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Plant Signaling & Behavior

Eri Adams, Takae Miyazaki, Ryoung Shin
Cesium has no known beneficial effects on plants and while plants have the ability to absorb it through the root system, plant growth is retarded at high concentrations. Recently, we have shown that potassium influx through a potassium channel complex AKT1-KC1 is inhibited by cesium in Arabidopsis thaliana and the resultant reduction in potassium accumulation in the plant is the primary cause of retarded growth. By contrast, a major potassium transporter, HAK5 whose function is crucial under potassium deficiency, was found to be either not affected or complementary under cesium stress in the low affinity potassium range...
December 12, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Upinder S Gill, Seonghee Lee, Yulin Jia, Kirankumar S Mysore
Sheath blight caused by the soil borne fungus Rhizoctonia solani AG1-IA is one of the major diseases of rice in the world. Genetic resistance in rice against this disease has not been very successful. Brachypodium distachyon is considered as a model species for several cereal crops and it has been studied in the past to identify novel sources of disease resistance against cereal crop diseases. Therefore, the current study was designed to explore nonhost disease resistance in Brachypodium accessions against sheath blight pathogen of rice, Rhizoctonia solani...
December 12, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Hong Gil Lee, Pil Joon Seo
Seeds contain a large quantity of oils, which are mainly constituted of triacylglycerol (TAG), a fundamental source of carbon and energy. TAG biosynthesis is catalyzed by a series of multiple enzymes. In particular, two key enzymes catalyzing the last acylation step for TAG production, acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and phospholipid:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (PDAT1), are rate-limiting enzymes that determine TAG accumulation in Arabidopsis seeds. We recently showed that the two enzymes are transcriptionally coordinated by the R2R3-type MYB96 transcription factor to promote TAG assembly during seed maturation in Arabidopsis...
December 11, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Shin-Hee Han, Young-Joon Park, Chung-Mo Park
It is widely perceived that plant responses to environmental temperatures are profoundly influenced by light conditions. However, it is unknown how light signals modulate plant thermal responses and what photoreceptors are responsible for the light regulation of thermal adaptive process. We have recently reported that phytochrome B (phyB)-mediated red light signals prime the ASCORBATE PEROXIDASE 2 (APX2)-mediated detoxification reaction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), a well-known biochemical process that mediates the acquisition of thermotolerance under high temperature conditions...
December 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Masanori Izumi, Hiroyuki Ishida
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved system that degrades intracellular components including proteins and organelles, and is important in the adaptive response to starvation in various eukaryotic organisms. Plant chloroplasts convert light energy into chemical energy and assimilate atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) for carbohydrate production through photosynthesis reactions. We previously described an autophagy process for chloroplast degradation, during which a portion of chloroplasts are mobilized into the vacuole via autophagic vesicles termed Rubisco-containing bodies...
December 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Pietro Zito, Sergio Rosselli, Maurizio Bruno, Antonella Maggio, Maurizio Sajeva
Sexually deceptive orchid flowers use visual, tactile and olfactory cues of female insects in order to attract males of one or a few closely related species as pollinators. Ophrys L. is the most species-rich genus of sexually deceptive orchids in the Mediterranean Basin. Despite Ophrys pollinated by Andrena male bees use alkanes and mainly alkenes with specific double-bond positions as key signals that trigger pseudocopulatory behavior, some volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with low molecular weight were found as long-range attractants non-eliciting copulatory behavior...
December 3, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Karl J Niklas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 29, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Daniel Hey, Bernhard Grimm
Plant ONE-HELIX PROTEINS (OHPs) are part of the light-harvesting complex superfamily whose members are involved in various processes related to sensing and capturing light as well as light protection. We recently showed the requirement of a functional OHP1-OHP2 heterodimer for efficient D1 synthesis. Interestingly, while the ohp1 knockout mutant showed a strong defect in accumulation of the photosystem II and is hardly viable, virus-induced gene silencing of OHP1 had no detectable impact on plant growth and performance under standard growth conditions...
November 29, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Fangmei Cheng, Beibei Zhao, Bei Jiang, Yan Lu, Weixing Li, Biao Jin, Li Wang
Pollination drop (PD) is a characteristic feature of major wind-pollinated gymnosperms and plays a vital role during the course of pollination, however, the composition and proteomic profile of PDs in Ginkgo biloba remain unclear. Through inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, we detected mineral elements in PDs, including calcium (Ca), sulfur (S), magnesium, boron, and potassium (K), among which S, Ca, and K were found at high levels. The total sugar concentration was approximately 5.908 mg/mL, which accounted for approximately 5...
November 26, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Paola Punzo, Alessandra Ruggiero, Stefania Grillo, Giorgia Batelli
Environmental conditions inform the rate of plant growth and development. The target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling pathway is a central regulator of plant growth in response to nutrients and energy, while abscisic acid (ABA) is a main mediator of abiotic stress responses. We recently characterized Arabidopsis TIP41, a predicted TOR pathway component involved in the ABA-mediated response to abiotic stress. Here, we report the ABA sensitivity of tip41 mutants, supporting the relation between TIP41 and the hormone pathway...
November 20, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Seon-Kyu Kim, Mi-Jeong Jeong, Choong-Min Ryu
Sound vibration has been recently identified as an important physical trigger to elicit plant responses. Naturally occurring sound waves modulate diverse aspects of plant physiology, such as root growth, stress responses, and seed germination. However, it has been debated whether plants perceive artificially generated sound vibration and exhibit similar phenotypic changes to those exhibited after perception of natural sound waves. Recently, analysis of RNA-Seq and microRNA-Seq using tomato fruits treated with optimized sound waves to attenuate fruit ripening revealed sound-specific microRNAs, which could be used as sound-specific biomarkers in tomato...
November 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Kazuya Ishikawa, Kentaro Tamura, Tomoo Shimada
Membrane contact sites (MCS) have increasingly received attention because of their general role in a number of important cellular processes. SYNAPTOTAGMIN 1 (SYT1) is a tethering factor connecting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the plasma membrane (PM) in plant cells. Confocal microscopy using fluorescent protein fusion is an indispensable tool for studying protein localisation and functions. However, several studies have reported that fluorescent protein dimerisation affects the subcellular localisation of proteins tagged by the fluorescent protein...
November 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Thomas E Marler, Anders J Lindström
Global research agendas on plant nutrient relations attempt to illuminate biotic and abiotic factors that mediate nutrient relations. We contend that cycad species are not adequately represented in these global agendas. Little is known about how various cycad traits such as phylogenetics, growth form, latitudinal range, or ecological niche influence concentration, stoichiometry, and resorption dynamics of leaf nutrients. The addition of cycad species data to the global research dataset will address a critical knowledge gap and benefit global research needs to improve our systemic understanding of biotic and abiotic influences on plant nutrition...
November 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Karina van der Linde, Rachel L Egger, Ljudmilla Timofejeva, Virginia Walbot
Maize, Zea mays, the second-most-widely-grown crop, yields 20 % of all consumed calories worldwide.1 Despite its agronomic importance, research progress is limited by costly transformation. We recently described the Trojan horse method as a useful tool to study maize proteins in situ that circumvents time- and space-consuming whole plant transformation. The Trojan horse approach uses the protein-folding and secretory properties of the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis to secrete maize proteins from fungal cells into the maize apoplast...
November 16, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Nik Kovinich, Paige Durkin
Distinct flavonoid profiles (a.k.a. 'fingerprints') are produced in the vegetative tissues of plants in response to different abiotic stresses, yet it remained unknown whether flavonoid levels or their relative their proportions are more tightly regulated in response to stress. Here we show that the relative proportions of 19 flavonoids were more stringently controlled compared to their levels in response to variety of abiotic stresses. We screened mutants that are deficient in the biosynthesis of the stress response hormones ABA, Eth, JA, and GA by growing them in an abiotic stress condition that induces the biosynthesis of a wide variety of flavonoids and found that mutants deficient in a particular hormone generally had a distinct flavonoid proportion fingerprint...
November 11, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yunjian Xu, Fang Liu, Xiaoyu Li, Beijiu Cheng
The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM)-induced ZmPt9 gene is an orthologous to some AM-inducible phosphate (Pi) transporter genes involved in Pi-starvation responses. Promoter GFP assay confirmed its transcript was localized surrounding arbuscule in arbuscule-containing cells. But this gene was not an AM fungi-specific gene. Its function in nonmycorrhizal seedlings was verified through phenotypic analysis of ZmPt9-overexpression Arabidopsis. Overexpression of ZmPt9 in Arabidopsis exhibited increased primary root length and lateral root formation...
November 5, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Karim Rabeh, Fatima Gaboun, Bouchra Belkadi, Abdelkarim Filali-Maltouf
Plants are exposed to various stress factors including biotic and abiotic stresses. Drought is a limiting factor that minimizes the development and growth of several plants in arid and semi-arid regions. Stress response is usually occur at different levels, Morphological, physiological and biochemical while at the molecular level a large number of genes are involved. This study aims at developing a new SSR primer for aquaporin related to drought stress in plants. A total of 177 complete coding sequences (CDS) available in the NCBI database are downloaded...
October 31, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Lucía Arenas-Alfonseca, Cecilia Gotor, Luis C Romero, Irene García
In non-cyanogenic plants, cyanide is produced during ethylene biosynthesis and is mainly detoxified by the ß-cyanoalanine synthase CAS-C1. Arabidopsis plants lacking CAS-C1 show abnormal root hairs, which stop growing at early stages. Root hair elongates by polarized cell expansion at the tip, and we have observed that CAS-C1-driven GFP fluorescence locates in mitochondria and accumulates in root hair tips during root hair elongation. Genetic crosses have been performed between cas-c1 plants and scn1-1 mutants, defective in the SCN1 protein that regulates the NADPH oxidase RHD2/AtrbohC, and between cas-c1 and rhd2-1, defective in the NADPH oxidase necessary for the generation of ROS and the Ca2+ gradient necessary for root hair elongation...
October 31, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Ken Haga, Tatsuya Sakai
Recently, we reported that the D6 protein kinase subfamily, which belongs to the AGCVIII kinase family, is a critical component of hypocotyl phototropism in Arabidopsis seedlings. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AGC1-12, which is also a member of the AGCVIII kinase family, is involved in both the pulse-induced first positive phototropism and gravitropism in Arabidopsis hypocotyls. Those results indicated that phosphorylation control is an important mechanism in phototropic signaling. As phosphorylation regulation is controlled by both kinases and phosphatases, we investigated the roles of phosphatases in hypocotyl phototropism...
October 29, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Yukari Nagatoshi, Yasunari Fujita
Protein kinase CK2 (formerly known as casein kinase II), a Ser/Thr protein kinase highly conserved in eukaryotes, is essential for cell survival by regulating a wide range of plant growth, development, and stress responses. A growing body of evidence has shown a link between CK2 and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling in response to abiotic stress. However, the roles of CK2 subunits in ABA signaling remain unclear in plants. Our recent work in Arabidopsis thaliana has revealed that CK2α and CK2β subunits inversely modulate ABA signal output...
October 18, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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