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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Subhajit Dutta, Mehali Mitra, Puja Agarwal, Kalyan Mahapatra, Sayanti De, Upasana Sett, Sujit Roy
Plants, being sessile in nature, are constantly exposed to various environmental stresses, such as solar UV radiations, soil salinity, drought and desiccation, rehydration, low and high temperatures and other vast array of air and soil borne chemicals, industrial waste products, metals and metalloids. These agents, either directly or indirectly via the induction of oxidative stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), frequently perturb the chemical or physical structures of DNA and induce both cytotoxic or genotoxic stresses...
April 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Muruganantham Mookkan
Setaria viridis is one of the most important model grasses in studying monocot plant biology. Transient gene expression study is a very important tool in plant biotechnology, functional genomics, and CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology via particle bombardment. In this study, a particle bombardment-mediated protocol was developed to introduce DNA into Setaria viridis in vitro leaf explants. In addition, physical and biological parameters, such as helium pressure, distance from stopping screen to the target tissues, DNA concentration, and number of bombardments, were tested and optimized...
April 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Reihane Ivani, Seyed Hossein Sanaei Nejad, Bijan Ghahraman, Ali Reza Astaraei, Hassan Feizi
The effects of bulk and Nanosized SiO2 on seed germination and seedling growth indices of fenugreek under salinity stress were studied in the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, in 2013. The experimental treatments included four levels of salinity stress (0, 50, 100 and 150 mM), two concentrations of bulk (50 and 100 ppm), two concentrations of nanosized SiO2 (50 and 100 ppm), and control (without any SiO2 types). Seedling growth attributes significantly improved when bulk and nanosized SiO2 concentrations applied singly or with different levels of salt stress...
April 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Noriane M L Simon, Ellie Sawkins, Antony N Dodd
A mechanism participating in energy sensing and signalling in plants involves the regulation of sucrose non-fermenting1 (Snf1)-related protein kinase 1 (SnRK1) activity in response to sugar availability. SnRK1 is thought to regulate the activity of both metabolic enzymes and transcription factors in response to changes in energy availability, with trehalose-6-phospate functioning as a signalling sugar that suppresses SnRK1 activity under sugar-replete conditions. Sucrose supplementation increases the elongation of hypocotyls of developing Arabidopsis seedlings, and this response to sucrose involves both the SnRK1 subunit KIN10 and also TREHALOSE-6-PHOSPHATE SYNTHASE1 (TPS1)...
March 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kae Akita, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Takumi Higaki
We previously found that sucrose solution immersion treatment permitted ectopic guard cell differentiation, resulting in clustered stomatal guard cells. Using this system, we examined the effects of sucrose solution-induced stomatal clustering on guard cell cortical microtubules and the stomatal response to fusicoccin. Confocal observation revealed that the radial orientation of cortical microtubules was largely maintained in clustered guard cells. Outward movement of cortical microtubule plus-ends was also kept in the clustered guard cells...
March 20, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Daniel Lüdke, Charlotte Roth, Denise Hartken, Marcel Wiermer
The Arabidopsis nuclear transport receptor IMPORTIN-α3/MOS6 (MODIFIER OF SNC1, 6) is required for constitutive defense responses of the auto-immune mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1) and contributes to basal disease resistance, suggesting a role in nuclear import of defense-regulatory cargo proteins. We recently showed that MOS6 selectively interacts with TN13, a TIR-NBS protein involved in basal resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 lacking the effectors AvrPto and AvrPtoB...
March 20, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Graciene de Souza Bido, Hingrid Ariane da Silva, Tiara da Silva Coelho Bortolo, Marcos Rodrigues Maldonado, Rogério Marchiosi, Wanderley Dantas Dos Santos, Osvaldo Ferrarese-Filho
Velvet bean (Mucuna pruriens) is an efficient cover forage that controls weeds, pathogens and nematodes, and the non-protein amino acid L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is its main allelochemical. The effects of 3 g L-1 of an aqueous extract of velvet bean seeds, along with 0.5 mM L-DOPA for comparison, were evaluated in roots, stems and leaves of soybean (Glycine max). The activities of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) were determined, along with the lignin content and its monomeric composition...
March 14, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Geupil Jang, Yang Do Choi
Drought stress provokes jasmonic acid (JA) signaling, which mediates plant stress responses; moreover, growing numbers of studies suggest that JA is involved in the modulation of root development under drought stress. Recently, we showed that JA promotes differentiation of xylem from procambial cells in Arabidopsis roots. Further molecular and genetic approaches revealed that the effect of JA on xylem development is caused by suppression of cytokinin responses, suggesting that JA antagonistically interacts with cytokinin to modulate xylem development...
March 13, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Fan Feng, Rentao Song
As a highly developed tissue, maize endosperm accumulates nutrients abundantly and supports embryo development. In a recent study, we constructed a regulatory network centered around Opaque11 (O11). This network unified cellular development, nutrient metabolism and stress responses during endosperm development. Here we discuss the evidences that O11 might have a regulatory role in cold stress response during seed development. Furthermore, we discuss the functional divergence between maize O11 and its Arabidopsis orthologue ZHOUPI, which might explain some of the differences in endosperm development between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous seeds...
March 13, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Zhenhua Xu, Steven J Rothstein
Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with antioxidant activities. In plants, multiple factors can trigger the accumulation of anthocyanins, including chemicals and environmental factors. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are common by-products produced under different biotic and abiotic conditions and cause oxidative stress when accumulated at a high level in plant cells. This in turn leads to the production of anthocyanins. However, the mechanisms of ROS-induced anthocyanin accumulation and the role of anthocyanins in the response of plants to different stresses are largely unknown...
March 13, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Miori Sato, Haruna Ohsaki, Yuuya Fukano, Akira Yamawo
Previous study reported a novel type of self-discrimination in the tendrils of the vine Cayratia japonica (Vitaceae). However, whether self-discrimination in tendrils is common in vine plant species has not been elucidated. Here, we investigated whether tendrils of Momordica charantia var. pavel (Cucurbitaceae), Cucumis sativus (Cucurbitaceae) and Passiflora caerulea (Passifloraceae) can discriminate self and non-self plants. We also investigated whether the tendrils of M. charantia and C. sativus can discriminate differences in cultivars to determine the discrimination ability for genetic similarity...
March 13, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Tagnon D Missihoun, Simeon O Kotchoni
Aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes (ALDHs) catalyse the oxidation of a broad range of aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids using NAD+ or NADP+ as cofactors. In our article published in Scientific Reports, we demonstrated that mutations in Arabidopsis ALDH3I1 and ALDH7B4 genes altered the cellular contents of NAD(P)H, the total as well as the reduction state of glutathione; and decreased the efficiency of photosynthesis, thus placing ALDH activity as an important source of reducing power for cellular redox homeostasis...
March 9, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kyounghee Lee, Ok-Sun Park, Pil Joon Seo
Tissue identity is plastically regulated in plants, and chromatin modifiers/remodelers are main players of cell fate changes. Callus formation is an intriguing example of cell fate transition. Leaf explants can form callus tissues, which resemble lateral root primordium, on callus-inducing medium (CIM). We recently demonstrated that the ARABIDOPSIS TRITHORAX-RELATED 2 (ATXR2) protein, which deposits H3K36me3 at genomic level, regulates callus formation on CIM. Consistent with the role of ATXR2 in conferring root identity, lateral root formation was significantly reduced in atxr2-deficient mutants...
March 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Francisco J Corpas
Peroxisome organelles have a versatile metabolism whose enzymatic content can be modulated by physiological and environment-dependent cellular conditions. They are characterized by a highly active nitro-oxidative metabolism and basic elements (H2 O2 and nitric oxide (NO)) with signaling properties. However, new elements have increased our understanding of the connections between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments. Furthermore, the presence of calcium (Ca2+ ) intensifies communication between different signaling molecules and the relationship of Ca2+ itself with NO and H2 O2 ...
March 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Huong Mai Nguyen, Kaori Sako, Akihiro Matsui, Minoru Ueda, Maho Tanaka, Akihiro Ito, Norikazu Nishino, Minoru Yoshida, Motoaki Seki
Histone acetylation plays a pivotal role in plant growth and development, and is regulated by the antagonistic relationship between histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC). We previously revealed that some HDAC inhibitors confer high-salinity stress tolerance in plants. In this study, we identified two HDAC inhibitors, namely Ky-9 and Ky-72, which enhanced the high-salinity stress tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana. Ky-9 and Ky-72 are structurally similar chlamydocin analogs. However, the in vitro inhibitory activity of Ky-9 against mammalian HDAC is greater than that of Ky-72...
March 8, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Peter W Barlow
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 6, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Javier E Moreno, Facundo Romani, Raquel L Chan
Venation patterning is a taxonomic attribute for classification of plants and it also plays a role in the interaction of plants with the environment. Despite its importance, the molecular physiology controlling this aspect of plant development is still poorly understood. Auxin plays a central role modulating the final vein network and patterning. This addendum discusses recent findings on the role of homeodomain-leucine zipper (HD-Zip) transcription factors on the regulation of leaf venation patterning. Moreno-Piovano et al...
March 6, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kohki Shimizu, Koh Aoki
Parasitic plants establish vascular-conducting cells in an intrusive organ called haustorium. In haustoria of a stem parasitic plant, Cuscuta japonica, the presence of cells expressing cell-type-specific genes of phloem companion cell, phloem sieve element, procambial cell and xylem vessel has recently been demonstrated. Differentiation of these vascular cells is regulated in a manner similar to that in conventional vascular tissues. However, the initiation of procambial cells occurs concomitantly with the differentiation of vascular-conducting cells...
February 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nabil Killiny, Maria Filomena Valim, Shelley E Jones, Faraj Hijaz
Currently, citrus greening is threatening the citrus industry worldwide. So far, there is no effective cure for this destructive disease and management mainly depends on the control of Diaphorina citri vector using insecticides. Although the use of different rootstocks could increase citrus scions' tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, little work has been conducted to investigate the effect of rootstocks on citrus tolerance to citrus greening pathogen. In this study, we investigated the effect of rootstock on the metabolite profile of 'Sugar Belle' mandarin hybrid using gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
February 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Mads Eggert Nielsen, Hans Thordal-Christensen
Plant innate immunity enables plants to defend themselves against infectious pathogens. While membrane trafficking and release of exosomes are considered vital for correct execution of innate immunity, the mechanisms behind remain elusive. Recently, we have shown that VPS9a, the general guanine-nucleotide exchange factor activating Rab5 GTPases, is required for both pre- and post-invasive immunity against powdery mildew fungi in Arabidopsis thaliana. Yet, the Arabidopsis genome contains a close homologue of VPS9a, which potentially plays specific roles in innate immunity...
February 27, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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