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PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Joelma Carvalho Santos, Andrea Dória Batista, Carla Maria Mola Vasconcelos, Roberto Souza Lemos, Valter Romão de Souza Junior, Alain Dessein, Hélia Dessein, Silvia Maria Lucena Montenegro, Edmundo Pessoa Almeida Lopes, Ana Lúcia Coutinho Domingues
BACKGROUND: ARFI elastrography has been used as a noninvasive method to assess the severity of liver fibrosis in viral hepatitis, although with few studies in schistosomiasis mansoni. We aimed to evaluate the performance of point shear wave elastography (pSWE) for predicting significant periportal fibrosis (PPF) in schistosomotic patients and to determine its best cutoff point. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cross-sectional study included 358 adult schistosomotic patients subjected to US and pSWE on the right lobe...
November 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Marla I Hertz, Hugues Nana-Djeunga, Joseph Kamgno, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Valerine Chawa Chunda, Samuel Wanji, Amy Rush, Peter U Fischer, Gary J Weil, Philip J Budge
The Global Program to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) relies on rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) to determine where annual mass drug administration for LF is required and when it can be stopped. These tests detect a Wuchereria bancrofti glycoprotein in the blood of infected persons via a carbohydrate moiety recognized by the monoclonal antibodies AD12 and DH6.5. Loiasis cross-reactivity with LF RDTs has recently been recognized as a serious obstacle to LF elimination in loiasis-endemic areas. To better understand the nature of this cross-reactivity, we used the DH6...
November 16, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Keerti Kaumudee Dixit, Sandeep Verma, Om Prakash Singh, Dharmendra Singh, Akhil Pratap Singh, Ratan Gupta, Narendra Singh Negi, Pradeep Das, Shyam Sundar, Ruchi Singh, Poonam Salotra
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has targeted elimination of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Indian subcontinent (ISC) by 2020. Despite distinctive decline seen in the number of VL cases in ISC, there is still a quest for development of a diagnostic test which has the utility for detection of active infection and relapse cases and as a test of cure. The present study validated the sensitivity and specificity of SYBR Green I based closed tube LAMP assay reported by us for diagnosis of VL...
November 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Pedro H Gazzinelli-Guimaraes, Neerav Dhanani, Charles H King, Carl H Campbell, Herminio O Aurelio, Josefo Ferro, Rassul Nala, Alan Fenwick, Anna E Phillips
BACKGROUND: A pioneering strategy developed by the World Health Organization (WHO) for the control of schistosomiasis was the concept of a height-based dose pole to determine praziquantel (PZQ) dosing in large-scale treatment campaigns. However, some recent studies have shown variable accuracy for the dose pole in terms of predicting correct mg/Kg dosing, particularly for treatment of adults. According to the WHO, 91 million adults in 52 countries are targeted to be treated by 2020. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The present study aimed to test the accuracy of the dose pole in determining PZQ dosage by comparing the number of tablets determined by the dose pole with the number of tablets determined according to total body weight...
November 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Satinder Pal Singh, Balbir Bagicha Singh, Deepali G Kalambhe, Devendra Pathak, Rabinder Singh Aulakh, Navneet K Dhand
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium (T. solium) cysticercosis remains a neglected zoonotic disease in India. The current study was planned to estimate the prevalence of T. solium porcine cysticercosis in the Punjab state of India, to compare this prevalence with the disease prevalence in pigs reared outside Punjab and to assess the distribution of the parasite in pig carcasses. METHODS: Two slaughter shops were selected in each of the 22 districts of Punjab. Pigs slaughtered on the day/s of inspection were post-mortem inspected to identify the presence of T...
November 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sifat Sharmin, Kathryn Glass, Elvina Viennet, David Harley
Geographical mapping of dengue in resource-limited settings is crucial for targeting control interventions but is challenging due to the problem of zero-inflation because many cases are not reported. We developed a negative binomial generalised linear mixed effect model accounting for zero-inflation, spatial, and temporal random effects to investigate the spatial variation in monthly dengue cases in Bangladesh. The model was fitted to the district-level (64 districts) monthly reported dengue cases aggregated over the period 2000 to 2009 and Bayesian inference was performed using the integrated nested Laplace approximation...
November 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ogugua Ndubuisi Okonkwo, Adekunle Olubola Hassan, Taofik Alarape, Toyin Akanbi, Olufemi Oderinlo, Ayodele Akinye, Idris Oyekunle
Loiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by infection with the filarial parasite Loa loa. It is a disease considered by many to be benign. Several reports of trans border importation of the Loa loa worm amongst immigrants and visitors from endemic regions of the world exist. In most cases an adult subconjunctival worm is removed from the patient. An interventional case series is reported and examines the practice of removal of subconjunctival adult Loa loa worms amongst urban dwellers in Nigeria. Four cases of ocular loiasis seen amongst urban dwellers in Nigeria exemplify the different presentations and removal methods of the subconjunctival adult worm...
November 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Melissa S Nolan, David Aguilar, Eric L Brown, Sarah M Gunter, Shannon E Ronca, Craig L Hanis, Kristy O Murray
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a chronic parasitic infection that progresses to dilated cardiomyopathy in 30% of human cases. Public health efforts target diagnosing asymptomatic cases, as therapeutic efficacy diminishes as irreversible tissue damage progresses. Physician diagnosis of Chagas disease cases in the United States is low, partially due to lack of awareness of the potential burden in the United States. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The current study tested a patient cohort of 1,196 Starr County, Texas residents using the Hemagen Chagas ELISA Kit as a preliminary screening assay...
November 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Didier Bakajika, Laura Senyonjo, Peter Enyong, Joseph Oye, Benjamin Biholong, Elizabeth Elhassan, Daniel Boakye, Ruth Dixon, Elena Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Massangam health district (HD), in the West Region of Cameroon, has received ivermectin mass drug administration (MDA) for 20 years, however there is evidence of continued high transmission of Onchocerca volvulus. In order to better understand the transmission dynamics in the HD and inform intervention strategies there is a need to delineate the boundaries of the suspected area of high transmission within the wider transmission zone. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parasitological and entomological surveys were conducted to map out the breeding sites of Simulium damnosum and evaluate the prevalence of onchocerciasis in neighbouring communities, including Makouopsap sentinel community...
November 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Cuc H Tran, Maxwell Kligerman, Lesly L Andrecy, Melissa D Etheart, Paul Adrien, Jesse D Blanton, Max Millien, Ryan M Wallace
BACKGROUND: Approximately 59,000 people die from rabies worldwide annually. Haiti is one of the last remaining countries in the Western Hemisphere with endemic canine rabies. Canine-mediated rabies deaths are preventable with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP): wound treatment, immunoglobulin, and vaccination. In countries where PEP is available, variability in healthcare seeking behaviors and lack of adherence to recommended treatment guidelines could also contribute to these deaths. Yet, few studies have addressed these issues...
November 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Danielle Gomes Passos Silva, Selma da Silva Santos, Sheila C Nardelli, Isabela Cecília Mendes, Anna Cláudia Guimarães Freire, Bruno Marçal Repolês, Bruno Carvalho Resende, Héllida Marina Costa-Silva, Verônica Santana da Silva, Karla Andrade de Oliveira, Camila Franco Batista Oliveira, Liza Figueiredo Felicori Vilela, Ronaldo Alves Pinto Nagem, Glória Regina Franco, Andrea Mara Macedo, Sergio Danilo Junho Pena, Erich Birelli Tahara, Policarpo Ademar Sales Junior, Douglas Souza Moreira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro Teixeira, Richard McCulloch, Stela Virgilio, Luiz Ricardo Orsini Tosi, Sergio Schenkman, Luciana Oliveira Andrade, Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta, Carlos Renato Machado
In Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, Rad51 (TcRad51) is a central enzyme for homologous recombination. Here we describe the different roles of TcRad51 in DNA repair. Epimastigotes of T. cruzi overexpressing TcRAD51 presented abundant TcRad51-labeled foci before gamma irradiation treatment, and a faster growth recovery when compared to single-knockout epimastigotes for RAD51. Overexpression of RAD51 also promoted increased resistance against hydrogen peroxide treatment, while the single-knockout epimastigotes for RAD51 exhibited increased sensitivity to this oxidant agent, which indicates a role for this gene in the repair of DNA oxidative lesions...
November 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Philippe Gautret, Kristina M Angelo, Hilmir Asgeirsson, David G Lalloo, Marc Shaw, Eli Schwartz, Michael Libman, Kevin C Kain, Watcharapong Piyaphanee, Holly Murphy, Karin Leder, Jean Vincelette, Mogens Jensenius, Jesse Waggoner, Daniel Leung, Sarah Borwein, Lucille Blumberg, Patricia Schlagenhauf, Elizabeth D Barnett, Davidson H Hamer
BACKGROUND: Recent studies demonstrate that rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (RPEP) in international travelers is suboptimal, with only 5-20% of travelers receiving rabies immune globulin (RIG) in the country of exposure when indicated. We hypothesized that travelers may not be receiving RIG appropriately, and practices may vary between countries. We aim to describe the characteristics of travelers who received RIG and/or RPEP during travel. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a multi-center review of international travelers exposed to potentially rabid animals, collecting information on RPEP administration...
November 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Catherine E Oldenburg, Ahmed M Arzika, Ramatou Maliki, Mohamed Salissou Kane, Elodie Lebas, Kathryn J Ray, Catherine Cook, Sun Y Cotter, Zhaoxia Zhou, Sheila K West, Robin Bailey, Travis C Porco, Jeremy D Keenan, Thomas M Lietman
BACKGROUND: Mass azithromycin distribution reduces under-5 child mortality. Trachoma control programs currently treat infants aged 6 months and older. Here, we report findings from an infant adverse event survey in 1-5 month olds who received azithromycin as part of a large community-randomized trial in Niger. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Active surveillance of infants aged 1-5 months at the time of treatment was conducted in 30 randomly selected communities from within a large cluster randomized trial of biannual mass azithromycin distribution compared to placebo to assess the potential impact on child mortality...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jackie Knee, Trent Sumner, Zaida Adriano, David Berendes, Ellen de Bruijn, Wolf-Peter Schmidt, Rassul Nalá, Oliver Cumming, Joe Brown
BACKGROUND: Enteric infections are common where public health infrastructure is lacking. This study assesses risk factors for a range of enteric infections among children living in low-income, unplanned communities of urban Maputo, Mozambique. METHODS & FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 17 neighborhoods of Maputo to assess the prevalence of reported diarrheal illness and laboratory-confirmed enteric infections in children. We collected stool from children aged 1-48 months, independent of reported symptoms, for molecular detection of 15 common enteric pathogens by multiplex RT-PCR...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sam Debaveye, Claudia Virginia Gonzalez Torres, Delphine De Smedt, Bert Heirman, Shane Kavanagh, Jo Dewulf
BACKGROUND: Mass anthelmintic drug administration is recommended in developing countries to address infection by soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH). We quantified the public health benefit of treatment with mebendazole in eight million Vietnamese children aged 5-14 years from 2006 to 2011. This was compared to the environmental impact of the pharmaceutical supply chain of mebendazole, as the resource use and emissions associated with pharmaceutical production can be associated with a public health burden, e...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Benjamin F R Dickson, Patricia M Graves, Ni Ni Aye, Thet Wai Nwe, Tint Wai, San San Win, Myint Shwe, Janet Douglass, Richard S Bradbury, William J McBride
Lymphatic filariasis is widely endemic in Myanmar. Despite the establishment of an elimination program in 2000, knowledge of the remaining burden of disease relies predominantly on programmatic information. To assist the program, we conducted an independent cross-sectional household cluster survey to determine the prevalence of filariasis infection, morbidity and mass-drug administration coverage in four townships of the Mandalay Region: Amarapura, Patheingyi, Tada-U and Wundwin. The survey included 1014 individuals from 430 randomly selected households in 24 villages...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Wen-Ping Guo, Baicheng Huang, Qin Zhao, Gang Xu, Baoyuan Liu, Yi-Han Wang, En-Min Zhou
In China, thirteen species of tick-borne rickettsiales bacteria pathogenic to human have been reported in ticks and host animals, and human patients caused by them also has been identified. However, investigation for rickettsiales bacteria circulating in Xi'an wasn't performed although diseases resembling human diseases caused by these organisms have been found. In this study, domestic animals and ticks in Xi'an, China, were tested for the presence of rickettsiales bacteria pathogenic to humans. Besides A. ovis, a high prevalence of A...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Ícaro Rodrigues-Dos-Santos, Myllena F Melo, Liane de Castro, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Pedro Emmanuel A A do Brasil, Andréa Silvestre de Sousa, Constança Britto, Otacilio C Moreira
Chagas disease is still a major public health issue in many Latin American countries. One of the current major challenges is to find an association between Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units (DTUs) and clinical manifestations of the disease. In this study, we used a multilocus conventional PCR and quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) approaches to perform the molecular typing and parasite load quantification directly from blood specimens of 65 chronic Chagas disease patients. All patients were recruited at the same health center, but their place of birth were widely distributed in different geographic regions of Brazil...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mirende Kichuki Matiko, Linda Peniel Salekwa, Christopher Jacob Kasanga, Sharadhuli Idd Kimera, Magnus Evander, Wambura Philemon Nyangi
BACKGROUND: Tanzania is among the Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootic/endemic countries in sub Saharan Africa, where RVF disease outbreaks occur within a range of 3 to 17-year intervals. Detection of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) antibodies in animals in regions with no previous history of outbreaks raises the question of whether the disease is overlooked due to lack-of effective surveillance systems, or if there are strains of RVFV with low pathogenicity. Furthermore, which vertebrate hosts are involved in the inter-epidemic and inter-epizootic maintenance of RVFV? In our study region, the Kyela and Morogoro districts in Tanzania, no previous RVF outbreaks have been reported...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Aayushi Kamthan, Tushar Shaw, Chiranjay Mukhopadhyay, Subodh Kumar
BACKGROUND: The Gram-negative soil dwelling bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis. The disease is endemic in most parts of Southeast Asia and northern Australia. Over last few years, there has been an increase in number of melioidosis cases from India; however the disease epidemiology is less clearly understood. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) is a powerful genotypic method used to characterize the genetic diversity of B. Pseudomallei both within and across the geographic regions...
November 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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