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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Néstor R Aznar, V Fabiana Consolo, Graciela L Salerno, Giselle M A Martínez-Noël
TOR is the master regulator of growth and development that senses energy availability. Biotic stress perturbs metabolic and energy homeostasis, making TOR a good candidate to participate in the plant response. Fusarium graminearum (Fusarium) produces important losses in many crops all over the world. To date, the role of TOR in Fusarium infection has remained unexplored. Here, we show that the resistance to the pathogen increases in different Arabidopsis mutants impaired in TOR complex or in wild-type plants treated with a TOR inhibitor...
December 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Shashank K Pandey, Jungmook Kim
The LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (LOB) DOMAIN (LBD) gene family members encode a class of plant-specific transcription factors that play important roles in many different aspects of plant growth and development. The LBD proteins contain a conserved LOB domain harboring a Leu zipper-like coiled-coil motif, which has been predicted to mediate protein-protein interactions among the LBD family members. Dimerization of transcription factors is crucial for the modulation of their DNA-binding affinity, specificity, and diversity, contributing to the transcriptional regulation of distinct cellular and biological responses...
December 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Qionghui Fei, Jingjing Li, Yunhe Luo, Kun Ma, Bingtao Niu, Changjun Mu, Huanhuan Gao, Xiaofeng Li
Environmental temperatures affect plant distribution, growth, and development. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts that global temperatures will rise by at least 1.5°C by the end of this century. Global temperature changes have already had a discernable impact on agriculture, phenology, and ecosystems. At the molecular level, extensive literature exists on the mechanism controlling plant responses to high temperature stress. However, few studies have focused on the molecular mechanisms behind plant responses to mild increases in ambient temperature...
December 11, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Wenying Zhang, Jun Wang, Le Xu, Aiai Wang, Lan Huang, Hewei Du, Lijuan Qiu, Ralf Oelmüller
As an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, Piriformospora indica promotes plant growth and resistance to abiotic stress, including drought. Colonization of maize roots promoted the leaf size, root length and number of tap roots. Under drought stress, the maize seedlings profited from the presence of the fungus and performed visibly better than the uncolonized controls. To identify genes and biological processes involved in growth promotion and drought tolerance conferred by P. indica, the root transcriptome of colonized and uncolonized seedlings was analyzed 0, 6 and 12 h after drought stress (20% polyethylene glycol 6000)...
December 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tzvetina Brumbarova, Rumen Ivanov
Endomembrane protein trafficking has emerged as important means of regulating stress responses in plants. The Arabidopsis SNX1 protein is involved in recycling the iron transporter IRT1, thus promoting its presence at the plasma membrane. SNX1 and its interacting partners undergo stress-related regulation at both transcriptional and posttranslational level, which may include differential regulation at tissue level. Based on this, we explore the tissue-specific regulation of iron import, specifically concentrating on the factors involved in the expression and recycling of IRT1 in root tissues...
December 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Rucha A Karve, Anjali S Iyer-Pascuzzi
The root cap protects the root from environmental stress and senses gravity. Cells of the last layer of the root cap are shed in a developmentally programmed process. We previously showed that the transcription factor NIN-LIKE PROTEIN7 (NLP7) regulates root cap cell release likely through regulation of CELLULASE 5 (CEL5). Here we provide a supplement to that work. We hypothesized that the nlp7 mutant has defects in additional root cap functions. We find that neither gravity sensing nor expression of a root cap cell identity marker is altered in nlp7 but that expression of another cellulase, CEL3, is upregulated...
December 7, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Bingbing Li, Jiaqi Yan, Wensuo Jia
Ripening of fleshy fruits is a complex process that involves dramatic changes in color, texture, flavor, and aroma, which is essentially regulated by multiple hormone signals. Although the metabolic mechanisms for the regulation of fruit development and ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process. FERONIA has been increasingly suggested to be implicated in multiple signaling pathways. In a recent publication, we showed that a FERONIA/FER -like receptor kinase, FaMRLK47, playes an important role in the regulation of fruit ripening in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, a typical non-climacteric fruit) fruit...
December 7, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Menghan Sun, Yuji Yamasaki, Belay T Ayele
To gain insights into the molecular basis of starch degradation in wheat seeds with respect to dormancy maintenance and release, this study compared the expression of starch degrading genes between dormant and after-ripened seeds in both dry and imbibed states. Furthermore, the study examined the effect of ABA on the expression of starch degrading genes during imbibition of non-dormant seeds. Release of dormancy due to after-ripening led to the upregulation of specific genes encoding α-amylase and α-glucosidase during imbibition while dormancy maintenance is associated with repression of these genes...
December 6, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yuta Fujii, Yutaka Kodama
Chloroplasts alter their subcellular positions in response to ambient light and temperature conditions. This well-characterized light-induced response, which was first described nearly 100 years ago, is regulated by the blue-light photoreceptor, phototropin. By contrast, the molecular mechanism of low temperature-induced chloroplast relocation (i.e., the cold-avoidance response) was unexplored until its discovery in the fern Adiantum capillus-veneris in 2008. Because this response is also regulated by phototropin, it was thought to occur in a blue light-dependent manner...
December 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Anna A Dobritsa, Sarah H Reeder
In most plant species, surfaces of pollen grains display characteristic patterns of apertures, formed by the gaps in the pollen wall exine. The aperture patterns are species-specific and tend to be very precise, with pollen of each species usually developing a certain number of apertures placed at distinct positions and acquiring specific morphology. The precision with which pollen apertures are produced suggests that developing pollen grains possess robust mechanisms that allow them to specify particular membrane domains as the future-aperture sites and to protect these sites from exine deposition...
November 27, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kyung-Eun Gil, Chung-Mo Park
Extreme environmental conditions, such as heat and cold, often disturb cellular proteostasis, resulting in protein denaturation and oxidative damage that threaten cell viability. Therefore, living organisms have evolved versatile protein quality control mechanisms that clear damaged proteins from cellular compartments. It has been shown that a repertoire of molecular chaperones, including heat shock proteins (HSPs), works together with ubiquitin-proteasome systems in this biochemical process in animals and yeast...
November 27, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tomoaki Sakamoto, Hidemi Kitano, Shozo Fujioka
ERECT LEAF 1 (ELF1) was previously identified as a component of brassinosteroid signaling in rice. A double mutant obtained by crossing elf1-1 (a null mutant of ELF1) with d61-1 (a leaky mutant of OsBRI1) showed a more severe phenotype than did the elf1-1 single mutant, resembling that of a severe brassinosteroid-deficient mutant. Microarray analysis showed that the gene expression profile of elf1-1 was distinct from that of d61-12 (a leaky mutant of OsBRI1 with a phenotype similar to that of elf1-1), and fewer than half of genes differentially expressed between the wild-type and elf1-1 showed similar differences in d61-12 relative to the wild-type...
November 27, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Maysaya Thitisaksakul, Shaoyun Dong, Diane M Beckles
We have previously shown that overexpression of GSK3-like kinase 5 in rice (OsGSK5) was associated with higher starch accumulation and better growth under severe salinity stress. Short-term (14)CO2 feeding experiments suggested that OsGSK5 promoted higher flux to starch accumulation in the roots under this condition and that this mechanism may help to underscore the better growth characteristics observed. Here, we expand upon this hypothesis and consider (i) how OsGSK5 action could fit into a signaling model that integrates salinity stress to changes in starch metabolism, and (ii) how this would facilitate whole plant physiological adaptions in source-to-sink partitioning...
November 13, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Edith Muñoz-Parra, Guadalupe Salmerón Barrera, León Francisco Ruiz-Herrera, Eduardo Valencia-Cantero, José López-Bucio
Plant growth and development are influenced by the interactions with other organisms including bacteria, fungi, herbivores and neighboring plants. Plant density influences the phase transitions during the entire life cycle and root architecture through a mechanism involving auxin and MEDIATOR 25 in Arabidopsis thaliana, but the nature of the signals that are perceived in response to increasing number of neighbors remains elusive. Here, we report that plant-plant perception can occur distantly, since root growth and auxin response in Arabidopsis seedlings grown at high plant density into half-divided Petri plates, decreased both primary root growth and lateral root formation in comparison with single plants grown alone, which correlates with reduced auxin response at the primary root tip...
November 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Qingzhe Zhai, Lin Li, Chunpeng An, Chuanyou Li
Perception of the plant hormone jasmonoyl-isoleucine (JA-Ile) involves the formation of a co-receptor complex between COI1, the F-box subunit of a SCF-type E3 ubiquitin ligase, and its substrates, a group of jasmonate ZIM-domain (JAZ) transcriptional repressors. In recent studies, we show that MED25, a subunit of the Arabidopsis Mediator, physically and functionally interacts with COI1 and the master transcription factor MYC2 on MYC2 target promoters. Here we provide evidence that MED25 also physically interacts with a subset of JAZ proteins...
November 10, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Adam M Saffer, Vivian F Irish
Plants consist of many different cell types with specific shapes optimized for their particular functions. For example, most flowering plants have conically shaped epidermal cells on the upper surface of their petals that are important for pollinator attraction. The control of cell morphology in organs such as roots and leaves has been extensively studied, but much less is known about the genes that promote conical expansion of petal epidermal cells. We have developed a technique to rapidly assay the morphology of conical petal epidermal cells, and we employed this method in an unbiased genetic screen to identify mutants that alter the development of these cells...
October 26, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yunting Pu, Junmarie Soto-Burgos, Diane C Bassham
Autophagy is important for degradation and recycling of cytoplasmic materials in all eukaryotes and is often triggered by environmental stress. How autophagy is activated in plants under different environmental conditions is still poorly understood. Our recent studies show that induction of autophagy by different abiotic stress conditions can occur via either a TOR-dependent or -independent pathway, depending on the stress. The SnRK1 protein kinase complex acts upstream of TOR in regulation of autophagy during nutrient deficiency, salt and osmotic stresses...
October 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Masanori Izumi, Sakuya Nakamura
Autophagy carries out intracellular degradation of cytoplasmic components, which is important for the removal of dysfunctional organelles and for efficient nutrient recycling in eukaryotic cells. Most proteins in plant green tissues are found in chloroplasts, mainly as photosynthetic proteins that constantly accumulate damage caused by sunlight. Our recent study investigated the involvement of autophagy in the turnover of damaged chloroplasts and found that entire photodamaged chloroplasts are transported into the vacuole for degradation via an autophagy process termed chlorophagy...
October 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Daniel S Jones, Sharon A Kessler
Mildew resistance locus O (MLO) proteins are transmembrane proteins that mediate cell-cell communication in plants. We recently demonstrated the importance of subcellular localization to MLO function during pollen tube reception. NORTIA (NTA), the MLO protein involved in this process, localizes to the Golgi of the synergid cell before interaction with the pollen tube. MLO proteins that can substitute for NTA's function in this pathway all partially localize with the same Golgi marker in the synergid cell. In this study, we report that MLO subcellular localization is cell type-dependent, with different distributions of some MLOs observed when ectopically expressed in the epidermal cells of tobacco and Arabidopsis compared to synergids...
October 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Zhonglin Mou
The pyridine nucleotides nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and NAD phosphate (NADP) are coenzymes that function in both metabolic reactions and intracellular signaling. Emerging evidence from animal research indicates that NAD(P) also acts in the extracellular space (ECS). We have shown in the model plant Arabidopsis that (1) exogenous NAD(P) induces immune responses, (2) pathogen infection causes leakage of intracellular NAD(P) into the extracellular fluid at concentrations sufficient to induce immune responses, and (3) removal of extracellular NAD(P) [eNAD(P)] by expressing the human NAD(P)-metabolizing ectoenzyme CD38 partially compromises systemic acquired resistance...
October 16, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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