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Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632922/comparison-of-manual-and-automated-measurements-of-tracheobronchial-airway-geometry-in-three-balb-c-mice
#1
Asef Islam, Michael Oldham, Anthony Wexler
Mammalian lungs are comprised of large numbers of tracheobronchial airways that transition from the trachea to alveoli. Studies as wide ranging as pollutant deposition and lung development rely on accurate characterization of these airways. Advancements in CT imaging and the value of computational approaches in eliminating the burden of manual measurement are providing increased efficiency in obtaining this geometric data. In this study, we compare an automated method to a manual one for the first six generations of three Balb/c mouse lungs...
June 20, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628951/cranial-indicators-identified-for-peak-incidence-of-otitis-media
#2
Anthony Pagano, Eugene Wang, Derek Yuan, Daniel Fischer, Charles Bluestone, Samuel Marquez, Jeffrey Laitman
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common pediatric conditions worldwide. Peak age of occurrence for AOM has been identified within the first postnatal year and it remains frequent until approximately six postnatal years. Morphological differences between adults and infants in the cartilaginous Eustachian tube (CET) and associated structures may be responsible for development of this disease yet few have investigated normal growth trajectories. We tested hypotheses on coincidence of skeletal growth changes and known ages of peak AOM occurrence...
June 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622452/a-seasonal-and-age-related-study-of-interstitial-cells-in-the-pineal-gland-of-male-viscacha-lagostomus-maximus-maximus
#3
Fabricio Ivan Busolini, Gabriela Judith Rosales, Verónica Palmira Filippa, Fabian Heber Mohamed
The pineal gland of viscacha exhibits histophysiological variations throughout the year, with periods of maximal activity in winter and minimal activity in summer. The aim of this study was to analyze the interstitial cells (IC) in the pineal gland of male viscachas in relation to season and age. The S-100 protein, glio-fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and vimentin were detected in adult and immature animals by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Double-IHC was also performed. The S-100 protein was localized within both, IC nucleus and cytoplasm...
June 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622447/does-sexual-selection-influence-ornamentation-of-hemipenes-in-old-world-snakes
#4
Kostadin Andonov, Nikolay Natchev, Yurii V Kornilev, Nikolay Tzankov
In the present study, we investigated and documented the morphology of the male copulatory organs (hemipenes) in fifteen wide-ranging snake species. The species represent four families (Boidae, Colubridae, Lamprophiidae, and Viperidae) and ten genera. We applied the same preparation techniques for all species, successfully everting and expanding the organs completely. The detailed description of the general morphology of the male copulatory organs was based on 31 specimens. Our data were compared with published observations and we point out some incorrectly described details in previous investigations...
June 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622442/muscular-basis-of-whisker-torsion-in-mice-and-rats
#5
Sebastian Haidarliu, Knarik Bagdasarian, Namrata Shinde, Ehud Ahissar
Whisking mammals move their whiskers in the rostrocaudal and dorsoventral directions with simultaneous rolling about their long axes (torsion). Whereas muscular control of the first two types of whisker movement was already established, the anatomic muscular substrate of the whisker torsion remains unclear. Specifically, it was not clear whether torsion is induced by asymmetrical operation of known muscles or by other largely unknown muscles. Here we report that mystacial pads of newborn and adult rats and mice contain oblique intrinsic muscles (OMs) that connect diagonally adjacent vibrissa follicles...
June 16, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605166/crista-supraventricularis-purkinje-network-and-its-relation-to-intraseptal-purkinje-network
#6
Marcos De Almeida, Mayssa Araujo, Mathias Duque, Virginia Vilhena
Using transparent specimens with a dual color injection, microscopy and computer tomography, this report shows that the right and left ventricular subendocardial Purkinje networks are connected by an extensive septal network in the bovine heart. The septal network is present along the entire septum except at a free zone below ventricular valves. Being the only communication of the basal right septum with the right free wall, the supraventricular crest is an enigmatic but not, by any means, hidden muscular structure...
June 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598580/neuroanatomy-of-the-pig-cardiac-ventricles-a-stereomicroscopic-confocal-and-electron-microscope-study
#7
Neringa Pauziene, Kristina Rysevaite-Kyguoliene, Paulius Alaburda, Audrys G Pauza, Monika Skukauskaite, Aiste Masaityte, Goda Laucaityte, Inga Saburkina, Hermanas Inokaitis, Jurgita Plisiene, Dainius H Pauza
Although the pig is a model for heart disease, the neuroanatomy of cardiac ventricles (CV) in this species remains undetailed. We aimed to define the innervation pattern of pig CV, combining histochemistry for acetylcholinesterase, immunofluorescent labeling and electron microscopy. Forty nine examined pig hearts show that the major nerves supplying the ventral side of CV descend from the venous part of the heart hilum. Fewer in number and smaller in size, epicardial nerves supply the dorsal half of the CV...
June 9, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598552/acrolein-scavenger-hydralazine-prevents-streptozotocin-induced-painful-diabetic-neuropathy-and-spinal-neuroinflammation-in-rats
#8
Lu Yao, Yun-Tao Wu, Guo-Xiang Tian, Chang-Quan Xia, Feng Zhang, Wei Zhang
Diabetes-induced neuropathic pain (DNP) substantially influences people's life qualities. Hyperglycemia-induced excess free radicals have been considered as the most critical mechanisms underlying DNP. As an unsaturated aldehyde and a reactive product of lipid peroxidation, acrolein plays critical roles in diabetic nephropathy and inflammatory pain. We sought to determine whether acrolein is involved in DNP in the present study. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin (STZ)...
June 9, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556505/restoring-maximum-vertical-browsing-reach-in-sauropod-dinosaurs
#9
Gregory S Paul
The ongoing controversy centered on neck posture and function in sauropod dinosaurs is misplaced for a number of reasons. Because of an absence of pertinent data it is not possible to accurately restore the posture and range of motion in long necked fossil animals, only gross approximations are possible. The existence of a single "neutral posture" in animals with long, slender necks may not exist, and its relationship to feeding habits is weak. Restorations of neutral osteological neck posture based on seemingly detailed diagrams of cervical articulations are not reliable because the pictures are not sufficiently accurate due to a combination of illustration errors, and distortion of the fossil cervicals...
May 26, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545163/coccygeal-body-revisited-an-immunohistochemical-study-using-donated-elderly-cadavers
#10
Zhe Wu Jin, Kwang Ho Cho, Hyung Suk Jang, Gen Murakami, Jose Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez, Masahito Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi Abe
To describe the normal anatomy and histology of the adult coccygeal body (CB) and to discuss about the origin and function. Using immunohistochemistry, we examined 29 CBs found in 32 elderly donated cadavers without macroscopic pathology in the pelvis. The CB was usually located in or near the anococcygeal ligaments. It was almost always composed of multiple masses or nodules of round glomus cells (smooth muscle actin, or SMA++). However, the CB sometimes contained abundant dilated veins with scattered glomus cells...
May 25, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545161/classic-galactosemia-study-on-the-late-prenatal-development-of-galt-specific-activity-in-a-sheep-model
#11
Ana I Coelho, Jörgen Bierau, Martijn Lindhout, Jelle Achten, Boris W Kramer, M Estela Rubio-Gozalbo
Classic galactosemia results from deficient activity of galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT), a key enzyme of galactose metabolism. Despite early diagnosis and early postnatal therapeutic intervention, patients still develop neurologic and fertility impairments. Prenatal developmental toxicity has been hypothesized as a determinant factor of disease. In order to shed light on the importance of prenatal GALT activity, several studies have examined GALT activity throughout development. GALT was shown to increase with gestational age in 7-28 weeks human fetuses; later stages were not investigated...
May 25, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524458/forelimb-myology-of-carnivorous-marsupials-marsupialia-dasyuridae-implications-for-the-ancestral-body-plan-of-the-australidelphia
#12
Natalie M Warburton, Charlie-Rose Marchal
Carnivorous marsupials of the family Dasyuridae represent a more generalized anatomical condition of both craniodental and postcranial features in comparison to other groups of Australidelphian marsupials. Plesiomorphic characters include polyprotodont dentition, didactylous (rather than syndactylous) pedal morphology, the retention of clavicles and epipubic bones, and an unossified patelloid. In light of the anatomy of the postcranial skeleton, we hypothesized that the muscular anatomy of the Dasyuridae would likely display a range of plesiomorphic traits...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524374/possible-role-of-the-myelinated-neural-network-in-the-parietal-peritoneum-in-rats-as-a-mechanoreceptor
#13
Koichi Tanaka, Sachi Kuwahara-Otani, Seishi Maeda, Yusuke Minato, Hideshi Yagi
A network of myelinated nerve fibers in the peritoneum covers the abdominal wall. We studied the topographic distribution of this network, explored the fibers' destination in the central nervous system, and examined the markers in these fibers in order to identify the nature of the sensation conveyed by the network of nerve fibers in rats. We used Sihler's method, which stains myelinated fibers in whole mount materials, and observed a dense nerve network and endings toward the peritoneal cavity in the peritoneum that covers the abdomen's lateral bulge...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524272/frontal-sinus-development-and-juvenile-age-estimation
#14
Kaitlin Moore, Ann Ross
Assessment of development is an important component of age estimation in juveniles. One area that has not been fully investigated as a possible aging method is the development of the frontal sinus. The frontal sinuses form when the ectocranial table of the frontal bone separates from the endocranial table forming an air pocket in the bone. The endocranial table ceases growth with the brain, while the ectocranial table is displaced anteriorly as the facial bones continue growth. In order to examine growth and the utility of the frontal sinuses for age estimation, 392 radiographs were examined (♀=159 and ♂=233) from the Juvenile Radiograph Database at North Carolina State University and the Patricia Database from Mercyhurst University...
May 19, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463452/the-effects-of-two-different-exercise-programs-on-the-ultrastructural-features-of-the-sciatic-nerve-and-soleus-muscle-after-sciatic-crush
#15
Leandro Viçosa Bonetti, Taís Malysz, Jocemar Ilha, Silvia Barbosa, Matilde Achaval, Maria Cristina Faccioni-Heuser
Peripheral nerve injuries constitute a significant medical problem and the recovery is critically dependent on post-injury treatment. In this study, following sciatic nerve crush, we investigated the effects of a 4-week endurance training program (ET) and balance and coordination training program (BCT) on the ultrastructural features of the sciatic nerve and soleus muscle. The animals were randomly divided into Sham, non-trained (NT), ET, and BCT groups each of which included three animals. Ultra-thin cross and longitudinal sections (70-85 nm) were digitized and analyzed comparatively...
April 30, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452186/eocene-paleoecology-of-adapis-parisiensis-primate-adapidae-from-inner-ear-to-lifestyle
#16
Margot Bernardi, Sébastien Couette
European adapids, especially Adapis parisiensis, have been extensively studied over the past two centuries, essentially for taxonomic and phylogenetic purposes. Analyses of dental, cranial, and postcranial morphology have led to various hypotheses about the diet, locomotion, and lifestyle of this fossil primate species. As the morphology of Adapis parisiensis is not directly comparable to any extant species, some interpretations are still debated. The inner ear is crucial to several functional parameters, such as auditory acuity, balance, agility, orientation, and head motion speed during locomotion...
April 27, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445620/smad4-inhibits-vegf-a-and-vegf-c-expressions-via-enhancing-smad3-phosphorylation-in-colon-cancer
#17
Xuemei Li, Xinlei Li, Xiaohong Lv, Jianbing Xiao, Baoquan Liu, Yafang Zhang
Smad4 is a critical factor in the TGF-β pathway and is involved in tumor progression and metastasis, but the role of Smad4 in colon cancer cells is unclear. The aim of this study is to explore the effect and the underlying mechanism of Smad4 on the growth, migration and apoptosis of colon cancer cells as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A and VEGF-C secreted by these cells. In this study, we showed that Smad4, VEGF-A and VEGF-C are independent prognostic factors of colon cancer, and Smad4 expression was negatively correlated with VEGF-A and -C in samples...
April 26, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437856/microstructure-variations-in-the-soft-hard-tissue-junction-of-the-human-anterior-cruciate-ligament
#18
Lei Zhao, Peter V S Lee, David C Ackland, Neil D Broom, Ashvin Thambyah
The role of the sub-bundles in the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has been defined, such that the anterior-medial bundle directly resists anterior tibial translation while the posterior lateral bundle is involved in rotational stability. With regards to this biomechanical function, much of the previous work on bundle-specific morphology has been carried out on the macroscale, with much less attention given to the micro-to-ultrastructural scalar levels. This is especially true of the enthesis and its microstructure, a biomechanically significant region that has been largely neglected in the published literature dealing with ACL sub-bundle anatomy...
April 24, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437841/characterizing-the-evolution-of-wide-gauge-features-in-stylopodial-limb-elements-of-titanosauriform-sauropods-via-geometric-morphometrics
#19
Paul V Ullmann, Matthew F Bonnan, Kenneth J Lacovara
Wide-gauge posture of titanosauriform sauropods remains an enigmatic peculiarity among terrestrial vertebrates. Here, two-dimensional geometric morphometrics and thin plate splines analyses were used to quantitatively analyze shape differences among sauropodomorph humeri and femora to identify how these elements may differ according to body gauge. Results demonstrate that titanosauriforms generally possess proportionately gracile humeri in comparison to other sauropods, with relatively more medially oriented humeral heads and proximally located deltopectoral crests...
April 24, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401699/sling-scoop-squirter-anatomical-features-facilitating-prey-transport-processing-and-swallowing-in-rorqual-whales-mammalia-balaenopteridae
#20
Alexander J Werth, Haruka Ito
Much is known about lunge feeding in balaenopterid whales, but many key aspects of structure, function, and behavior have not yet been explained in detail, especially with regard to concentrating, positioning, and swallowing large aggregations of prey. We describe a novel system of three integrated structural components, all of which are involved in sequential feeding activities (intraoral transport, filtration, and swallowing of prey) that follow lunge-feeding engulfment of prey-laden water in rorquals: 1) a hammock-like muscular sling comprising extrinsic lingual musculature along the midline of the ventral pouch; 2) the flattened scoop-like arrangement of caudal-most baleen plates converging in the oropharynx adjacent to the esophageal opening; and 3) a flow-diverting flange at the posterior dorsum of the lip, by a flow channel at the angle of the mouth...
April 12, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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