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PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346387/inferring-the-risk-factors-behind-the-geographical-spread-and-transmission-of-zika-in-the-americas
#1
Lauren M Gardner, András Bóta, Karthik Gangavarapu, Moritz U G Kraemer, Nathan D Grubaugh
BACKGROUND: An unprecedented Zika virus epidemic occurred in the Americas during 2015-2016. The size of the epidemic in conjunction with newly recognized health risks associated with the virus attracted significant attention across the research community. Our study complements several recent studies which have mapped epidemiological elements of Zika, by introducing a newly proposed methodology to simultaneously estimate the contribution of various risk factors for geographic spread resulting in local transmission and to compute the risk of spread (or re-introductions) between each pair of regions...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346371/identification-of-novel-leishmanicidal-molecules-by-virtual-and-biochemical-screenings-targeting-leishmania-eukaryotic-initiation-factor-4a
#2
Emna Harigua-Souiai, Yosser Zina Abdelkrim, Imen Bassoumi-Jamoussi, Ons Zakraoui, Guillaume Bouvier, Khadija Essafi-Benkhadir, Josette Banroques, Nathan Desdouits, Hélène Munier-Lehmann, Mourad Barhoumi, N Kyle Tanner, Michael Nilges, Arnaud Blondel, Ikram Guizani
Leishmaniases are neglected parasitic diseases in spite of the major burden they inflict on public health. The identification of novel drugs and targets constitutes a research priority. For that purpose we used Leishmania infantum initiation factor 4A (LieIF), an essential translation initiation factor that belongs to the DEAD-box proteins family, as a potential drug target. We modeled its structure and identified two potential binding sites. A virtual screening of a diverse chemical library was performed for both sites...
January 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338001/modelling-the-large-scale-yellow-fever-outbreak-in-luanda-angola-and-the-impact-of-vaccination
#3
Shi Zhao, Lewi Stone, Daozhou Gao, Daihai He
BACKGROUND: Yellow fever (YF), transmitted via bites of infected mosquitoes, is a life-threatening viral disease endemic to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and South America. YF has largely been controlled by widespread national vaccination campaigns. Nevertheless, between December 2015 and August 2016, YF resurged in Angola, quickly spread and becoming the largest YF outbreak for the last 30 years. Recently, YF resurged again in Brazil (December 2016). Thus, there is an urgent need to gain better understanding of the transmission pattern of YF...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337996/occupational-exposure-to-human-mycobacterium-bovis-infection-a-systematic-review
#4
Flora Vayr, Guillaume Martin-Blondel, Frederic Savall, Jean-Marc Soulat, Gaëtan Deffontaines, Fabrice Herin
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) is the main causative agent of bovine zoonotic tuberculosis. The aim of this systematic review is to highlight the occupational exposure to bovine tuberculosis due to M. bovis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A computer based literature search was carried out to identify papers published between January 2006 and March 2017. "PubMed, Cochrane Library and Science Direct" databases were searched systematically. Articles presenting the following properties were included: (i) focusing on M...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337988/l-arginine-supplementation-reduces-mortality-and-improves-disease-outcome-in-mice-infected-with-trypanosoma-cruzi
#5
Sofía Carbajosa, Héctor O Rodríguez-Angulo, Susana Gea, Carlos Chillón-Marinas, Cristina Poveda, María C Maza, Diana Colombet, Manuel Fresno, Núria Gironès
Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is a neglected disease that affects about 7 million people in Latin America, recently emerging on other continents due to migration. As infection in mice is characterized by depletion of plasma L-arginine, the effect on infection outcome was tested in mice with or without L-arginine supplementation and treatment with 1400W, a specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). We found that levels of L-arginine and citrulline were reduced in the heart and plasma of infected mice, whereas levels of asymmetric dimethylarginine, an endogenous iNOS inhibitor, were higher...
January 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329311/harmonized-clinical-trial-methodologies-for-localized-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-and-potential-for-extensive-network-with-capacities-for-clinical-evaluation
#6
Piero Olliaro, Max Grogl, Marina Boni, Edgar M Carvalho, Houda Chebli, Mamoudou Cisse, Ermias Diro, Gláucia Fernandes Cota, Astrid C Erber, Endalamaw Gadisa, Farhad Handjani, Ali Khanesipour, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Liliana López Carvajal, Lise Grout, Badre Eddine Lmimouni, Mourad Mokni, Mohammad Sami Nahzat, Afif Ben Salah, Yusuf Ozbel, Juan Miguel Pascale, Nidia Rizzo Molina, Joelle Rode, Gustavo Romero, José Antonio Ruiz-Postigo, Nancy Gore Saravia, Jaime Soto, Soner Uzun, Vahid Mashayekhi, Ivan Dario Vélez, Florian Vogt, Olga Zerpa, Byron Arana
INTRODUCTION: Progress with the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) has been hampered by inconsistent methodologies used to assess treatment effects. A sizable number of trials conducted over the years has generated only weak evidence backing current treatment recommendations, as shown by systematic reviews on old-world and new-world CL (OWCL and NWCL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a previously published guidance paper on CL treatment trial methodology as the reference, consensus was sought on key parameters including core eligibility and outcome measures, among OWCL (7 countries, 10 trial sites) and NWCL (7 countries, 11 trial sites) during two separate meetings...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329299/multi-drug-resistant-non-typhoidal-salmonella-associated-with-invasive-disease-in-western-kenya
#7
Adam Akullian, Joel M Montgomery, Grace John-Stewart, Samuel I Miller, Hillary S Hayden, Matthew C Radey, Kyle R Hager, Jennifer R Verani, John Benjamin Ochieng, Jane Juma, Jim Katieno, Barry Fields, Godfrey Bigogo, Allan Audi, Judd Walson
Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) is a leading cause of bloodstream infections in Africa, but the various contributions of host susceptibility versus unique pathogen virulence factors are unclear. We used data from a population-based surveillance platform (population ~25,000) between 2007-2014 and NTS genome-sequencing to compare host and pathogen-specific factors between individuals presenting with NTS bacteremia and those presenting with NTS diarrhea. Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and Salmonella Enteritidis ST11 were the most common isolates...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329289/burkholderia-pseudomallei-modulates-host-iron-homeostasis-to-facilitate-iron-availability-and-intracellular-survival
#8
Imke H E Schmidt, Claudia Gildhorn, Martha A L Böning, Vera A Kulow, Ivo Steinmetz, Antje Bast
BACKGROUND: The control over iron homeostasis is critical in host-pathogen-interaction. Iron plays not only multiple roles for bacterial growth and pathogenicity, but also for modulation of innate immune responses. Hepcidin is a key regulator of host iron metabolism triggering degradation of the iron exporter ferroportin. Although iron overload in humans is known to increase susceptibility to Burkholderia pseudomallei, it is unclear how the pathogen competes with the host for the metal during infection...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329287/isolation-and-complete-genome-analysis-of-neurotropic-dengue-virus-serotype-3-from-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-an-encephalitis-patient
#9
Rama Dhenni, Mulya Rahma Karyanti, Nina Dwi Putri, Benediktus Yohan, Frilasita A Yudhaputri, Chairin Nisa Ma'roef, Araniy Fadhilah, Aditya Perkasa, Restuadi Restuadi, Hidayat Trimarsanto, Irawan Mangunatmadja, Jeremy P Ledermann, Ronald Rosenberg, Ann M Powers, Khin Saw Aye Myint, R Tedjo Sasmono
Although neurological manifestations associated with dengue viruses (DENV) infection have been reported, there is very limited information on the genetic characteristics of neurotropic DENV. Here we describe the isolation and complete genome analysis of DENV serotype 3 (DENV-3) from cerebrospinal fluid of an encephalitis paediatric patient in Jakarta, Indonesia. Next-generation sequencing was employed to deduce the complete genome of the neurotropic DENV-3 isolate. Based on complete genome analysis, two unique and nine uncommon amino acid changes in the protein coding region were observed in the virus...
January 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324834/experimental-transmission-of-west-nile-virus-and-rift-valley-fever-virus-by-culex-pipiens-from-lebanon
#10
Renée Zakhia, Laurence Mousson, Marie Vazeille, Nabil Haddad, Anna-Bella Failloux
West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) are two emerging arboviruses transmitted by Culex pipiens species that includes two biotypes: pipiens and molestus. In Lebanon, human cases caused by WNV and RVFV have never been reported. However, the introduction of these viruses in the country is likely to occur through the migratory birds and animal trades. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Cx. pipiens, a predominant mosquito species in urban and rural regions in Lebanon, to transmit WNV and RVFV...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324739/mansonella-perstans-microfilaremic-individuals-are-characterized-by-enhanced-type-2-helper-t-and-regulatory-t-and-b-cell-subsets-and-dampened-systemic-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#11
Manuel Ritter, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Nora Nganyewo Nghochuzie, Lucy Cho Nchang, Dizzle Bita Tayong, Kathrin Arndts, Norman Nausch, Marc Jacobsen, Samuel Wanji, Laura E Layland, Achim Hoerauf
The filarial nematode Mansonella perstans is endemic throughout Africa, northern South America and the Caribbean. Interestingly, M. perstans-infected individuals present no distinct clinical picture associated with certain pathology. Due to its relatively silent nature, research on this tropical disease has been neglected, especially M. perstans-driven immune responses. A hindrance in obtaining data on M. perstans-specific responses has been the inability to obtain adult worms since their habitats in serous cavities are difficult to access...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324738/population-structure-analysis-of-the-neglected-parasite-thelazia-callipaeda-revealed-high-genetic-diversity-in-eastern-asia-isolates
#12
Xi Zhang, Ya Li Shi, Lu Lu Han, Chen Xiong, Shi Qi Yi, Peng Jiang, Zeng Xian Wang, Ji Long Shen, Jing Cui, Zhong Quan Wang
BACKGROUND: Thelazia callipaeda is the causative agent of thelaziasis in canids, felids and humans. However, the population genetic structure regarding this parasite remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we first explored the genetic variation of 32 T. callipaeda clinical isolates using the following multi-molecular markers: cox1, cytb, 12S rDNA, ITS1 and 18S rDNA. The isolates were collected from 13 patients from 11 geographical locations in China...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324737/barriers-of-attendance-to-dog-rabies-static-point-vaccination-clinics-in-blantyre-malawi
#13
Stella Mazeri, Andrew D Gibson, Natascha Meunier, Barend M deC Bronsvoort, Ian G Handel, Richard J Mellanby, Luke Gamble
Rabies is a devastating yet preventable disease that causes around 59,000 human deaths annually. Almost all human rabies cases are caused by bites from rabies-infected dogs. A large proportion of these cases occur in Sub Saharan Africa (SSA). Annual vaccination of at least 70% of the dog population is recommended by the World Health Organisation in order to eliminate rabies. However, achieving such high vaccination coverage has proven challenging, especially in low resource settings. Despite being logistically and economically more feasible than door-to-door approaches, static point (SP) vaccination campaigns often suffer from low attendance and therefore result in low vaccination coverage...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320490/the-glutamine-synthetase-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-is-required-for-its-resistance-to-ammonium-accumulation-and-evasion-of-the-parasitophorous-vacuole-during-host-cell-infection
#14
Marcell Crispim, Flávia Silva Damasceno, Agustín Hernández, María Julia Barisón, Ismael Pretto Sauter, Raphael Souza Pavani, Alexandre Santos Moura, Elizabeth Mieko Furusho Pral, Mauro Cortez, Maria Carolina Elias, Ariel Mariano Silber
Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, consumes glucose and amino acids depending on the environmental availability of each nutrient during its complex life cycle. For example, amino acids are the major energy and carbon sources in the intracellular stages of the T. cruzi parasite, but their consumption produces an accumulation of NH4+ in the environment, which is toxic. These parasites do not have a functional urea cycle to secrete excess nitrogen as low-toxicity waste. Glutamine synthetase (GS) plays a central role in regulating the carbon/nitrogen balance in the metabolism of most living organisms...
January 10, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309419/polymorphisms-in-voltage-gated-sodium-channel-gene-and-susceptibility-of-aedes-albopictus-to-insecticides-in-three-districts-of-northern-west-bengal-india
#15
Moytrey Chatterjee, Sudeep Ballav, Ardhendu K Maji, Nandita Basu, Biplab Chandra Sarkar, Pabitra Saha
BACKGROUND: The control and prevention of dengue largely depends on vector control measures, environmental management, and personal protection. Dengue control programmes are facing great challenges due to development of insecticide resistance among vector mosquitoes. Information on susceptibility status to different insecticides is important for national programmes to formulate vector control strategies. METHODS: We have studied the larval susceptibility of Aedes albopictus to temephos and adult susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0...
January 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309415/clinical-and-microbiologic-efficacy-of-the-piperazine-based-drug-lead-mmv665917-in-the-dairy-calf-cryptosporidiosis-model
#16
Erin Stebbins, Rajiv S Jumani, Connor Klopfer, John Barlow, Peter Miller, Mary A Campbell, Marvin J Meyers, David W Griggs, Christopher D Huston
Cryptosporidiosis causes life-threatening diarrhea in infants, but the best available treatment is only modestly efficacious. Rodents infected with relevant Cryptosporidium species do not develop diarrhea, which complicates drug development. Cryptosporidium parvum infection of dairy calves, however, causes an illness like that seen in infants. Here, the clinical and microbiologic anti-Cryptosporidium efficacy of the piperazine-based compound MMV665917 was demonstrated in neonatal calves. Oral administration of MMV665917 (22 mg/kg once daily) was begun two days after the onset of severe diarrhea and continued for seven days...
January 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309412/a-tetravalent-virus-like-particle-vaccine-designed-to-display-domain-iii-of-dengue-envelope-proteins-induces-multi-serotype-neutralizing-antibodies-in-mice-and-macaques-which-confer-protection-against-antibody-dependent-enhancement-in-ag129-mice
#17
Viswanathan Ramasamy, Upasana Arora, Rahul Shukla, Ankur Poddar, Rajgokul K Shanmugam, Laura J White, Melissa M Mattocks, Rajendra Raut, Ashiya Perween, Poornima Tyagi, Aravinda M de Silva, Siddhartha K Bhaumik, Murali Krishna Kaja, François Villinger, Rafi Ahmed, Robert E Johnston, Sathyamangalam Swaminathan, Navin Khanna
BACKGROUND: Dengue is one of the fastest spreading vector-borne diseases, caused by four antigenically distinct dengue viruses (DENVs). Antibodies against DENVs are responsible for both protection as well as pathogenesis. A vaccine that is safe for and efficacious in all people irrespective of their age and domicile is still an unmet need. It is becoming increasingly apparent that vaccine design must eliminate epitopes implicated in the induction of infection-enhancing antibodies. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We report a Pichia pastoris-expressed dengue immunogen, DSV4, based on DENV envelope protein domain III (EDIII), which contains well-characterized serotype-specific and cross-reactive epitopes...
January 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300747/household-expenditure-on-leprosy-outpatient-services-in-the-indian-health-system-a-comparative-study
#18
Anuj Tiwari, Pramilesh Suryawanshi, Akash Raikwar, Mohammad Arif, Jan Hendrik Richardus
BACKGROUND: Leprosy is a major public health problem in many low and middle income countries, especially in India, and contributes considerably to the global burden of the disease. Leprosy and poverty are closely associated, and therefore the economic burden of leprosy is a concern. However, evidence on patient's expenditure is scarce. In this study, we estimate the expenditure in primary care (outpatient) by leprosy households in two different public health settings. METHODOLOGY / PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a cross-sectional study, comparing the Union Territory of Dadra and Nagar Haveli with the Umbergaon block of Valsad, Gujrat, India...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300732/combinations-of-registered-drugs-reduce-treatment-times-required-to-deplete-wolbachia-in-the-litomosoides-sigmodontis-mouse-model
#19
Sabine Specht, Kenneth M Pfarr, Sandra Arriens, Marc P Hübner, Ute Klarmann-Schulz, Marianne Koschel, Sonja Sternberg, Coralie Martin, Louise Ford, Mark J Taylor, Achim Hoerauf
Filarial parasites can be targeted by antibiotic treatment due to their unique endosymbiotic relationship with Wolbachia bacteria. This finding has led to successful treatment strategies in both, human onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. A 4-6 week treatment course using doxycycline results in long-term sterility and safe macrofilaricidal activity in humans. However, current treatment times and doxycycline contraindications in children and pregnant women preclude widespread administration of doxycycline in public health control programs; therefore, the search for shorter anti-wolbachial regimens is a focus of ongoing research...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29293501/insecticide-treated-curtains-and-residual-insecticide-treatment-to-control-aedes-aegypti-an-acceptability-study-in-santiago-de-cuba
#20
Dennis Pérez, Patrick Van der Stuyft, María Eugenia Toledo, Enrique Ceballos, Francisco Fabré, Pierre Lefèvre
BACKGROUND: Within the context of a field trial conducted by the Cuban vector control program (AaCP), we assessed acceptability of insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs) and residual insecticide treatment (RIT) with deltamethrin by the community. We also assessed the potential influence of interviewees' risk perceptions for getting dengue and disease severity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We embedded a qualitative study using in-depth interviews in a cluster randomized trial (CRT) testing the effectiveness of ITCs and RIT in Santiago de Cuba...
January 2, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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