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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Zhonglin Mou
The pyridine nucleotides nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NAD phosphate (NADP) are coenzymes that function in both metabolic reactions and intracellular signaling. Emerging evidence from animal research indicates that NAD(P) also acts in the extracellular space (ECS). We have shown in the model plant Arabidopsis that (1) exogenous NAD(P) induces immune responses, (2) pathogen infection causes leakage of intracellular NAD(P) into the extracellular fluid at concentrations sufficient to induce immune responses, and (3) removal of extracellular NAD(P) [eNAD(P)] by expressing the human NAD(P)-metabolizing ectoenzyme CD38 partially compromises systemic acquired resistance...
October 16, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Takaki Yamauchi, Aya Fukazawa, Mikio Nakazono
Under waterlogged conditions, roots of gramineous plants form lysigenous aerenchyma (internal gas spaces) by inducing the death of cortical cells. Rice (Oryza sativa) roots induce aerenchyma formation through ethylene- and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated signaling. Metallothionein (MT) is a small, cysteine-rich protein that acts as a ROS scavenger. In rice roots, the expression of MT1a, MT1b, MT1c and MT1Ld were higher than those of the other MT genes. In the root cortex, where aerenchyma forms exclusively, the expression of MT1a, MT1b and MT1Ld was reduced prior to aerenchyma formation...
October 16, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jiani Chen, Yanhai Yin
Brassinosteroids (BRs) are critical for the plant growth and development. BRs signal through the plasma membrane localized receptor-like kinases to downstream transcription factors BES1/BZR1 to regulate the expression of thousands of genes for various BR responses. In addition to the role in plant growth and development, BRs have been implicated in responses to environmental stresses such as drought. However, the mechanism through which BRs regulate drought have just begun emerging. We have recently found that a group of WRKY transcription factors, WRKY46, WRKY54, WRKY70, which are well known for the function in abiotic and biotic stress, cooperates with BES1 to mediate BR-regulated drought response...
October 13, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yuan Song, Lijun Liu, Gaopeng Li, Lizhe An, Lining Tian
The expression of cold-induced genes is critical for plants to survive under freezing stress. However, the underlying mechanisms for the decision of when, where, and which genes to express are unclear when a plant meets a sudden temperature drop. Previous studies have demonstrated epigenetics to play a central role in the regulation of gene expression in plant responses to environmental stress. DNA methylation and histone deacetylation are the two most important epigenetic modifications. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of inhibiting DNA methylation and histone deacetylation on gene expression, and to explore the potential role of epigenetics in plant responses to cold stress...
October 13, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Missihoun D Tagnon, Kotchoni O Simeon
By using gain- and loss-of-function mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana, we have demonstrated that stress-responsive Aldehyde Dehydrogenases (ALDHs) function by detoxifying cells from the lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes during stress. However, despite their potential toxicity, aldehydes including malondialdehyde , trans-2-hexenal and 4- hydroxynonenal were also proved to function as powerful gene activators. For this to happen, we hypothesized that a fine-tuning of the intracellular concentration of aldehydes is necessary to switch from toxicity to gene activator...
October 9, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Paola Andrade, Daniel Caudepon, Teresa Altabella, Montserrat Arró, Albert Ferrer, David Manzano
Isoprenoids comprise the largest class of natural compounds and are found in all kinds of organisms. In plants, they participate in both primary and specialized metabolism, playing essential roles in nearly all aspects of growth and development. The enormous diversity of this family of compounds is extensively exploited for biotechnological and biomedical applications as biomaterials, biofuels or drugs. Despite their variety of structures, all isoprenoids derive from the common C5 precursor Isopentenil diphosphate (IPP)...
October 9, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tengfei Xu, Andreas Hiltbrunner
Phytochromes are red/far-red light receptors in plants involved in the regulation of growth and development in response to changes in the ambient environment. An important mode of action of plant phytochromes depends on their light-regulated relocation from the cytosol into the nucleus and control of gene expression; in addition, there is also evidence for a cytosolic or plasma membrane associated function of phytochromes in different species. The PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs) form a subgroup of the bHLH transcription factors and it is well established that PIFs are key components of phytochrome downstream signalling in the nucleus of seed plants...
October 6, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Santiago Signorelli, Jorge Monza
Proline accumulation is a common response of plants to different biotic and abiotic stresses. In the model legume Lotus japonicus, osmotic stress-induced proline accumulation is one of the first responses of the plant, converting proline in a reliable stress marker. The main biosynthetic pathway of proline is from glutamate and the reaction catalysed by the enzyme Δ(1)-pyrroline 5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) is the rate limiting step. L. japonicus has been suggested to have three different P5CS genes. Here the predicted P5CS genes of L...
October 6, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Muhammad Jamshed, Siyu Liang, Neil Hickerson, Marcus A Samuel
Protein farnesylation refers to the addition of a 15-carbon farnesyl isoprenoid to the cysteine residue of the CaaX motif at the carboxy terminus of target proteins. In spite of its known roles in plant development and abiotic stress tolerance, how these processes are precisely regulated by farnesylation had remained elusive. We recently showed that CYP85A2, the cytochrome P450, which converts castasterone to brassinolide in the last step of brassinosteroid synthesis must be farnesylated in order to function in this pathway...
September 26, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yao-Pin Lin, Yee-Yung Charng
Tocopherols are synthesized in photosynthetic organisms, playing a role in plant stress tolerance. Recent studies showed that the phytol moiety of tocopherols comes from the salvaged phytol chain during chlorophyll degradation. However, the enzyme(s) responsible for chlorophyll dephytylation remains unclear. Recently, we reported the identification and characterization of CHLOROPHYLL DEPHYTYLASE1 (CLD1) of Arabidopsis, suggesting its role in chlorophyll turnover at steady state. In this addendum to the report, we presented and discussed the results related to the function of CLD1 in tocopherol biosynthesis...
September 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jessica A S Barros, João Henrique F Cavalcanti, David B Medeiros, Adriano Nunes-Nesi, Tamar Avin-Wittenberg, Alisdair R Fernie, Wagner L Araújo
Autophagy is a highly conserved cellular mechanism in eukaryotes allowing the degradation of cell constituents. It is of crucial significance in both cellular homeostasis and nutrient recycling. During energy limited conditions plant cells can metabolize alternative respiratory substrates, such as amino acids, providing electrons to the mitochondrial metabolism via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or electron transfer flavoprotein/ electron transfer flavoprotein ubiquinone oxidoreductase (ETF/ETFQO) system...
September 21, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xinyu Zhang, Rongcheng Lin
Light is an important external signal that affects plant growth and development, such as photomorphogenesis. Transcriptional regulation defines a central regulatory mechanism in photomorphogenesis. The B-box zinc finger family consists of 32 proteins in Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies show that group IV of the B-box family (BBX18 to BBX25) plays either positive or negative roles in regulating photomorphogenesis. We investigated the expression patterns of BBX18 to BBX25 and the results demonstrate that the transcriptional levels of these genes are differentially regulated by the light signaling pathway...
September 18, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Poulami Gupta, Bratati De
In plants, cell wall bound phenolics change in response to stress. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of NaCl induced stress on wall bound phenolics in four rice varieties, of which two (Bhutnath, Nonabokra) were salt tolerant and two (MTU 7029, Sujala) were salt sensitive. After germination, seedlings were grown in hydroponic solution and subjected to salinity stress (25mM, 50mM, 100mM and 150mM NaCl) on day 12. Wall bound phenolic compounds were determined by GC-MS based metabolite analysis...
September 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
William Underwood, Shauna C Somerville
The Arabidopsis PEN3 ABC transporter accumulates at sites of pathogen detection, where it is involved in defense against a number of pathogens. Perception of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors initiates recruitment of PEN3 and also leads to PEN3 phosphorylation at multiple amino acid residues. Whether PAMP-induced phosphorylation of PEN3 is important for its defense function or focal recruitment has not been addressed. In this study, we evaluated the role of PEN3 phosphorylation in modulating the localization and defense function of the transporter...
September 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Misa Takahashi, Jun Shigeto, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiromichi Morikawa
Exposure of intact Arabidopsis leaves to 40 ppm nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in light resulted almost exclusively in nitration of PsbO1, PsbO2, and PsbP1 of photosystem II (PSII), with minor nitration of four non-PS II proteins, including peroxiredoxin II E, as reported previously. Our previous findings that light-triggered selective nitration of PsbO1 decreased oxygen evolution and that inhibition of photoelectric electron transport inhibited nitration of PsbO1 implied that the nitratable tyrosine residue of PsbO1 is redox-active...
September 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
J Irepan Reyes-Olalde, Víctor M Zúñiga-Mayo, Nayelli Marsch-Martínez, Stefan de Folter
The phytohormones auxin and cytokinin are key regulators of plant development, and both regulate almost all aspects of plant growth and development. Communication between auxin-cytokinin signaling pathways has been the subject of intense research. However, few studies have focused specifically on the development of the early gynoecium. We have recently discovered that cytokinin signaling plays a role in the regulation of auxin biosynthesis and transport in the ovary region of the gynoecium, and that the transcription factor SPATULA (SPT) is necessary...
September 7, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Takamitsu Kurusu, Tomoko Koyano, Nobutaka Kitahata, Mikiko Kojima, Shigeru Hanamata, Hitoshi Sakakibara, Kazuyuki Kuchitsu
Autophagy has recently been shown to be required for postmeiotic anther development including anther dehiscence, programmed cell death-mediated degradation of the tapetum and pollen maturation in rice. Several phytohormones are known to play essential roles during male reproductive development including pollen maturation. However, the relationship between phytohormone metabolism and autophagy in plant reproductive development is unknown. We here comprehensively analyzed the effect of autophagy disruption on phytohormone contents in rice anthers at the flowering stage, and found that endogenous levels of active-forms of gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinin, trans-zeatin, were significantly lower in the autophagy-defective mutant, Osatg7-1, than in the wild type...
September 5, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Antonio Serrano-Mislata, Kevin Goslin, Beibei Zheng, Liina Rae, Frank Wellmer, Emmanuelle Graciet, Francisco Madueño
The gene regulatory network comprised of LEAFY (LFY), APETALA1 (AP1), the AP1 paralog CAULIFLOWER (CAL), and TERMINAL FLOWER1 (TFL1) is a major determinant of the flowering process in Arabidopsis thaliana. TFL1 activity in the shoot apical meristem provides inflorescence identity while the transcription factors LFY and AP1/CAL confer floral identity to emerging floral primordia. It has been thought that LFY and AP1/CAL control the onset of flowering in part by repressing TFL1 expression in flowers. However, in the June issue of Plant Physiology, we reported that LFY and AP1 act antagonistically in the regulation of several key flowering regulators, including TFL1...
September 5, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ryo Kataoka, Misato Takahashi, Nobuhiro Suzuki
Heat stress can have detrimental effects on yield production worldwide. Although bZIP28 and HSFA2 were identified as putative heat sensors in plants, coordination between them has not been uncovered. In this study, the deficiency in bZIP28 did not affect heat tolerance in plants. However, the plants lacking bZIP28 showed enhanced activation of APXs-, MBF1c-and HSPs-dependent pathways as well as higher level of HsfA2 transcripts and H2O2 accumulation, suggesting that these pathways might compensate for the deficiency in bZIP28 during heat stress...
September 5, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Neha Singh, Satish C Bhatla
Sodium nitroprusside (SNP), diethylenetriamine NONOate (DETA), S-nitroso-n-acetyl-D,L- penicillamine (SNAP), and 4-(p-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,2- Oxathiazolylium-5-olate (CAY) exhibit differential NO releasing ability in aqueous solution and hemoglobin is a more efficient NO quencher than cPTIO in solution. DETA releases 16% more NO compared with SNP in solution. Various NO donors (SNP, DETA, SNAP, and CAY) also bring about a differential but concentration-dependent increase in endogenous NO in seedling cotyledons and roots...
September 1, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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