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PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases

Vanesa Puente, Agostina Demaria, Fernanda M Frank, Alcira Batlle, Maria Elisa Lombardo
BACKGROUND: Drugs currently used for the treatment of Chagas' disease, nifurtimox and benznidazole, have a limited effectiveness and toxic side effects. With the aim of finding new therapeutic approaches, in vitro and in vivo anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of vitamin C alone and combined with benznidazole were investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The trypanocidal activity on epimastigote and trypomastigote forms was evaluated by counting parasites in a Neubauer chamber after treatment with the compounds...
September 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Dinh Ng-Nguyen, Rebecca Justine Traub, Van-Anh Thi Nguyen, Kathleen Breen, Mark Anthony Stevenson
BACKGROUND: Taenia solium, a pork-borne parasitic zoonosis, is the cause of taeniasis and cysticercosis in humans. In Vietnam, poor sanitation, the practice of outdoor defecation and consumption of raw/undercooked pork have been associated with infection/exposure to T. solium in both humans and pigs. The broad-scale geographic distribution of the prevalence of T. solium varies throughout the country with infection restricted to isolated foci in the north and a more sporadic geographic distribution in the Central Highlands and the south...
September 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Munegowda C Koralur, Arunachalam Ramaiah, Gregory A Dasch
Orientia tsutsugamushi (Ots) frequently causes severe scrub typhus infections in the Asia-Pacific region. Korean investigators have demonstrated that Ots encodes five different autotransporter domain (ATD) proteins (ScaA-ScaE). ScaA functions as an adhesin and confers protective immunity in a lethal mouse model of Ots infection. Specific antibodies are detected against ScaA and ScaC in Korean scrub typhus patients. However, there is limited data on the distribution of the Sca protein genes in diverse isolates of Ots...
September 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Cheng-Fen Yang, Shu-Fen Chang, Tung-Chien Hsu, Chien-Ling Su, Tzy-Chen Wang, Shih-Hung Lin, Su-Lin Yang, Chien-Chou Lin, Pei-Yun Shu
A total of 1,596 laboratory-confirmed imported dengue cases were identified in Taiwan during 2011-2016. Most of the imported cases arrived from Southeast Asia as well as the Indian subcontinent, the Pacific region, Latin America, Australia and Africa. Phylogenetic analyses of the complete envelope protein gene sequences from 784 imported dengue virus (DENV) isolates were conducted, and the results suggest that the DENV-1 genotype I and DENV-2 Cosmopolitan genotype comprise the predominant serotype/genotype of DENV strains circulating in Southeast Asia...
September 20, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Na Wang, Zhenzhen Wang, Chuan Wang, Xi'an Fu, Gongqi Yu, Zhenhua Yue, Tingting Liu, Huimin Zhang, Lulu Li, Mingfei Chen, Honglei Wang, Guiye Niu, Dan Liu, Mingkai Zhang, Yuanyuan Xu, Yan Zhang, Jinghui Li, Zhen Li, Jiabao You, Tongsheng Chu, Furong Li, Dianchang Liu, Hong Liu, Furen Zhang
Genome wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed multiple genetic variants associated with leprosy in the Chinese population. The aim of our study was to utilize the genetic variants to construct a risk prediction model through a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) in a Chinese set and to further assess the performance of the model in identifying higher-risk contact individuals in an independent set. The highest prediction accuracy, with an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.743 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0...
September 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Walter O Okello, Anna L Okello, Phouth Inthavong, Tassilo Tiemann, Ammaly Phengsivalouk, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Alexandra Shaw, John Allen
BACKGROUND: Control and elimination of zoonotic diseases requires robust information about their effect on both human and livestock health in order to enable policy formulation and the allocation of resources. This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of controlling Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in both humans and pigs, and soil-transmitted helminths (STH) in humans by integrating their control to on-going human and animal health control programmes in northern Lao People's Democratic Republic...
September 19, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Samuel Wanji, Winston Patrick Chounna Ndongmo, Fanny Fri Fombad, Jonas Arnaud Kengne-Ouafo, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Yolande Flore Longang Tchounkeu, Benjamin Koudou, Moses Bockarie, Grace Fobi, Jean Baptiste Roungou, Peter A Enyong
BACKGROUND: Loiasis is a filarial infection endemic in the rainforest zone of west and central Africa particularly in Cameroon, Gabon, Republic of Congo, and Democratic Republic of the Congo. Repeated treatments with ivermectin have been delivered using the annual community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) approach for several years to control onchocerciasis in some Loa loa-Onchocerca volvulus co-endemic areas. The impact of CDTI on loiasis parasitological indicators is not known...
September 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Tamilly Silva Lemos, Juliana Clelia Cequinel, Tania Portela Costa, Amanda Boni Navarro, Andressa Sprada, Flávia Kazumi Shibata, Regina Gondolfo, Felipe Francisco Tuon
BACKGROUND: Human brucellosis (HB) is a bacterial zoonosis that is more frequent in low income and middle-income countries; it is sometimes associated with outbreaks. The aim of this study was to describe the largest outbreak of HB in Brazil. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients suspected of having contracted HB in the state of Paraná, Southern Brazil from January 2009 to January 2017. Following an outbreak of 51 cases of HB in a slaughterhouse at Paiçandu in 2014, HB was defined as an obligatory reportable disease in the State...
September 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Jeyanthi Suppiah, Siew-Mooi Ching, Syafinaz Amin-Nordin, Lailatul-Akmar Mat-Nor, Naematul-Ain Ahmad-Najimudin, Gary Kim-Kuan Low, Manisya-Zauri Abdul-Wahid, Ravindran Thayan, Hui-Yee Chee
BACKGROUND: Malaysia experienced an unprecedented dengue outbreak from the year 2014 to 2016 that resulted in an enormous increase in the number of cases and mortality as compared to previous years. The causes that attribute to a dengue outbreak can be multifactorial. Viral factors, such as dengue serotype and genotype, are the components of interest in this study. Although only a small number of studies investigated the association between the serotype of dengue virus and clinical manifestations, none of these studies included analyses on dengue genotypes...
September 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Victoria L Walsh, LeAnne M Fox, Molly Brady, Jonathan King, Caitlin M Worrell
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) in collaboration with partners is developing a toolkit of resources to guide lymphatic filariasis (LF) morbidity management and disability prevention (MMDP) implementation and evaluation. Direct health facility inspection is the preferred method for documenting the readiness of a country programme to provide quality lymphoedema management services, one of the three MMDP criteria used to demonstrate the elimination of LF as a public health problem...
September 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Andres Garchitorena, Estelle M Raza-Fanomezanjanahary, Sedera A Mioramalala, Cedric Chesnais, Claude A Ratsimbasoa, Herinirina Ramarosata, Matthew H Bonds, Holivololona Rabenantoandro
INTRODUCTION: A global strategy of mass drug administration (MDA) has greatly reduced the burden of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in endemic countries. In Madagascar, the National Programme to eliminate LF has scaled-up annual MDA of albendazole and diethylcarbamazine across the country in the last decade, but its impact on LF transmission has never been reported. The objective of this study was to evaluate progress towards LF elimination in southeastern Madagascar. METHODS: Three different surveys were carried out in parallel in four health districts of the Vatovavy Fitovinany region in 2016: i) a school-based transmission assessment survey (TAS) in the districts of Manakara Atsimo, Mananjary, and Vohipeno (following a successful pre-TAS in 2013); ii) a district-representative community prevalence survey in Ifanadiana district; and iii) a community prevalence survey in sentinel and spot-check sites of these four districts...
September 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Sonia A Gomez, Lloyd A C Chapman, Erin Dilger, Orin Courtenay, Albert Picado
Systemic insecticides in dogs have been suggested as a public health intervention to prevent human cases of Zoonotic Visceral Leishmaniasis (ZVL). But, currently there are no systemic insecticides for dogs registered against zoo-anthropophilic pool blood feeding phlebotomine flies. We predict the impact of community-wide use of systemic insecticide in dog populations as a public health measure to control transmission of Leishmania infantum to humans using a mathematical model. We developed a Susceptible-Exposed-Infected (SEI) compartmental model to describe L...
September 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Arvind Yerramilli, Ee Laine Tay, Andrew J Stewardson, Janet Fyfe, Daniel P O'Brien, Paul D R Johnson
BACKGROUND: Buruli ulcer has been increasing in incidence in southeastern Australia with unclear transmission mechanisms. We aimed to investigate the link between rainfall and case numbers in two endemic areas of the state of Victoria; the Bellarine and Mornington Peninsulas. METHODOLOGY: We created yearly and monthly graphs comparing rainfall with local Buruli ulcer incidence for the period 2004-2016 by endemic region and then considered a range of time lag intervals of 0-24 months to investigate patterns of correlation...
September 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shomik Maruf, Proggananda Nath, Muhammad Rafiqul Islam, Fatima Aktar, Azim Anuwarul, Dinesh Mondal, Ariful Basher
Post Kala-azar Dermal Leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a sequel of Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL). The patients act as a reservoir for the causative parasite (i.e. Leishmania donovani) and thus should be diagnosed and treated with the utmost urgency to prevent the transmission of the disease. In this study, we tried to report the first instances of corneal complications supposedly associated with Miltefosine (MF), in PKDL patients and the probable pathophysiology of such events. The recently rejuvenated National Kala-azar Elimination Program in Bangladesh has put great emphasis on monitoring all the leishmaniasis patients to investigate possible adverse drug reactions (ADR)...
September 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Shankar Suman, Girish Rachakonda, Sammed N Mandape, Shruti S Sakhare, Fernando Villalta, Siddharth Pratap, Maria F Lima, Pius N Nde
The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, causes severe morbidity and mortality in afflicted individuals. About 30% of T. cruzi-infected individuals present with cardiac, gastrointestinal tract, and/or neurological disorders. Megacolon, one of the major pathologies of Chagas disease, is accompanied by gastrointestinal motility disorders. The molecular mechanism of T. cruzi-mediated megacolon in Chagas disease is currently unknown. To decipher the molecular mechanism of T...
September 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Kibur Engdawork, Colleen M McBride, Desta Ayode, Caitlin G Allen, Gail Davey, Getnet Tadele
OBJECTIVES: Assess the feasibility of engaging youth to disseminate accurate information about gene by environmental (GxE) influences on podoconiosis, a neglected tropical lymphedema endemic in southern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross sectional survey was conducted with 377 youth randomly selected from 2 districts of Southern Ethiopia. Measures included GxE knowledge (4 true/false statements), preventive action knowledge (endorse wearing shoes and foot hygiene), causal misconceptions (11 items related to contagion) and confidence to explain GxE (9 disagree/agree statements)...
September 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Collins S K Ahorlu, Daniel Okyere, Edwin Ampadu
BACKGROUND: Buruli Ulcer (BU) is one of the most neglected debilitating tropical diseases caused by Mycobacterium ulcerans, which causes considerable morbidity and disability. Building on earlier findings that community-based interventions could enhance case detection and reduce treatment dropout and defaulter rates, we established an active surveillance-response system in an endemic sub-district in the Ga West municipality of Ghana to enhance early case detection, diagnosis and treatment to reduce or eliminate severe ulcers and its related disabilities...
September 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gebrekrustos Mekonnen, Elmi Fahiye Mohammed, Weldu Kidane, Awol Nesibu, Hagos Yohannes, Nick Van Reet, Philippe Büscher, Hadush Birhanu
BACKGROUND: Trypanosoma evansi is mechanically transmitted by biting flies and affects camels, equines, and other domestic and wild animals in which it causes a disease called surra. At least two types of Trypanosoma evansi circulate in Ethiopia: type A, which is present in Africa, Latin America and Asia, and type B, which is prevalent in Eastern Africa. Currently, no information is available about the drug sensitivity of any Ethiopian T. evansi type. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study was conducted with the objective of determining the in vivo drug sensitivity of two T...
September 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Krista C Swanson, Chiara Altare, Chea Sanford Wesseh, Tolbert Nyenswah, Tashrik Ahmed, Nir Eyal, Esther L Hamblion, Justin Lessler, David H Peters, Mathias Altmann
BACKGROUND: During the Ebola virus disease (EVD) epidemic in Liberia, contact tracing was implemented to rapidly detect new cases and prevent further transmission. We describe the scope and characteristics of contact tracing in Liberia and assess its performance during the 2014-2015 EVD epidemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a retrospective descriptive analysis of data collection forms for contact tracing conducted in six counties during June 2014-July 2015...
September 12, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Faham Khamesipour, Gabriel O Dida, Douglas N Anyona, Mostafa Razavi, Ehsan Rakhshandehroo
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne zoonoses in the Order Rickettsiales and Legionellales cause infections that often manifest as undifferentiated fevers that are not easy to distinguish from other causes of acute febrile illnesses clinically. This is partly attributed to difficulty in laboratory confirmation since convalescent sera, specific diagnostic reagents, and the required expertise may not be readily available. As a result, a number of tick-borne zoonoses are underappreciated resulting in unnecessary morbidity, mortality and huge economic loses...
September 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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