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Plant Signaling & Behavior

A von Schaewen, I S Jeong, S Rips, A Fukudome, J Tolley, Y Nagashima, K Fischer, H Kaulfuerst-Soboll, H Koiwa
Production and isolation of recombinant proteins are key steps in modern Molecular Biology. Expression vectors and platforms for various hosts, including both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems, have been used. In basic plant research, Arabidopsis thaliana is the central model for which a wealth of genetic and genomic resources is available, and enormous knowledge has been accumulated over the past years - especially since elucidation of its genome in 2000. However, until recently an Arabidopsis platform had been lacking for preparative-scale production of homologous recombinant proteins...
June 22, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Simcha Lev-Yadun
Müllerian and Batesian mimicry were originally defined in defensive (anti-predetory) animal systems. Later these terms were adopted by botanists studying pollination that defined rewarding flowers as Müllerian mimics and rewardless flowers as Batesian mimics. The use of these terms concerning pollination predated our recent understanding of how common plant aposematism is and the related defensive Müllerian and Batesian mimicry types. Being non-defensive, using the terms Müllerian and Batesian mimicry for rewarding/rewardless flowers is, however, confusing if not misleading, and is also logically inappropriate...
June 11, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Pengfei Wang, Byung-Ho Kang
Root border cells lie at the interface between the root cap and the soil, secreting mucilage containing polysaccharides and molecules influencing microbial growth around the root. Border cells are sloughed off from the root surface, and the detachment is associated with secretion of xylogalacturonan (XGA). Recently, we showed that in alfalfa XGA secretion is mediated by large vesicles arising from the trans-Golgi in root cap cells. These vesicles are detected in precursor cells of border cells, but their fusion with the plasma membrane is observed only in border cells...
June 11, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Fred A L Brito, Lucas C Costa, Karla Gasparini, Thaline M Pimenta, Wagner L Araújo, Agustín Zsögön, Dimas M Ribeiro
The tropical forage legume Stylosanthes humilis is naturally distributed in the acidic soils of the tropics. However, data concerning the role of low soil pH in the control of S. humilis seed germination remains limited. Recently, we have demonstrated that acidic soil triggers increased ethylene production during germination of S. humilis seeds, concomitantly with higher root penetration into the soil. Our finding points an important role of low soil pH as a signal allowing penetration of root in the soil through interaction with the ethylene signalling pathway...
May 10, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Vadim Pérez Koldenkova, Noriyuki Hatsugai
Unlike animals, plants possess a non-strict and sometimes very fuzzy morphology. Mutual proportions of plant parts can vary to a much greater extent than in animals, changing according to the environmental conditions and the plant needs of nutrients, water and light. Despite the existence of this fundamental difference between plants and animals, it passes almost non-reflected in most studies on plants. In this review we make a preliminary attempt to gather together the mechanisms by which plants preserve their integrity, not loosing at the same time the physiological (and morphological) flexibility which allows them adapting to the different environments they can populate...
May 4, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Olga Yurchenko, Athen Kimberlin, Marina Mehling, Abraham J Koo, Kent D Chapman, Robert T Mullen, John M Dyer
Recent studies have shown that it is possible to engineer substantial increases in triacylglycerol (TAG) content in plant vegetative biomass, which offers a novel approach for increasing the energy density of food, feed, and bioenergy crops or for creating a sink for the accumulation of unusual, high-value fatty acids. However, whether or not these changes in lipid metabolism affect plant responses to biotic and/or abiotic stresses is an open question. Here we show that transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plant lines engineered for elevated leaf oil content, as well as lines engineered for accumulation of unusual conjugated fatty acids in leaf oil, had similar short-term responses to heat stress (e...
April 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xin Liang, Qiang-Nan Feng, Sha Li, Yan Zhang
Vacuoles are versatile organelles in plant cells, critical for growth and responses to environmental cues. Vacuoles are dynamic tubular structures in pollen tubes, the male gametophytes. Mutations at vacuolar fusion machinery caused male gametophytic lethality by affecting pollen tube growth and guidance, which are critical steps leading to angiosperm reproduction. In comparison, the role of vacuolar trafficking and its cargoes in this process is less understood. In this mini-review, we summarize old and recent findings that indicate the involvement of vacuolar trafficking in pollen tube growth and guidance...
April 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Matteo Chialva, Yang Zhou, Davide Spadaro, Paola Bonfante
An increasing number of studies have investigated soil microbial biodiversity. However, the mechanisms regulating plant responses to soil microbiota are largely unknown. A previous work tested the hypothesis that tomato plants grown on native soils with their complex microbiotas respond differently from tomato growing in a sterile substrate. Two soils, suppressive or conducive to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL), and two genotypes susceptible and resistant to the same pathogen were considered. The work highlighted that the two tested soil microbiotas, irrespectively of their taxonomic composition, elicit the PAMP-triggered Immunity Pathway, the first level of plant defence, as well as an increased lignin synthesis, leading to an active protection when FOL is present in the soil...
April 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Premachandran Yadukrishnan, Nikhil Job, Henrik Johansson, Sourav Datta
BBX proteins are a family of zinc finger transcription factors that are versatile regulators of plant development. The 32 BBX proteins in Arabidopsis are subdivided into five structural groups based on their domain structure. Members of group IV play important and diverse roles in light-regulated development. The N-terminal B-box domains mediate DNA binding and transcriptional regulation. The C-terminal region determines the functional diversity of the structurally similar group IV members as reported in our recent study investigating the basis of functional diversification between BBX21 and BBX24...
April 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Subhajit Dutta, Mehali Mitra, Puja Agarwal, Kalyan Mahapatra, Sayanti De, Upasana Sett, Sujit Roy
Plants, being sessile in nature, are constantly exposed to various environmental stresses, such as solar UV radiations, soil salinity, drought and desiccation, rehydration, low and high temperatures and other vast array of air and soil borne chemicals, industrial waste products, metals and metalloids. These agents, either directly or indirectly via the induction of oxidative stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), frequently perturb the chemical or physical structures of DNA and induce both cytotoxic or genotoxic stresses...
April 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Reihane Ivani, Seyed Hossein Sanaei Nejad, Bijan Ghahraman, Ali Reza Astaraei, Hassan Feizi
The effects of bulk and Nanosized SiO2 on seed germination and seedling growth indices of fenugreek under salinity stress were studied in the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. The experimental treatments included 4 levels of salinity stress (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM), 2 concentrations of bulk (50 and 100 ppm), 2 concentrations of nanosized SiO2 (50 and 100 ppm), and control (without any SiO2 types). Seedling growth attributes significantly improved when bulk and nanosized SiO2 concentrations applied singly or with different levels of salt stress...
April 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Noriane M L Simon, Ellie Sawkins, Antony N Dodd
A mechanism participating in energy sensing and signalling in plants involves the regulation of sucrose non-fermenting1 (Snf1)-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) activity in response to sugar availability. SnRK1 is thought to regulate the activity of both metabolic enzymes and transcription factors in response to changes in energy availability, with trehalose-6-phospate functioning as a signalling sugar that suppresses SnRK1 activity under sugar-replete conditions. Sucrose supplementation increases the elongation of hypocotyls of developing Arabidopsis seedlings, and this response to sucrose involves both the SnRK1 subunit KIN10 and also TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE1 (TPS1)...
March 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Muruganantham Mookkan
Setaria viridis is one of the most important model grasses in studying monocot plant biology. Transient gene expression study is a very important tool in plant biotechnology, functional genomics, and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology via particle bombardment. In this study, a particle bombardment-mediated protocol was developed to introduce DNA into Setaria viridis in vitro leaf explants. In addition, physical and biological parameters, such as helium pressure, distance from stopping screen to the target tissues, DNA concentration, and number of bombardments, were tested and optimized...
April 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kae Akita, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Takumi Higaki
We previously found that sucrose solution immersion treatment permitted ectopic guard cell differentiation, resulting in clustered stomatal guard cells. Using this system, we examined the effects of sucrose solution-induced stomatal clustering on guard cell cortical microtubules and the stomatal response to fusicoccin. Confocal observation revealed that the radial orientation of cortical microtubules was largely maintained in clustered guard cells. Outward movement of cortical microtubule plus-ends was also kept in the clustered guard cells...
April 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Daniel Lüdke, Charlotte Roth, Denise Hartken, Marcel Wiermer
The Arabidopsis nuclear transport receptor IMPORTIN-α3/MOS6 (MODIFIER OF SNC1, 6) is required for constitutive defense responses of the auto-immune mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1) and contributes to basal disease resistance, suggesting a role in nuclear import of defense-regulatory cargo proteins. We recently showed that MOS6 selectively interacts with TN13, a TIR-NBS protein involved in basal resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 lacking the effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB...
April 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Graciene de Souza Bido, Hingrid Ariane da Silva, Tiara da Silva Coelho Bortolo, Marcos Rodrigues Maldonado, Rogério Marchiosi, Wanderley Dantas Dos Santos, Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho
Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) is an efficient cover forage that controls weeds, pathogens and nematodes, and the non-protein amino acid L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is its main allelochemical. The effects of 3 g L-1 of an aqueous extract of velvet bean seeds, along with 0.5 mM L-DOPA for comparison, were evaluated in roots, stems and leaves of soybean (Glycine max). The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) were determined, along with the lignin content and its monomeric composition...
April 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Fan Feng, Rentao Song
As a highly developed tissue, maize endosperm accumulates nutrients abundantly and supports embryo development. In a recent study, we constructed a regulatory network centered around Opaque11 (O11). This network unified cellular development, nutrient metabolism and stress responses during endosperm development. Here we discuss the evidences that O11 might have a regulatory role in cold stress response during seed development. Furthermore, we discuss the functional divergence between maize O11 and its Arabidopsis orthologue ZHOUPI, which might explain some of the differences in endosperm development between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds...
April 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Miori Sato, Haruna Ohsaki, Yuya Fukano, Akira Yamawo
Previous study reported a novel type of self-discrimination in the tendrils of the vine Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae). However, whether self-discrimination in tendrils is common in vine plant species has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated whether tendrils of Momordica charantia var. pavel (Cucurbitaceae), Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae) and Passiflora caerulea (Passifloraceae) can discriminate self and non-self plants. We also investigated whether the tendrils of M. charantia and C. sativus can discriminate differences in cultivars to determine the discrimination ability for genetic similarity...
April 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Mads Eggert Nielsen, Hans Thordal-Christensen
Plant innate immunity enables plants to defend themselves against infectious pathogens. While membrane trafficking and release of exosomes are considered vital for correct execution of innate immunity, the mechanisms behind remain elusive. Recently, we have shown that VPS9a, the general guanine-nucleotide exchange factor activating Rab5 GTPases, is required for both pre- and post-invasive immunity against powdery mildew fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana. Yet, the Arabidopsis genome contains a close homologue of VPS9a, which potentially plays specific roles in innate immunity...
April 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Misato Ohtani, Harunori Kawabe, Taku Demura
Nitric oxide (NO), which plays essential roles in a variety of cell signaling processes, is the precursor of a family of NO-derived molecules, including toxic reactive nitrogen species. The NO-based regulation of cellular activity is mediated by the reversible modification of cysteine thiol groups in redox-sensitive proteins. One such modification is protein S-nitrosylation, i.e., the addition of an NO moiety to a cysteine thiol, and this S-nitrosylation is regulated by enzymes such as S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR)...
April 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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