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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Natalie Hoecker, Dario Leister, Anja Schneider
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT71 (PAM71) is an integral thylakoid membrane protein that functions in manganese uptake into the lumen. Manganese is needed in the thylakoid lumen to build up the inorganic Mn4CaO5 cluster, the catalytic center for water oxidation, and is hence indispensable for oxygen evolution. A recent study revealed that PAM71 is well conserved in plants and shares homology to GCR1 DEPENDENT TRANSLATION FACTOR1 (GDT1) and TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEIN 165 (TMEM165) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jeanne M Harris, Christine A Ondzighi-Assoume
Roots respond to changes in environmental nitrate with a localized stimulation of ABA levels in the root tip. This rise in ABA levels is due to the action of ER-localized β-GLUCOSIDASE 1, which releases bioactive ABA from the inactive ABA-glucose ester. The slow rise in root tip ABA levels stimulates expression of nitrate metabolic enzymes and simultaneously activates a negative feedback loop involving the protein phosphatase, ABI2, which reduces nitrate influx via the AtNPF6.3 transceptor. The rise in root-tip localized ABA also negatively regulates expression of the SCARECROW transcription factor, thus providing a sensitive mechanism for modulating root growth in response to environmental changes...
January 9, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Henk J Franssen, Olga Kulikova, Viola Willemsen, Renze Heidstra
Nodules are unique organs formed on roots of legumes by soil-borne bacteria, collectively known as rhizobium. Recently, we have shown that orthologs of the AINTEGUMENTA-like (AIL) AP2 transcription factors PLETHORA (PLT) 1 to 4, that redundantly regulate Arabidopsis thaliana root development are involved in root and nodule growth in Medicago truncatula. Hence, it is conceivable that rhizobium has co-opted these genes for nodule development. Whether this co-option requires the presence of specific cis-elements in the promoters and/or specialisation of PLT protein function is not clear...
January 9, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Wei Wei Chen, Wei Fan, He Qiang Lou, Jian Li Yang, Shao Jian Zheng
Oxalic acid is the simplest of the dicarboxylic acids. In addition to its role in biological and metabolic processes, oxalate has been implicated in biotic and abiotic stresses. Being a strong chelator of Al, oxalate also has pivotal role in Al resistance mechanisms. However, we demonstrated that cytoplasmic oxalate accumulation is a critical event leading to root growth inhibition under Al stress. Transcriptome analysis from three crop plants identified Acyl Activating Enzyme3 (AAE3) genes to be up-regulated by Al stress...
January 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Lei Li, A Harvey Millar, Shaobai Huang
Lon is a highly conserved protein family in eukaryotes and eubacteria and its members all contain both a chaperone and a proteolytic domain that are important for Lon function. Loss of mitochondrial Lon1 leads to deleterious phenotypes in yeast and plants, and causes developmental disorders and aging-related diseases in humans. In Arabidopsis, we have recently reported the multiple roles of Lon1 in mitochondrial protein homeostasis through an evaluation of changes in protein degradation rates in the absence of Lon1...
January 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Rongbin Hu, Yinfeng Zhu, Guoxin Shen, Hong Zhang
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was shown to play important roles in biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways in plants. PP2A is made of three subunits: a scaffolding subunit A, a regulatory subunit B, and a catalytic subunit C. It is believed that the B subunit recognizes specific substrates and the C subunit directly acts on the selected substrates, whereas the A subunit brings a B subunit and a C subunit together to form a specific PP2A holoenzyme. Because there are multiple isoforms for each PP2A subunit, there could be hundreds of novel PP2A holoenzymes in plants...
January 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Bernd Striberny, Anthony E Melton, Rainer Schwacke, Kirsten Krause, Karsten Fischer, Leslie R Goertzen, Aaron M Rashotte
Cytokinin Response Factors (CRFs) are AP2/ERF transcription factors involved in cytokinin signal transduction. CRF proteins consist of a N-terminal dimerization domain (CRF domain), an AP2 DNA-binding domain, and a clade-specific C-terminal region of unknown function. Using a series of sequential deletions in yeast-two-hybrid assays, we provide evidence that the C-terminal region of Arabidopsis CRF5 can confer transactivation activity. Although comparative analyses identified evolutionarily conserved protein sequence within the C-terminal region, deletion experiments suggest that this transactivation domain has a partially redundant modular structure required for activation of target gene transcription...
January 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Mai Yamamoto, Taku Takahashi
The excessive xylem phenotype of acaulis5 (acl5), an Arabidopsis mutant defective in the synthesis of thermospermine, indicates that thermospermine is required for negative regulation of xylem differentiation. SAC51 was identified from a dominant suppressor of acl5, sac51-d, and encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein. sac51-d has a premature termination codon in one of upstream open-reading frames (uORFs) of the SAC51 mRNA that is conserved among the SAC51 family members. Thermospermine may act to bypass the inhibitory effect of the uORF on main ORF translation...
January 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Seonghoe Jang
The architecture determining grain production in rice is mainly affected by factors such as lamina angle, tillering, plant height and panicle morphology. In particular, leaf angle, the degree of bending between the leaf blade and leaf sheath directly affects crop architecture and grain yields. Balancing activities between the two antagonistic groups of proteins, atypical helix-loop-helix (HLH) and basic HLH (bHLH) proteins have been regarded as one of the major molecular machineries regulating lamina angles through the control of cell elongation in the lamina joint of rice...
December 28, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Huwei Sun, Jinyuan Tao, Quanzhi Zhao, Guohua Xu, Yali Zhang
Nitric oxide (NO) is widely recognized for its role as a signaling molecule in regulating plant developmental processes. We summarize recent work on NO generation via nitrate reductase (NR) or/and NO synthase (NOS) pathway in response to nutrient fluctuation and its regulation of plant root growth and N metabolism. The promotion or inhibition of root development most likely depends on NO concentrations and/or experimental conditions. NO plays an important role in regulating plant NR activity at posttranslational level probably via a direct interaction mechanism, thus contributing largely to N assimilation...
December 27, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Vincent P Klink, Keshav Sharma, Shankar R Pant, Brant McNeece, Prakash Niraula, Gary W Lawrence
The term regulon has been coined in the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, denoting a structural and physiological defense apparatus defined genetically through the identification of the penetration (pen) mutants. The regulon is composed partially by the soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein attachment protein receptor (SNARE) syntaxin PEN1. PEN1 has homology to a Saccharomyces cerevisae gene that regulates a Secretion (Sec) protein, Suppressor of Sec 1 (Sso1p). The regulon is also composed of the β-glucosidase (PEN2) and an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter (PEN3)...
December 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Mohamed M Mira, Eman A El-Khateeb, Hannan I SayedAhmed, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasolla
Plants respond to hypoxic stress through either acclimation to the stress or avoidance of it, as they do to most environmental stresses. The hypothesis that has general consensus amongst the community is that ethylene response factors (ERFs) are central elements that control both types of responses to hypoxia. Recent studies suggest that this may not be the case for all cells experiencing hypoxic stress. Mature maize root cells undergoing hypoxic stress were found to undergo acclimation and avoidance mechanisms involving ERFs, whereas meristematic root cells and cells still undergoing differentiation acclimated to the response without the involvement of ethylene synthesis or ERFs...
December 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Thongkhoun Sisaphaithong, Shinichi Hanai, Rie Tomioka, Yoshihiro Kobae, Aiko Tanaka, Katsuya Yano, Chisato Takenaka, Shingo Hata
Seedlings of three rice (Oryza sativa L.) varieties (one indica, ARC5955; and two japonica, Nipponbare and Koshihikari) with or without pre-colonization by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae were transplanted into an upland field and grown to maturity. Pre-colonization had no effect on the yield of Nipponbare or Koshihikari. However, pre-colonized ARC5955 exhibited a strong tendency toward increased yield, which was accompanied by increases in the percentage of ripened grain and the 1000-grain weight...
December 23, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ying Gao, Kaijun Zhao
Plant chitinases are a group of proteins associated with defense against pathogen attack. BjCHI1 is the first characterized chitinase containing two chitin binding domains (CBDs). Investigations have shown that BjCHI1 inhibits growth of fungal phytopathogens and agglutinates Gram-negative bacteria. Our recent studies revealed that expression of BjCHI1 mRNA is largely induced upon infection of Botrytis cinerea via a R2R3-MYB transcription factor BjMYB1 interacting with a W box-like element (Wbl-4) in the BjCHI1 promoter...
December 15, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nicola Busatto, Alice Tadiello, Livio Trainotti, Fabrizio Costa
Apple is a fleshy fruit distinguished by a climacteric type of ripening, since most of the relevant physiological changes are triggered and governed by the action of ethylene. After its production, this hormone is perceived by a series of receptors to regulate, through a signaling cascade, downstream ethylene related genes. The possibility to control the effect of ethylene opened new horizons to the improvement of the postharvest fruit quality. To this end, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), an ethylene antagonist, is routinely used to modulate the ripening progression increasing storage life...
December 9, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Aya Shimomura, Susumu Arima, Makoto Hayashi, Maskit Maymon, Ann M Hirsch, Akihiro Suzuki
Earlier, we reported that root nodulation was inhibited by blue light irradiation of Lotus japonicus. Because some legumes do not establish nodules exclusively on underground roots, we investigated whether nodule formation in Sesbania rostrata, which forms both root and "stem" nodules following inoculation with Azorhizobium caulinodans, is inhibited by blue light as are L. japonicus nodules. We found that neither S. rostrata nodulation nor nitrogen fixation was inhibited by blue light exposure. Moreover, although A...
January 2, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Dong-Keun Lee, Suin Yoon, Youn Shic Kim, Ju-Kon Kim
Drought is the most serious problem that impedes crop development and productivity worldwide. Although several studies have documented the root architecture adaption for drought tolerance, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our latest study demonstrated that overexpression of the OsERF71 in rice roots under drought conditions modifies root structure including larger aerenchyma and radial root growth, and thereby, protects the rice plants from drought stresses. The OsERF71-mediated root modifications are caused by combinatory overexpression of general stress-inducible, cell wall-associated and lignin biosynthesis genes that contribute to drought tolerance...
January 2, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Reza Sohrabi, Tehane Ali, Liva Harinantenaina Rakotondraibe, Dorothea Tholl
Triterpenoids produced by plants play important roles in the protection against biotic stress. Roots of Arabidopsis thaliana produce different triterpenoids, which include the tricyclic triterpene diol, arabidiol. In a degradation reaction induced by infection with the oomycete pathogen, Pythium irregulare, arabidiol is cleaved to the 11-carbon volatile homoterpene, (E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene (DMNT), and the 19-carbon ketone, apo-arabidiol. The arabidiol pathway and its volatile breakdown product DMNT have been implicated in the defense against P...
January 2, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Miwa Nagae, Martin Parniske, Masayoshi Kawaguchi, Naoya Takeda
Lotus japonicus THIC is expressed in all organs, and the encoded protein catalyzes thiamine biosynthesis. Loss of function produces chlorosis, a typical thiamine-deficiency phenotype, and mortality. To investigate thiamine's role in symbiosis, we focused on THI1, a thiamine-biosynthesis gene expressed in roots, nodules, and seeds. The thi1 mutant had green leaves, but formed small nodules and immature seeds. These phenotypes were rescued by THI1 complementation and by exogenous thiamine. Thus, THI1 is required for nodule enlargement and seed maturation...
December 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Misa Takahashi, Jun Shigeto, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiromichi Morikawa
PsbO1 is exclusively nitrated when isolated thylakoid membranes are incubated in a buffer bubbled with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) containing NO2 and nitrite. NO2 is the primary intermediate for this selective nitration. Isolated thylakoid membranes were incubated in NO2-bubbled buffer at 25°C in the light or dark. Protein analysis confirmed the selective nitration of PsbO1. Illumination was found to be essential in PsbO1 nitration. A nitration mechanism whereby nitratable tyrosine residues of PsbO1 are, prior to nitration, selectively photo-oxidized by photosynthetic electron transport to tyrosyl radicals to combine with NO2 to form 3-nitrotyrosine was hypothesized...
December 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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