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Plant Signaling & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718699/multiple-facets-of-laticifer-cells
#1
Lourdes Castelblanque, Begoña Balaguer, Cristina Martí, Juan José Rodríguez, Marianela Orozco, Pablo Vera
In the latex-bearing plants, the laticiferous system is the tubing structure that contains the latex and is constituted of living cells (laticifers). While laticifers are present only in a small percentage of the flowering plant species, they represent a type of specialized tissue within the plant where a myriad of metabolites are synthesized, some of them of considerable commercial importance. In this mini-review we synopsize the present knowledge about laticifer cells and discuss about their particular features as well as some evolutionary and ecophysiological cues and the potential exploitation of the knowledge generated around this peculiar type of plant cell...
July 18, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718691/permanently-open-stomata-of-aquatic-angiosperms-display-modified-cellulose-crystallinity-patterns
#2
Ilana Shtein, Zoë A Popper, Smadar Harpaz-Saad
Most floating aquatic plants have stomata on their upper leaf surfaces, and usually their stomata are permanently open. We previously identified three distinct crystallinity patterns in stomatal cell walls, with angiosperm kidney-shaped stomata having the highest crystallinity in the polar end walls as well as the adjacent polar regions of the guard cells. A numerical bio-mechanical model suggested that the high crystallinity areas are localized to regions where the highest stress is imposed. Here, stomatal cell wall crystallinity was examined in four floating plants from two different taxa: basal angiosperms from the ANITA grade and monocots...
July 18, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696815/autophosphorylation-of-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-protein-kinase-ccamk-at-s343-or-s344-generates-an-intramolecular-interaction-blocking-the-cam-binding
#3
Edgard Jauregui, Liqun Du, Cynthia Gleason, B W Poovaiah
The Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CCaMK) is an important effector protein of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-mediated signaling, and in legumes, it is a critical regulator of plant-rhizobia and mycorrhizal symbioses. CCaMK contains a kinase domain, a calmodulin-binding/autoinhibitory domain and a visinin-like domain. Previous studies revealed the presence of two phosphorylation sites, S343 and S344, in the calmodulin-binding domain. Mutations at these sites affected the kinase activity and downstream rhizobium and mycorrhizal symbioses, which highlighted the importance of these residues in regulating protein activity...
July 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692414/how-common-is-within-plant-signalling-via-volatiles
#4
Tao Li, James D Blande
Many plants respond to herbivory by releasing a complex blend of volatiles that may differ from that emitted by intact counterparts. These herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPV) mediate many interactions among plants and their community members, including alerting undamaged leaves of the attacked or neighbouring plants to impending danger. It has been postulated that HIPVs evolved for within-plant signalling and that other organisms subsequently evolved to use them. However, only seven studies have reported HIPV-mediated within-plant signalling, most conducted in the laboratory or greenhouse...
July 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692378/photosynthetic-activity-of-cotyledons-is-critical-during-post-germinative-growth-and-seedling-establishment
#5
Valle Ojeda, Victoria A Nájera, Maricruz González, Juan M Pérez-Ruiz, Francisco J Cejudo
Thioredoxins (Trxs) play a relevant role in thiol-dependent redox regulation, which allows the rapid adaptation of chloroplast metabolism to unpredictable environmental conditions. In chloroplasts, Trxs use reducing equivalents provided by photoreduced ferredoxin (Fdx) via the action of a ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR), thus linking redox regulation to light. In addition, these organelles contain an NADPH-thioredoxin reductase, NTRC, with a Trx domain at the C-terminus. NTRC efficiently reduces 2-Cys peroxiredoxins (Prxs), hence having antioxidant function...
July 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692336/positive-selection-analysis-highlights-key-positions-in-plant-pp2a-regulatory-subunits
#6
Matthew A Booker, Alison DeLong
A versatile hub for cellular control, the eukaryotic protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) enzyme family is thought to achieve specificity through combinatorial complexity. Phylogenetic analysis has revealed that expansion of PP2A gene families resulted from whole genome duplications followed by non-random gene loss, and selection analysis suggests that retention of B56/PPP2R5 gene family members after genome duplication events was driven by functional diversification. Here we identify the sites at which positive selection is detected in the plant B56 gene family, and discuss the significance of selection at these positions in the context of PP2A holoenzyme structure...
July 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692335/the-coding-sequence-of-firefly-luciferase-reporter-gene-affects-specific-hyperexpression-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-cpl1-mutant
#7
Hisashi Koiwa, Akihito Fukudome
Forward genetic screening of mutants using firefly luciferase (LUC) reporter gene became a standard practice in plant research. Such screenings frequently identified alleles of CPL1 (Carboxyl-terminal Phosphatase-Like 1) regardless of promoters or pathways studied. Expression of the corresponding endogenous genes often shows the minimal difference between wild type and cpl1. Here we show that the LUC coding sequence is responsible for the high expression in cpl1, using a classical RD29a-LUC. Deletion of the LUC 3'-UTR did not change hyperactivation of LUC in cpl1...
July 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692334/impact-of-salicylic-acid-and-jasmonic-acid-regulated-defences-on-root-colonization-by-trichoderma-harzianum-t-78
#8
Ainhoa Martínez-Medina, Freek V W Appels, Saskia C M Van Wees
We recently found that the beneficial fungus Trichoderma harzianum T-78 primes tomato plants for salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-regulated defences, resulting in enhanced resistance against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. By using SA- and JA-impaired mutant lines and exogenous hormonal application, here we investigated whether the SA- and JA-pathways also have a role in T-78 root colonization of Arabidopsis thaliana. Endophytic colonization by T-78 was faster in the SA-impaired mutant sid2 than in the wild type...
July 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692333/boron-and-the-evolutionary-development-of-roots
#9
Ulrich Kutschera, Karl J Niklas
Experimental work has shown that Boron (i.e., Boric acid, B) is an essential and multifunctional microelement for vascular plant development. In addition to its other functions, which include xylem development and lignin biosynthesis, we now know that B is involved in phytohormone-signaling and influences the mechanical properties of intercellular pectins. From these data, we conclude that B played an important role during the evolutionary development of lignified tissues, and that it may have been involved in the evolution of vascular plant roots, as hypothesized by D...
July 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692330/regulation-of-cell-wall-genes-in-response-to-defective-kernel1-dek1-induced-cell-wall-changes
#10
Dhika Amanda, Monika S Doblin, Roberta Galletti, Antony Bacic, Gwyneth C Ingram, Kim L Johnson
Defective Kernel1 (DEK1) is a plant-specific calpain involved in epidermis specification and maintenance. DEK1 regulation of the epidermal cell wall is proposed to be key to ensure tissue integrity and coordinated growth. Changes in the expression of DEK1 are correlated with changes in the expression of cell wall-related genes. For example, we have found that Lipid transfer protein 3 (LTP3), EXPANSIN 11 (EXP11), and an AP2 transcription factor (AP2TF) are misexpressed in plants with constitutively altered levels of DEK1 activity...
July 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650260/group-4-late-embryogenesis-abundant-proteins-as-a-model-to-study-intrinsically-disordered-proteins-in-plants
#11
Cesar L Cuevas-Velazquez, Jose Luis Reyes, Alejandra A Covarrubias
Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins comprise a heterogeneous group of proteins that accumulate to high levels in the dry seed and in vegetative plant tissues under water deficit. We recently reported that group 4 LEA proteins from Arabidopsis thaliana, regardless of their structural disorder prevalent in aqueous solution, are able to fold into α-helix when subjected to water deficit and/or macromolecular crowding environments. Interestingly, the ability to gain structure under water limiting conditions is circumscribed to the N-terminal conserved region...
June 26, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650217/a-new-outlook-on-sporadic-flowering-of-bamboo
#12
Rico Gamuyao, Keisuke Nagai, Motoyuki Ashikari, Stefan Reuscher
Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys edulis) is a temperate grass species with a tree-like habitus and an unusual reproduction strategy. While flowering is irregular and infrequent, new clonal bamboo shoots are established from an underground rhizome network during the spring season. In our previous study, we performed transcriptome analyses using bamboo shoot buds to understand the initiation of bamboo stem elongation. Interestingly, the expression profile in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) region of young bamboo shoots is similar to that of other plants...
June 26, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644708/the-arabidopsis-mind-mutation-causes-aberrant-ftsz1-ring-placement-and-moderate-heterogeneity-of-chloroplasts-in-the-leaf-epidermis
#13
Makoto T Fujiwara, Mana Yasuzawa, Shun Sasaki, Takeshi Nakano, Yasuo Niwa, Shigeo Yoshida, Tomoko Abe, Ryuuichi D Itoh
Symmetric division of leaf mesophyll chloroplasts requires MinD and MinE, which work together to suppress division other than at the mid-chloroplast. arc11 is a MinD loss-of-function mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. In arc11 plants, asymmetric chloroplast division, as well as its delay or arrest, results in extreme size polymorphism of chloroplasts in mature mesophyll cells. The current study examined chloroplast phenotypes in the epidermis of arc11 leaves. Fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed that epidermal chloroplasts in mature leaves exhibited moderate heterogeneity in size...
June 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644109/the-timing-of-gigantea-expression-during-day-night-cycles-varies-with-the-geographical-origin-of-arabidopsis-accessions
#14
Amaury de Montaigu, George Coupland
Latitudinal clines in circadian rhythms have consistently been described in various plant species, with the most recent examples appearing in soybean cultivars and in monkey flower natural populations. These latitudinal clines provide evidence that natural variation in circadian rhythms is adaptive, but it is still unclear what adaptive benefits this variation confers, particularly because circadian rhythms are not usually measured in day/night conditions that reflect those experienced by organisms in nature...
June 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644067/border-cell-release-cell-separation-without-cell-wall-degradation
#15
Jozef Mravec
Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release...
June 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621569/down-regulation-of-slcyp1-in-the-phloem-reduces-auxin-response-and-photosynthetic-rate-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-plants
#16
Ziv Spiegelman, Amit Shahar, Shmuel Wolf
The tomato dgt mutant, containing a single mutation in the Cyclophilin1 (SlCyp1) gene, is auxin insensitive and exhibits a pleotropic phenotype that includes lack of lateral roots, malformed xylem structure and reduced root-to-shoot ratio. Recently, we found that the SlCyp1 protein is phloem-mobile and traffic from shoot to root to induce lateral root formation. These processes are achieved through activation of auxin-mediated developmental programs. Inhibition of the trafficked SlCyp1 activity at the target site resulted in inhibition of the auxin response, supporting the hypothesis that this protein is indeed a mobile signal...
June 16, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617153/pectin-methylesterase-is-required-for-guard-cell-function-in-response-to-heat
#17
Hui-Chen Wu, Ya-Chen Huang, Lynne Stracovsky, Tsung-Luo Jinn
Pectin is an important cell wall polysaccharide required for cellular adhesion, extension, and plant growth. The pectic methylesterification status of guard cell walls influences the movement of stomata in response to different stimuli. Pectin methylesterase (PME) has a profound effect on cell wall modification, especially on the degree of pectic methylesterification during heat response. The Arabidopsis thaliana PME34 gene is highly expressed in guard cells and in response to the phytohormone abscisic acid...
June 15, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613112/a-model-for-evolution-and-regulation-of-nicotine-biosynthesis-regulon-in-tobacco
#18
Masataka Kajikawa, Nicolas Sierro, Takashi Hashimoto, Tsubasa Shoji
In tobacco, the defense alkaloid nicotine is produced in roots and accumulates mainly in leaves. Signaling mediated by jasmonates (JAs) induces the formation of nicotine via a series of structural genes that constitute a regulon and are coordinated by JA-responsive transcription factors of the ethylene response factor (ERF) family. Early steps in the pyrrolidine and pyridine biosynthesis pathways likely arose through duplication of the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthetic pathways, respectively, followed by recruitment of duplicated primary metabolic genes into the nicotine biosynthesis regulon...
June 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613109/growth-of-the-arabidopsis-sub-epidermal-integument-cell-layers-might-require-an-endosperm-signal
#19
Elisa Fiume, Olivier Coen, Wenjia Xu, Loïc Lepiniec, Enrico Magnani
The seed, the reproductive unit of angiosperms, is physically protected by the seed coat. The seed coat develops from the ovule integuments after fertilization. The Arabidopsis ovule integuments are made of 5-6 cell layers of epidermal and sub-epidermal origin. The growth of the epidermal integument cell layers responds to an endosperm signal mediated by the AGAMOUS-LIKE 62 MADS box transcription factor with limited embryo contribution. By contrast, the sub-epidermal integument cell layers require the embryo to expand whereas the role of the endosperm is still unclear...
June 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613105/rug3-is-a-negative-regulator-of-plant-responses-to-aba-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#20
Chao Su, Jinhong Yuan, Hongtao Zhao, Yankun Zhao, Hongtao Ji, Youning Wang, Xia Li
Mitochondria is a main target of various stressors. Dysfunction of mitochondria stimulates overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative damage to mitochondria and DNA. Recently, we demonstrated that RCC1/UVR8/GEF-like 3 (RUG3), a member of the Regulator of Chromatin Condensation 1 (RCC1) protein family, can directly interact with ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a key regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), and synergistically regulates the alternative splicing of mitochondrial nad2...
June 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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