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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Noushina Iqbal, Shahid Umar, Tasir S Per, Nafees A Khan
Salinity is a serious threat to plant growth and development worldwide reducing agricultural productivity each year. Ethylene is an important phytohormone that affects plants performance under normal and abiotic stress conditions. In this study, role of ethylene was investigated in mitigating salinity stress (100 mM NaCl) effects on photosynthesis in mustard plants subjected to different nitrogen (N; 5 and 10 mM) levels. Plants under salinity stress exhibited marked increase in proline and reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activity of antioxidant enzymes...
May 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yuan Yao, Xiaoyang Chen, Ai-Min Wu
The ethylene response factor VII (ERF-VII) transcription factor has been reported to be involved in multiple different stress responses. In a previous study, we showed that ERF74 and ERF75 play a redundant role in the upregulation of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG D (RbohD) transcription and enhance the oxygen species (ROS) burst during early stages of the stress response. Induction of stress marker genes and ROS-scavenging enzymes under various stress conditions are dependent on this ROS burst. Here, we propose an assumption that ERF71-ERF75 have different functions and act synergistically in response to stresses in Arabidopsis...
May 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Lulu Yao, Yuyu Zheng, Ziqiang Zhu
In addition to defense response, phytohormone jasmonate participates in various plant growth and developmental processes. Nonetheless, its role in the seedling stage is not well defined. We recently report that jasmonate suppresses hypocotyl elongation and promotes cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. The molecular basis underlying this phenotype is that jasmonate treatment reduces the biochemical activity of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) to stabilize several COP1-targetted transcription factors for eliciting a proportion of light responsive transcriptome...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nazmul H Bhuiyan, Klaas J van Wijk
Plastoglobules (PGs) in chloroplasts are monolayer lipid-protein particles attached to thylakoids. The size and number of PGs per chloroplast respond dynamically to abiotic environmental stresses and developmental transitions. During senescence, the thylakoid membranes and its constituents are dismantled in controlled fashion. Leaf senescence coincides with a dramatic increase in the size of PGs, which is consistent with a functional role of PG in remobilization of thylakoid membrane components. In a recent publication (1) , we showed that PG-localized metallopeptidase PGM48 promotes natural senescence...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Katharina Bürstenbinder, Dipannita Mitra, Jakob Quegwer
Ca(2+) ions play pivotal roles as second messengers in intracellular signal transduction, and coordinate many biological processes. Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels are perceived by Ca(2+) sensors such as CaM/CML proteins, which transduce Ca(2+) signals into cellular responses by regulation of diverse target proteins. Insights into molecular functions of CaM targets are thus essential to understand the molecular and cellular basis of Ca(2+) signaling. During the last decade, IQD proteins emerged as the largest class of CaM targets in plants with mostly unknown functions...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Seiya Tanaka, Nobuyuki Ario, Andressa Camila Seiko Nakagawa, Yuki Tomita, Naoki Murayama, Takatoshi Taniguchi, Norimitsu Hamaoka, Mari Iwaya-Inoue, Yushi Ishibashi
Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sona Pandey
Article Addendum Efficient activation and deactivation of Gα protein is critical for the regulation of heterotrimeric G-protein mediated signaling pathways. While the core G-protein components and their activation/deactivation chemistries are broadly conserved throughout the eukaryotic evolution, their regulatory mechanisms seem to have been rewired in plants to meet specific needs. Plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a limited number of G-protein components and their regulators, offer a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanistic details of distinct signaling pathways...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Maria Filomena Valim, Nabil Killiny
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus is a phloem restricted bacterium causes citrus greening disease or huanglongbing (HLB), a major treat to commercial citrus production in Florida. It is transmitted by the Asian citrus psyllid, a phloem sap-feeding insect. Studies conducted on the composition of citrus phloem sap revealed the presence amino acids, organic acids and sugars and of low amounts of free fatty acids. In the present study, the phloem sap of twelve citrus varieties with different degrees of tolerance to HLB were extracted with ethyl acetate and analyzed GC-MS after derivatization with boron trifluoride, a fatty acid-specific reagent...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Young-Joon Park, Chung-Mo Park
High but nonstressful temperatures profoundly affect plant growth and developmental processes, termed thermomorphogenesis. Thermo-induced hypocotyl elongation is a typical thermomorphogenic trait, which contributes to cooling plant organs. It is known that external light signals and the circadian clock coordinate rhythmic hypocotyl growth. However, it was unclear how light, temperature, and circadian rhythms are harmonized during hypocotyl thermomorphogenesis. We have recently demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is activated at warm temperatures...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Etsuko Watanabe, Shoji Mano, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura, Mikio Nishimura, Kenji Yamada
Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that facilitates the maturation of target proteins. Here, we report that the auxin receptor TIR1 is a target of cytosolic HSP90 and that HSP90 and TIR1 form a complex. Inhibition of HSP90 compromised the nuclear localization of TIR1, and abrogated plant responses to the hormone auxin. Our findings suggest that HSP90 positively regulates auxin receptor function. We also propose that HSP90 buffers or hides phenotypic variations in animals and plants by masking mutations in some of its target proteins...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Thomas E Marler
Diel root extension was observed for Serianthes grandiflora, Serianthes kanehirae, and Serianthes nelsonii plants ranging in size from seedlings to 2-m tall saplings. The percentage of daily root extension that occurred at night declined from 65% for seedlings to 51% for 200-cm tall plants for S. grandiflora, from 58% for seedlings to 54% for 200-cm tall plants for S. kanehirae, and from 72% for seedlings to 55% for 200-cm tall plants for S. nelsonii. These results indicate the timing of root extension rates throughout a diel cycle may be included in the list of phenology and physiology traits that change as plants increase in size...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Juliane K Ishida, Satoko Yoshida, Ken Shirasu
The family Orobanchaceae includes many parasitic plant species. Parasitic plants invade host vascular tissues and form organs called haustoria, which are used to obtain water and nutrients. Haustorium formation is initiated by host-derived chemicals including quinones and flavonoids. Two types of quinone oxidoreductase (QR) are involved in signal transduction leading to haustorium formation; QR1 mediates single-electron transfers and QR2 mediates two-electron transfers. In the facultative parasite Triphysaria versicolor, QR1 is involved in haustorium induction signaling, while this role is played by QR2 in the model plant Phtheirospermum japonicum...
May 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ximena Noriega, Francisco J Pérez
Single-bud cuttings of Vitis vinifera L exposed to forced growing conditions were used to investigate the involvement of phytohormones, abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (Aux) and cytokinin (CK) in the release of buds from the ED and in bud-sprouting. This artificial system imitates and hastens the natural sprouting that occurs in spring. Temporal expression analysis of genes related to phytohormones synthesis, showed an early drop in the expression of ABA biosynthesis gene that preceded an increase in Aux and CK biosynthesis genes...
May 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Dong-Hwan Kim, Sibum Sung
Vernalization is a response to the winter cold to acquire the competence to flower in next spring. VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE 3 (VIN3) is a PHD-finger protein that binds to modified histones in vitro. VIN3 is induced by long-term cold and is necessary for Polycomb Repression Complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated tri-methylation of Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27me3) at the FLC locus in Arabidopsis. An alteration in the PHD-finger domain of VIN3 changes the binding specificity of the PHD-finger domain of VIN3 in vitro and results in an accelerated vernalization response in vivo...
May 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kun Li, Fengbo Yang, Yuchen Miao, Chun-Peng Song
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays roles in plant growth and development and in stress responses. Recently, we found that ABA regulates ABA-insensitive protein kinase 1 (AIK1), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase. Compared with wild-type, aik1-1 showed down-regulation of ABA-responsive genes (RD29A, MYC2, ABI3 and ABI4). Under ABA treatment, the transcript level of KRP1 (Kip-related protein, a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor) was lower in aik1-1 than in wild-type. The activity of ABA-activated MPK6 was decreased in abi1 abi2, and abi1 abi2 hab1, and increased in snrk2...
May 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Chisato Yamaguchi, Naoko Ohkama-Ohtsu, Takuro Shinano, Akiko Maruyama-Nakashita
Glutathione and phytochelatins are sulfur containing compounds playing an important role in cadmium (Cd) detoxification. We examined the Cd-induced changes in the percentage of sulfur containing compounds to total sulfur in wild-type and sulfate transporter 1;2 knockout mutant, sel1-10. Cd treatment increased the proportion of sulfate and thiols in the total sulfur content. Among the thiols analyzed, the proportion of cysteine and glutathione were decreased by the Cd treatment and that of the phytochelatins were increased...
May 9, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xiaoyang Zhu, Manon Perez, Didier Aldon, Jean-Philippe Galaud
In their natural environment, plants have to continuously face constraints such as biotic and abiotic stresses. To achieve their life cycle, plants have to perceive and interpret the nature, but also the strength of environmental stimuli to activate appropriate physiological responses. Nowadays, it is well established that signaling pathways are crucial steps in the implementation of rapid and efficient plant responses such as genetic reprograming. It is also reported that rapid raises in calcium (Ca(2+)) levels within plant cells participate in these early signaling steps and are essential to coordinate adaptive responses...
May 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sunita Kushwah, Ashverya Laxmi
Cytokinin (CK) and glucose (GLC) control several common responses in plants. There is an extensive overlap between CK and GLC signal transduction pathways in Arabidopsis. Physiologically, both GLC and CK could regulate root length in light. CK interacts with GLC via HXK1 dependent pathway for root length control. Wild-type (WT) roots cannot elongate in the GLC free medium while CK-receptor mutant ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE4 (ahk4) and type B ARR triple mutant ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR1, 10,11 (arr1, 10,11) roots could elongate even in the absence of GLC as compared with the WT...
May 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Shu-Nong Bai
In this viewpoint, the usages of terms for progenitor cells to meiosis and gametogenesis are discussed. Terms for two types of germ cells, i.e. "diploid germ cells" and "haploid germ cells" were suggested to replace "archesporial cells" and "generative cells", respectively, in plant developmental research. This suggestion was based on two newly proposed concepts, the "sexual reproduction cycle" for eukaryotes, and a "double-ring mode" of plant developmental program.
May 2, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Brett M Saremba, Fiona J M Tymm, Kathy Baethke, Mark R Rheault, Sherif M Sherif, Praveen K Saxena, Susan J Murch
American Elms were devastated by an outbreak of Dutch Elm Disease is caused by the fungus Ophiostoma novo-ulmi Brasier that originated in Asia and arrived in the early 1900s. In spite of decades of study, the specific mechanisms and disease resistance in some trees is not well understood. the fungus is spread by a number of species of bark beetles in the genus Scolytus, during their dispersal and feeding. Our objective was to understand elm responses to beetle feeding in the absence of the fungus to identify potential resistance mechanisms...
April 27, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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