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Reproductive Sciences

Rachna Verma, Rusa Samanta, Amitabh Krishna
The aim of this study was to compare the effect of synthetic estrogen (E2) with a phytoestrogen and genistein in ameliorating type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D)-mediated testicular dysfunction in mice. The streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic mice were treated exogenously with either E2 or genistein for 2 durations and compared their effects on testicular activities, serum glucose, and insulin level. Type 2 diabetic mice treated with E2 for only short term (14 days) improved regressive changes in the testicular histology by increasing testosterone synthesis and improving insulin sensitivity, whereas those treated for longer duration (28 days) failed to improve testicular dysfunctions...
December 5, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Mathilde Bourdon, Pietro Santulli, Sandrine Chouzenoux, Chloé Maignien, Karine Bailly, Muriel Andrieu, Anne-Elodie Millischer, Ludivine Doridot, Louis Marcellin, Fréderic Batteux, Charles Chapron
BACKGROUND: Adenomyosis (ADE) is an enigmatic uterine disorder. Several types have been previously described: diffuse adenomyosis (DIF-ADE), focal adenomyosis (FOC-ADE), and association of focal and diffuse lesions (FOC/DIF-ADE). Abnormal immune phenomena have been described that may provide an understanding of the pathophysiology of adenomyosis. However, the immune imbalance in adenomyosis is however still poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To compare serum cytokine profiles for the various adenomyosis phenotypes in adenomyosis versus disease-free women...
December 5, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Mohamed Ali, Sara Mahmoud Shahin, Nagwa Ali Sabri, Ayman Al-Hendy, Qiwei Yang
BACKGROUND: Both European and American trials showed superior effect of ulipristal acetate (UPA) to placebo. However, the latter, which included black patients with known higher vitaminD3 deficiency risk, showed lower rate of amenorrhea responders and insignificant uterine fibroid (UF) size reduction. Our objective is to investigate whether adding vitamin D3 to UPA can enhance UPA potency on UF phenotype in vitro. METHODS: We screened the antiproliferative effect of different (UPA/vitaminD3) combinations on UF cell proliferation using dimethylthiazolyl diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay...
December 4, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Fabian Horné, Raimund Dietze, Eniko Berkes, Frank Oehmke, Hans-Rudolf Tinneberg, Ivo Meinhold-Heerlein, Lutz Konrad
Claudins are the major components of tight junctions and are often deregulated in human cancer, permitting escape of cancer cells along with the acquisition of invasive properties. Similarly, endometrial cells also show invasive capabilities; however, the role of tight junctions in endometriosis has only rarely been examined. In this study, we analyzed the protein expression and localization of claudin-7 and claudin-11 in human eutopic and ectopic endometrium and endometrial cell lines. We identified claudin-7 primarily at the basolateral junctions of the glandular epithelial cells in eutopic endometrium as well as in the ectopic lesions in nearly all glands and cysts...
December 4, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Jianyuan Song, Xuejiao Sun, Kun Qian
The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of ovarian and endometrial response on live birth rates (LBRs) in young normal and high responders and prolonged pituitary downregulation on endometrial receptivity and clinical outcomes in patients with different endometrial thickness. Between January 2013 and December 2017, 9511 patients underwent first in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles with age ≤35 years, follicle stimulating hormone < 10 IU/l, and ≥4 retrieved oocytes were conducted...
December 3, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Shaoqin Ge, Penghui Zhao, Xuanchen Liu, Zhenghui Zhao, Meiyun Liu
Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving dynamic erasure and establishment of epigenetic modifications. Abnormal epigenetic marks have been shown to result in altered spermatogenesis and even cause male infertility. Assisted reproductive technology, with directly dealing and selecting the morphology qualified sperm, can be applied to treat male infertility, which may carry significant risks of passing on epigenetic defects to next generations. Selecting epigenetic qualified sperm is an effective way to reduce the risk of inheritance between generations...
November 29, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Ismet Hortu, Gokay Ozceltik, Cagdas Sahin, Levent Akman, Nuri Yildirim, Oytun Erbas
Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a glycoprotein commonly used in the field of medicine to treat neutropenia. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor has also crucial roles in ameliorating the ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in particular tissues. In this study, we aimed to investigate the protective effect of G-CSF on ovarian damage in experimental ovarian I/R injury. Thirty adult female rats were used. Rats were separated randomly into 5 groups; Group 1: sham group (abdominal wall was opened and closed surgically), Group 2: torsion group with 3-hour ischemia using vascular clips...
November 29, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Jacquelynn P Tran, Shelby S Stribling, Uloma C Ibezim, Chasey Omere, Kayla A McEnery, Luis D Pacheco, Gary D Hankins, George R Saade, Antonio F Saad
OBJECTIVE: There is no consensus on which risk stratification approach to use for thromboprophylaxis in pregnancy, and most available risk assessment models (RAMs) for venous thromboembolism (VTE) events have not been validated in pregnancy. Our objective was to compare the performance of some of the most commonly used VTEs RAMs in our patient population in the peripartum period. STUDY DESIGN: This is a retrospective cohort of women who delivered at our institution in 2015 and 2016...
November 28, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Sivan Farladansky-Gershnabel, Hilah Gal, Debora Kidron, Valery Krizhanovsky, Aliza Amiel, Rivka Sukenik-Halevy, Tal Biron-Shental
BACKGROUND: Early-onset preeclampsia (EOPE; <34 weeks' gestation) usually has more severe morbidity for the mother and fetus compared to late-onset preeclampsia (LOPE). Telomere homeostasis is disrupted in preeclampsia (PE) and senescence markers are increased. The pathophysiologic differences between early and LOPE are not fully unraveled yet. METHODS: We studied placental biopsies from 7 pregnancies with EOPE, 6 pregnancies with LOPE, and 13 healthy gestational age-matched controls...
November 25, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Ling Huang, Yuanyuan Li, Chunhui Wang, Na Li, Yue Hou, Ruijing Chang, Man Sun, Ruochen Wang, Lei Zhu, Chong Qiao
Collapsin response mediator protein 1 (CRMP-1) is widely expressed in the nervous system and has tumor suppressive effects. Our previous studies have demonstrated that CRMP-1 was expressed in the trophoblasts of the whole stage of pregnancy with significantly increasing expression in the placenta of early-onset preeclampsia. Preeclampsia, especially early onset, is strongly associated with the dysfunction of trophoblast including proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion. In this study, we found an inhibitory effect of CRMP-1 on proliferation, migration, invasion, and an enhanced effect on apoptosis in human trophoblast cell lines HTR-8/SVneo and JEG-3 by MTT assay, colony formation assay, cell viability assay, caspase 3/7 activity assay, scratch wound assay, and Matrigel Transwell assay...
November 22, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Xin-Xin Xu, Si-Si Zhang, Hui-Long Lin, Qi Lin, Lai-En Shen, Emmanuel Ansong, Xue-Qing Wu
Intrauterine adhesion (IUA) is now recognized as one of the most common diseases in reproductive-age women. Metformin, a well-known frontline oral antidiabetic drug, has been found effective in numerous different diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of metformin on reducing adhesions in an animal model of IUA. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into 4 groups: sham operation, control, metformin-treated for 7 days, and metformin-treated for 14 days. To establish the IUA model, mechanical injury to the endometria of rats was induced with a mini curette...
November 22, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Natalia M Tulina, Amy G Brown, Guillermo O Barila, Michal A Elovitz
BACKGROUND: Exposure to intrauterine inflammation during pregnancy is linked to brain injury and neurobehavioral disorders in affected children. Innate immunity, specifically Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways are present throughout the reproductive tract as well as in the placenta, fetal membranes, and fetus. The TLR pathways are mechanistically involved in host responses to foreign pathogens and may lead to brain injury associated with prenatal inflammation. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether the activation of the TLR4 signaling pathway, in the mother and fetus, is critical to fetal brain injury in the setting of intrauterine inflammation...
November 21, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Sara Z Gomes, Franciele Araujo, Carla L Bandeira, Leandro G Oliveira, Mara S Hoshida, Marcelo Zugaib, Rossana P V Francisco, Estela Bevilacqua
The use of immunosuppressive drugs guarantees the vitality of the graft and allows gestation in spite of intercurrences such as prematurity and intrauterine growth restriction. However, little is known about the direct effects of immunosuppressive drugs on placental cells. We investigated the effects of immunosuppressive drugs in the chorionic villous explants from human term placentas of healthy gestations. Human placental explants from term gestations (37-39 week gestational age, n = 12) were exposed to cyclosporine A (CSA, 0, 62...
November 20, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Mathilde Bourdon, Pietro Santulli, Yulian Chen, Catherine Patrat, Khaled Pocate-Cheriet, Chloé Maignien, Louis Marcellin, Charles Chapron
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess whether a deferred frozen-thawed embryo transfer (Def-ET) offers any benefits compared to a fresh ET strategy in women who have had 2 or more consecutive in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic injection (ICSI) cycle failures. DESIGN: An observational cohort study in a tertiary referral care center including 416 cycles from women with a previous history of 2 or more consecutive IVF/ICSI failures cycles. Both Def-ET and fresh ET strategies were compared using univariate and multivariate logistic regression models...
November 20, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Haruhiko Kanasaki, Tuvshintugs Tumurbaatar, Aki Oride, Zolzaya Tumurgan, Hiroe Okada, Tomomi Hara, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Satoru Kyo
Kisspeptin, encoded by the Kiss-1 gene, plays a crucial role in reproductive function by governing the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The recently established Kiss-1-expressing cell model mHypoA-50 displays characteristics of neuronal cells of the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) region of the mouse hypothalamus. Because Kiss-1 gene expression in these cells is upregulated by estradiol (E2), mHypoA-50 cells are regarded as a valuable model for the study of Kiss-1-expressing neurons in the AVPV region...
November 20, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Lufen Gao, Zhongwei Huang, Haiyingjie Lin, Yuke Tian, Ping Li, Shaoqiang Lin
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility to restore functional endometrium using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) in the Sprague Dawley (SD["SD" has been defined as both "Sprague Dawley" and "standard deviation." Please clarify which one is to be followed.]) rat model for Asherman syndrome (AS). DESIGN: Basic research on treatment of AS utilizing an optimized rat model. SETTING: University research laboratories...
November 20, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Ya Chen, Kangxia Wang, Yuping Xu, Peipei Guo, Baoli Hong, Yunxia Cao, Zhaolian Wei, Rufeng Xue, Chao Wang, Huanhuan Jiang
Immunologic disorder has been reported to promote the progression of endometriosis (EMT). It has been known that myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) drive the progression of many types of diseases. Few studies have shown the relation between MDSCs and EMT. To test whether MDSCs play a role in the progression of EMT, we defined MDSCs, cytokines, and the exosomal microRNA (miRNA) profile in peritoneal fluid (PF) from EMT patients. Characteristics of MDSCs, regulatory T cells (Tregs) and effector T cells were quantified by flow cytometry...
November 19, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Mohak Mhatre, Sharareh Adeli, Errol Norwitz, Sabrina Craigo, Mark Phillippe, Andrea Edlow
BACKGROUND: The fetal fraction of cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal plasma is decreased in obese women. The underlying mechanism is not well understood. The amount of cfDNA released from the placenta has not been directly examined in maternal obesity. OBJECTIVE: We sought to quantify release of cfDNA from the placenta and fetal membranes in maternal diet-induced obesity using explant cultures in an established mouse model. STUDY DESIGN: C57BL6/J females were fed either 60% high-fat diet or 10% fat-matched control diet for 14 weeks prepregnancy and throughout gestation...
November 19, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Masood Bazrgar, Hamid Gourabi, Anis Karimpour-Fard, Parnaz Borjian Boroujeni, Khadije Anisi, Bahar Movaghar, Mojtaba Rezazadeh Valojerdi
BACKGROUND: Intraindividual copy number variation (CNV) origin is largely unknown. They might be due to aging and/or common genome instability at the preimplantation stage while contribution of preimplantation in human intraindividual CNVs occurrence is unknown. To address this question, we investigated mosaicism and its origin in the fetuses of natural conception. METHODS: We studied normal fetuses following therapeutic abortion due to maternal indications. We analyzed the genome of 22 tissues of each fetus by array comparative genomic hybridization for intraindividual CNVs...
November 19, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Terrence K Allen, Matthew N Nazzal, Liping Feng, Irina A Buhimschi, Amy P Murtha
Progestins have been recommended for preterm birth prevention in high-risk women; however, their mechanism of action still remains an area of debate. Medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) has previously been shown to significantly inhibit tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)-induced matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and activity in primary amnion epithelial cells, a process that may lead to preterm premature rupture of membranes. A mechanism that explains MPA's inhibition of TNFα-induced MMP9 mRNA expression and activity in primary amnion epithelial cells is unclear since these cells lack the classic nuclear progesterone receptor but express a membrane-associated progesterone receptor-progesterone receptor membrane component 1 (PGRMC1) along with the glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
November 19, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
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