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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Ana Claudia Flores, Virginia Dalla Via, Virginia Savy, Ulises Mancini Villagra, María Eugenia Zanetti, Flavio Blanco
BACKGROUND: Small monomeric GTPases act as molecular switches in several processes that involve polar cell growth, participating mainly in vesicle trafficking and cytoskeleton rearrangements. This gene superfamily has largely expanded in plants through evolution as compared with other Kingdoms, leading to the suggestion that members of each subfamily might have acquired new functions associated to plant-specific processes. Legume plants engage in a nitrogen-fixing symbiotic interaction with rhizobia in a process that involves polar growth processes associated with the infection throughout the root hair...
February 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
András Zlinszky, Anders Barfod
A recent study by Zlinszky et al., 1 uses high-resolution terrestrial laser scanning to investigate the variability of overnight movement of leaves and branches in vascular plants. This study finds among others that the investigated plants show periodic movements of around one centimetre in amplitude and 2-6 hour periodicity. Sub-circadian process dynamics of plants were so far not in focus of research, but here we compare the findings with other published cases of short-term periodicity in leaf turgor, sap flow and especially trunk diameter...
February 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
András Zlinszky, Anders Barfod
A recent study by Zlinszky et al., 1 uses high-resolution terrestrial laser scanning to investigate the variability of overnight movement of leaves and branches in vascular plants. This study finds among others that the investigated plants show periodic movements of around one centimetre in amplitude and 2-6 hour periodicity. Sub-circadian process dynamics of plants were so far not in focus of research, but here we compare the findings with other published cases of short-term periodicity in leaf turgor, sap flow and especially trunk diameter...
February 12, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Han Zheng, Yong Ding
The covalent histone modifications were associated with plant development. However, the function of histone modification factors involved in gibberellins (GAs) signaling pathway remains unclear. In recent study, we reported that histone modification factors MUT9p-LIKE KINASE1 (MLK1) and MLK2 coordinate GA and circadian clock signaling in hypocotyl elongation. MLK1 and MLK2 interact with the DELLA protein REPRESSOR OF ga1-3 (RGA), and antagonize the function of RGA to interact with CIRCADIAN CLOCK ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1), resulting in promoting hypocotyl elongation...
February 12, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Misato Ohtani, Harunori Kawabe, Taku Demura
Nitric oxide (NO), which plays essential roles in a variety of cell signaling processes, is the precursor of a family of NO-derived molecules, including toxic reactive nitrogen species. The NO-based regulation of cellular activity is mediated by the reversible modification of cysteine thiol groups in redox-sensitive proteins. One such modification is protein S-nitrosylation, i.e., the addition of an NO moiety to a cysteine thiol, and this S-nitrosylation is regulated by enzymes such as S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR)...
February 2, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Der-Fen Suen, Wolfgang Schmidt
Phenotypic plasticity is dependent on the correct interpretation of environmental cues. We recently showed that the deubiquitinase OTU5 is required for orchestrating internal and external signals, tuning the morphogenesis of epidermal cells to the prevailing conditions. Homozygous otu5 mutants developed long and dense root hairs, resembling phosphate-deficient plants. The phenotype of otu5 plants was similar to that of arp6 plants, which carries a mutation that compromises the deposition of H2A.Z. Homozygous otu5 arp6 double mutants exhibited a synergistic phenotype, suggesting that the two mutations are functionally related...
February 2, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Maruya Suzuki, Takumi Watanabe, Issei Yoshida, Hanae Kaku, Naoto Shibuya
Autophosphorylation of PRR is a critical event for the activation of immune signaling in plant. However, the detailed function of these phosphorylation sites is still not well understood. We analyzed the function of an autophosphorylation site of Arabidopsis CERK1, Y428, in immune signaling. Biochemical characterization of CERK1 mutants transiently expressed in N. benthamiana indicated that Y428 plays a crucial role for the in vivo activation of CERK1, differently from the previous observation by the in vitro kinase assay with its cytoplasmic domain...
February 1, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Geun-Don Kim, Sang-Dong Yoo, Young-Hee Cho
To overcome high temperature stress, plants have developed transcriptional cascades which express a large amount of chaperone proteins called heat shock proteins (HSPs). In our recent publication, we reported that STABILIZED1, as an U5-snRNP-interacting protein, is involved in the splicing of heat shock factor (HSF) and HSP transcripts during high temperature stress. This indicates that not only transcriptional regulation, but also post-transcriptional regulation by STA1, is essential for the full activation of HSF-HSP cascades and for thermotolerance...
January 30, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
E M Frick, L C Strader
Arabidopsis MAP KINASE17 (MPK17) was recently identified as a novel regulator of peroxisome division in response to salt stress. Further, the known peroxisome division factor PEROXISOME AND MITOCHONDRIAL DIVISION FACTOR1 (PMD1) genetically acts downstream of MPK17. We previously showed that mutants defective in either MPK17 or PMD1 fail to proliferate peroxisomes in response to NaCl stress. Here, we show that, unlike their abnormal NaCl responses, mpk17 and pmd1 mutants display wild type responses to other stresses known to alter peroxisome proliferation, suggesting that plants distinguish among peroxisome division-inducing stresses and alter the peroxisome division pathway based on the stress applied...
January 29, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Camille Fonouni-Farde, Erin McAdam, David Nichols, Anouck Diet, Eloise Foo, Florian Frugier
Gibberellins (GAs) and cytokinins (CKs) are hormones that play antagonistic roles in several developmental processes in plants. However, there has been little exploration of their reciprocal interactions. Recent work in Medicago truncatula has revealed that GA signalling can regulate CK levels and response in roots. Here, we examine the reciprocal interaction, by assessing how CKs and the CRE1 (Cytokinin Response 1) CK receptor may influence endogenous GA levels. Real-Time RT-PCR analyses revealed that the expression of key GA biosynthesis genes is regulated in response to a short-term CK treatment and requires the CRE1 receptor...
January 26, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Diwaker Tripathi, Kiwamu Tanaka
Damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), such as extracellular ATP, act as damage signals in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Extracellular ATP is perceived by a plant purinoceptor, P2 receptor kinase 1 (P2K1), inducing downstream signaling for defense responses. How ATP induces these defense responses has not been well studied. A recent study by Tripathi et al. (Plant Physiology, 176: 1-13, 2018) revealed a synergistic interaction between extracellular ATP and jasmonate (JA) signaling during plant defense responses...
January 25, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Lusisizwe Kwezi, Janet I Wheeler, Claudius Marondedze, Chris Gehring, Helen R Irving
Signal modulation is important for the growth and development of plants and this process is mediated by a number of factors including physiological growth regulators and their associated signal transduction pathways. Protein kinases play a central role in signaling, including those involving pathogen response mechanisms. We previously demonstrated an active guanylate cyclase (GC) catalytic center in the brassinosteroid insensitive receptor (AtBRI1) within an active intracellular kinase domain resulting in dual enzymatic activity...
January 22, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Beatriz Gonçalves, Julien Sechet, Nicolas Arnaud
The CUP SHAPED COTYLEDON transcription factors play a fundamental role in plant morphogenesis by defining boundary domains throughout plant development. Despite their central roles in plant development, little is known about the CUC molecular network. In a recent work, we identified a role for MUR1, a protein involved in the production of GDP-L-Fucose, in this network and showed that fucose per se is required for proper boundary definition in various developmental contexts. Which pathway involving fucose is required to determine boundary is not known...
January 19, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Vinay Kumar, Mohd Waseem, Nidhi Dwivedi, Sourobh Maji, Angad Kumar, Jitendra K Thakur
Med15 is an important subunit of Mediator tail module and is characterized by a KIX domain present in the amino terminal. In yeast and metazoans, Med15 KIX domain has been found to interact with various transcription factors, regulating several processes including carbohydrate metabolism, lipogenesis, stress response and multidrug resistance. Mechanism of Med15 functioning in Arabidopsis is largely unknown. In this study, interactome of Arabidopsis Med15, AtMed15a, was characterized. We found 45 proteins that interact with AtMed15a KIX domain, including 11 transcription factors, 3 single strand nucleic acid-binding proteins and 1 splicing factor...
January 17, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Mohamed M Mira, Shuanglong Huang, Robert D Hill, Claudio Stasollaa
By regulating the levels of nitric oxide (NO) in a cell and tissue specific fashion, Phytoglobins (Pgbs), plant hemoglobin-like proteins, interfere with many NO-mediated pathways participating in developmental and stress-related responses. Recent evidence reveals that one of the functions of Pgbs is to protect the root apical meristem (RAM) from stress conditions by retaining the viability and function of the quiescent center (QC), required to maintain the stem cells in an undifferentiated state and ensure proper tissue patterning and root viability...
January 17, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Aakanksha Wany, Kapuganti Jagadis Gupta
In response to hypoxia, plant roots produce very high levels of nitric oxide. Recently, it was demonstrated that NO and ethylene both are essential for development of aerenchyma in wheat roots under hypoxia. Increased NO under hypoxia correlated with induction of NADPH oxidase gene expression, ROS production and lipid peroxidation in cortical cells. Tyrosine nitration was prominent in cells developing aerenchyma suggesting that NO and ROS play a key role in development of aerenchyma. However, the role of antioxidant genes during development of aerenchyma is not known, therefore, we checked gene expression of various antioxidants such as SOD1, AOX1A, APX and MnSOD at different time points after hypoxia treatment and found that expression of these genes elevated in 2 h but downregulated in 24 h where development of aerenchyma is prominent...
January 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sonia Mohamed, Hervé Sentenac, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Anne-Aliénor Véry, Manuel Nieves-Cordones
The root system anchors the plant to the soil and contributes to plant autotrophy by taking up nutrients and water. In relation with this nutritional function, root development is largely impacted by availability of nutrients and water. Due to human activity, plants, in particular crops, can also be exposed to pollutants which can be absorbed and incorporated into the food chain. Cesium in soils is present at non-toxic concentrations for the plant (micromolar or less), even in soils highly polluted with radioactive cesium due to nuclear accidents...
January 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Haleigh A Ray, Charles J Stuhl, Jennifer L Gillett-Kaufman
South Florida is home to a number of native species of orchids. The Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge has 27 known species, including Prosthechea cochleata, the clamshell orchid, which is listed as endangered on Florida's Regulated Plant Index. In a prior study done on this species in Mexico, P. cochleata was found to produce no floral fragrance at the particular study location. However, blooming orchids of this species at the University of Florida in Gainesville, were noted to be fragrant. In this paper, we document the presence of floral fragrance compounds from P...
January 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Jiangfeng Wen, Yang Li, Tiancong Qi, Hua Gao, Bei Liu, Min Zhang, Huang Huang, Susheng Song
The phytohormone jasmonates (JAs) regulate plant development, growth, secondary metabolism, and defense responses. JAs act through CORONATINE INSENSITIVE1 (COI1) to induce the degradation of JA ZIM-domain (JAZ) proteins, and activate JAZ-repressed transcription factors to regulate plant response. We previously showed that the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and MYB members of the WD-repeat/bHLH/MYB complex interacted with JAZs and mediated JA-induced anthocyanin accumulation and trichome initiation. In this study, we showed that the C-terminal domain of the bHLH members (GLABRA3 [GL3], ENHANCER OF GLABRA3 [EGL3] and TRANSPARENT TESTA8 [TT8]) interacted with JAZs in yeast and plant, and mediated dimerizations between the bHLH members...
January 2, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yuqi Wang, Yanfei Cai, Yu Cao, Jiping Liu
In Arabidopsis, aluminum (Al) exclusion from the root is mainly facilitated by Al-activated root malate and citrate exudation through the ALMT1 malate transporter and the MATE citrate transporter, respectively. However, the nature of an internal Al tolerance mechanism remains largely unknown. In a recent study, we showed that NIP1;2 facilitates Al-malate transport from the root cell wall into the root symplasm and subsequent root-to-shoot translocation and thus NIP1;2 plays key roles in Al detoxification and internal tolerance in Arabidopsis...
January 2, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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