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PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732068/effects-of-liver-stage-clearance-by-primaquine-on-gametocyte-carriage-of-plasmodium-vivax-and-p-falciparum
#1
Rahel Wampfler, Natalie E Hofmann, Stephan Karl, Inoni Betuela, Benson Kinboro, Lina Lorry, Mariabeth Silkey, Leanne J Robinson, Ivo Mueller, Ingrid Felger
BACKGROUND: Primaquine (PQ) is the only currently licensed antimalarial that prevents Plasmodium vivax (Pv) relapses. It also clears mature P. falciparum (Pf) gametocytes, thereby reducing post-treatment transmission. Randomized PQ treatment in a treatment-to-reinfection cohort in Papua New Guinean children permitted the study of Pv and Pf gametocyte carriage after radical cure and to investigate the contribution of Pv relapses. METHODS: Children received radical cure with Chloroquine, Artemether-Lumefantrine plus either PQ or placebo...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732038/analysis-of-patient-data-from-laboratories-during-the-ebola-virus-disease-outbreak-in-liberia-april-2014-to-march-2015
#2
Yuki Furuse, Mosoka Fallah, Hitoshi Oshitani, Ling Kituyi, Nuha Mahmoud, Emmanuel Musa, Alex Gasasira, Tolbert Nyenswah, Bernice Dahn, Luke Bawo
An outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in Liberia began in March 2014 and ended in January 2016. Epidemiological information on the EVD cases was collected and managed nationally; however, collection and management of the data were challenging at the time because surveillance and reporting systems malfunctioned during the outbreak. EVD diagnostic laboratories, however, were able to register basic demographic and clinical information of patients more systematically. Here we present data on 16,370 laboratory samples that were tested between April 4, 2014 and March 29, 2015...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732017/disease-severity-in-patients-with-visceral-leishmaniasis-is-not-altered-by-co-infection-with-intestinal-parasites
#3
Fitsumbrhan Tajebe, Mulusew Getahun, Emebet Adem, Asrat Hailu, Mulualem Lemma, Helina Fikre, John Raynes, Aschalew Tamiru, Zemenay Mulugeta, Ermias Diro, Frederic Toulza, Ziv Shkedy, Tadesse Ayele, Manuel Modolell, Markus Munder, Ingrid Müller, Yegnasew Takele, Pascale Kropf
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease that affects the poorest communities and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Visceral leishmaniasis is characterized by the presence of Leishmania parasites in the spleen, liver and bone marrow, hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, prolonged fever, systemic inflammation and low body mass index (BMI). The factors impacting on the severity of VL are poorly characterized. Here we performed a cross-sectional study to assess whether co-infection of VL patients with intestinal parasites influences disease severity, assessed with clinical and haematological data, inflammation, cytokine profiles and BMI...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732006/drivers-for-rift-valley-fever-emergence-in-mayotte-a-bayesian-modelling-approach
#4
Raphaëlle Métras, Guillaume Fournié, Laure Dommergues, Anton Camacho, Lisa Cavalerie, Philippe Mérot, Matt J Keeling, Catherine Cêtre-Sossah, Eric Cardinale, W John Edmunds
Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a major zoonotic and arboviral hemorrhagic fever. The conditions leading to RVF epidemics are still unclear, and the relative role of climatic and anthropogenic factors may vary between ecosystems. Here, we estimate the most likely scenario that led to RVF emergence on the island of Mayotte, following the 2006-2007 African epidemic. We developed the first mathematical model for RVF that accounts for climate, animal imports and livestock susceptibility, which is fitted to a 12-years dataset...
July 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727773/the-tradition-algorithm-approach-underestimates-the-prevalence-of-serodiagnosis-of-syphilis-in-hiv-infected-individuals
#5
Bin Chen, Xiuming Peng, Tiansheng Xie, Changzhong Jin, Fumin Liu, Nanping Wu
Currently, there are three algorithms for screening of syphilis: traditional algorithm, reverse algorithm and European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) algorithm. To date, there is not a generally recognized diagnostic algorithm. When syphilis meets HIV, the situation is even more complex. To evaluate their screening performance and impact on the seroprevalence of syphilis in HIV-infected individuals, we conducted a cross-sectional study included 865 serum samples from HIV-infected patients in a tertiary hospital...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727769/small-subunit-ribosomal-metabarcoding-reveals-extraordinary-trypanosomatid-diversity-in-brazilian-bats
#6
Maria Augusta Dario, Ricardo Moratelli Mendonça da Rocha, Philipp Schwabl, Ana Maria Jansen, Martin S Llewellyn
BACKGROUND: Bats are a highly successful, globally dispersed order of mammals that occupy a wide array of ecological niches. They are also intensely parasitized and implicated in multiple viral, bacterial and parasitic zoonosis. Trypanosomes are thought to be especially abundant and diverse in bats. In this study, we used 18S ribosomal RNA metabarcoding to probe bat trypanosome diversity in unprecedented detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Total DNA was extracted from the blood of 90 bat individuals (17 species) captured along Atlantic Forest fragments of Espírito Santo state, southeast Brazil...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727765/defining-the-target-and-the-effect-of-imatinib-on-the-filarial-c-abl-homologue
#7
Elise M O'Connell, Olena Kamenyeva, Sara Lustigman, Aaron Bell, Thomas B Nutman
BACKGROUND: Previously we demonstrated the micro- and macrofilaricidal properties of imatinib in vitro. Here we use electron and multiphoton microscopy to define the target of imatinib in the adult and microfilarial stages of Brugia malayi, and assess the effects of pharmacologically relevant levels of imatinib on the adult parasites. METHODS: After fixation of adult B. malayi males and females, sections were stained with polyclonal rabbit anti-c-Abl antibody (or isotype control) and imaged with multiphoton fluorescent microscopy...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727726/a-cross-sectional-seroepidemiological-survey-of-typhoid-fever-in-fiji
#8
Conall H Watson, Stephen Baker, Colleen L Lau, Kitione Rawalai, Mere Taufa, Jerimaia Coriakula, Nga Tran Vu Thieu, Tan Trinh Van, Dung Tran Thi Ngoc, Niel Hens, John Lowry, Ruklanthi de Alwis, Jorge Cano, Kylie Jenkins, E Kim Mulholland, Eric J Nilles, Mike Kama, W John Edmunds
Fiji, an upper-middle income state in the Pacific Ocean, has experienced an increase in confirmed case notifications of enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi). To characterize the epidemiology of typhoid exposure, we conducted a cross-sectional sero-epidemiological survey measuring IgG against the Vi antigen of S. Typhi to estimate the effect of age, ethnicity, and other variables on seroprevalence. Epidemiologically relevant cut-off titres were established using a mixed model analysis of data from recovering culture-confirmed typhoid cases...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727723/analytical-sensitivity-and-specificity-of-a-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-kit-prototype-for-detection-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-dna-in-human-blood-samples
#9
Susana A Besuschio, Mónica Llano Murcia, Alejandro F Benatar, Severine Monnerat, Israel Cruz Mata, Albert Picado de Puig, María de Los Ángeles Curto, Yutaka Kubota, Diana P Wehrendt, Paula Pavia, Yasuyoshi Mori, Concepción Puerta, Joseph M Ndung'u, Alejandro G Schijman
This study aimed to assess analytical parameters of a prototype LAMP kit that was designed for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in human blood. The prototype is based on the amplification of the highly repetitive satellite sequence of T.cruzi in microtubes containing dried reagents on the inside of the caps. The reaction is carried out at 65°C during 40 minutes. Calcein allows direct detection of amplified products with the naked eye. Inclusivity and selectivity were tested in purified DNA from Trypanosoma cruzi stocks belonging to the six discrete typing units (DTUs), in DNA from other protozoan parasites and in human DNA...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727722/an-attenuated-shigella-mutant-lacking-the-rna-binding-protein-hfq-provides-cross-protection-against-shigella-strains-of-broad-serotype
#10
Jiro Mitobe, Ritam Sinha, Soma Mitra, Dhrubajyoti Nag, Noriko Saito, Ken Shimuta, Nobuo Koizumi, Hemanta Koley
Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723951/cd8-t-cells-provide-immune-protection-against-murine-disseminated-endotheliotropic-orientia-tsutsugamushi-infection
#11
Guang Xu, Nicole L Mendell, Yuejin Liang, Thomas R Shelite, Yenny Goez-Rivillas, Lynn Soong, Donald H Bouyer, David H Walker
Scrub typhus, caused by a Gram-negative obligately intracellular coccobacillus, Orientia tsutsugamushi, is a long neglected but important tropical disease. Orientia tsutsugamushi causes illness in one million people each year, and 1 billion people are at risk. Without appropriate diagnosis and treatment, the disease can cause severe multiorgan failure with a case fatality rate of 7-15%. The current gaps in knowledge of immunity include the unknown mechanisms of host immunity to O. tsutsugamushi. Using an intravenous (i...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723920/temperature-modulates-dengue-virus-epidemic-growth-rates-through-its-effects-on-reproduction-numbers-and-generation-intervals
#12
Amir S Siraj, Rachel J Oidtman, John H Huber, Moritz U G Kraemer, Oliver J Brady, Michael A Johansson, T Alex Perkins
Epidemic growth rate, r, provides a more complete description of the potential for epidemics than the more commonly studied basic reproduction number, R0, yet the former has never been described as a function of temperature for dengue virus or other pathogens with temperature-sensitive transmission. The need to understand the drivers of epidemics of these pathogens is acute, with arthropod-borne virus epidemics becoming increasingly problematic. We addressed this need by developing temperature-dependent descriptions of the two components of r-R0 and the generation interval-to obtain a temperature-dependent description of r...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723905/evolution-of-anti-trypanosoma-cruzi-antibody-production-in-patients-with-chronic-chagas-disease-correlation-between-antibody-titers-and-development-of-cardiac-disease-severity
#13
Ingebourg Georg, Alejandro Marcel Hasslocher-Moreno, Sergio Salles Xavier, Marcelo Teixeira de Holanda, Eric Henrique Roma, Maria da Gloria Bonecini-Almeida
Chagas disease is one of the most important endemic infections in Latin America affecting around 6-7 million people. About 30-50% of patients develop the cardiac form of the disease, which can lead to severe cardiac dysfunction and death. In this scenario, the identification of immunological markers of disease progression would be a valuable tool for early treatment and reduction of death rates. In this observational study, the production of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies through a retrospective longitudinal follow-up in chronic Chagas disease patients´ cohort and its correlation with disease progression and heart commitment was evaluated...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723904/impact-of-mass-drug-administration-for-elimination-of-lymphatic-filariasis-in-nepal
#14
Chet Raj Ojha, Basant Joshi, Khagendra Prakash Kc, Shyam Prakash Dumre, Keshav Kumar Yogi, Bandana Bhatta, Tulasi Adhikari, Kathryn Crowley, Babu Ram Marasaini
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a neglected tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes. Nepal has implemented a national effort to eliminate LF by 2020 through mass drug administration (MDA) using diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole (ALB). We assessed the impact of MDAs on LF in selected districts of Nepal after the recommended six MDA rounds had been completed. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Baseline surveys were conducted in seven districts and mapping data were used as baseline in the other three districts before starting MDA in 2009...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723901/2b-rad-genotyping-for-population-genomic-studies-of-chagas-disease-vectors-rhodnius-ecuadoriensis-in-ecuador
#15
Luis E Hernandez-Castro, Marta Paterno, Anita G Villacís, Björn Andersson, Jaime A Costales, Michele De Noia, Sofía Ocaña-Mayorga, Cesar A Yumiseva, Mario J Grijalva, Martin S Llewellyn
BACKGROUND: Rhodnius ecuadoriensis is the main triatomine vector of Chagas disease, American trypanosomiasis, in Southern Ecuador and Northern Peru. Genomic approaches and next generation sequencing technologies have become powerful tools for investigating population diversity and structure which is a key consideration for vector control. Here we assess the effectiveness of three different 2b restriction site-associated DNA (2b-RAD) genotyping strategies in R. ecuadoriensis to provide sufficient genomic resolution to tease apart microevolutionary processes and undertake some pilot population genomic analyses...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723900/the-natural-history-of-acute-ebola-virus-disease-among-patients-managed-in-five-ebola-treatment-units-in-west-africa-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Kelly Skrable, Reshma Roshania, Michaela Mallow, Vanessa Wolfman, Matthew Siakor, Adam C Levine
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) have focused on clinical symptoms and Ebola virus (EBOV) cycle threshold (CT) values recorded at patient triage. Our study explores EVD symptoms and EBOV CT values from onset of illness to recovery or death in a diverse population of patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed clinical care data from EBOV positive patients admitted to five Ebola treatment units in West Africa from 2014-2015. Prevalence of clinical signs/symptoms and CT values were explored using descriptive statistics...
July 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719659/dengue-prediction-by-the-web-tweets-are-a-useful-tool-for-estimating-and-forecasting-dengue-at-country-and-city-level
#17
Cecilia de Almeida Marques-Toledo, Carolin Marlen Degener, Livia Vinhal, Giovanini Coelho, Wagner Meira, Claudia Torres Codeço, Mauro Martins Teixeira
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases are a leading threat to public health. Accurate and timely monitoring of disease risk and progress can reduce their impact. Mentioning a disease in social networks is correlated with physician visits by patients, and can be used to estimate disease activity. Dengue is the fastest growing mosquito-borne viral disease, with an estimated annual incidence of 390 million infections, of which 96 million manifest clinically. Dengue burden is likely to increase in the future owing to trends toward increased urbanization, scarce water supplies and, possibly, environmental change...
July 18, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715426/community-effectiveness-of-pyriproxyfen-as-a-dengue-vector-control-method-a-systematic-review
#18
Dorit Maoz, Tara Ward, Moody Samuel, Pie Müller, Silvia Runge-Ranzinger, Joao Toledo, Ross Boyce, Raman Velayudhan, Olaf Horstick
BACKGROUND: Vector control is the only widely utilised method for primary prevention and control of dengue. The use of pyriproxyfen may be promising, and autodissemination approach may reach hard to reach breeding places. It offers a unique mode of action (juvenile hormone mimic) and as an additional tool for the management of insecticide resistance among Aedes vectors. However, evidence of efficacy and community effectiveness (CE) remains limited. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this systematic review is to compile and analyse the existing literature for evidence on the CE of pyriproxyfen as a vector control method for reducing Ae...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715423/antibody-trapping-a-novel-mechanism-of-parasite-immune-evasion-by-the-trematode-echinostoma-caproni
#19
Alba Cortés, Javier Sotillo, Carla Muñoz-Antolí, Javier Molina-Durán, J Guillermo Esteban, Rafael Toledo
BACKGROUND: Helminth infections are among the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, causing an enormous impact in global health and the socioeconomic growth of developing countries. In this context, the study of helminth biology, with emphasis on host-parasite interactions, appears as a promising approach for developing new tools to prevent and control these infections. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The role that antibody responses have on helminth infections is still not well understood...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715422/unraveling-the-genetic-diversity-and-phylogeny-of-leishmania-rna-virus-1-strains-of-infected-leishmania-isolates-circulating-in-french-guiana
#20
Sourakhata Tirera, Marine Ginouves, Damien Donato, Ignacio S Caballero, Christiane Bouchier, Anne Lavergne, Eliane Bourreau, Emilie Mosnier, Vincent Vantilcke, Pierre Couppié, Ghislaine Prevot, Vincent Lacoste
INTRODUCTION: Leishmania RNA virus type 1 (LRV1) is an endosymbiont of some Leishmania (Vianna) species in South America. Presence of LRV1 in parasites exacerbates disease severity in animal models and humans, related to a disproportioned innate immune response, and is correlated with drug treatment failures in humans. Although the virus was identified decades ago, its genomic diversity has been overlooked until now. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPLES FINDINGS: We subjected LRV1 strains from 19 L...
July 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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