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PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Lorna M MacLean, John Thomas, Michael D Lewis, Ignacio Cotillo, David W Gray, Manu De Rycker
Chagas' disease is responsible for significant mortality and morbidity in Latin America. Current treatments display variable efficacy and have adverse side effects, hence more effective, better tolerated drugs are needed. However, recent efforts have proved unsuccessful with failure of the ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor posaconazole in phase II clinical trials despite promising in vitro and in vivo studies. The lack of translation between laboratory experiments and clinical outcome is a major issue for further drug discovery efforts...
July 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Abhishek Kumar Verma, Trushnal S Waghmare, Gorakhnath R Jachak, Satish Chandra Philkhana, D Srinivas Reddy, Anirban Basu
Chandipura Virus (CHPV), a negative-stranded RNA virus belonging to the Rhabdoviridae family, has been previously reported to bring neuronal apoptosis by activating several factors leading to neurodegeneration. Following virus infection of the central nervous system, microglia, the ontogenetic and functional equivalents of macrophages in somatic tissues gets activated and starts secreting chemokines, thereby recruiting peripheral leukocytes into the brain parenchyma. In the present study, we have systemically examined the effect of CHPV on microglia and the activation of cellular signalling pathways leading to chemokine expression upon CHPV infection...
July 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Miranda J Delahoy, Richard Omore, Tracy L Ayers, Katharine A Schilling, Anna J Blackstock, J Benjamin Ochieng, Feny Moke, Peter Jaron, Alex Awuor, Caleb Okonji, Jane Juma, Tamer H Farag, Dilruba Nasrin, Sandra Panchalingam, James P Nataro, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Joseph Oundo, Dawn M Roellig, Lihua Xiao, Michele B Parsons, Kayla Laserson, Eric D Mintz, Robert F Breiman, Ciara E O'Reilly
BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium is a leading cause of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in young children in Africa. We examined factors associated with Cryptosporidium infection in MSD cases enrolled at the rural western Kenya Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) site from 2008-2012. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: At health facility enrollment, stool samples were tested for enteric pathogens and data on clinical, environmental, and behavioral characteristics collected...
July 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Francisco Matilla, Yael Velleman, Wendy Harrison, Mandy Nevel
INTRODUCTION: Neglected zoonotic diseases (NZDs) have a significant impact on the livelihoods of the world's poorest populations, which often lack access to basic services. Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) programmes are included among the key strategies for achieving the World Health Organization's 2020 Roadmap for Implementation for control of Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs). There exists a lack of knowledge regarding the effect of animals on the effectiveness of WASH measures...
July 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sarah L Berry, Hamza Hameed, Anna Thomason, Marissa L Maciej-Hulme, Somaia Saif Abou-Akkada, Paul Horrocks, Helen P Price
The protozoan parasite Leishmania causes leishmaniasis; a spectrum of diseases of which there are an estimated 1 million new cases each year. Current treatments are toxic, expensive, difficult to administer, and resistance to them is emerging. New therapeutics are urgently needed, however, screening the infective amastigote form of the parasite is challenging. Only certain species can be differentiated into axenic amastigotes, and compound activity against these does not always correlate with efficacy against the parasite in its intracellular niche...
July 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Frederick A Partridge, Ruth Forman, Nicky J Willis, Carole J R Bataille, Emma A Murphy, Anwen E Brown, Narinder Heyer-Chauhan, Bruno Marinič, Daniel J C Sowood, Graham M Wynne, Kathryn J Else, Angela J Russell, David B Sattelle
The human whipworm Trichuris trichiura is a parasite that infects around 500 million people globally, with consequences including damage to physical growth and educational performance. Current drugs such as mebendazole have a notable lack of efficacy against whipworm, compared to other soil-transmitted helminths. Mass drug administration programs are therefore unlikely to achieve eradication and new treatments for trichuriasis are desperately needed. All current drug control strategies focus on post-infection eradication, targeting the parasite in vivo...
July 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Julia Moreira Pescarini, Agostino Strina, Joilda Silva Nery, Lacita Menezes Skalinski, Kaio Vinicius Freitas de Andrade, Maria Lucia F Penna, Elizabeth B Brickley, Laura C Rodrigues, Mauricio Lima Barreto, Gerson Oliveira Penna
Over 200,000 new cases of leprosy are detected each year, of which approximately 7% are associated with grade-2 disabilities (G2Ds). For achieving leprosy elimination, one of the main challenges will be targeting higher risk groups within endemic communities. Nevertheless, the socioeconomic risk markers of leprosy remain poorly understood. To address this gap we systematically reviewed MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, LILACS and Web of Science for original articles investigating the social determinants of leprosy in countries with > 1000 cases/year in at least five years between 2006 and 2016...
July 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Amanda Fritzen, Christian Risinger, Gulay Korukluoglu, Iva Christova, Arina Corli Hitzeroth, Natalie Viljoen, Felicity Jane Burt, Ali Mirazimi, Ola Blixt
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) causes severe acute human disease with lethal outcome. The knowledge about the immune response for this human health threat is highly limited. In this study, we have screened the glycoprotein of CCHFV for novel linear B-cell epitopic regions using a microarray approach. The peptide library consisted of 168 synthesized 20mer peptides with 10 amino acid overlap covering the entire glycoprotein. Using both pooled and individual human sera from survivors of CCHF disease in Turkey five peptide epitopes situated in the mucin-like region and GP 38 (G15-515) and GN G516-1037 region of the glycoprotein were identified as epitopes for a CCHF immune response...
July 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mohammad Afzal Mahmood, Dale Halliday, Robert Cumming, Khin-Thida Thwin, Mya Myint Zu Kyaw, Julian White, Sam Alfred, David Warrell, David Bacon, Win Naing, Myat Myat Thein, Nyein Nyein Chit, Sarah Serhal, Chen Au Peh
INTRODUCTION: The global incidence of snakebite is estimated at more than 2.5 million cases annually, with greater than 100,000 deaths. Historically, Myanmar has one of the highest incidences of venomous snakebites. In order to improve the health outcomes of snakebite patients in Myanmar, access to accurate snakebite incidence data is crucial. The last population-based study in Myanmar was conducted more than a decade ago. In 2014, the Ministry of Health and Sports data from health facilities indicated an incidence of about 29...
July 9, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tolulope Ebenezer Atalabi, Stephen Dumebi Adoh, Kingsley Marvin Eze
INTRODUCTION: Human schistosomiasis, a debilitating and chronic diseases, is among a set of 17 neglected tropical infectious diseases of poverty that is currently posing a threat to the wellbeing of 2 billion people in the world. The SHAWN/WASH and MAM programmes in the study area require epidemiological data to enhance their effectiveness. We therefore embarked on this cross-sectional study with the aim of investigating the prevalence, intensity and risk factors of urogenital schistosomiasis...
July 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Luca Valzania, Vincent G Martinson, Ruby E Harrison, Bret M Boyd, Kerri L Coon, Mark R Brown, Michael R Strand
We recently reported that larval stage Aedes aegypti and several other species of mosquitoes grow when living bacteria are present in the gut but do not grow when living bacteria are absent. We further reported that living bacteria induce a hypoxia signal in the gut, which activates hypoxia-induced transcription factors and other processes larvae require for growth. In this study we assessed whether other types of organisms induce mosquito larvae to grow and asked if the density of non-living microbes or diet larvae are fed obviate the requirement for living organisms prior results indicated are required for growth...
July 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Leandro Encarnação Garcia, Erivelto Corrêa de Araújo Junior, Larissa Martins Melo, Jaqueline Poleto Bragato, Juliana Regina Peiró, Valéria Marçal Félix de Lima, Márcia Marinho, Daniel Robert Arnold, Flavia Lombardi Lopes
Leptospirosis is a bacterial zoonosis, caused by Leptospira spp., that leads to significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite considerable advances, much is yet to be discovered about disease pathogenicity. The influence of epigenetic mechanisms, particularly RNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation of host immune response has been described following a variety of bacterial infections. The current study examined the microtranscriptome of macrophages J774A.1 following an 8h infection with virulent, attenuated and saprophyte strains of Leptospira...
July 6, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gianluca Rugna, Elena Carra, Federica Bergamini, Mattia Calzolari, Daniela Salvatore, Francesco Corpus, William Gennari, Raffaella Baldelli, Massimo Fabbi, Silvano Natalini, Fabrizio Vitale, Stefania Varani, Giuseppe Merialdi
BACKGROUND: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is an ongoing health problem in southern Europe, where dogs are considered the main reservoirs of the disease. Current data point to a northward spread of VL and canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Italy, with new foci in northern regions previously regarded as non-endemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) was performed to investigate genetic diversity and population structure of L...
July 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Moses Adriko, Benjamin Tinkitina, Moses Arinaitwe, Narcis B Kabatereine, Mariam Nanyunja, Edridah M Tukahebwa
BACKGROUND: Soil-transmitted Helminths and Anemia potentially reduce and retard cognitive and physical growth in school-age children with great implications for national control programs in Africa. After years of deworming programs, a study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of a national deworming campaign on the prevalence and intensity of soil-transmitted helminthic infections in school-age children in Uganda. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive and cross-sectional study was carried out in five regions of Uganda, where two districts were randomly selected per region based on the ecological zones in the country and included; Nakapiripirit and Kotido from Karamoja; Arua and Yumbe from West Nile; Gulu and Alebtong from the North; Kaliro and Mbale from the East; Hoima and Bundibugyo in the West...
July 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Angélica Pech-May, Janine M Ramsey, Raúl E González Ittig, Magali Giuliani, Pablo Berrozpe, María G Quintana, Oscar D Salomón
BACKGROUND: The Lutzomyia longipalpis complex has a wide but discontinuous distribution in Latin America, extending throughout the Neotropical realm between Mexico and northern Argentina and Uruguay. In the Americas, this sandfly is the main vector of Leishmania infantum, the parasite responsible for Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). The Lu. longipalpis complex consist of at least four sibling species, however, there is no current consensus on the number of haplogroups, or on their divergence...
July 5, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Etienne Waleckx, Silvia Pérez-Carrillo, Samuel Chávez-Lazo, Rafael Pasos-Alquicira, María Cámara-Heredia, Jesús Acuña-Lizama, Fernando Collí-Balám, Javier Cámara-Mejía, Maria Jesús Ramírez-Sierra, Vladimir Cruz-Chan, Miguel Rosado-Vallado, Santos Vázquez-Narvaez, Rosario Najera-Vázquez, Sébastien Gourbière, Eric Dumonteil
Non-domiciliated intrusive triatomine vectors are responsible for a low but significant transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to humans. Their control is a challenge as insecticide spraying is of limited usefulness, and alternative strategies need to be developed for a sustainable control. We performed a non-randomized controlled trial of an Ecohealth intervention based on window insect screens and community participation to reduce house infestation by Triatoma dimidiata in two rural villages in Yucatan, Mexico...
July 2, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Soledad Colombe, Richard Machemba, Baltazar Mtenga, Peter Lutonja, Samuel E Kalluvya, Claudia J de Dood, Pytsje T Hoekstra, Govert J van Dam, Paul L A M Corstjens, Mark Urassa, John M Changalucha, Jim Todd, Jennifer A Downs
BACKGROUND: Africa bears the burden of approximately 70% of global HIV infections and 90% of global schistosome infections. We sought to investigate the impact of schistosome infection at the time of HIV-1 seroconversion on the speed of HIV-1 disease progression, as measured by the outcome CD4+ T-cell (CD4) counts <350 cells/μL and/or death. We hypothesized that people who had been infected with Schistosoma spp. at the time they acquired HIV-1 infection would have impaired antiviral immune response, thus leading them to progress twice as fast to a CD4 count less than 350 cells/μL or death than would people who had been free of schistosomes at time of HIV-1 seroconversion...
July 2, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Elliot W Kim, Rosane M B Teles, Salem Haile, Philip T Liu, Robert L Modlin
BACKGROUND: The immune system depends on effector pathways to eliminate invading pathogens from the host in vivo. Macrophages (MΦ) of the innate immune system are armed with vitamin D-dependent antimicrobial responses to kill intracellular microbes. However, how the physiological levels of vitamin D during MΦ differentiation affect phenotype and function is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL: The human innate immune system consists of divergent MΦ subsets that serve distinct functions in vivo...
July 2, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Biruk Kebede, Sarah Martindale, Belete Mengistu, Biruck Kebede, Asrat Mengiste, Fikre H/Kiros, Abraham Tamiru, Gail Davey, Louise A Kelly-Hope, Charles D Mackenzie
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) and podoconiosis are neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) that pose a significant physical, social and economic burden to endemic communities. Patients affected by the clinical conditions of LF (lymphoedema and hydrocoele) and podoconiosis (lymphoedema) need access to morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) services. Clear estimates of the number and location of these patients are essential to the efficient and equitable implementation of MMDP services for both diseases...
July 2, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Rousseau Djouaka, Francis Zeukeng, Jude Daiga Bigoga, Solange E Kakou-Ngazoa, Romaric Akoton, Genevieve Tchigossou, David N'golo Coulibaly, Sodjinin Jean-Eudes Tchebe, Sylla Aboubacar, Clavella Nantcho Nguepdjo, Eric Tossou, Razack Adeoti, Thèrèse Marie Ngo Nsonga, Yao Akpo, Innocent Djegbe, Manuele Tamo, Wilfred Fon Mbacham, Anthony Ablordey
BACKGROUND: The environmental pathogen, Mycobacterium ulcerans (MU) can infect both humans and animals and cause Buruli ulcer (BU) disease. However, its mode(s) of transmission from the colonized environment to human/animal hosts remain unclear. In Australia, MU can infect both wildlife and domestic mammals. Till date, BU-like lesions have only been reported in wildlife in Africa. This warrants a thorough assessment of possible MU in domestic animals in Africa. Here, we screened roaming domesticated animals that share the human microhabitat in two different BU endemic sites, Sedje-Denou in Benin and Akonolinga in Cameroon, for MU lesions...
July 2, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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