
#12
Leo Jerčić, Sandra Kostić, Marija Vitlov Uljević, Tanja Vukušić Pušić, Katarina Vukojević, Natalija Filipović
Sigma 1 receptor (σ1R) is a non-opioid receptor that modulates pain perception and is strongly expressed in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. We studied the changes in the expression of σ1R in different sub-populations of DRG neurons during the first 48 hours in a carrageenan-induced inflammation rat model, with σ1R being a possible base for the development of neuropathic pain after inflammation. Twenty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups (N = 4 in each group): the control (C) group was sacrificed immediately; all other animals received an intraplantar injection of 0...
January 7, 2019: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30578662/the-state-of-cardiovascular-developmental-biology-is-strong-honoring-dr-roger-markwald-and-his-seminal-contributions-to-the-field
#13
Andy Wessels
In August 2017, the Cardiovascular Developmental Biology Center (CDBC), together with the "Department of Regenerative Medicine and Cell Biology (RMCB) at the Medical University of South Carolina (MUSC), organized their 13th Annual CDBC Symposium. During this special event, which was organized in collaboration with The Anatomical Record, the unique and important contributions of Dr. Roger Markwald (known to all of us as Roger) to the field of cardiovascular research were celebrated. Fifteen leading investigators in the field presented their ideas and reported results of their studies to an audience that included many familiar faces from Roger's past and present...
December 22, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548803/masticatory-apparatus-performance-and-functional-morphology-in-the-extremely-large-mice-from-gough-island
#14
Michelle D Parmenter, Jacob P Nelson, Sara E Weigel, Melissa M Gray, Bret A Payseur, Christopher J Vinyard
Since their arrival approximately 200 years ago, the house mice (Mus musculus) on Gough Island (GI) rapidly increased in size to become the largest wild house mice on record. Along with this extreme increase in body size, GI mice adopted a predatory diet, consuming significant quantities of seabird chicks and eggs. We studied this natural experiment to determine how evolution of extreme size and a novel diet impacted masticatory apparatus performance and functional morphology in these mice. We measured maximum bite force and jaw opening (i...
December 13, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548834/trabecular-bone-structure-in-the-distal-femur-of-humans-apes-and-baboons
#15
Simone Sukhdeo, Jacob Parsons, Xiaoyue Maggie Niu, Timothy M Ryan
Trabecular bone structure has been used to investigate the relationship between skeletal form and locomotor behavior on the premise that trabecular bone remodels in response to loading during an animal's lifetime. The aim of this study is to characterize human distal femoral trabecular bone structure in comparison to three non-human primate taxa and relate the patterns of trabecular structural variation in the distal femur to knee posture during habitual locomotor behavior. A whole-epiphysis approach was applied using microCT scans of the distal femora of extant Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, and Papio spp...
December 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548826/adaptations-of-the-marsupial-newborn-birth-as-an-extreme-environment
#16
Kathleen K Smith, Anna L Keyte
At birth a mammalian neonate enters an extreme environment compared to the intrauterine environment in which it has grown. This transition may be particularly extreme in marsupials because they are born at an exceedingly altricial state, after an exceptionally short gestation. Their stage of development must be considered embryonic by almost any criteria. Yet at this very early stage of development marsupials must travel to the teat, attach and suckle, and have basic functioning of all major physiological systems...
December 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548810/prediction-algorithm-of-the-cat-spinal-segments-lengths-and-positions-in-relation-to-the-vertebrae
#17
P Y Shkorbatova, V A Lyakhovetskii, N S Merkulyeva, А А Veshchitskii, E Y Bazhenova, J Laurens, N V Pavlova, P Е Musienko
Detailed knowledge of the topographic organization and precise access to the spinal cord segments is crucial for the neurosurgical manipulations as well as in vivo neurophysiological investigations of the spinal networks involved in sensorimotor and visceral functions. Because of high individual variability, accurate identification of particular portion of the lumbosacral enlargement is normally possible only during postmortem dissection. Yet, it is often necessary to determine the precise location of spinal segments prior to in vivo investigation, targeting spinal cord manipulations, neurointerface implantations, and neuronal activity recordings...
December 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548805/dental-signatures-for-exudativory-in-living-primates-with-comparisons-to-other-gouging-mammals
#18
Anne M Burrows, Leanne T Nash, Adam Hartstone-Rose, Mary T Silcox, Sergi López-Torres, Keegan R Selig
Exudativory, the consumption of gums, is an obligate or a facultative dietary niche for some primates and marsupials. Exudativory has been cited as a dietary niche that may have been present in early primates, so finding a dental signature for exudativory is highly desirable. The present study combines exudativorous lorisoids (galagos and lorises) into one sample to compare to closely related, non-exudativorous lorisoids to search for a consistent dental signature of exudativory. Linear measurements were taken from the toothcomb, P2 , M3 , upper canine, and P2 from skulls of 295 adult galagids and lorisids...
December 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30537183/extreme-adaptation-in-caves
#19
Daphne Soares, Matthew L Niemiller
Cave adaptation leads to unique anatomical specializations in many taxonomic groups. As the role of vision is reduced or disappears in a subterranean environment, other specializations arise to allow the organism to successfully detect and interact with their environment. A suite of unique, convergent phenotypes associated with subterranean adaptation has emerged (termed troglomorphy), with reduction or loss of pigmentation and eyes being the most conspicuous. Two vertebrate groups that have successfully colonized and adapted to subterranean environments are cavefishes and cave salamanders...
December 11, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30548203/skeletons-of-the-eye-an-evolutionary-and-developmental-perspective
#20
Tamara A Franz-Odendaal
The ocular skeleton, composed of the scleral cartilage and scleral ossicles, is present in many vertebrates. The morphology of the scleral cartilage and ossicles varies within different extant reptiles (including birds) and also varies dramatically from the morphology in extant teleosts. This incredible range of diverse morphologies is the result of millions of years of evolution. Both the position of these elements within the eye and the timing of development vary amongst different vertebrates. While the development of both the scleral cartilage and scleral ossicles is somewhat understood in reptiles and in teleosts, the functional advantage of these elements is still debated...
December 8, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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