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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Nabil Killiny
Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these two plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis...
October 20, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ting Li, Tristan M Cofer, Marie J Engelberth, Jurgen Engelberth
Previously, we described a priming effect of α-linolenic acid (LnA) on anti-herbivore defense response in maize seedlings (1) . We showed that exogenous application of LnA stimulated higher jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and herbivore-induced plant volatile (HIPV) emission after treatment with insect elicitor (IE). To further investigate the specificity of LnA's priming effect, we incubated maize seedlings in palmitoleic acid (PeicA), γ-linolenic acid (γ LnA) and stearic acid (StA) solutions, and analyzed HIPV emission in response to IE...
October 20, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xia Zhang, Heping Li
Sterols play important roles in plant growth, including embryogenesis, cell expansion, vascular differentiation, male fertility, and endocytosis. Sterols become functional only after removal of the two methyl groups at C-4. There are two distinct sterol C-4-methyl oxidase (SMO) families in higher plants, SMO1 and SMO2, which contain three and two isoforms, respectively, involving in the removal of the first and second C4 methyl groups during sterols biosynthesis. In a recent study we showed that single smo2-1 and smo2-2 mutants displayed no significant phenotype, while smo2-1 smo2-2 double mutant was embryonic lethal...
October 20, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Michelle E Leslie, Sean W Rogers, Antje Heese
Callose deposition within the cell wall is a well-documented plant immune response to pathogenic organisms as well as to pathogen-/microbe- associated molecular patterns (P/MAMPs). However, the molecular mechanisms that modulate pathogen-induced callose deposition are less understood. We reported previously that Arabidopsis plants lacking the vesicle trafficking component DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN 2B (DRP2B) display increased callose deposition in response to the PAMP flg22. Here, we show that increased number of flg22-induced callose deposits in drp2b leaves is fully dependent on the callose synthase POWDERY MILDEW RESISTANT 4 (PMR4)...
October 17, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nobuhiro Suzuki
As sessile organisms, plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses. In contrast to the controlled conditions employed in many researches, more than one or more abiotic and/or biotic stresses simultaneously occur and highly impact growth of plants and crops in the field environments. Therefore, an urgent need to generate crops with enhanced tolerance to stress combinations exists. Researchers, however, focused on the mechanisms underlying acclimation of plants to combined stresses only in recent studies...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Miao Guan, Jan K Schjoerring
Cytosolic glutamine synthetase 1;2 plays an important role in the primary nitrogen assimilation in roots. Based on characterization of the knockout mutant gln1;2 we have recently demonstrated that Gln1;2 is also essential for ammonium handling in shoots. Here we built reciprocally grafted plants between wild type (Wt) and gln1;2 in order to separate the root and shoot roles of Gln1;2. Significant reduction in silique number and seed yield were observed in the grafted plants 1;2shoot/Wtroot relative to Wtshoot/Wtroot...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Navdeep Kaur, Kamal Kirat, Shivani Saini, Isha Sharma, Pascal Gantet, Pratap Kumar Pati
Salinity stress is one of the major environmental challenges which adversely affects plant growth and productivity. The acquisition of salinity stress tolerance has been an interesting area of investigation for plant abiotic stress management. Recently, we investigated the interdependency of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generating and scavenging system for offering salt stress adaptation in rice. In continuation to our earlier findings, in the present study we analysed the transcript level expression of different respiratory burst oxidase homologs (Rbohs) genes in salt sensitive and salt tolerant cultivars of rice to corroborate this result with their activities...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Md Abu Sayed, Yui Umekawa, Kikukatsu Ito
Skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus renifolius) blooms in early spring and its inflorescence, referred to as the spadix, can produce enough heat to melt snow. Here, we investigated glycolytic carbon flow at the PEP branch-point in thermogenic spadices. Our analyses revealed that petals and pistils in thermogenic florets exhibited higher expression of SrPEPC and SrAOX transcripts than those of SrPK, SrPEPCK, and SrPEPtase. Moreover, enzymatic analyses showed high activities of PEPC in the extracts from thermogenic florets...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Renshan Zhang, Xiaoqian Guan, Yee-Song Law, Feng Sun, Shuai Chen, Kam Bo Wong, Boon Leong Lim
Arabidopsis thaliana purple acid phosphatase 2 (AtPAP2) is the only phosphatase that is dual-targeted to both chloroplasts and mitochondria. Like Toc33/34 of the TOC and Tom 20 of the TOM, AtPAP2 is anchored to the outer membranes of chloroplasts and mitochondria via a hydrophobic C-terminal motif. AtPAP2 on the mitochondria was previously shown to recognize the presequences of several nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins and modulate the import of pMORF3 into the mitochondria. Here we show that AtPAP2 binds to the small subunit of Rubisco (pSSU) and that chloroplast import experiments demonstrated that pSSU was imported less efficiently into pap2 chloroplasts than into wild-type chloroplasts...
October 4, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kaberi Gautam, Timothy D Schwinghamer, Donald L Smith
Microbe-to-plant signals can enhance the growth of a wide range of crops. The responses by soybean (Glycine max var. 91M01) to two signal molecules were investigated: Bradyrhizobium japonicum 532C lipo-chitooligosaccharide (Nod Bj V [C:18, MeFuc]) (LCO); and Bacillus thuringiensis strain NEB17 bacteriocin thuricin 17 (Th17). The objective was to assess and quantify the response by soybean, in terms of factors that contribute to yield, to the experimental signal molecules in germination experiments and field experiments...
October 4, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Zsuzsanna Kolbert, Nóra Lehotai, Árpád Molnár, Gábor Feigl
Elevated levels of selenium (Se) cause toxicity in non-accumulator plant species. The primary reasons for toxic Se effect have been considered to be selenoprotein accumulation and oxidative stress. However, based on our recent paper in Plant Cell Reports and previous literature data we suggest that disturbances in the homeostasis of both reactive oxygen and nitrogen species result in selenium-induced nitro-oxidative stress, contributing to toxicity. The most characteristic symptom of Se exposure is the inhibited root elongation which is partly caused by hormonal disturbances...
October 3, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Khaled Moustafa
Environmental and agriculture challenges such as severe drought, desertification, sprawling cities and shrinking arable lands in large regions in the world compel us to think about alternative and sustainable farming systems. Ongoing projects to build floating cities in the sea suggest that building specific ships for farming purposes (as farming ships or farming boats) would also be attainable to introduce new farming surfaces and boost food production worldwide to cope with food insecurity issues.
September 29, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jhun-Chen Chen, Miao-Ju Wei, Su-Chiung Fang
One of the distinct reproductive programs in orchid species is pollination-triggered ovule development and megasporogenesis. During sexual reproduction, fertilization occurs days to months after pollination. The molecular mechanisms evolved to carry out this strategic reproductive program remain unclear. In the August issue of Plant Physiology (1) , we report comprehensive studies of comparative genome-wide gene expression in various reproductive tissues and the molecular events associated with developmental transitions unique to sexual reproduction of Phalaenopsis aphrodite...
September 26, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jing Zhao, Meng-Xiang Sun
In angiosperm, asymmetric zygote division is critical for embryogenesis. The molecular mechanism underlying this process has gained a great attention recently. Some players involve in the control of both accurate position and correct orientation of zygote division plane have been found, which provide useful clues for the extensive investigations. It is getting clear that both internal and external factors are involved in this complex regulatory mechanism and the asymmetric zygote division seems with great impact in cell fate determination and embryo pattern formation...
September 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Lyuqin Chen, Beibei Sun, Lin Xu, Wu Liu
Wounding is the first event that occurs in plant regeneration. However, wound signaling in plant regeneration is barely understood. Using a simple system of de novo root organogenesis from Arabidopsis thaliana leaf explants, we analyzed the genes downstream of wound signaling. Leaf explants may produce at least two kinds of wound signals to trigger short-term and long-term wound signaling. Short-term wound signaling is primarily involved in controlling auxin behavior and the fate transition of regeneration-competent cells, while long-term wound signaling mainly modulates the cellular environment at the wound site and maintains the auxin level in regeneration-competent cells...
September 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Timothy Schwinghamer, Alfred Souleimanov, Pierre Dutilleul, Donald L Smith
The objective of this experiment was to assess whether or not the application of lipo-chitooligosaccharide (Nod Bj V [C18:1, MeFuc]) (LCO) would increase yield factors under conditions that would inhibit canola (Brassica napus L.) productivity. The seed application reduced the percentage of plants that were unproductive by 15.10% compared to plants grown from untreated seeds. Based on the 95% confidence interval for the difference, untreated plants would produce 38 to 3% fewer seeds than plants grown from LCO treated seeds...
September 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Elena Kozgunova, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Daisuke Kurihara
Cytokinesis is last but not least in cell division as it completes the formation of the two cells. The main role in cell plate orientation and expansion have been assigned to microtubules and kinesin proteins. However, recently we reported severe cytokinesis defect in BY-2 cells not accompanied by changes in microtubules dynamics. Here we also confirmed that distribution of kinesin NACK1 is not the cause of cytokinesis defect. We further explored inhibition of the cell plate expansion by ATP-competitive inhibitors...
September 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Misa Takahashi, Jun Shigeto, Tatsuo Shibata, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiromichi Morikawa
Exposure of Arabidopsis leaves to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) results in nitration of specific chloroplast proteins. To determine whether NO2 itself and/or nitrite derived from NO2 can nitrate proteins, Arabidopsis thylakoid membranes were isolated and treated with NO2-bubbled or potassium nitrite (KNO2) buffer, followed by protein extraction, electrophoresis, and immunoblotting using an anti-3-nitrotyrosine (NT) antibody. NO2 concentrations in the NO2-bubbled buffer were calculated by numerically solving NO2 dissociation kinetic equations...
September 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Luping Liu, Bo Li, Xigang Liu
The transposase-derived transcription factor genes FAR-RED ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL3 (FHY3) and FAR-RED IMPAIRED RESPONSE1 (FAR1) have redundant and multifaceted roles in plant growth and development during the vegetative stage, including phytochrome A-mediated far-red light (FR) signaling and circadian clock entrainment. Little is known about their functions in the reproductive stage. We recently demonstrated that FHY3 plays important roles in shoot apical meristem (SAM) maintenance and floral meristem (FM) determinacy through its target genes CLAVATA3 (CLV3), SEPALLATA1 (SEP1) and SEP2...
September 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jinlin Feng, Ligeng Ma
Suspensor development is essential for early embryogenesis. The filamentous suspensor plays vital roles in supporting the embryo proper and in exchanging nutrients and information between the embryo proper and embryo sac. In addition, at the globular stage, the uppermost suspensor cell differentiates into the hypophysis, which generates the progenitors of the quiescent center and columella stem cells. In naa10 and naa15 mutant plants, suspensor cell identity was found to be abnormal and embryo development was disturbed, leading to embryonic lethality...
September 9, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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