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Plant Signaling & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426383/contribution-of-sucrose-transporters-to-phloem-unloading-within-sorghum-bicolor-stem-internodes
#1
Ricky J Milne, Anke Reinders, John M Ward, Christina E Offler, John W Patrick, Christopher P L Grof
Sucrose produced in source leaves is loaded into collection phloem, transported to sinks and unloaded for utilisation or storage. In the context of long distance transport, sucrose transporters (SUTs) can function to load sucrose into collection phloem, retrieve leaked sucrose during long distance transport, and load sucrose into sink cells. SUTs have also been proposed to efflux sucrose under conditions of low proton motive force and low extracellular sucrose. The involvement of sucrose transporters in phloem unloading in a representative monocot stem, Sorghum bicolor, was evaluated during different stages of internode development...
April 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426370/pin-formed-protein-a-door-to-reveal-the-mechanism-for-auxin-triggered-initiation-of-cotton-fiber
#2
Mi Zhang, Yuehua Xiao, Jianyan Zeng, Yan Pei
Cotton fibers are differentiated ovule epidermal cells that provide an ideal model to study cell differentiation and elongation. Establishment of auxin maximum in fiber cells is crucial for cotton-fiber protrusion from ovule surface. However, it is unclear where the auxin originates from and how the auxin accumulates in fiber cells. Our recent results indicate that the auxin is mainly imported from the outside of ovules, and transported to fiber cells through GhPIN (homolog of PIN-formed proteins in cotton) -mediated polar auxin transport, rather than in situ synthesis...
April 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426369/hos1-acts-as-a-key-modulator-of-hypocotyl-photomorphogenesis
#3
Ju-Heon Kim, Hyo-Jun Lee, Chung-Mo Park
Plants recognize light as an environmental signal to determine the proper timing of growth and development. In Arabidopsis seedlings, hypocotyl growth is promoted in the dark but suppressed in the light. It is known that the red/far-red light-sensing receptor phytochrome B (phyB) suppresses the function of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR (PIF) transcription factors, which act as photomorphogenic repressors. However, molecular mechanisms underlying the phyB-mediated inhibition of PIF functioning remain unclear...
April 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426280/alternative-plant-host-defense-against-transposon-activities-occurs-at-the-post-translational-stage
#4
Hua Zhou, Yuji Kishima
The Antirrhinum DNA transposon Tam3 uniquely demonstrates low temperature-dependent transposition (LTDT), so transposition does not occur at high temperatures. We previously showed that the detainment of Tam3 transposase (TPase) at the plasma membrane occurs when transposition is inactive, and that TPase is released at the permissive state of Tam3 transposition. LTDT of Tam3 is attributed to interactions between Tam3 and its host. In this addendum, we propose a model to explain the LTDT of Tam3, which is regarded as an equilibrium state reached between the host and parasite to maximize the fitness of both...
April 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426278/hop3-a-new-regulator-of-the-er-stress-response-in-arabidopsis-with-possible-implications-in-plant-development-and-response-to-biotic-and-abiotic-stresses
#5
Nuria Fernández-Bautista, Lourdes Fernández-Calvino, Alfonso Muñoz, M Mar Castellano
HOPs (heat shock protein 70 (HSP70)-heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) organizing proteins) are a highly conserved family of cytosolic cochaperones. In a recent study we showed that HOP3, one member of the HOP family in Arabidopsis, plays an essential role during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in plants. Interestingly, we also demonstrated that AtHOP3 interacts with binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP), a major ER-resident chaperone. All these data suggest that HOP3 could assist BiP in protein folding in the ER...
April 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414264/the-rice-transcription-factors-osice-confer-enhanced-cold-tolerance-in-transgenic-arabidopsis
#6
Cuiyun Deng, Haiyan Ye, Meng Fan, Tongliang Pu, Jianbin Yan
Cold stress is one of the major constraints for crop yield. Plants have in turn evolved highly sophisticated mechanisms involving altered physiological and biochemical processes to cope with the cold stress. Previous studies have revealed that the INDUCER OF CBF EXPRESSION 1 (ICE1), a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor, directly binds and activates the expression of C-Repeat Binding Factor/Dehydration-Responsive-Element-Binding protein (CBF/DREB1) to regulate the cold-response pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana...
April 17, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402691/arabidopsis-aspartic-proteases-a36-and-a39-play-roles-in-plant-reproduction
#7
Hui Gao, Rui Li, Yi Guo
Aspartic proteases (Aps, EC3.4.23) are one of the four major mechanistic classes of proteolytic enzymes with the conserved motifs Asp-Thr/Ser-Gly (DT/SG) at the active site and are activated at acidic pH. In Arabidopsis, 69 genes were identified as coding putative aspartic proteinases. However, little is known about most of these enzymes. Recently, we characterized two novel Arabidopsis Aps genes, A36 and A39, which encode two putative GPI-anchored pollen-high-expressed Aps. a36 a39 mutants display significant abortion...
April 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402161/ein2-mediated-signaling-is-involved-in-pre-invasion-defense-in-nicotiana-benthamiana-against-potato-late-blight-pathogen-phytophthora-infestans
#8
Soriya Rin, Yuri Mizuno, Yusuke Shibata, Mayuka Fushimi, Shinpei Katou, Ikuo Sato, Sotaro Chiba, Kazuhito Kawakita, Daigo Takemoto
Nicotiana benthamiana ABCG1 and ABCG2 are ABC transporters which are probably involved in the export of capsidiol, the major phytoalexin of Nicotiana species. While capsidiol export by these transporters plays an essential role in post-invasion defense against Phytophthora infestans, they also export unidentified antimicrobial compound(s) involved in pre-invasion defense. In this study, promoter activity of NbABCG2 (Pabcg2a) was analyzed using a GFP marker. Expression of GFP under the control of Pabcg2a was significantly increased by co-expression with the INF1 elicitor from P...
April 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402157/tradeoff-between-resistance-induced-by-volatile-communication-and-over-topping-vertical-growth
#9
Richard Karban
Plants commonly respond to reliable cues about herbivores by inducing greater defenses. Defenses are assumed to incur costs for plants when they are not needed. Sagebrush responds to volatile cues from experimentally clipped neighbors to induce resistance against chewing herbivores. Rather than experiencing costs, sagebrush seedlings that responded to dishonest cues were previously found to have increased survival and established plants that responded produced more inflorescences and new lateral branches. Here I report that young sagebrush plants that responded to cues added less vertical growth than controls that were not presented with volatile cues...
April 12, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387602/nucleoporin-nup88-mos7-is-required-for-manifestation-of-phenotypes-associated-with-the-arabidopsis-chitin-elicitor-receptor-kinase1-mutant-cerk1-4
#10
Bianca Genenncher, Volker Lipka, Elena K Petutschnig, Marcel Wiermer
Arabidopsis nucleoporin MOS7/NUP88 was identified in a forward-genetic screen for components that contribute to auto-immunity of the deregulated Resistance (R) gene mutant snc1, and is required for immunity to biotrophic and hemi-biotrophic pathogens. In a recent study, we showed that MOS7 is also essential to mount a full defense response against the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Botrytis cinerea, suggesting that MOS7 modulates plant defense responses to different types of pathogenic microbes. Here, we extend our analyses of MOS7-dependent plant immune responses and report the genetic requirement of MOS7 for manifestation of phenotypes associated with the CHITIN ELICITOR RECEPTOR KINASE1 (CERK1) mutant cerk1-4...
April 7, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387567/whole-transcriptome-rna-seq-gene-set-enrichment-pathway-analysis-and-exon-coverage-analysis-of-two-plastid-rna-editing-mutants
#11
Justin B Hackett, Yan Lu
In land plants, plastid and mitochondrial RNAs are subject to post-transcriptional C-to-U RNA editing. T-DNA insertions in the ORGANELLE RNA RECOGNITION MOTIF PROTEIN6 gene resulted in reduced photosystem II (PSII) activity and smaller plant and leaf sizes. Exon coverage analysis of the ORRM6 gene showed that orrm6-1 and orrm6-2 are loss-of-function mutants. Compared to other ORRM proteins, ORRM6 affects a relative small number of RNA editing sites. Sanger sequencing of reverse transcription-PCR products of plastid transcripts revealed two plastid RNA editing sites that are substantially affected in the orrm6 mutants: psbF-C77 and accD-C794...
April 7, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375043/take-a-look-at-plant-dna-replication-recent-insights-and-new-questions
#12
Savannah D Savadel, Hank W Bass
Recent advances in replicative DNA labeling technology have allowed new ways to study DNA replication in living plants. Temporal and spatial aspects of DNA replication programs are believed to derive from genomic structure and function. Bass et al. (2015) recently visualized DNA synthesis using 3 D microscopy of nuclei at three sub-stages of S phase: early, middle and late. This addendum expands on that study by comparing plant and animal DNA replication patterns, by considering implications of the two-compartment model of euchromatin, and by exploring the meaning of the DNA labeling signals inside the nucleolus...
April 4, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368733/protein-s-acyl-transferase-4-controls-nucleus-position-during-root-hair-tip-growth
#13
Zhi-Yuan Wan, Yan Zhang, Sha Li
Protein S-acyl transferases (PATs) play critical roles in plant developmental and environmental responses by catalyzing S-acylation of substrate proteins, most of which are involved in cellular signaling. However, only few plant PATs have been functionally characterized. We recently demonstrated that Arabidopsis PAT4 mediates root hair elongation by positively regulating the membrane association of ROP2 and actin microfilament organization. Here, we show that apex-associated re-positioning of nucleus during root hair elongation was impaired by PAT4 loss-of-function...
April 3, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350216/atslp2-is-an-intronless-protein-phosphatase-that-co-expresses-with-intronless-mitochondrial-pentatricopeptide-repeat-ppr-and-tetratricopeptide-tpr-protein-encoding-genes
#14
R Glen Uhrig, Greg Moorhead
Shewanella-like PPP family phosphatases (SLPs) are a unique lineage of eukaryote PPP-family phosphatases of bacterial origin which are not found in metazoans.(1, 2) Their absence in metazoans is marked by their arrival in plants through lateral gene transfer from Myxococcales bacteria.(3) Recently, we found that the SLP2 phosphatase ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana localized to the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS) where it was determined to be activated by mitochondrial intermembrane space protein 40 (MIA40) to regulate seed germination...
March 28, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340328/the-role-of-auxin-response-factors-in-the-development-and-differential-growth-of-inflorescence-stems
#15
Nicholas S Carey, Naden T Krogan
Plants react to environmental cues by altering their growth and development, which can include organ tropic responses. These differential growth responses are triggered by the hormone auxin, and AUXIN RESPONSE FACTORs (ARFs) have been implicated in numerous organ tropisms in Arabidopsis thaliana. Surprisingly, despite being critical for light capture and overall plant morphology, inflorescence stem tropic responses remain relatively understudied, with presumed direct links to ARF function yet to be established...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340327/polymorphic-responses-of-medicago-truncatula-accessions-to-potassium-deprivation
#16
Kevin Garcia, Jean-Michel Ané
Potassium (K(+)) is an essential macronutrient for plants and the most abundant cation in cells. Due to variable K(+) availability in the environment, plants must be able to adjust their developmental, physiological and transcriptional responses. The plant development to K(+) deprivation was not well studied in legumes thus far. We recently described the first adaptation mechanisms of the model legume Medicago truncatula Jemalong A17 to long-term K(+) deprivation and analyzed these responses in the context of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340324/vps36-mediated-plasma-membrane-protein-turnover-is-critical-for-arabidopsis-root-gravitropism
#17
Ya-Wen Hsu, Guang-Yuh Jauh
The gravitropic response is an evolutionary adaptation for plants to cope with the altered gravitational field. It involves reestablishing the distribution of the phytohormone auxin by differential degradation of auxin influx and efflux carriers. This process includes the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) machinery to recognize ubiquitinated proteins and deliver them to vacuoles for degradation, as evidenced by vps36-1 mutants. Here, we generated RNAi knockdown plants of Vacuolar Protein Sorting 36 (VPS36) that could survive to adulthood...
March 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323554/selective-nitration-of-psbo1-inhibits-oxygen-evolution-from-isolated-arabidopsis-thylakoid-membranes
#18
Misa Takahashi, Jun Shigeto, Atsushi Sakamoto, Hiromichi Morikawa
Treatment of isolated Arabidopsis thaliana thylakoid membranes with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) induces selective nitration of the tyrosine residue at the ninth amino acid ((9)Tyr) of PsbO1. This selective nitration is triggered by light and is inhibited by photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors. Therefore, we postulated that, similar to (161)Tyr of D1 (Yz), (9)Tyr of PsbO1 is redox active and is selectively oxidized by photosynthetic electron transport in response to illumination to a tyrosyl radical that is highly susceptible to nitration...
March 21, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318377/root-hydrotropism-and-thigmotropism-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-are-differentially-controlled-by-redox-status
#19
Georgina Ponce, Gabriel Corkidi, Delfeena Eapen, Fernando Lledias, Luis Cárdenas, Gladys Cassab
Factors that affect the direction of root growth in response to environmental signals influence crop productivity. We analyzed the root tropic responses of thioredoxin (trxs), thigmotropic (wav2-1), and hydrotropic (ahr1 and nhr1) Arabidopsis thaliana mutants treated with low concentrations of paraquat (PQ), which induces mild oxidative stress, and established a new method for evaluating root waviness (root bending effort, RBE). This method estimates root bending by measuring and summing local curvature over the whole length of the root, regardless of the asymmetry of the wavy pattern under thigmostimulation...
March 20, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272988/chlorophyllide-a-oxygenase-cao-deficiency-affects-the-levels-of-singlet-oxygen-and-formation-of-plasmodesmata-in-leaves-and-shoot-apical-meristems-of-barley
#20
Valeria A Dmitrieva, Alexandra N Ivanova, Elena V Tyutereva, Anastasiia I Evkaikina, Ekaterina A Klimova, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja
In plants, organogenesis and specification of cell layers and tissues rely on precise symplastic delivery of regulatory molecules via plasmodesmata. Accordingly, abundance and aperture of plasmodesmata at individual cell boundaries should be controlled by the plant. Recently, studies in Arabidopsis established reactive oxygen species as major regulators of plasmodesmata formation and gating. We show that in a barley mutant deficient in the synthesis of chlorophyll b, the numbers of plasmodesmata in leaves and in the shoot apical meristem are significantly higher than in the corresponding wild type, probably due to redox imbalance in the mutant...
March 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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