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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Abdul Wakeel, Yibo Gan
Chromium is one of the top 20 highly toxic heavy metals, which affect agricultural land and economically important crops all over the world. The plant responds to cope with the adverse effects caused by exogenous stimuli. The most important plant's growth, as well as stress response components, are the diverse group of phytohormones. Plant root being the first organ that counters soil contaminant, can be severely damaged. Auxin and ethylene are the most important phytohormones of the root growth and development...
August 6, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Hyungmin Rho, Sharon Lafferty Doty, Soo-Hyung Kim
Endophytes are symbiotic microbes that live inside host plants. These endophytic symbionts receive photosynthesized carbohydrates from host plants while conferring symbiotic benefits to their host. During photosynthate-fueled respiration, endophytes release CO2 into the intercellular spaces of their host plants in which they reside. We evaluated the possibility for host plants' re-assimilation of microbial respiratory CO2 . In planta and in vitro assays were conducted to examine respiratory characteristics of endophyte-symbiotic plants...
August 6, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Suzanne Litthauer, Matthew Alan Jones
Plants have developed an internal timing mechanism, the circadian system, that serves to synchronise physiological and metabolic functions with daily cues such as dawn and dusk, and provides plants with an advantage in adapting to changing and challenging conditions. We have recently shown that the SAL1-PAP-XRN retrograde signalling pathway, which is proposed to regulate plant responses under stress conditions, also acts within the circadian system. Here we provide further evidence of circadian regulation by SAL1-PAP-XRN signalling, thereby affirming a link between molecular timekeeping and abiotic stress response mechanisms...
August 6, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Fangwen Bai, Daniel P Matton
Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs) constitute a major component in plant cellular signaling considering the sheer number of MAPKKKKs, MAPKKKs, MAPKKs and MAPKs when compared to yeast and animal systems. Nevertheless, only few complete MAPK cascades have been deciphered and the same hold true for their substrates. Furthermore, cascades often share kinase components, but little is known about their specific interactions and domains. The Arabidopsis thaliana MAP kinase kinase kinase 20 (MKKK20) was recently showed to interact with MKK3 and MPK18 in two non-complementary signaling cascades involved in root cortical microtubule functions...
August 6, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Li Rong Sun, Yi Bin Wang, Shi Bin He, Fu Shun Hao
Abscisic acid (ABA) plays pivotal roles in plant growth and development and in responses to diverse stresses. It also modulates the growth of primary and lateral roots. Much evidence indicated that key cellular components auxin, ethylene, PLETHs, reactive oxygen species and Ca2+ are involved in the regulation of ABA suppression of root elongation. In this review, we summary the molecular mechanism for ABA inhibiting primary root growth, focusing on the roles of these components in Arabidopsis.
August 6, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Wei Yuan, Ying Li, Luocheng Li, Wei Siao, Qian Zhang, Yingjiao Zhang, Jianping Liu, Weifeng Xu, Rui Miao
Arabidopsis roots sense the moisture gradient in soils and grow toward an area with higher water potential - a process called hydrotropism. Our previous study has shown that the apoplastic proton extrusion in root tips is influenced by brassinosteroids (BRs) receptor BR-INSENSITIVE1 (BRI1) and is crucial for hydrotropic response in Arabidopsis. Here we show that BRI1 interacts directly not only with Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+ -ATPase 2 (AHA2) but also with Arabidopsis plasma membrane H+ -ATPase 7 (AHA7)...
August 1, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Eunsook Park, Jeffrey L Caplan, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar
Considering their sessile life, plants must efficiently coordinate their resources and energy for maintaining their presence in normal living conditions and for defending themselves against environmental threats. Collaboration between multiple subcellular compartments is a common strategy in several biological processes to modify cells' architecture for their growth and development and to respond to acute changes in the environment. When plants defend themselves against microbial pathogens, chloroplasts generate tubular structures - so-called stromules- to facilitate chloroplast movement towards nuclei during innate immunity...
August 1, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
H T H Nguyen, F Bouteau, C Mazars, M Kuse, T Kawano
Changes in Ca2+ concentrations in cytosol ([Ca2+ ]C ) or nucleus ([Ca2+ ]N ) may play some vital roles in plants under hypoosmotic shock (Hypo-OS). Here, we observed that Hypo-OS induces biphasic increases in [Ca2+ ]C and [Ca2+ ]N in two tobacco cell lines (BY-2) expressing apoaequorin either in the cytosol or in the nucleus. Both [Ca2+ ]C and [Ca2+ ]N were sensitively modulated by the inhibitors of calmodulin and protein kinases, supporting the view that calmodulin suppresses the 1st peaks and and protein kinases enhance 2nd peaks in [Ca2+ ]C and [Ca2+ ]N ...
August 1, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Z Hu, H Zhang, K Shi
Plant peptides secreted as signal molecular to trigger cell-to-cell signaling are indispensable for plant growth and defense processes. Preciously, it is regraded some plant peptides function in plant growth and development, whereas others regulate defense response in plant-microbe interactions. However, this prejudice is got rid due to more and more evidence showed growth-related plant peptides also exhibit bifunctional roles in plant defense response against different microbial pathogens. Here we provide a mini-review of reported types of plant peptides, including their basic information, reported receptor ligands, and especially direct or indirect roles in plant immune responses...
August 1, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kaori Sako, Yuji Sunaoshi, Maho Tanaka, Akihiro Matsui, Motoaki Seki
High-salinity stress affects plant growth and crop yield, so the development of techniques to enhance plant tolerance to such stress is important. Recently, we revealed that ethanol enhances high-salinity stress tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana and rice by detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). However, we did not investigate how long salt stress tolerance was maintained following treatment with ethanol. Therefore, we herein analyzed survival rates and expression levels of AtZAT12, which is a transcriptional factor of ROS detoxification enzymes, under different conditions in Arabidopsis...
August 1, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Que Kong, Wei Ma
The conserved plant 14-3-3 proteins (14-3-3s) function by binding to phosphorylated client proteins to regulate their function. Previous studies indicate that 14-3-3s are involved in the regulation of plant primary metabolism; however, not much is known regarding the functions of 14-3-3s in plant oil biosynthesis. Our recent work shows that 14-3-3 plays a role in mediating plant oil biosynthesis through interacting with the transcription factor, WRINKLED1 (WRI1). WRI1 is critical for the transcriptional control of plant oil biosynthesis...
August 1, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
V F Lima, D B Medeiros, L Dos Anjos, J Gago, A R Fernie, D M Daloso
Plant atmospheric CO2 fixation depends on the aperture of stomatal pores at the leaf epidermis. Stomatal aperture or closure is regulated by changes in the metabolism of the two surrounding guard cells, which respond directly to environmental and internal cues such as mesophyll-derived metabolites. Sucrose has been shown to play a dual role during stomatal movements. The sucrose produced in the mesophyll cells can be transported to the vicinity of the guard cells via the transpiration stream, inducing closure in periods of high photosynthetic rate...
August 1, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
T Taniguchi, N Murayama, M Hasegawa, A C S Nakagawa, S Tanaka, S-H Zheng, N Hamaoka, M Iwaya-Inoue, Y Ishibashi
Pod setting rate in soybean is an important trait that determines pod number, which is highly correlated with seed yield. Using two soybean cultivars with different pod setting rates, we examined the relationship between plant growth regulation by gibberellin (GA) and pod setting rate. Plant growth rate (PGR) after flowering was significantly higher in 'Fukuyutaka' (low pod setting rate) than in 'Kariyutaka' (high pod setting rate); this difference was caused by increasing of GA biosynthesis-related genes expression...
July 30, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
K H Dhanyalakshmi, K N Nataraja
Mulberry (Morus spp.), a commercially exploited tree species as the host of monophagous pest silk worm (Bombyx mori), belongs to the family Moraceae. The domesticated tree has diverse beneficial characters such as traits associated with rapid growth and biomass production, plant insect/microbe interaction, abiotic stress tolerance and the traits associated with nutritional and medicinal values; some of which have been exploited. Draft genome of Morus notabilis has been sequenced and a large volume of transcriptome and genomic resources have been generated...
July 26, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Y Wang, S Liu, X Tian, Y Fu, X Jiang, Y Li, G Wang
Seedlings of wild-type and etiolate mutant plants of Anthurium andraeanum cultivar 'Sonate' were treated for 15 d with different light intensities (20, 100, and 400 µmol·m-2 ·s-1 ) to analyze leaf plastid development and pigment content. Significant changes appeared in treated seedlings, including in leaf color, plastid ultrastructure, chloroplast development gene AaGLK expression, chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents, and protoplast shape. Wild-type and etiolated plants exhibited different plastid structures under the same light condition...
July 26, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
M Ueda, A Matsui, T Nakamura, T Abe, Y Sunaoshi, H Shimada, M Seki
Histone acetylation is controlled by HATs and HDACs, which are essential epigenetic elements that regulate plant response to environmental stresses. A previous study revealed that a deficiency in an HDAC isoform (HDA19) increases tolerance to high salinity stress in the Arabidopsis wild-type Col-0 background. Here, the increased tolerance of hda19 to drought and heat stresses is demonstrated. Results indicate that hda19 plants have greater tolerance than wild-type plants to stress conditions. The data indicate that the stress response pathway coordinated by HDA19 plays a pivotal role in increasing tolerance to a variety of different abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis, including salinity, drought, and heat...
July 26, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
A Chakhchar, N Chaguer, A Ferradous, A Filali-Maltouf, C El Modafar
The argane tree is a remarkable essence by its botanical interest and its socioeconomic value. It is endemic species in the southwest of Morocco, where prolonged drought stress may occur. Although its tolerance has been commonly attributed to various mechanisms at the whole plant, the root system has a main role in the whole process of adaptation. We studied in argane tree plants the change in hydraulic conductivity, electrolyte leakage in root as well as root growth under drought stress and recovery. Our findings showed that the root hydraulic conductivity (Lpr ) value significantly decreased under drought stress treatment...
July 23, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
M Schorderet, R R Duvvuru Muni, A Fiebig, Didier Reinhardt
Angiosperm inflorescences develop in two fundamentally different ways. In monopodial plants, for example in Arabidopsis thaliana, the flowers are initiated as lateral appendages of a central indeterminate inflorescence meristem. In sympodial plants, flowers arise by terminal differentiation of the inflorescence meristem, while further inflorescence development proceeds from new sympodial meristems that are generated at the flank of the terminal flower. We have used the sympodial model species Petunia hybrida to investigate inflorescence development...
July 11, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
S Dorion, J Rivoal
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase (NDPK) catalyzes the interconversion of nucleoside diphosphates and triphosphates using ATP as phosphate donor. This housekeeping enzyme is present in several subcellular compartments. The main isoform (NDPK1) is located in the cytosol and is highly expressed in meristems and provascular tissues. The manipulation of NDPK1 levels in transgenic potato roots demonstrates that this enzyme plays a key role in the transfer of energy between the cytosolic adenine and uridine nucleotide pools and in the distribution of carbon between starch and cellulose...
July 11, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Sabarni Biswas, Asok K Biswas, Bratati De
Soil salinity has become a major concern for agriculture. Such constraints not only reinforce the urgent need to understand the underlying mechanisms by which plants cope during salt stress but also to develop cost-effective and farmer friendly halopriming technique to alleviate the adverse effects of salinity to some extent. Metabolomics approach was used to explore different responses to physiological metabolites and pathway variations that occur during salt stress responses in Cajanus cajan L. var. Rabi and to understand the role of halopriming in ameliorating stress at the level of metabolite...
July 11, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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