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PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806786/an-economic-evaluation-of-vector-control-in-the-age-of-a-dengue-vaccine
#1
Christopher Fitzpatrick, Alexander Haines, Mathieu Bangert, Andrew Farlow, Janet Hemingway, Raman Velayudhan
INTRODUCTION: Dengue is a rapidly emerging vector-borne Neglected Tropical Disease, with a 30-fold increase in the number of cases reported since 1960. The economic cost of the illness is measured in the billions of dollars annually. Environmental change and unplanned urbanization are conspiring to raise the health and economic cost even further beyond the reach of health systems and households. The health-sector response has depended in large part on control of the Aedes aegypti and Ae...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806785/adherence-to-ivermectin-is-more-associated-with-perceptions-of-community-directed-treatment-with-ivermectin-organization-than-with-onchocerciasis-beliefs
#2
Fanny Nadia Dissak-Delon, Guy-Roger Kamga, Perrine Claire Humblet, Annie Robert, Jacob Souopgui, Joseph Kamgno, Marie José Essi, Stephen Mbigha Ghogomu, Isabelle Godin
BACKGROUND: The fight against onchocerciasis in Africa has boomed thanks to the Community Directed Treatment with Ivermectin (CDTI) program. However, in Cameroon, after more than 15 years of mass treatment, onchocerciasis prevalence is still above the non-transmission threshold. This study aimed to explore a possible association between people's beliefs/perceptions of onchocerciasis and of CDTI program, and their adherence to ivermectin in three regions of Cameroon. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross sectional survey was carried out in three health districts with persistent high onchocerciasis prevalence...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806760/endothelial-activation-and-dysfunction-in-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome
#3
Xiao-Kun Li, Zhen-Dong Yang, Juan Du, Bo Xing, Ning Cui, Pan-He Zhang, Hao Li, Xiao-Ai Zhang, Qing-Bin Lu, Wei Liu
BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) has not been well described yet. Recent studies indicate that SFTSV could replicate in endothelial cells. Here we performed a case-control study to determine whether endothelial activation/dysfunction occurred in SFTSV infection and to identify the biomarkers reflecting endothelial dysfunction. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a case-control study of 134 SFTS patients and 68 healthy controls, serum levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, tissue plasminogen activator, P-selectin, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecular, CD40 ligand, E-selectin, vascular endothelial growth factor A, serum amyloid antigen 1 (SAA-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecular 1 were significantly enhanced in the patients than the controls (all P<0...
August 14, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800609/the-trypomastigote-small-surface-antigen-tssa-regulates-trypanosoma-cruzi-infectivity-and-differentiation
#4
María de Los Milagros Cámara, Gaspar E Cánepa, Andrés B Lantos, Virginia Balouz, Hai Yu, Xi Chen, Oscar Campetella, Juan Mucci, Carlos A Buscaglia
BACKGROUND: TSSA (Trypomastigote Small Surface Antigen) is an antigenic, adhesion molecule displayed on the surface of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes. TSSA displays substantial sequence identity to members of the TcMUC gene family, which code for the trypomastigote mucins (tGPI-mucins). In addition, TSSA bears sequence polymorphisms among parasite strains; and two TSSA variants expressed as recombinant molecules (termed TSSA-CL and TSSA-Sy) were shown to exhibit contrasting features in their host cell binding and signaling properties...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800590/assessment-and-optimization-of-theileria-parva-sporozoite-full-length-p67-antigen-expression-in-mammalian-cells
#5
Giulia Tebaldi, Laura B Williams, Andrea E Verna, Francesca Macchi, Valentina Franceschi, Lindsay M Fry, Donald P Knowles, Gaetano Donofrio
Delivery of various forms of recombinant Theileria parva sporozoite antigen (p67) has been shown to elicit antibody responses in cattle capable of providing protection against East Coast fever, the clinical disease caused by T. parva. Previous formulations of full-length and shorter recombinant versions of p67 derived from bacteria, insect, and mammalian cell systems are expressed in non-native and highly unstable forms. The stable expression of full-length recombinant p67 in mammalian cells has never been described and has remained especially elusive...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793309/the-microbiome-in-urogenital-schistosomiasis-and-induced-bladder-pathologies
#6
Adewale S Adebayo, Mangesh Survayanshi, Shrikanth Bhute, Atinuke M Agunloye, Raphael D Isokpehi, Chiaka I Anumudu, Yogesh S Shouche
BACKGROUND: Human schistosomiasis is a highly prevalent neglected tropical disease (NTD) caused by Schistosoma species. Research on the molecular mechanisms influencing the outcomes of bladder infection by Schistosoma haematobium is urgently needed to develop new diagnostics, therapeutics and infection prevention strategies. The objective of the research study was to determine the microbiome features and changes in urine during urogenital schistosomiasis and induced bladder pathologies...
August 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793307/larrea-tridentata-a-novel-source-for-anti-parasitic-agents-active-against-entamoeba-histolytica-giardia-lamblia-and-naegleria-fowleri
#7
Bharat Bashyal, Linfeng Li, Trpta Bains, Anjan Debnath, Daniel V LaBarbera
Protozoan parasites infect and kill millions of people worldwide every year, particularly in developing countries where access to clean fresh water is limited. Among the most common are intestinal parasites, including Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica. These parasites wreak havoc on the epithelium lining the small intestines (G. lamblia) and colon (E. histolytica) causing giardiasis and amebiasis, respectively. In addition, there are less common but far more deadly pathogens such as Naegleria fowleri that thrive in warm waters and infect the central nervous systems of their victims via the nasal passages...
August 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793306/different-but-overlapping-populations-of-strongyloides-stercoralis-in-dogs-and-humans-dogs-as-a-possible-source-for-zoonotic-strongyloidiasis
#8
Tegegn G Jaleta, Siyu Zhou, Felix M Bemm, Fabian Schär, Virak Khieu, Sinuon Muth, Peter Odermatt, James B Lok, Adrian Streit
Strongyloidiasis is a much-neglected soil born helminthiasis caused by the nematode Strongyloides stercoralis. Human derived S. stercoralis can be maintained in dogs in the laboratory and this parasite has been reported to also occur in dogs in the wild. Some authors have considered strongyloidiasis a zoonotic disease while others have argued that the two hosts carry host specialized populations of S. stercoralis and that dogs play a minor role, if any, as a reservoir for zoonotic S. stercoralis infections of humans...
August 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787454/predictive-factors-for-a-one-year-improvement-in-nontuberculous-mycobacterial-pulmonary-disease-an-11-year-retrospective-and-multicenter-study
#9
Gilbert Cadelis, Rodolphe Ducrot, Arnaud Bourdin, Nalin Rastogi
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease (NTM-PD) has become an emerging infectious disease and is responsible for more deaths than tuberculosis in industrialized countries. NTM-PD mortality remains high in some series reportedly ranging from 25% to 40% at five years and often due to unfavorable evolution of NTM-PD despite established treatment. The purpose of our study was to search for early factors that could predict the favorable or unfavorable evolution of NTM-PD at the first year of treatment...
August 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787451/widespread-trypanosoma-cruzi-infection-in-government-working-dogs-along-the-texas-mexico-border-discordant-serology-parasite-genotyping-and-associated-vectors
#10
Alyssa C Meyers, Marvin Meinders, Sarah A Hamer
BACKGROUND: Chagas disease, caused by the vector-borne protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, is increasingly recognized in the southern U.S. Government-owned working dogs along the Texas-Mexico border could be at heightened risk due to prolonged exposure outdoors in habitats with high densities of vectors. We quantified working dog exposure to T. cruzi, characterized parasite strains, and analyzed associated triatomine vectors along the Texas-Mexico border. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLE FINDINGS: In 2015-2016, we sampled government working dogs in five management areas plus a training center in Texas and collected triatomine vectors from canine environments...
August 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787445/cross-reactivity-antivenomics-and-neutralization-of-toxic-activities-of-lachesis-venoms-by-polyspecific-and-monospecific-antivenoms
#11
Marvin Madrigal, Davinia Pla, Libia Sanz, Elexandra Barboza, Cynthia Arroyo-Portilla, Carlos Corrêa-Netto, José María Gutiérrez, Alberto Alape-Girón, Marietta Flores-Díaz, Juan J Calvete
BACKGROUND: Bothrops, Crotalus and Lachesis represent the most medically relevant genera of pitvipers in Central and South America. Similarity in venom phenotype and physiopathological profile of envenomings caused by the four nominal Lachesis species led us to hypothesize that an antivenom prepared against venom from any of them may exhibit paraspecificity against all the other congeneric taxa. METHODS: To assess this hypothesis, in this work we have applied antivenomics and immunochemical methods to investigate the immunoreactivity of three monovalent antivenoms and two polyvalent antivenoms towards the venoms from different geographic populations of three different Lachesis species...
August 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28787444/development-of-a-set-of-community-informed-ebola-messages-for-sierra-leone
#12
John Kinsman, Kars de Bruijne, Alpha M Jalloh, Muriel Harris, Hussainatu Abdullah, Titus Boye-Thompson, Osman Sankoh, Abdul K Jalloh, Heidi Jalloh-Vos
The West African Ebola epidemic of 2013-2016 was by far the largest outbreak of the disease on record. Sierra Leone suffered nearly half of the 28,646 reported cases. This paper presents a set of culturally contextualized Ebola messages that are based on the findings of qualitative interviews and focus group discussions conducted in 'hotspot' areas of rural Bombali District and urban Freetown in Sierra Leone, between January and March 2015. An iterative approach was taken in the message development process, whereby (i) data from formative research was subjected to thematic analysis to identify areas of community concern about Ebola and the national response; (ii) draft messages to address these concerns were produced; (iii) the messages were field tested; (iv) the messages were refined; and (v) a final set of messages on 14 topics was disseminated to relevant national and international stakeholders...
August 7, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796789/multiple-introductions-of-the-dengue-vector-aedes-aegypti-into-california
#13
Evlyn Pless, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Benjamin R Evans, Vicki Kramer, Bethany G Bolling, Walter J Tabachnick, Jeffrey R Powell
The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti inhabits much of the tropical and subtropical world and is a primary vector of dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses. Breeding populations of A. aegypti were first reported in California (CA) in 2013. Initial genetic analyses using 12 microsatellites on collections from Northern CA in 2013 indicated the South Central US region as the likely source of the introduction. We expanded genetic analyses of CA A. aegypti by: (a) examining additional Northern CA samples and including samples from Southern CA, (b) including more southern US populations for comparison, and (c) genotyping a subset of samples at 15,698 SNPs...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796786/phlebotomine-sand-fly-borne-pathogens-in-the-mediterranean-basin-human-leishmaniasis-and-phlebovirus-infections
#14
REVIEW
Martina Moriconi, Gianluca Rugna, Mattia Calzolari, Romeo Bellini, Alessandro Albieri, Paola Angelini, Roberto Cagarelli, Maria P Landini, Remi N Charrel, Stefania Varani
Pathogens transmitted to humans by phlebotomine sand flies are neglected, as they cause infectious diseases that are not on the priority list of national and international public health systems. However, the infections caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus and viruses belonging to the Phlebovirus genus (family Phenuiviridae)-the most significant group of viruses transmitted by sand flies-have a relevant role for human pathology. These infections are emerging in the Mediterranean region and will likely spread in forthcoming decades, posing a complex threat to human health...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796782/a-new-perspective-on-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-implications-for-global-prevalence-and-burden-of-disease-estimates
#15
Freddie Bailey, Karina Mondragon-Shem, Peter Hotez, José Antonio Ruiz-Postigo, Waleed Al-Salem, Álvaro Acosta-Serrano, David H Molyneux
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783752/mycolactone-cytotoxicity-in-schwann-cells-could-explain-nerve-damage-in-buruli-ulcer
#16
Junichiro En, Sho Kitamoto, Akira Kawashima, Suguru Yonezawa, Yoshito Kishi, Norihisa Ishii, Masamichi Goto
Buruli ulcer is a chronic painless skin disease caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans. The local nerve damage induced by M. ulcerans invasion is similar to the nerve damage evoked by the injection of mycolactone in a Buruli ulcer mouse model. In order to elucidate the mechanism of this nerve damage, we tested and compared the cytotoxic effect of synthetic mycolactone A/B on cultured Schwann cells, fibroblasts and macrophages. Mycolactone induced much higher cell death and apoptosis in Schwann cell line SW10 than in fibroblast line L929...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783751/animal-related-factors-associated-with-moderate-to-severe-diarrhea-in-children-younger-than-five-years-in-western-kenya-a-matched-case-control-study
#17
Anne Conan, Ciara E O'Reilly, Eric Ogola, J Benjamin Ochieng, Anna J Blackstock, Richard Omore, Linus Ochieng, Fenny Moke, Michele B Parsons, Lihua Xiao, Dawn Roellig, Tamer H Farag, James P Nataro, Karen L Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Eric D Mintz, Robert F Breiman, Sarah Cleaveland, Darryn L Knobel
BACKGROUND: Diarrheal disease remains among the leading causes of global mortality in children younger than 5 years. Exposure to domestic animals may be a risk factor for diarrheal disease. The objectives of this study were to identify animal-related exposures associated with cases of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in children in rural western Kenya, and to identify the major zoonotic enteric pathogens present in domestic animals residing in the homesteads of case and control children...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783750/virulence-of-invasive-salmonella-typhimurium-st313-in-animal-models-of-infection
#18
Girish Ramachandran, Aruna Panda, Ellen E Higginson, Eugene Ateh, Michael M Lipsky, Sunil Sen, Courtney A Matson, Jasnehta Permala-Booth, Louis J DeTolla, Sharon M Tennant
Salmonella Typhimurium sequence type (ST) 313 produces septicemia in infants in sub-Saharan Africa. Although there are known genetic and phenotypic differences between ST313 strains and gastroenteritis-associated ST19 strains, conflicting data about the in vivo virulence of ST313 strains have been reported. To resolve these differences, we tested clinical Salmonella Typhimurium ST313 and ST19 strains in murine and rhesus macaque infection models. The 50% lethal dose (LD50) was determined for three Salmonella Typhimurium ST19 and ST313 strains in mice...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783748/heat-shock-protein-90-localizes-to-the-surface-and-augments-virulence-factors-of-cryptococcus-neoformans
#19
Sharanya Chatterjee, Utpal Tatu
BACKGROUND: Thermotolerance is an essential attribute for pathogenesis of Cryptococcus as exemplified by the fact that only two species in the genus, which can grow at 37°C, are human pathogens. Species which have other virulence factors including capsule formation and melanisation, but lack the ability to propagate at 37°C are not pathogenic. In another related fungal pathogen, Candida albicans, heat shock protein 90 has been implicated to be a central player in commanding pathogenicity by governing yeast to hyphal transition and drug resistance...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771480/the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2013-what-does-it-mean-for-the-ntds
#20
Jennifer R Herricks, Peter J Hotez, Valentine Wanga, Luc E Coffeng, Juanita A Haagsma, María-Gloria Basáñez, Geoffrey Buckle, Christine M Budke, Hélène Carabin, Eric M Fèvre, Thomas Fürst, Yara A Halasa, Charles H King, Michele E Murdoch, Kapa D Ramaiah, Donald S Shepard, Wilma A Stolk, Eduardo A Undurraga, Jeffrey D Stanaway, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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