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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Misa Takahashi, Jun Shigeto, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiromichi Morikawa
PSBO1 is exclusively nitrated when isolated thylakoid membranes are incubated in a buffer bubbled with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) containing NO2 and nitrite. NO2 is the primary intermediate for this selective nitration. Isolated thylakoid membranes were incubated in NO2-bubbled buffer at 25°C in the light or dark. Protein analysis confirmed the selective nitration of PSBO1. Illumination was found to be essential in PSBO1 nitration. A nitration mechanism whereby nitratable tyrosine residues of PSBO1 are, prior to nitration, selectively photo-oxidized by photosynthetic electron transport to tyrosyl radicals to combine with NO2 to form 3-nitrotyrosine was hypothesized...
November 30, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ewa Krzywińska, Anna Kulik, Maria Bucholc, Maria A Fernandez, Pedro L Rodriguez, Grażyna Dobrowolska
Protein phosphatases 2C (PP2Cs) are important regulators of plant responses to abiotic stress. It is established that clade A PP2Cs inhibit ABA-activated SNF1-related protein kinases 2 (SnRK2s). Our recently published results show that ABI1, a member of clade A of PP2C is also a negative regulator of SnRK2.4, a kinase not activated in response to ABA. Here, we show that another member of this clade - PP2CA, interacts with and inhibits SnRK2.4. The salt-induced SnRK2.4/SnRK2.10 activity is higher in abi1-2 pp2ca-1 mutant than in wild type or single abi1 or pp2ca mutants, indicating that both phosphatases are inhibitors of SnRK2...
November 30, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tao Shi, Kun Wang, Pingfang Yang
Essential genes are usually less likely to be lost during evolution, whereas dispensable genes are lost more frequently. Integrating sacred lotus and other plant microRNA (miRNA) data, we found different ancient miRNA families that arose before eudicot radiation exhibit different evolutionary trajectories. Those ancient miRNA families with higher copy and target numbers, and older age are more likely to be retained in plant descendants and more conserved in (hairpin-structured) miRNA gene sequences. Interestingly, a large portion of the well conserved miRNA families in plant lineages can target transcription factors (TFs)...
November 22, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xin-Min Zhang, Lorne M Wolfe
Dichogamy is generally thought to be a mechanism that prevents self-fertilization in flowering plants. This study aims to investigate the relationships between floral age and stigma receptivity, style length and pollen viability, and define how floral characters avoid self-pollination in a gynodioecious Chinese plant, Elsholtzia rugulosa. We assessed the relationships between flower age and style length, stigma receptivity, and pollen viability in E. rugulosa. This species produces two forms with plants bearing either hermaphrodite flowers (H) or female flowers (F)...
November 21, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Toshiaki Tameshige, Satoshi Okamoto, Masao Tasaka, Keiko U Torii, Naoyuki Uchida
Serration or teeth of plant leaves is a morphological trait regulated genetically and environmentally. Very recently, it has been reported that the receptor kinases encoded by three ERECTA (ER)-family genes, ER, ER-LIKE1 (ERL1) and ERL2, redundantly play a role in tooth growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. In the report, Columbia (Col) accession was used for analyses, where none of the signal mutant of the ER-family genes exhibited serration defects. The toothless, smooth leaf margin phenotype was evident only when two out of the three ER-family genes were lost...
November 17, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tezera W Wolabu, Million Tadege
Sorghum is a short day plant with strong photoperiod response and its cultivation for grain in temperate regions necessitated the development of photoperiod insensitive mutants that can flower rapidly in the long days of summer. Wild type genotypes grow vegetatively in summer accumulating significant biomass before floral transition ensues during the shorter days of fall. Thus, photoperiod insensitive mutants are grown for grain production while photoperiod sensitive wild type genotypes are grown for forage and biomass feedstock production in the United States...
November 17, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Christian Danve M Castroverde, Ross N Nazar, Jane Robb
Verticillium resistance is thought to be mediated by Ve1 protein, which presumably follows a "gene-for-gene" relationship with the V. dahliae Ave1 effector. Because in planta analyses of Ave1 have relied so far on transient expression of the gene in tobacco, this study investigated gene function using stably expressing 35S:Ave1 transgenic tomato. Transgenic Ave1 expression was shown to induce various defense genes including those coding for PR-1 (P6), PR-2 (beta-1,3-glucanase) and peroxidases (anionic peroxidase 2, Cevi16 peroxidase)...
November 10, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Edward C Lulai, Larry G Campbell, Karen K Fugate, Kent F McCue
The two stages of potato tuber wound healing, closing layer formation (CLF) and wound periderm formation (WPF), have critical biological differences. The first stage, CLF, involves early induction of DNA synthesis and nuclear division in the absence of cell division. The transition phase from CLF to the second stage, WPF, is marked by a transient decrease in expression of suberin-specific genes. The second stage involves cell division. Although biologically active cytokinins (CKs) are not present in quantifiable amounts during this stage, the presence of precursor and catabolic products suggest the presence of trace amounts of active CKs that, in conjunction with increased auxin (indole acetic acid), provide necessary signals for meristematic activity...
November 10, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Divya Vashisht, Hans van Veen, Melis Akman, Rashmi Sasidharan
Plant survival in flooded environments requires a combinatory response to multiple stress conditions such as limited light availability, reduced gas exchange and nutrient uptake. The ability to fine-tune the molecular response at the transcriptional and/or post-transcriptional level that can eventually lead to metabolic and anatomical adjustments are the underlying requirements to confer tolerance. Previously, we compared the transcriptomic adjustment of submergence tolerant, intolerant accessions and identified a core conserved and genotype-specific response to flooding stress, identifying numerous 'putative' tolerance genes...
November 10, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Bedabrata Saha, Gennadii Borovskii, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Alternative oxidase (AOX) is one of the terminal oxidases of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. AOX acts as a means to relax the highly coupled and tensed electron transport process in mitochondria thus providing and maintaining the much needed metabolic homeostasis by directly reducing oxygen to water. In the process AOX also act as facilitator for signalling molecules conveying the metabolic status of mitochondria to the nucleus and thus able to influence nuclear gene expression. Since AOX indirectly, is able to control the synthesis of important signalling molecules like hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, nitric oxide, thus it is also helping in stress signalling...
November 10, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Lennart Eschen-Lippold, Dierk Scheel, Justin Lee
AvrRpt2 is one of the first Pseudomonas syringae effector proteins demonstrated to be delivered into host cells. It suppresses plant immunity by modulating auxin signaling and cleavage of the membrane-localized defense regulator RIN4. We recently uncovered a novel potential virulence function of AvrRpt2, where it specifically blocked activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases, MPK4 and MPK11, but not of MPK3 and MPK6. Putative AvrRpt2 homologs from different phytopathogens and plant-associated bacteria showed distinct activities with respect to MPK4/11 activation suppression and RIN4 cleavage...
November 10, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ulrich Kutschera, Rajnish Khanna
In 1963, a monograph by Thomas D. Luckey entitled Germfree Life and Gnotobiology was published, with a focus on animals treated with microbes and reference to the work of Louis Pasteur (1822-1895). Here, we review the history and current status of plant gnotobiology, which can be traced back to the experiments of Jean-Baptiste Boussingault (1801-1887) published in 1838. Since the outer surfaces of typical land plants are much larger than their internal areas, embryophytes "wear their guts on the outside." We describe the principles of gnotobiological analyses, with reference to epiphytic metylobacteria, and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) as well as Arabidopsis as model dicots...
November 10, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Catherine Schalk, Jean Molinier
As obligate photosynthetic organisms plants are particularly exposed to the damaging effects of excess light and ultraviolet wavelengths, which can impact genome and epigenome dynamics by inducing DNA sequence and chromatin alterations. DNA DAMAGE-BINDING PROTEIN 2 (DDB2) is the main factor involved in the recognition of UV-induced DNA lesions during Global Genome Repair (GGR) in mammals and in plants. (1) In a recent study we reported that, in Arabidopsis, loss of DDB2 function alters DNA methylation patterns at many repeat loci and protein coding genes...
November 4, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Claus Wasternack, Bettina Hause
Expression takes place for most of the jasmonic acid (JA)-induced genes in a COI1- dependent manner via perception of its conjugate JA-Ile in the SCF(COI1)-JAZ co-receptor complex. There are, however, numerous genes and processes, which are preferentially induced COI1-independently by the precursor of JA, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (OPDA). After recent identification of the Ile-conjugate of OPDA, OPDA-Ile, biological activity of this compound could be unequivocally proven in terms of gene expression. Any interference of OPDA, JA, or JA-Ile in OPDA-Ile-induced gene expression could be excluded by using different genetic background...
November 4, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sam D Cook, John J Ross
One of the fundamental plant growth substances, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), belongs to a class of phytohormones known as auxins. The main IAA biosynthesis pathway involves the conversion of tryptophan to indole-3-pyruvic acid, which is in turn converted to IAA. The two enzymes responsible for these conversions, members of the TAA1 and YUCCA gene families, respectively, have recently been implicated in the synthesis of another auxin, phenylacetic acid (PAA). While there is some evidence to support this theory, there are also some concerns...
November 3, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Dominik Klauser, Pascale Flury, Thomas Boller, Sebastian Merker
The membrane-based receptor-like kinase BAK1 has been reported to interact with a number of other membrane-based receptors to contribute to a variety of signaling responses to exogenous and endogenous cues. These include brassinosteroid hormones as well as conserved microbe-derived and endogenous patterns. More recently, several lines of evidence have been reported to expand this concept also to the detection and deterrence of insect herbivores. We hereby present results that further support this hypothesis as they show that in Arabidopsis thaliana, herbivore oral secretions trigger two hallmark responses of plant innate immunity and that these responses are significantly reduced in plants that lack functional BAK1 receptors...
October 28, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Pierre Pétriacq, Guillaume Tcherkez, Bertrand Gakière
NAD is a pyridine nucleotide that is involved in cell metabolism and signaling of plant growth and stress. Recently, we reported on the multifaceted nature of NAD-inducible immunity in Arabidopsis. We identified NAD as an integral regulator of multiple defense layers such as production of ROS, deposition of callose, stimulation of cell death and modulation of defense metabolism including the defense hormones SA, JA and ABA, and other defense-associated metabolites. Altogether, NAD-induced immune effects confer resistance to diverse pathogenic microbes...
October 21, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nabil Killiny
Orange jasmine, Murraya paniculata and curry leaf tree, Bergera koenegii are alternative hosts for Diaphorina citri, the vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas), the pathogen of huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus. D. citri feeds on the phloem sap where CLas grows. It has been shown that orange jasmine was a better host than curry leaf tree to D. citri. In addition, CLas can infect orange jasmine but not curry leaf tree. Here, we compared the phloem sap composition of these two plants to the main host, Valencia sweet orange, Citrus sinensis...
October 20, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Xia Zhang, Heping Li
Sterols play important roles in plant growth, including embryogenesis, cell expansion, vascular differentiation, male fertility, and endocytosis. Sterols become functional only after removal of the two methyl groups at C-4. There are two distinct sterol C-4-methyl oxidase (SMO) families in higher plants, SMO1 and SMO2, which contain three and two isoforms, respectively, involving in the removal of the first and second C4 methyl groups during sterols biosynthesis. In a recent study we showed that single smo2-1 and smo2-2 mutants displayed no significant phenotype, while smo2-1 smo2-2 double mutant was embryonic lethal...
October 20, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nobuhiro Suzuki
As sessile organisms, plants are continuously exposed to various environmental stresses. In contrast to the controlled conditions employed in many researches, more than one or more abiotic and/or biotic stresses simultaneously occur and highly impact growth of plants and crops in the field environments. Therefore, an urgent need to generate crops with enhanced tolerance to stress combinations exists. Researchers, however, focused on the mechanisms underlying acclimation of plants to combined stresses only in recent studies...
October 14, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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