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Plant Signaling & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340328/the-role-of-auxin-response-factors-in-the-development-and-differential-growth-of-inflorescence-stems
#1
Nicholas S Carey, Naden T Krogan
Plants react to environmental cues by altering their growth and development, which can include organ tropic responses. These differential growth responses are triggered by the hormone auxin, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) have been implicated in numerous organ tropisms in Arabidopsis thaliana. Surprisingly, despite being critical for light capture and overall plant morphology, inflorescence stem tropic responses remain relatively understudied, with presumed direct links to ARF function yet to be established...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340327/polymorphic-responses-of-medicago-truncatula-accessions-to-potassium-deprivation
#2
Kevin Garcia, Jean-Michel Ané
Potassium (K(+)) is an essential macronutrient for plants and the most abundant cation in cells. Due to variable K(+) availability in the environment, plants must be able to adjust their developmental, physiological and transcriptional responses. The plant development to K(+) deprivation was not well studied in legumes thus far. We recently described the first adaptation mechanisms of the model legume Medicago truncatula Jemalong A17 to long-term K(+) deprivation and analyzed these responses in the context of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340324/vps36-mediated-plasma-membrane-protein-turnover-is-critical-for-arabidopsis-root-gravitropism
#3
Ya-Wen Hsu, Guang-Yuh Jauh
The gravitropic response is an evolutionary adaptation for plants to cope with the altered gravitational field. It involves reestablishing the distribution of the phytohormone auxin by differential degradation of auxin influx and efflux carriers. This process includes the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to recognize ubiquitinated proteins and deliver them to vacuoles for degradation, as evidenced by vps36-1 mutants. Here, we generated RNAi knockdown plants of Vacuolar Protein Sorting 36 (VPS36) that could survive to adulthood...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323554/selective-nitration-of-psbo1-inhibits-oxygen-evolution-from-isolated-arabidopsis-thylakoid-membranes
#4
Misa Takahashi, Jun Shigeto, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiromichi Morikawa
Treatment of isolated Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membranes with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) induces selective nitration of the tyrosine residue at the ninth amino acid ((9)Tyr) of PsbO1. This selective nitration is triggered by light and is inhibited by photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors. Therefore, we postulated that, similar to (161)Tyr of D1 (Yz), (9)Tyr of PsbO1 is redox active and is selectively oxidized by photosynthetic electron transport in response to illumination to a tyrosyl radical that is highly susceptible to nitration...
March 21, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318377/root-hydrotropism-and-thigmotropism-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-are-differentially-controlled-by-redox-status
#5
Georgina Ponce, Gabriel Corkidi, Delfeena Eapen, Fernando Lledias, Luis Cárdenas, Gladys Cassab
Factors that affect the direction of root growth in response to environmental signals influence crop productivity. We analyzed the root tropic responses of thioredoxin (trxs), thigmotropic (wav2-1), and hydrotropic (ahr1 and nhr1) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants treated with low concentrations of paraquat (PQ), which induces mild oxidative stress, and established a new method for evaluating root waviness (root bending effort, RBE). This method estimates root bending by measuring and summing local curvature over the whole length of the root, regardless of the asymmetry of the wavy pattern under thigmostimulation...
March 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272988/chlorophyllide-a-oxygenase-cao-deficiency-affects-the-levels-of-singlet-oxygen-and-formation-of-plasmodesmata-in-leaves-and-shoot-apical-meristems-of-barley
#6
Valeria A Dmitrieva, Alexandra N Ivanova, Elena V Tyutereva, Anastasiia I Evkaikina, Ekaterina A Klimova, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja
In plants, organogenesis and specification of cell layers and tissues rely on precise symplastic delivery of regulatory molecules via plasmodesmata. Accordingly, abundance and aperture of plasmodesmata at individual cell boundaries should be controlled by the plant. Recently, studies in Arabidopsis established reactive oxygen species as major regulators of plasmodesmata formation and gating. We show that in a barley mutant deficient in the synthesis of chlorophyll b, the numbers of plasmodesmata in leaves and in the shoot apical meristem are significantly higher than in the corresponding wild type, probably due to redox imbalance in the mutant...
March 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272985/in-memoriam-zygmunt-hejnowicz-1929-2016
#7
Dorota Kwiatkowska, Jerzy Nakielski, Ewa U Kurczyńska
Professor Zygmunt Hejnowicz passed away aged 87, on the first of May 2016. We describe his major research interests and contribution to plant development, anatomy, and biophysics, from the perspective of his close collaborators.
March 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277968/vascular-plant-one-zinc-finger-protein-2-is-localized-both-to-the-nucleus-and-stress-granules-under-heat-stress-in-arabidopsis
#8
Misaki Koguchi, Kanako Yamasaki, Tomoko Hirano, Masa H Sato
VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER (VOZ)1/ and VOZ2 have an ability to bind to the specific cis-element in the AVP1 promoter of Arabidopsis, which function on the PhyB-dependent flowering and possibly in various stress responses as potential transcription factors, although nuclear localization of VOZ proteins is still unclear. In this study, we found that VOZ2 is dispersed throughout the cytoplasm under normal growth conditions, whereas VOZ2 but is transferred not only to the nucleus but also to the cytoplasmic foci under heat stress conditions...
February 25, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277972/thienopyrimidine-type-compounds-protect-arabidopsis-plants-against-the-hemibiotrophic-fungal-pathogen-colletotrichum-higginsianum-and-bacterial-pathogen-pseudomonas-syringae-pv-maculicola
#9
Mari Narusaka, Yoshihiro Narusaka
Plant activators activate systemic acquired resistance-like defense responses or induced systemic resistance, and thus protect plants from pathogens. We screened a chemical library composed of structurally diverse small molecules. We isolated six plant immune-inducing thienopyrimidine-type compounds and their analogous compounds. It was observed that the core structure of thienopyrimidine plays a role in induced resistance in plants. Furthermore, we highlight the protective effect of thienopyrimidine-type compounds against both hemibiotrophic fungal pathogen, Colletotrichum higginsianum, and bacterial pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae pv...
February 21, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277969/involvement-of-nitric-oxide-in-enhanced-germination-and-seedling-growth-of-magnetoprimed-maize-seeds
#10
Pinke Patel, Guruprasad Kadur Narayanaswamy, Sunita Kataria, Lokesh Baghel
Nitric oxide (NO) is a highly reactive gaseous free radical, which in plants was found to stimulate seed germination and ending of dormancy. Experiments were conducted to study the effect of NO inhibitors sodium tungstate (ST) and Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) and NO donor sodium nitroprusside (SNP) on untreated and magnetoprimed maize (Zea mays var: GSF-2) seeds. Treatment of maize seeds with these inhibitors inhibited germination related parameters like seedling length, fresh weight, dry weight and vigour indices and α-amylase activity of maize seeds under laboratory conditions, whereas NO donor (SNP) promoted all these parameters...
February 21, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277973/an-ancient-transcriptional-regulatory-module-for-tip-growth-has-been-conserved-throughout-the-vascular-plant-lineage
#11
Hyung-Taeg Cho
The root hair development of vascular plants can be divided into two major processes, fate determination and hair morphogenesis, and the latter should be governed by the former so as to express the morphogenetic toolkits in a root hair-specific manner. Vascular plants, depending on taxa, show different fate-determining mechanisms for hair cell/non-hair cell fates, which leads to a question whether the downstream mophogenetic regulatory module is diverged accordingly to the upstream fate determiners or not. Our study demonstrates that the module of a transcription factor and a root hair-specific cis-element (RHE) for root hair-specific expression of morphogenetic toolkit genes is conserved in spite of different fate-determing mechanisms...
February 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277974/both-hsp70-chaperone-and-clp-protease-plastidial-systems-are-required-for-protection-against-oxidative-stress
#12
Pablo Pulido, Ernesto Llamas, Manuel Rodriguez-Concepcion
Environmental stress conditions such as high light, extreme temperatures, salinity or drought trigger oxidative stress and eventually protein misfolding in plants. In chloroplasts, chaperone systems refold proteins after stress, while proteases degrade misfolded and aggregated proteins that cannot be refolded. We observed that reduced activity of chloroplast Hsp70 chaperone or Clp protease systems both prevented growth of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings after treatment with the oxidative agent methyl viologen...
February 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151043/insights-into-the-function-of-the-phasirna-triggering-mir1514-in-response-to-stress-in-legumes
#13
Guadalupe Sosa-Valencia, Paulette S Romero-Pérez, Miguel Palomar, Alejandra A Covarrubias, José L Reyes
We recently described the activity of miR1514a in response to water deficit in Phaseolus vulgaris. Pvu-miR1514a targets a NAC transcription factor mRNA for cleavage and subsequently triggers NAC-derived phasiRNA formation. Here we show that accumulation and activity of miR1514a are also conserved in the model legume Medicago truncatula. Consistently, we identified Mtr-miR1514a and detected its increased accumulation in response to stress conditions, targeting a NAC TF mRNA for cleavage and triggering phasiRNA production...
February 2, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125320/start-me-up-revision-of-evidences-that-atgrp3-acts-as-a-potential-switch-for-atwak1
#14
Amanda Mangeon, Adriana Dias Menezes-Salgueiro, Gilberto Sachetto-Martins
AtGRP3 is a glycine-rich protein from Arabidopsis thaliana shown to interact with the extracellular domain of the receptor-like kinase (RLK) AtWAK1. Based on previous functional data for AtWAK1, a model was proposed that AtGRP3 when bound to this RLK would negatively regulate its kinase activity, inhibiting cell expansion. Here, we review recent functional studies on AtGRP3 that corroborate this model and suggest that AtGRP3/AtWAK1 complex regulates also defense signaling pathways. On the other hand, we show new data on AtGRP3-overexpressing plants indicating that its role in aluminum signaling pathways, as previously observed for elicitor signaling, seems to be more complex than a simple negative regulator...
January 26, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075225/plants-contain-small-families-of-upf0016-proteins-including-the-photosynthesis-affected-mutant71-transporter
#15
Natalie Hoecker, Dario Leister, Anja Schneider
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AFFECTED MUTANT71 (PAM71) is an integral thylakoid membrane protein that functions in manganese uptake into the lumen. Manganese is needed in the thylakoid lumen to build up the inorganic Mn4CaO5 cluster, the catalytic center for water oxidation, and is hence indispensable for oxygen evolution. A recent study revealed that PAM71 is well conserved in plants and shares homology to GCR1 DEPENDENT TRANSLATION FACTOR1 (GDT1) and TRANSMEMBRANE PROTEIN 165 (TMEM165) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Homo sapiens, respectively...
January 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045582/mitochondrial-lon1-has-a-role-in-homeostasis-of-the-mitochondrial-ribosome-and-pentatricopeptide-repeat-proteins-in-plants
#16
Lei Li, A Harvey Millar, Shaobai Huang
Lon is a highly conserved protein family in eukaryotes and eubacteria and its members all contain both a chaperone and a proteolytic domain that are important for Lon function. Loss of mitochondrial Lon1 leads to deleterious phenotypes in yeast and plants, and causes developmental disorders and aging-related diseases in humans. In Arabidopsis, we have recently reported the multiple roles of Lon1 in mitochondrial protein homeostasis through an evaluation of changes in protein degradation rates in the absence of Lon1...
January 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045581/overexpression-of-the-pp2a-c5-gene-confers-increased-salt-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Rongbin Hu, Yinfeng Zhu, Guoxin Shen, Hong Zhang
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) was shown to play important roles in biotic and abiotic stress signaling pathways in plants. PP2A is made of three subunits: a scaffolding subunit A, a regulatory subunit B, and a catalytic subunit C. It is believed that the B subunit recognizes specific substrates and the C subunit directly acts on the selected substrates, whereas the A subunit brings a B subunit and a C subunit together to form a specific PP2A holoenzyme. Because there are multiple isoforms for each PP2A subunit, there could be hundreds of novel PP2A holoenzymes in plants...
January 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277971/distinct-light-stress-and-nutrient-dependent-regulation-of-multiple-tryptophan-rich-sensory-protein-tspo-genes-in-the-cyanobacterium-fremyella-diplosiphon
#18
Andrea W U Busch, Beronda L Montgomery
The cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon possesses 3 genes encoding homologs of the tryptophan-rich sensory protein (TSPO). TSPO proteins are membrane proteins implicated in stress responses across a range of organisms from bacteria to humans. Diverse TSPO proteins appear to generally bind tetrapyrrole ligands. Previously, we reported that one of these homologs, FdTSPO1, is involved in salt-, osmotic- and oxidative stress responses in F. diplosiphon. Here, we show distinct regulation of cellular mRNA levels of all 3 FdTSPO homologs by different abiotic stresses...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277970/analyses-of-natural-variation-indicates-that-the-absence-of-rps4-rrs1-and-amino-acid-change-in-rps4-cause-loss-of-their-functions-and-resistance-to-pathogens
#19
Mari Narusaka, Satoshi Iuchi, Yoshihiro Narusaka
A pair of Arabidopsis thaliana resistance proteins, RPS4 and RRS1, recognizes the cognate Avr effector from the bacterial pathogens Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato expressing avrRps4 (Pst-avrRps4), Ralstonia solanacearum, and the fungal pathogen Colletotrichum higginsianum and leads to defense signaling activation against the pathogens. In the present study, we analyzed 14 A. thaliana accessions for natural variation in Pst-avrRps4 and C. higginsianum susceptibility, and found new compatible and incompatible Arabidopsis-pathogen interactions...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277967/plant-electrome-can-be-pushed-toward-a-self-organized-critical-state-by-external-cues-evidences-from-a-study-with-soybean-seedlings-subject-to-different-environmental-conditions
#20
Gustavo M Souza, Arlan S Ferreira, Gustavo F R Saraiva, Gabriel R A Toledo
In the present study, we have investigated how the low-voltage electrical signals of soybean seedlings change their temporal dynamic under different environmental conditions (cold, low light, and low osmotic potential). We have used electrophytografic technique (EPG) with sub-dermal electrodes inserted in 15-days-old seedlings located between root and shoot, accounting for a significant part of the individual seedlings. Herein, to work on a specific framework to settle this type of the study, we are adopting the term "electrome" as a reference to the totality of electrical activity measured...
March 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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