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Plant Signaling & Behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644708/the-arabidopsis-mind-mutation-causes-aberrant-ftsz1-ring-placement-and-moderate-heterogeneity-of-chloroplasts-in-the-leaf-epidermis
#1
Makoto T Fujiwara, Mana Yasuzawa, Shun Sasaki, Takeshi Nakano, Yasuo Niwa, Shigeo Yoshida, Tomoko Abe, Ryuuichi D Itoh
Symmetric division of leaf mesophyll chloroplasts requires MinD and MinE, which work together to suppress division other than at the mid-chloroplast. arc11 is a MinD loss-of-function mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. In arc11 plants, asymmetric chloroplast division, as well as its delay or arrest, results in extreme size polymorphism of chloroplasts in mature mesophyll cells. The current study examined chloroplast phenotypes in the epidermis of arc11 leaves. Fluorescence microscopy analysis revealed that epidermal chloroplasts in mature leaves exhibited moderate heterogeneity in size...
June 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644109/the-timing-of-gigantea-expression-during-day-night-cycles-varies-with-the-geographical-origin-of-arabidopsis-accessions
#2
Amaury de Montaigu, George Coupland
Latitudinal clines in circadian rhythms have consistently been described in various plant species, with the most recent examples appearing in soybean cultivars and in monkey flower natural populations. These latitudinal clines provide evidence that natural variation in circadian rhythms is adaptive, but it is still unclear what adaptive benefits this variation confers, particularly because circadian rhythms are not usually measured in day/night conditions that reflect those experienced by organisms in nature...
June 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644067/border-cell-release-cell-separation-without-cell-wall-degradation
#3
Jozef Mravec
Plant border cells are specialised cells derived from the root cap with roles in the biomechanics of root growth and in forming a barrier against pathogens. The mechanism of highly localised cell separation which is essential for their release to the environment is little understood. Here I present in situ analysis of Brachypodium distachyon, a model organism for grasses which possess type II primary cell walls poor in pectin content. Results suggest similarity in spatial dynamics of pectic homogalacturonan during dicot and monocot border cell release...
June 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621569/down-regulation-of-slcyp1-in-the-phloem-reduces-auxin-response-and-photosynthetic-rate-in-tomato-solanum-lycopersicum-plants
#4
Ziv Spiegelman, Amit Shahar, Shmuel Wolf
The tomato dgt mutant, containing a single mutation in the Cyclophilin1 (SlCyp1) gene, is auxin insensitive and exhibits a pleotropic phenotype that includes lack of lateral roots, malformed xylem structure and reduced root-to-shoot ratio. Recently, we found that the SlCyp1 protein is phloem-mobile and traffic from shoot to root to induce lateral root formation. These processes are achieved through activation of auxin-mediated developmental programs. Inhibition of the trafficked SlCyp1 activity at the target site resulted in inhibition of the auxin response, supporting the hypothesis that this protein is indeed a mobile signal...
June 16, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617153/pectin-methylesterase-is-required-for-guard-cell-function-in-response-to-heat
#5
Hui-Chen Wu, Ya-Chen Huang, Lynne Stracovsky, Tsung-Luo Jinn
Pectin is an important cell wall polysaccharide required for cellular adhesion, extension, and plant growth. The pectic methylesterification status of guard cell walls influences the movement of stomata in response to different stimuli. Pectin methylesterase (PME) has a profound effect on cell wall modification, especially on the degree of pectic methylesterification during heat response. The Arabidopsis thaliana PME34 gene is highly expressed in guard cells and in response to the phytohormone abscisic acid...
June 15, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613112/a-model-for-evolution-and-regulation-of-nicotine-biosynthesis-regulon-in-tobacco
#6
Masataka Kajikawa, Nicolas Sierro, Takashi Hashimoto, Tsubasa Shoji
In tobacco, the defense alkaloid nicotine is produced in roots and accumulates mainly in leaves. Signaling mediated by jasmonates (JAs) induces the formation of nicotine via a series of structural genes that constitute a regulon and are coordinated by JA-responsive transcription factors of the ethylene response factor (ERF) family. Early steps in the pyrrolidine and pyridine biosynthesis pathways likely arose through duplication of the polyamine and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) biosynthetic pathways, respectively, followed by recruitment of duplicated primary metabolic genes into the nicotine biosynthesis regulon...
June 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613109/growth-of-the-sub-epidermal-integument-cell-layers-might-require-an-endosperm-signal
#7
Elisa Fiume, Olivier Coen, Wenjia Xu, Loïc Lepiniec, Enrico Magnani
The seed, the reproductive unit of angiosperms, is physically protected by the seed coat. The seed coat develops from the ovule integuments after fertilization. The Arabidopsis ovule integuments are made of 5-6 cell layers of epidermal and sub-epidermal origin. The growth of the epidermal integument cell layers responds to an endosperm signal mediated by the AGAMOUS-LIKE 62 MADS box transcription factor with limited embryo contribution. By contrast, the sub-epidermal integument cell layers require the embryo to expand whereas the role of the endosperm is still unclear...
June 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613105/rug3-is-a-negative-regulator-of-plant-responses-to-aba-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#8
Chao Su, Jinhong Yuan, Hongtao Zhao, Yankun Zhao, Hongtao Ji, Youning Wang, Xia Li
Mitochondria is a main target of various stressors. Dysfunction of mitochondria stimulates overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause oxidative damage to mitochondria and DNA. Recently, we demonstrated that RCC1/UVR8/GEF-like 3 (RUG3), a member of the Regulator of Chromatin Condensation 1 (RCC1) protein family, can directly interact with ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a key regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), and synergistically regulates the alternative splicing of mitochondrial nad2...
June 14, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594299/dimerization-of-gtr1-regulates-their-plasma-membrane-localization
#9
Yasuhiro Ishimaru, Kento Washiyama, Takaya Oikawa, Shin Hamamoto, Nobuyuki Uozumi, Minoru Ueda
Members of the nitrate transporter 1/peptide transporter family (NPF) are multifunctional transporters of various compounds including plant hormones and play important roles in plant growth and responses to environmental stress. Recently, we found that Arabidopsis GTR1 (also known as NPF2.10) takes up gibberellic acid and jasmonoyl-L-isoleucine in addition to glucosinolates. For normal plant growth, GTR1 is regulated at the gene expression level; however, it is unclear whether post-translational regulation also occurs...
June 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594277/metabolomics-analysis-of-rice-responses-to-salinity-stress-revealed-elevation-of-serotonin-and-gentisic-acid-levels-in-leaves-of-tolerant-varieties
#10
Poulami Gupta, Bratati De
A GC-MS based analytical approach was undertaken in order to understand the metabolomic responses of seedlings of two salt sensitive (Sujala and MTU 7029) and two tolerant varieties (Bhutnath, and Nonabokra) of indica rice (Oryza sativa L.) to NaCl induced stress. The four varieties responded differently to NaCl treatment with respect to the conserved primary metabolites (sugars, polyols, amino acids, organic acids and certain purine derivatives) of the leaf of rice seedlings. However, there were significant differences in salt induced production of chorismic acid derivatives...
June 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594275/roles-of-superoxide-anion-and-hydrogen-peroxide-during-replication-of-two-unrelated-plant-rna-viruses-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#11
Kiwamu Hyodo, Nobuhiro Suzuki, Kazuyuki Mise, Tetsuro Okuno
Reactive oxygen species (ROS), including superoxide anion (O2(-)), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and hydroxyl radical, act as signaling molecules to transduce biotic and abiotic stimuli into stress adaptations in plants. A respiratory burst oxidase homolog B of Nicotiana benthamiana (NbRBOHB) is responsible for O2(-) production to inhibit pathogen infection during plant innate immunity. RBOH-derived O2(-) can be immediately converted into H2O2 by the action of superoxide dismutase. Interestingly, we recently showed that red clover necrotic mosaic virus (RCNMV), a plant positive-strand RNA [(+)RNA] virus, hijacks the host's ROS-generating machinery during infection...
June 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594274/wall-ingrowth-deposition-in-phloem-parenchyma-transfer-cells-in-arabidopsis-heteroblastic-variations-and-a-potential-role-in-pathogen-defence
#12
Suong T T Nguyen, David W McCurdy
Transfer cell (TCs) develop unique wall ingrowth networks which amplify plasma membrane surface area and thus maximize nutrient transporter density at key anatomical sites for nutrient exchange within plants and their external environment. These sites fall into four main groups corresponding to four categories of trans-membrane flux: absorption/secretion of solutes from or to the external environment, and absorption/secretion of solutes from or to internal, extra-cytoplasmic compartments. Research on TC biology over recent decades has demonstrated correlations between wall ingrowth deposition in TCs and enhanced transport capacity in many major agricultural species such as pea, faba bean, cotton and maize...
June 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594268/simultaneous-but-spatially-different-regulation-of-non-photosynthetic-callus-formation-and-photosynthetic-root-development-after-shoot-removal
#13
Koichi Kobayashi, Akira Iwase
Plants coordinate plastid differentiation and cellular differentiation during tissue development. Recently, we reported a mechanism of chloroplast development and photosynthetic improvement in Arabidopsis roots after shoot removal. Shoot removal induces the expression of WOUND INDUCED DEDIFFERENTIATION (WIND) transcription factors at the wound site, which activates type-B ARABIDOPSIS RESPONSE REGULATOR (ARR)-mediated cytokinin signaling in roots. The type-B ARR signaling upregulates chloroplast-related transcription factors along with photosynthesis-associated genes, thereby inducing chloroplast development in detached roots...
June 8, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569588/increasing-relevance-of-sunfleck-research
#14
Thomas E Marler
Contemporary reviews of leaf responses to sunflecks indicate gymnosperms exhibit slower photosynthetic inductions times than angiosperms, but the gymnosperms were represented exclusively by conifers. I recently reported that the gymnosperm Cycas micronesica exhibited photosynthetic induction times in conformity with some of the most rapid angiosperms and opined that representatives from non-conifer gymnosperms must be added to the published conifer database before gymnosperm-wide conclusions can be formulated...
June 1, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537535/ethephon-increases-photosynthetic-nitrogen-use-efficiency-proline-and-antioxidant-metabolism-to-alleviate-decrease-in-photosynthesis-under-salinity-stress-in-mustard
#15
Noushina Iqbal, Shahid Umar, Tasir S Per, Nafees A Khan
Salinity is a serious threat to plant growth and development worldwide reducing agricultural productivity each year. Ethylene is an important phytohormone that affects plants performance under normal and abiotic stress conditions. In this study, role of ethylene was investigated in mitigating salinity stress (100 mM NaCl) effects on photosynthesis in mustard plants subjected to different nitrogen (N; 5 and 10 mM) levels. Plants under salinity stress exhibited marked increase in proline and reduced glutathione (GSH) content and activity of antioxidant enzymes...
May 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537474/erf-vii-members-exhibit-synergistic-and-separate-roles-in-arabidopsis
#16
Yuan Yao, Xiaoyang Chen, Ai-Min Wu
The ethylene response factor VII (ERF-VII) transcription factor has been reported to be involved in multiple different stress responses. In a previous study, we showed that ERF74 and ERF75 play a redundant role in the upregulation of RESPIRATORY BURST OXIDASE HOMOLOG D (RbohD) transcription and enhance the oxygen species (ROS) burst during early stages of the stress response. Induction of stress marker genes and ROS-scavenging enzymes under various stress conditions are dependent on this ROS burst. Here, we propose an assumption that ERF71-ERF75 have different functions and act synergistically in response to stresses in Arabidopsis...
May 24, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534718/jasmonate-suppresses-seedling-soil-emergence-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#17
Lulu Yao, Yuyu Zheng, Ziqiang Zhu
In addition to defense response, phytohormone jasmonate participates in various plant growth and developmental processes. Nonetheless, its role in the seedling stage is not well defined. We recently report that jasmonate suppresses hypocotyl elongation and promotes cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. The molecular basis underlying this phenotype is that jasmonate treatment reduces the biochemical activity of CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) to stabilize several COP1-targetted transcription factors for eliciting a proportion of light responsive transcriptome...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534654/functions-and-substrates-of-plastoglobule-localized-metallopeptidase-pgm48
#18
Nazmul H Bhuiyan, Klaas J van Wijk
Plastoglobules (PGs) in chloroplasts are monolayer lipid-protein particles attached to thylakoids. The size and number of PGs per chloroplast respond dynamically to abiotic environmental stresses and developmental transitions. During senescence, the thylakoid membranes and its constituents are dismantled in controlled fashion. Leaf senescence coincides with a dramatic increase in the size of PGs, which is consistent with a functional role of PG in remobilization of thylakoid membrane components. In a recent publication (1) , we showed that PG-localized metallopeptidase PGM48 promotes natural senescence...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534650/functions-of-iqd-proteins-as-hubs-in-cellular-calcium-and-auxin-signaling-a-toolbox-for-shape-formation-and-tissue-specification-in-plants
#19
Katharina Bürstenbinder, Dipannita Mitra, Jakob Quegwer
Ca(2+) ions play pivotal roles as second messengers in intracellular signal transduction, and coordinate many biological processes. Changes in intracellular Ca(2+) levels are perceived by Ca(2+) sensors such as CaM/CML proteins, which transduce Ca(2+) signals into cellular responses by regulation of diverse target proteins. Insights into molecular functions of CaM targets are thus essential to understand the molecular and cellular basis of Ca(2+) signaling. During the last decade, IQD proteins emerged as the largest class of CaM targets in plants with mostly unknown functions...
May 23, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532320/effects-of-light-quality-on-pod-elongation-in-soybean-glycine-max-l-merr-and-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-l-walp
#20
Seiya Tanaka, Nobuyuki Ario, Andressa Camila Seiko Nakagawa, Yuki Tomita, Naoki Murayama, Takatoshi Taniguchi, Norimitsu Hamaoka, Mari Iwaya-Inoue, Yushi Ishibashi
Soybean pods are located at the nodes, where they are in the shadow, whereas cowpea pods are located outside of the leaves and are exposed to sunlight. To compare the effects of light quality on pod growth in soybean and cowpea, we measured the length of pods treated with white, blue, red or far-red light. In both species, pods elongated faster during the dark period than during the light period in all light treatments except red light treatment in cowpea. Red light significantly suppressed pod elongation in soybean during the dark and light periods...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
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