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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Herbell Sarah, Gutermuth Timo, Kai Robert Konrad
Plant reproduction is the basis for economically relevant food production. It relies on pollen tube (PTs) growth into the female flower organs for successful fertilization. The high cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]cyt ) at the PT tip is sensed by Ca2+ -dependent protein kinases (CPKs) that in turn activate R- and S-type anion channels to control polar growth. Lanthanum, a blocker for plant Ca2+ -permeable channels was used here to demonstrate a strict dependency for anion channel activation through high PT tip [Ca2+ ]cyt ...
October 11, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Thomas Schm├╝lling, Eswarayya Ramireddy, Petr Galuszka
Zinc (Zn) is an essential element in human nutrition. The concentration of Zn in cereals, which is a staple food in developing countries, is often too low thus contributing to Zn malnutrition in nearly two billion people worldwide. We have reported recently that transgenic barley plants expressing a cytokinin-degrading CYTOKININ OXIDASE/DEHYDROGENASE (CKX) gene in their roots form a larger root system and accumulate a higher concentration of Zn in their grains when grown under greenhouse conditions. Here, we have tested this trait under field conditions...
October 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Lynnette M A Dirk, Santosh Kumar, Manoj Majee, A Bruce Downie
In Arabidopsis thaliana, the basic Helix Loop Helix transcription factor, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR1 (PIF1) is known to orchestrate the seed transcriptome such that, ultimately, proteins repressing the completion of germination are produced in darkness. While PIF1-mediated control of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellic acid (GA) anabolism/catabolism is indirect, PIF1 action favors ABA while discriminating against GA, firmly establishing ABA's repressive influence on the completion of germination. The result is tissue that is more sensitive to and producing more ABA; and is less responsive to and deficient in GA...
October 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kazi Khayrul Bashar
Waterlogging stress has two phases like waterlogging phase and post-waterlogging phase where both are injurious to plants. Susceptible plants normally die at post-waterlogging phase due to damaged root system, sudden rexoygenation, dehydration and photoinhibition of the desubmerged tissues. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is the main result of reoxygenation stress that can cause oxidative damage of the functional tissues responsible for normal physiological activities. There are almost all types of hormones responsible to recover plants from these destructive phenomenons...
October 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Manal Tashkandi, Zahir Ali, Fatimah Aljedaani, Ashwag Shami, Magdy M Mahfouz
CRISPR/Cas systems confer molecular immunity against phages and conjugative plasmids in prokaryotes. Recently, CRISPR/Cas9 systems have been used to confer interference against eukaryotic viruses. Here, we engineered Nicotiana benthamiana and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants with the CRISPR/Cas9 system to confer immunity against the Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). Targeting the TYLCV genome with Cas9-single guide RNA at the sequences encoding the coat protein (CP) or replicase (Rep) resulted in efficient virus interference, as evidenced by low accumulation of the TYLCV DNA genome in the transgenic plants...
October 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Adeline Becquer, Kevin Garcia, Claude Plassard
Ectomycorrhizal fungi improve tree phosphorus nutrition through transporters specifically localized at soil-hyphae and symbiotic interfaces. In the model symbiosis between the fungus Hebeloma cylindrosporum and the maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), several transporters possibly involved in phosphate fluxes were identified, including three H+ :Pi transporters. Among these three, we recently unraveled the function of one of them, named HcPT2, in both pure culture and symbiotic interaction with P. pinaster. Here we investigated the transporter named HcPT1...
October 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yuelin Zhang, Rowan van Wersch, Fang Gao
Arabidopsis mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase kinase 6 (MKK6) has previously been shown to play important roles in plant immunity and cytokinesis. Here we report that it is also involved in the negative regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis. Elevated anthocyanin levels are observed in mkk6 knock out mutant plants. RNA-sequencing analysis revealed that the expression level of MYB75 (Myb transcription factor 75), which encodes a key positive regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis, is up-regulated in mkk6 mutant plants, suggesting that increased MYB75 expression contributes to the elevated anthocyanin levels...
October 1, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yuki Kimura, Izumi Kimura, Takeshi Kanegae
Four phototropin genes (PHOTA1, PHOTA2, PHOTB1, PHOTB2) have been isolated in the moss Physcomitrella patens. These genes encode phototropins that mediate blue-light-induced chloroplast movement. However, the individual functions of these phototropins, including the function of mediating blue-light-induced phototropism, remain unclear. To elucidate the individual functions of P. patens phototropins, each of these phototropin genes was expressed in a phototropin-deficient mutant of Arabidopsis (phot1-5 phot2-1)...
September 28, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Rafael V Ribeiro, Ricardo da Silva Torres
Stress memory and an effective signaling among individuals in a given community are recognized to improve plant performance under recurrent stressful conditions. As living beings with memory and signaling abilities, plants can be considered as processing units and then be trained - or programmable from a computational viewpoint - and prepared for facing biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we propose that sentinel plants could improve the resilience of agricultural and natural communities by reducing the impact of biotic or abiotic stressors on their neighbors...
September 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Praveen Kumar Kathare, Sunethra Dharmasiri, Nihal Dharmasiri
SAUR53 is a member of SAUR (Small Auxin-Up RNA) gene family of primary auxin responsive genes. In Arabidopsis, SAUR gene family is represented by 81 genes including two pseudogenes; however, the functions of most of these genes are not fully characterized yet. In the present study, we show that SAUR53 expresses throughout the plant and localizes to both plasma membrane and the nucleus. Unlike most other SAUR genes, expression of SAUR53 is not induced in response to auxin. Ectopic expression of SAUR53 results in the elongation of cells and organs, and also interferes with normal apical hook development by accelerating the hook maintenance phase...
September 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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September 26, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 26, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sara Abolhassani Rad, Emily J Clayton, Emily J Cornelius, Travis R Howes, Susanne E Kohalmi
AROGENATE DEHAYDRATASE2 (ADT2) is a member of the Arabidopsis thaliana ADT family. All members of this family act as arogenate dehydratases in phenylalanine biosynthesis, decarboxylating/dehydrating arogenate to phenylalanine. ADT2 is detected in stromules, and as a ring around the equatorial plane of dividing chloroplasts, indicating it has a second, non-enzymatic function in chloroplast division. Here, we provide further evidence for this alternative role of ADT2. First, we demonstrate that ADT2 and FtsZ co-localize around the equatorial plane at the same time...
September 25, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Daisuke Tsugama, Shenkui Liu, Kaien Fujino, Tetsuo Takano
VIP1 (VIRE2-INTERACTING PROTEIN 1) and its close homologues are Arabidopsis thaliana bZIP proteins regulating stress responses and root tropisms. They are present in the cytoplasm under steady conditions, but transiently accumulate in the nucleus when cells are exposed to mechanical stress such as hypo-osmotic stress and touch. This pattern of changes in subcellular localization is unique to VIP1 and its close homologues, and can be useful to further characterize mechanical stress signaling in plants. A recent study showed that calcium signaling regulates this pattern of subcellular localization...
September 20, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ayseg├╝l Turupcu, Wisam Almohamed, Chris Oostenbrink, Georg J Seifert
The Arabidopsis thaliana Fasciclin like arabinogalactan protein 4 (FLA4) locus is required for normal root growth in a linear genetic pathway with the FEI1 and FEI2 loci coding for receptor-like kinases. The two Fas1 domains of FLA4 are conserved among angiosperms but only the C-terminal Fas1 domain is required for genetic function. We show that at low salt deletion of the N-terminal Fas1 domain of transgenic FLA4 leads to enhanced root elongation compared to the tandem Fas1 wild type version. Modeling the hypothetical interaction between FLA4 and FEI1 we show that the predicted interaction is predominantly involving the C-terminal Fas1 domain...
August 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
X Ding, S Zhang, J Liu, S Liu, H Su
Tip-growing cells provide a useful model system for studying the underlying mechanisms of plant cell growth. The apical growth of root hairs is dependent on the microfilament skeleton, and auxin is an important regulator of root hair development. We functionally characterized actin bundling proteins AtFIM4 and AtFIM5, which were preferentially expressed in tip-growing cells such as pollen tubes and root hairs. The morphology and length of root hairs in atfim4/atfim5 double mutant line had obvious defects. In addition, we found the growth of root hairs of atfim4/atfim5 double mutant was insensitive to exogenous IAA (indole-3-acetic acid) treatment...
August 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Z Liu, L Yuan, V Sundaresan, X Yu
Cytokinin independent 1 (CKI1) is a histidine kinase involved in the two-component signaling pathway and acts as a master regulator of central cell specification via CKI1-mediated two-component signaling. In this study, the dynamic distribution of two-component system (TCS) signals was primarily investigated during Arabidopsis embryo sac development. TCS signals were stably detected in female gametophytes cells from the megaspore stage all through to the mature embryo sac stage. CKI1 acts as the primary activator of the TCS signaling pathway in embryo sacs...
August 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Li Rong Sun, Yi Bin Wang, Shi Bin He, Fu Shun Hao
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays pivotal roles in plant growth and development and in responses to diverse stresses. It also modulates the growth of primary and lateral roots. Much evidence indicated that key cellular components auxin, ethylene, PLETHs, reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ are involved in the regulation of ABA suppression of root elongation. In this review, we summary the molecular mechanism for ABA inhibiting primary root growth, focusing on the roles of these components in Arabidopsis.
August 6, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Muruganantham Mookkan
Setaria viridis is one of the most important model grasses in studying monocot plant biology. Transient gene expression study is a very important tool in plant biotechnology, functional genomics, and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology via particle bombardment. In this study, a particle bombardment-mediated protocol was developed to introduce DNA into Setaria viridis in vitro leaf explants. In addition, physical and biological parameters, such as helium pressure, distance from stopping screen to the target tissues, DNA concentration, and number of bombardments, were tested and optimized...
April 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kae Akita, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Takumi Higaki
We previously found that sucrose solution immersion treatment permitted ectopic guard cell differentiation, resulting in clustered stomatal guard cells. Using this system, we examined the effects of sucrose solution-induced stomatal clustering on guard cell cortical microtubules and the stomatal response to fusicoccin. Confocal observation revealed that the radial orientation of cortical microtubules was largely maintained in clustered guard cells. Outward movement of cortical microtubule plus-ends was also kept in the clustered guard cells...
April 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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