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PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Dirk Louis P Schorkopf, Christos G Spanoudis, Leonard E G Mboera, Agenor Mafra-Neto, Rickard Ignell, Teun Dekker
BACKGROUND: There is a global need for cost-effective and environmentally friendly tools for control of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases. One potential way to achieve this is to combine already available tools to gain synergistic effects to reduce vector mosquito populations. Another possible way to improve mosquito control is to extend the active period of a given control agent, enabling less frequent applications and consequently, more efficient and longer lasting vector population suppression...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Maggy T Sikulu-Lord, Masabho P Milali, Michael Henry, Robert A Wirtz, Leon E Hugo, Floyd E Dowell, Gregor J Devine
Estimating the age distribution of mosquito populations is crucial for assessing their capacity to transmit disease and for evaluating the efficacy of available vector control programs. This study reports on the capacity of the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) technique to rapidly predict the ages of the principal dengue and Zika vector, Aedes aegypti. The age of wild-type males and females, and males and females infected with wMel and wMelPop strains of Wolbachia pipientis were characterized using this method...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sean Ekins, Alexander L Perryman, Carolina Horta Andrade
The Zika virus outbreak in the Americas has caused global concern. To help accelerate this fight against Zika, we launched the OpenZika project. OpenZika is an IBM World Community Grid Project that uses distributed computing on millions of computers and Android devices to run docking experiments, in order to dock tens of millions of drug-like compounds against crystal structures and homology models of Zika proteins (and other related flavivirus targets). This will enable the identification of new candidates that can then be tested in vitro, to advance the discovery and development of new antiviral drugs against the Zika virus...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Stefan W Metz, Shaomin Tian, Gabriel Hoekstra, Xianwen Yi, Michelle Stone, Katie Horvath, Michael J Miley, Joseph DeSimone, Chris J Luft, Aravinda M de Silva
Dengue virus (DENV) is the causative agent of dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever. The virus is endemic in over 120 countries, causing over 350 million infections per year. Dengue vaccine development is challenging because of the need to induce simultaneous protection against four antigenically distinct DENV serotypes and evidence that, under some conditions, vaccination can enhance disease due to specific immunity to the virus. While several live-attenuated tetravalent dengue virus vaccines display partial efficacy, it has been challenging to induce balanced protective immunity to all 4 serotypes...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
James J Cody, Wannaporn Ittiprasert, André N Miller, Lucie Henein, Margaret M Mentink-Kane, Michael H Hsieh
Schistosomiasis remains a health burden in many parts of the world. The complex life cycle of Schistosoma parasites and the economic and societal conditions present in endemic areas make the prospect of eradication unlikely in the foreseeable future. Continued and vigorous research efforts must therefore be directed at this disease, particularly since only a single World Health Organization (WHO)-approved drug is available for treatment. The National Institutes of Health (NIH)-National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) Schistosomiasis Resource Center (SRC) at the Biomedical Research Institute provides investigators with the critical raw materials needed to carry out this important research...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Danielle Bloch, Nicole M Roth, Elba V Caraballo, Jorge Muñoz-Jordan, Elizabeth Hunsperger, Aidsa Rivera, Janice Pérez-Padilla, Brenda Rivera Garcia, Tyler M Sharp
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes and is the cause of an acute febrile illness characterized by potentially debilitating arthralgia. After emerging in the Caribbean in late 2013, the first locally-acquired case reported to public health authorities in Puerto Rico occurred in May 2014. During June-August 2014, household-based cluster investigations were conducted to identify factors associated with infection, development of disease, and case reporting...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Emmanuel Nakouné, Basile Kamgang, Nicolas Berthet, Alexandre Manirakiza, Mirdad Kazanji
BACKGROUND: Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) causes a viral zoonosis, with discontinuous epizootics and sporadic epidemics, essentially in East Africa. Infection with this virus causes severe illness and abortion in sheep, goats, and cattle as well as other domestic animals. Humans can also be exposed through close contact with infectious tissues or by bites from infected mosquitoes, primarily of the Aedes and Culex genuses. Although the cycle of RVFV infection in savannah regions is well documented, its distribution in forest areas in central Africa has been poorly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Myriam Arévalo-Herrera, Juan M Vásquez-Jiménez, Mary Lopez-Perez, Andrés F Vallejo, Andrés B Amado-Garavito, Nora Céspedes, Angélica Castellanos, Karen Molina, Johanna Trejos, José Oñate, Judith E Epstein, Thomas L Richie, Sócrates Herrera
BACKGROUND: Immunizing human volunteers by mosquito bite with radiation-attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (RAS) results in high-level protection against infection. Only two volunteers have been similarly immunized with P. vivax (Pv) RAS, and both were protected. A phase 2 controlled clinical trial was conducted to assess the safety and protective efficacy of PvRAS immunization. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A randomized, single-blinded trial was conducted...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kayvan Etebari, Sultan Asad, Guangmei Zhang, Sassan Asgari
Long intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are appearing as an important class of regulatory RNAs with a variety of biological functions. The aim of this study was to identify the lincRNA profile in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti and evaluate their potential role in host-pathogen interaction. The majority of previous RNA-Seq transcriptome studies in Ae. aegypti have focused on the expression pattern of annotated protein coding genes under different biological conditions. Here, we used 35 publically available RNA-Seq datasets with relatively high depth to screen the Ae...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shu-Jun Ding, Yi Zhang, Xiao-Mei Zhang, Xiao-Lin Jiang, Bo Pang, Yong-Hong Song, Jian-Xing Wang, Yao-Wen Pei, Chuan-Fu Zhu, Xian-Jun Wang, Xue-Jie Yu
OBJECTIVE: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging hemorrhagic fever caused by a tick-borne bunyavirus (SFTSV) in East Asian countries. The role of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) in resistance and susceptibility to SFTSV is not known. We investigated the correlation of HLA locus A, B and DRB1 alleles with the occurrence of SFTS. METHODS: A total of 84 confirmed SFTS patients (patient group) and 501 unrelated non-SFTS patients (healthy individuals as control group) from Shandong Province were genotyped by PCR-sequence specific oligonucleotide probe (PCR-SSOP) for HLA-A, B and DRB1 loci...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Thespina Yamanis, Elisabeth Nolan, Susan Shepler
BACKGROUND: Future infectious disease epidemics are likely to disproportionately affect countries with weak health systems, exacerbating global vulnerability. To decrease the severity of epidemics in these settings, lessons can be drawn from the Ebola outbreak in West Africa. There is a dearth of literature on public perceptions of the public health response system that required citizens to report and treat Ebola cases. Epidemiological reports suggested that there were delays in diagnosis and treatment...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Aurélie Chauffour, Jérôme Robert, Nicolas Veziris, Alexandra Aubry, Vincent Jarlier
BACKGROUND: The treatment of Buruli ulcer (BU) that is caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, is currently based on a daily administration of rifampin and streptomycin (RIF-STR). A fully oral intermittent regimen would greatly simplify its treatment on the field. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of this study was to assess the bactericidal and sterilizing activities of intermittent oral regimens in a murine model of established M. ulcerans infection. Regimens combining rifapentine (RFP 20 mg/kg) with either moxifloxacin (MXF 200 mg/kg), clarithromycin (CLR 100 mg/kg) or bedaquiline (BDQ 25 mg/kg) were administrated twice (2/7) or three (only for RFP-CLR 3/7) times weekly during 8 weeks...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mark D Mathew, Neal D Mathew, Angela Miller, Mike Simpson, Vinci Au, Stephanie Garland, Marie Gestin, Mark L Edgley, Stephane Flibotte, Aruna Balgi, Jennifer Chiang, Guri Giaever, Pamela Dean, Audrey Tung, Michel Roberge, Calvin Roskelley, Tom Forge, Corey Nislow, Donald Moerman
BACKGROUND: The lack of new anthelmintic agents is of growing concern because it affects human health and our food supply, as both livestock and plants are affected. Two principal factors contribute to this problem. First, nematode resistance to anthelmintic drugs is increasing worldwide and second, many effective nematicides pose environmental hazards. In this paper we address this problem by deploying a high throughput screening platform for anthelmintic drug discovery using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a surrogate for infectious nematodes...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Thiago Almeida Pereira, Wing-Kin Syn, Frederico Figueiredo Amâncio, Pedro Henrique Diniz Cunha, Julia Fonseca Morais Caporali, Guilherme Vaz de Melo Trindade, Elisângela Trindade Santos, Márcia Maria Souza, Zilton Araújo Andrade, Rafal P Witek, William Evan Secor, Fausto Edmundo Lima Pereira, José Roberto Lambertucci, Anna Mae Diehl
BACKGROUND: Symptomatic acute schistosomiasis mansoni is a systemic hypersensitivity reaction against the migrating schistosomula and mature eggs after a primary infection. The mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of acute schistosomiasis are not fully elucidated. Osteopontin has been implicated in granulomatous reactions and in acute hepatic injury. Our aims were to evaluate if osteopontin plays a role in acute Schistosoma mansoni infection in both human and experimentally infected mice and if circulating OPN levels could be a novel biomarker of this infection...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Bert Avau, Vere Borra, Philippe Vandekerckhove, Emmy De Buck
BACKGROUND: The worldwide burden of snakebite is high, especially in remote regions with lesser accessibility to professional healthcare. Therefore, adequate first aid for snakebite is of the utmost importance. A wide range of different first aid techniques have been described in literature, and are being used in practice. This systematic review aimed to summarize the best available evidence concerning effective and feasible first aid techniques for snakebite. METHODS: A systematic literature screening, performed independently by two authors in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and Embase resulted in 14 studies, fulfilling our predefined selection criteria, concerning first aid techniques for snakebite management...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Nikele Nadur-Andrade, Camila Squarzoni Dale, Victoria Regina da Silva Oliveira, Elaine Flamia Toniolo, Regiane Dos Santos Feliciano, José Antonio da Silva, Stella Regina Zamuner
BACKGROUND: Envenoming induced by Bothrops snakebites is characterized by drastic local tissue damage that involves an intense inflammatory reaction and local hyperalgesia which are not neutralized by conventional antivenom treatment. Herein, the effectiveness of photobiomodulation to reduce inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by Bothrops moojeni venom (Bmv), as well as the mechanisms involved was investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Bmv (1 μg) was injected through the intraplantar route in the right hind paw of mice...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sarfaraz Ahmad Ejazi, Pradyot Bhattacharya, Md Asjad Karim Bakhteyar, Aquil Ahmad Mumtaz, Krishna Pandey, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Mehebubar Rahaman, Rama Prosad Goswami, Nahid Ali
BACKGROUND: Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL), a severe parasitic disease, could be fatal if diagnosis and treatment is delayed. Post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL), a skin related outcome, is a potential reservoir for the spread of VL. Diagnostic tests available for VL such as tissue aspiration are invasive and painful although they are capable of evaluating the treatment response. Serological tests although less invasive than tissue aspiration are incompetent to assess cure. Parasitological examination of slit-skin smear along with the clinical symptoms is routinely used for diagnosis of PKDL...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Benny O Manin, Heather M Ferguson, Indra Vythilingam, Kim Fornace, Timothy William, Steve J Torr, Chris Drakeley, Tock H Chua
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the primate malaria Plasmodium knowlesi has emerged in human populations throughout South East Asia, with the largest hotspot being in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. Control efforts are hindered by limited knowledge of where and when people get exposed to mosquito vectors. It is assumed that exposure occurs primarily when people are working in forest areas, but the role of other potential exposure routes (including domestic or peri-domestic transmission) has not been thoroughly investigated...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Emilia Vendelova, Jeferson Camargo de Lima, Karina Rodrigues Lorenzatto, Karina Mariante Monteiro, Thomas Mueller, Jyotishman Veepaschit, Clemens Grimm, Klaus Brehm, Gabriela Hrčková, Manfred B Lutz, Henrique B Ferreira, Justin Komguep Nono
Accumulating evidences have assigned a central role to parasite-derived proteins in immunomodulation. Here, we report on the proteomic identification and characterization of immunomodulatory excretory-secretory (ES) products from the metacestode larva (tetrathyridium) of the tapeworm Mesocestoides corti (syn. M. vogae). We demonstrate that ES products but not larval homogenates inhibit the stimuli-driven release of the pro-inflammatory, Th1-inducing cytokine IL-12p70 by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDCs)...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Raquel Rodrigues Barbieri, Anna Maria Sales, Mariana Andrea Hacker, José Augusto da Costa Nery, Nádia Cristina Duppre, Alice de Miranda Machado, Milton Ozório Moraes, Euzenir Nunes Sarno
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the profile of patients referred to the Fiocruz Outpatient Clinic, a reference center for the diagnosis and treatment of leprosy in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, and analyzed the origins and outcomes of these referrals. METHODS: This is an observational retrospective study based on information collected from the Leprosy Laboratory database at Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. A total of 1,845 suspected leprosy cases examined at the reference center between 2010 and 2014 were included...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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