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Reproductive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715966/protective-effects-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-against-breast-cancer-how-can-we-use-this-information-to-prevent-treat-the-disease
#1
C V Rao
Breast cancers (BCs) are the most common malignancies among women worldwide. Giving birth to a first child before 24 years of age decreases the BC risk by about half, when women reach menopausal years. The scientific evidence suggests that the actions of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are responsible for this decrease. Human BC cells and tissues contain hCG/luteinizing hormone receptors. The activation of the receptors results in an increase in cell differentiation and apoptosis. Conversely, it decreases the cell proliferation, invasion, and survival...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715965/dual-triggering-with-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-and-standard-dose-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-in-patients-with-a-high-immature-oocyte-rate
#2
Alberta Maria Fabris, M Cruz, V Legidos, C Iglesias, M Muñoz, J A García-Velasco
In in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, some patients show a high rate of immature oocytes retrieved after controlled ovarian stimulation. In vitro oocyte maturation is an experimental technique, with poorer results than conventional IVF. For this reason, improving in vivo maturation could meliorate the reproductive outcome of these patients. We performed a retrospective, not interventional, study analyzing the difference in the number and percentage of mature oocytes retrieved in patients with more than 50% immature oocytes in a previous IVF cycle triggered with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) compared to the number and rate of mature oocytes retrieved in subsequent cycles, triggered with both gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) and hCG...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715964/uterine-and-abdominal-muscle-electromyographic-activities-in-control-and-pcea-treated-nulliparous-women-during-the-second-stage-of-labor
#3
Xueya Qian, Pin Li, Shao-Qing Shi, Robert E Garfield, Huishu Liu
OBJECTIVE: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), used to relieve pain during delivery, delays labor but the mechanism is unknown. The aim was to investigate the effects of PCEA on uterine and abdominal muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity during the second stage of labor. METHODS: This study included 45 nulliparous pregnant women without PCEA, 42 women with standard PCEA treatment given during the first stage of labor and stopped near the end of the first stage, and 22 women with standard PCEA treatment with continued use throughout the first and second stages of labor...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715963/in-the-spotlight
#4
Maria Rosa Maduro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920344/smad3-4-binding-to-promoter-ii-of-p450arom-so-as-to-regulate-aromatase-expression-in-endometriosis
#5
Juan Qu, Yuanyuan Zhu, Xiadi Wu, Juan Zheng, Zhen Hou, Yugui Cui, Yundong Mao, Jiayin Liu
Activin A can stimulate aromatase P450 (P450arom) expression in eutopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) of endometriosis by activin type I receptor-Smad pathway. In order to identify Smad3/4 binding to P450arom promoter II that mediates activin A response in ESCs, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of a serial truncated deletion of the P450arom promoter II region between -904 and +87 bp were inserted into the pGL3-basic vector to generate the promoter reporter plasmids. Luciferase reporter plasmids were cotransfected into cells with or without activin A (25 ng/mL)...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920342/experimentally-induced-preterm-birth-in-sheep-following-a-clinical-course-of-antenatal-betamethasone-effects-on-growth-and-long-term-survival
#6
Vivian B Nguyen, Robert De Matteo, Richard Harding, Aneta Stefanidis, Graeme R Polglase, M Jane Black
Preterm births account for approximately 10% of births worldwide, with the majority (∼80%) being moderate preterm. Our aim was to determine the effects of moderate preterm birth on survival and long-term growth of male and female offspring using an ovine model of preterm birth that was preceded by a clinically relevant dose of corticosteroids. Ewes were induced to deliver preterm or at term; those assigned to deliver preterm were administered antenatal betamethasone (11.4 mg, 2 doses, 24 hours apart). The growth (body weight and body dimensions) of offspring was monitored to adulthood (62 weeks) when the animals were humanely killed for organ collection...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920341/serum-mir-451a-levels-are-significantly-elevated-in-women-with-endometriosis-and-recapitulated-in-baboons-papio-anubis-with-experimentally-induced-disease
#7
Warren B Nothnick, Tommaso Falcone, Niraj Joshi, Asgerally T Fazleabas, Amanda Graham
We have previously demonstrated that human microRNA-451a (miR-451a) endometriotic lesion expression is significantly higher compared to that of the corresponding eutopic endometrium. The objective of the current study was to examine the relationship between lesion and serum content of miR-451a and to determine the utility of serum miR-451a in distinguishing between women with and without visible signs of endometriosis. Eighty-one participants were enrolled in this study, 41 with confirmed endometriosis and 40 without visible signs of endometriosis at laparoscopy (n = 20) or symptoms of endometriosis (pain, infertility n = 20)...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618983/regulatory-t-cells-show-dynamic-behavior-during-late-pregnancy-delivery-and-the-postpartum-period
#8
Jorge Lima, Catarina Martins, Glória Nunes, Maria-José Sousa, Jorge C Branco, Luís-Miguel Borrego
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are critical immunomodulators during early pregnancy by preventing maternal T-cell activation against fetal cells. However, how populations of maternal Tregs vary during and after pregnancy in humans is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated Treg subsets in the peripheral blood of pregnant women from late pregnancy through the postpartum period. To accomplish this, the following circulating Treg subsets were analyzed in 43 healthy pregnant women and 35 nonpregnant women by flow cytometry during the third trimester, on the day of delivery, and postpartum: CD4(Dim)CD25(Hi), CD4(+)CD25(Hi)Foxp3(+), and CD4(+)CD25(Hi)CD127(-/dim)...
July 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688245/when-a-baby-dies-a-systematic-review-of-experimental-interventions-for-women-after-stillbirth
#9
Jennifer L Huberty, Jeni Matthews, Jenn Leiferman, Janice Hermer, Joanne Cacciatore
OBJECTIVES: To identify and evaluate intervention studies (ie, experimental study in which the participants undergo some kind of intervention in order to evaluate its impact) that target mental and/or physical health outcomes in women who have experienced stillbirth and to provide specific recommendations for future research and intervention work. METHODS: A librarian conducted an initial search using CINAHL, Cochrane Library, PsycInfo, PubMed, SocIndex, and Web of Knowledge in the spring of 2016...
July 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678094/genomic-and-nongenomic-effects-of-mifepristone-at-the-cardiovascular-level-a-review
#10
Joana Feiteiro, Melissa Mariana, Ignacio Verde, Elisa Cairrão
Mifepristone (RU 486) is a compound that is structurally related to steroid hormones, which is derived from the estrane progestins. This compound strongly binds the progesterone and glucocorticoid receptor and, to a lesser extent, the androgen receptor. This compound has its effects through different signaling pathways, related to genomic and nongenomic effects. The genomic effect involves the activation or blockage of nuclear or intracellular receptor, that in this case the progesterone, glucocorticoid, and androgen receptors...
July 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852921/a-role-for-the-inflammasome-in-spontaneous-labor-at-term-with-acute-histologic-chorioamnionitis
#11
Nardhy Gomez-Lopez, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Olesya Plazyo, Ronald Unkel, Nandor Gabor Than, Piya Chaemsaithong, Tinnakorn Chaiworapongsa, Zhong Dong, Adi L Tarca, Vikki M Abrahams, Lami Yeo, Sonia S Hassan
Inflammasomes are cytosolic signaling platforms that regulate the activation of caspase (CASP)-1, which induces the maturation of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18. Herein, we determined whether the chorioamniotic membranes from women in spontaneous labor at term with acute histologic chorioamnionitis express major inflammasome components and whether these changes are associated with the activation of CASP-1 and CASP-4 and the release of mature IL-1β and IL-18. When comparing the chorioamniotic membranes from women in spontaneous labor at term with acute histologic chorioamnionitis to those without this placental lesion, we found that (1) the messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 ( NLRP3), NLR family CARD domain containing 4 ( NLRC4), absent in melanoma 2 ( AIM2), and nucleotide binding oligomerization domain 2 ( NOD2) was higher; (2) the NLRP3 and NLRC4 protein quantities were increased; (3) the mRNA and protein expressions of CASP-1 and its active forms were greater; (4) CASP-4 was increased at the mRNA level only; (5) the mRNA and protein expressions of IL-1β and its mature form were higher; and (6) a modest increase in the total protein concentration and abundance of the mature form of IL-18 was observed...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837083/a-first-trimester-biomarker-panel-for-predicting-the-development-of-gestational-diabetes
#12
Antonio Farina, Elizabeth Eklund, Dalila Bernabini, Mariangela Paladino, Francesca Righetti, Giuseppe Monti, Geralyn Lambert-Messerlian
OBJECTIVE: Serum markers measured early in pregnancy have been associated with the later diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). This study aims to explore the performance of a panel of first-trimester biochemical markers for the prediction of GDM. METHODS: A case-control study was performed that included 12 women who developed GDM and 60 controls matched for maternal and gestational age at blood collection. Levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A), soluble endoglin, pregnancy protein 13, and adiponectin (Adipo) were measured on residual sera used in first-trimester screening for Down syndrome...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799458/microrna-145-negatively-regulates-cell-proliferation-through-targeting-irs1-in-isolated-ovarian-granulosa-cells-from-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#13
Guoqing Cai, Xiangdong Ma, Biliang Chen, Yanhong Huang, Shujuan Liu, Hong Yang, Wei Zou
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex, heterogeneous endocrine and metabolic disorder affecting 5% to 10% of reproductive-age women. A high rate of granulosa cell (GC) proliferation contributes to the abnormal folliculogenesis in patients with PCOS. Evidence has proved that dysregulation of microRNAs is involved in the pathogenesis of PCOS. In this study, we investigated the effect of miR-145 on cell proliferation and the underlying mechanism of miR-145 in isolated human GCs from the aspirated follicular fluid in women with PCOS...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27738175/oral-administration-of-pentoxifylline-reduces-endometriosis-like-lesions-in-a-nude-mouse-model
#14
Maria Perelló, Iñaki González-Foruria, Paola Castillo, Mario Martínez-Florensa, Francisco Lozano, Juan Balasch, Francisco Carmona
INTRODUCTION: Recent reports consider endometriosis to be an immunological disorder, thus suggesting potential efficacy of immunomodulators for its treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of oral administration of pentoxifylline on endometriosis-like lesions in a heterologous mice model. STUDY DESIGN: Human endometrial tissue obtained from women (n = 5) undergoing surgery for benign conditions was implanted in nude female mice (n = 30). The animals were distributed into 3 experimental groups receiving: saline 0...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733658/postnatal-cardiovascular-consequences-in-the-offspring-of-pregnant-rats-exposed-to-smoking-and-smoking-cessation-pharmacotherapies
#15
Kathirvel Gopalakrishnan, Amar S More, Gary D Hankins, Tatiana N Nanovskaya, Sathish Kumar
Approximately 20% of pregnant women smoke despite intentions to quit. Smoking cessation drugs, such as nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) and bupropion, are recommended treatments. Adverse cardiovascular outcomes in offspring have raised concerns about NRT's safety during pregnancy. However, the effect of bupropion is unknown. Using a rat model, we determined whether NRT and bupropion interventions during pregnancy are safer than continued smoking on offspring's cardiovascular function. Male offspring of controls and dams exposed to cigarette smoke (1...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707956/dynamics-of-base-excision-repair-at-the-maternal-fetal-interface-in-pregnancies-complicated-by-preeclampsia
#16
Serkalem Tadesse, Nicholas G Norwitz, Seth Guller, Felice Arcuri, Paolo Toti, Errol R Norwitz, Dawit Kidane
Preeclampsia (PE) (gestational proteinuric hypertension) is the leading cause of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. Although placental endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are known to contribute to PE, the exact pathological basis for this disorder remains unclear. Previously, we demonstrated that DNA damage at the maternal-fetal interface is more common in the placentas of women with PE than normotensive controls. In this study, we utilized an in vivo comparative study, including 20 preeclamptic women and 8 healthy control subjects, and an in vitro hypoxia/reperfusion model to mimic the effects of oxidative stress at the maternal-fetal interface...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698192/treg-th17-cell-imbalance-and-il-6-profile-in-patients-with-unexplained-recurrent-spontaneous-abortion
#17
Liqiong Zhu, Hui Chen, Meilan Liu, Yu Yuan, Zhaohua Wang, Ying Chen, Jing Wei, Fang Su, Jianping Zhang
Regulatory T cells (Treg) and T helper 17 cells (Th17) are 2 distinct subsets of CD4(+) T cells, which are mutually antagonistic in the immune response. Recently, dysregulation of these 2 cell subsets have been described in the pathogenesis of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the Treg/Th17 balance was perturbed in URSA patients and to explore contributing factors. We found that the proportion of Treg cells and expression of forkhead box P3 (Foxp3) messenger RNA (mRNA) were significantly lower in URSA patients than in healthy controls...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694140/silencing-of-sra1-regulates-er-expression-and-attenuates-the-growth-of-stromal-cells-in-ovarian-endometriosis
#18
Kaiqing Lin, Hong Zhan, Junyan Ma, Kaihong Xu, Ruijin Wu, Caiyun Zhou, Jun Lin
Estradiol and its nuclear receptors, estrogen receptor (ER) α and ER-β, have important functions in endometriosis, and the transcriptional activity of these receptors is modulated by coactivators and corepressors. The steroid receptor RNA activator 1 (SRA1) produces SRA long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) and SRA protein (SRAP), which regulate ER expression at the RNA and protein levels in some hormone-dependent tumors via an alternative splicing event. However, only a few are reported on their expressions in endometriosis...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688244/endometriosis-derived-thromboxane-a2-induces-neurite-outgrowth
#19
Dingmin Yan, Xishi Liu, Sun-Wei Guo
Hyperinnervation in endometriosis is now well documented, but so far only a few neurotrophins have been identified. Since endometriotic stromal cells secrete thromboxane A2 (TXA2), we sought to determine whether TXA2, derived from endometriotic stromal cells, induces neurite outgrowth. Using primary sensory neurons derived from rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and ectopic endometrial stromal cells (EESCs) derived from human ovarian endometrioma tissues, we treated the primary neurons with different concentrations of U-46619, a stable TXA2 mimetic, and performed a neuronal growth assay...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688242/both-the-suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-the-superior-ovarian-nerve-contribute-to-the-processes-of-ovulation-and-steroid-hormone-secretion-on-proestrus
#20
Deyra A Ramírez, Elizabeth Vieyra, Aldo I González, Carolina Morán, Roberto Domínguez, Leticia Morales-Ledesma
The aims of the present study were to analyze if the superior ovarian nerve (SON) plays a role in the neural signals from suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) that lead to ovulation and ovarian steroids secretion on proestrus day. Rats on proestrus day were treated at 11.00 to 11.30 or 17.00 to 17.30 hours with 1 of the 3 experimental procedures (1) unilateral or bilateral SON sectioning, (2) unilateral or bilateral injury to the SCN, or (3) unilateral injury to the SCN followed by unilateral sectioning of the SON ipsilateral to the treated SCN...
June 2017: Reproductive Sciences
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