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Reproductive Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814192/in-the-spotlight
#1
Maria Rosa Maduro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814191/maternal-overweight-disrupts-the-sexual-maturation-of-the-offspring
#2
Rocío A Galarza, Eric A Rhon Calderón, Analía E Cortez, Alicia G Faletti
The aims of the present work were to study the effect of maternal overweight and obesity on the ovarian reserve, follicular development, and ovulation of the offspring and to assess whether this maternal condition alters oocyte integrity. To this end, female offspring from rats fed standard (OSD) or cafeteria (OCD) diet were used. Body weight, vaginal opening, and estrous cycle were recorded and ovaries were obtained on the day of the second estrus. In addition, ovarian weight, ovulation rate (measured by the number of oocytes within oviducts), follicular development (determined by histology), and oocyte integrity were examined...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814190/effects-of-neonatal-exposure-to-zearalenone-on-puberty-timing-hypothalamic-nuclei-of-avpv-and-arc-and-reproductive-functions-in-female-mice
#3
Rahmatollah Parandin, Morteza Behnam-Rassouli, Nasser Mahdavi-Shahri
It is now established that mycoestrogen zearalenone (ZEN) disrupts reproductive physiology, but the specific mechanisms by which this occurs remain unknown, especially in brain. Growing evidence suggests that populations of estradiol (E2)-sensitive neurons in anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) and arcuate (ARC) nuclei, especially kisspeptin neurons, play a pivotal role in the timing of puberty onset, ovulation, and normal reproduction. The present study was conducted to find whether the ZEN can cause estrogen-like actions during the critical period of neonatal differentiation...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814189/association-of-methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase-c677t-and-a1298c-gene-polymorphisms-with-recurrent-pregnancy-loss-in-syrian-women
#4
Walid Al-Achkar, Abdulsamad Wafa, Samer Ammar, Faten Moassass, Rami A Jarjour
C677T polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase ( MTHFR) gene was a risk factor for recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL), but few studies have confirmed a possible role of MTHFR A1298C polymorphism in RPL risk. This study was carried out to determine the influence of the MTHFR gene polymorphisms in RPL Syrian women. A case-control study was performed on 2 groups (106 healthy and 100 RPL women). The frequency of the MTHFR gene polymorphisms was determined by polymerase chain reaction based on restriction fragment length gene polymorphism...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290768/a-combination-of-a-gnrh-antagonist-and-agonist-for-fertility-preservation-in-an-adolescent-female-murine-model
#5
Jennifer Flora Knudtson, Marlen Tellez Santos, Courtney M Failor, Peter A Binkley, Jacob P Venesky, Rajeshwar R Tekmal, Randal D Robinson, Robert S Schenken
Recent studies have suggested that GnRH agonists (GnRHags) protect ovarian function following chemotherapy. Here, we study the effect of a combination of GnRH antagonist (GnRHan) and GnRHag for gonadal protection from gonadotoxic chemotherapy in adolescent female rats. Cycling Sprague Dawley rats were treated at adolescent age. Thirty female rats were randomized to 5 treatment groups (n = 6/group): (1) placebo, (2) cyclophosphamide (CPA) alone, (3) GnRHan followed by GnRHag with placebo, (4) GnRHan followed by GnRHag with CPA, and (5) GnRHag with CPA...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256954/mir-181b-5p-modulates-cell-migratory-proteins-tissue-inhibitor-of-metalloproteinase-3-and-annexin-a2-during-in-vitro-decidualization-in-a-human-endometrial-stromal-cell-line
#6
Amanda Graham, Joshua Holbert, Warren B Nothnick
Decidualization is essential for successful embryo implantation and is regulated by concerted actions of growth factors and hormones. More recently, microRNAs, small RNA molecules that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression, have been implicated to play a role in the decidualization process. Of these microRNAs, miR-181b-5p has been associated with decidualization but its precise role and targets are not well established. To address this gap in our knowledge, we assessed the expression of miR-181b-5p, and its target tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP-3), during in vitro decidualization using the well-characterized human endometrial stromal cell line, t-HESC...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114878/tranilast-inhibits-genes-functionally-involved-in-cell-proliferation-fibrosis-and-epigenetic-regulation-and-epigenetically-induces-mir-29c-expression-in-leiomyoma-cells
#7
Tsai-Der Chuang, Omid Khorram
Tranilast (N-3,4-dimethoxycinnamoyl anthranilic acid) is an antiallergic agent with inhibitory effects on cell proliferation and extracellular matrix production. Here we assess the effect of tranilast on the expression of miR-29c and genes functionally involved in cell proliferation, fibrosis, and epigenetic regulation in isolated leiomyoma smooth muscle cells (LSMC). Tranilast significantly inhibited the rate of LSMC proliferation, which was associated with downregulation of cell cycle progression genes cyclin D1 (CCND1) and cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) expression at messenger RNA and protein levels ( P < ...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110633/h-k-atpase-inhibition-causes-left-right-aortic-arch-inversion-in-mouse-development
#8
Yukihisa Miyachi
An organ known as a "node" forms during embryogenesis and plays a vital role in determining laterality in vertebrates. However, according to some reports in vertebrates, left-right patterning may be determined long before the node has developed. In this study, we analyzed left-right asymmetry formation in mammals based on ion-signaling factors, which has never been attempted before. First, a proton pump inhibitor was injected into pregnant mice to investigate whether H(+)/K(+)-ATPase is involved in the differentiation of pharyngeal arch arteries during embryonic development...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110632/peritoneal-fluid-from-infertile-women-with-minimal-mild-endometriosis-compromises-the-meiotic-spindle-of-metaphase-ii-bovine-oocytes-a-pilot-study
#9
Bruna Talita Gazeto Melo Jianini, Vanessa Silvestre Innocenti Giorgi, Michele Gomes Da Broi, Cláudia Cristina Paro de Paz, Júlio César Rosa E Silva, Rui Alberto Ferriani, Paula Andrea Navarro
Some studies have demonstrated alterations in the composition of peritoneal fluid (PF) from women with endometriosis. Controversial studies have suggested that impaired oocyte quality may be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis-related infertility. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spindle and chromosome distribution of in vitro-matured oocytes in the presence of 2 concentrations of PF from infertile women with minimal/mild endometriosis (EI/II) compared to fertile controls. We performed an experimental study using a bovine model...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100115/paternal-age-is-not-associated-with-pregnancy-outcomes-after-single-thawed-euploid-blastocyst-transfer
#10
Ashley W Tiegs, Nidhee M Sachdev, Jamie A Grifo, David H McCulloh, Frederick Licciardi
Although controversial, increasing paternal age has been shown to negatively affect assisted reproductive technology (ART) outcomes and success rates. Most studies investigating the effect of paternal age on ART outcomes use a donor oocyte model to minimize maternal aneuploidy contribution. This study sought to determine whether increasing paternal age is associated with adverse in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes when aneuploidy is minimized using preimplantation genetic screening. There were 573 single thawed euploid embryo transfers from 473 patients undergoing oocyte donor and autologous IVF cycles...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093041/blastocyst-development-in-a-single-medium-compared-to-sequential-media-a-prospective-study-with-sibling-oocytes
#11
Ioannis A Sfontouris, Efstratios M Kolibianakis, George T Lainas, George K Petsas, Basil C Tarlatzis, Trifon G Lainas
The aim of the present study was to compare blastocyst formation rates after embryo culture in a single medium (Global) as compared to sequential media (ISM1/BlastAssist). In this prospective trial with sibling oocytes, 542 metaphase II (ΜΙΙ) oocytes from 31 women were randomly and equally divided to be fertilized and cultured to the blastocyst stage in either sequential media (ISM1/BlastAssist; n = 271 MII oocytes) or a single medium (Global; n = 271 MII oocytes). In both groups, embryos were cultured in an interrupted fashion with media changes on day 3...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056703/does-gnrh-agonist-triggering-control-painful-symptom-scores-during-assisted-reproductive-technology-a-retrospective-study
#12
Mathilde Bourdon, Pietro Santulli, Dominique de Ziegler, Vanessa Gayet, Chloé Maignien, Louis Marcellin, Charles Chapron
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the progression of pain symptoms during assisted reproductive technology (ART) cycles following administration of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) versus human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) triggering. DESIGN: Observational cohort study. SETTING: A tertiary care university hospital in France. POPULATION: Patients who underwent ART programs. METHODS: Between January 01, 2014, and June 31, 2014, 122 cycles were allocated to 2 groups: GnRHa triggering with a scheduled differed embryo transfer (n = 57) or hCG triggering with a fresh embryo transfer (n = 70)...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920343/epidermal-growth-factor-rescues-endothelial-dysfunction-in-primary-human-tissues-in-vitro
#13
Roxanne Hastie, Stephen Tong, Natalie J Hannan, Fiona Brownfoot, Ping Cannon, Tu'uhevaha J Kaitu'u-Lino
Preeclampsia is a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy, responsible for over 60 000 maternal deaths annually. Endothelial dysfunction is a central aspect to its pathophysiology, and currently, no medical therapeutic is available for its treatment. In this study, we aim to investigate the effect of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on endothelial dysfunction using primary human tissues. We performed a number of in vitro assays that mimic the vascular endothelial dysfunction that occurs in preeclampsia. Epidermal growth factor reduced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, a marker of endothelial dysfunction, after insult with tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) or serum from women with preeclampsia...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872195/estrogen-receptors-and-signaling-in-fibroids-role-in-pathobiology-and-therapeutic-implications
#14
Mostafa A Borahay, Mehmet R Asoglu, Aymara Mas, Sarah Adam, Gokhan S Kilic, Ayman Al-Hendy
Uterine fibroids are the most common gynecologic tumors with a significant medical and financial burden. Several genetic, hormonal, and biological factors have been shown to contribute to the development and growth of fibroid tumors. Of these factors, estrogen is particularly critical since fibroids are considered estrogen dependent because no prepubertal cases have been described in the literature and tumors tend to regress after menopause. Understanding the role of estrogen in fibroids is not only important for understanding the pathobiology of fibroids but also for the development of successful therapeutics...
September 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715966/protective-effects-of-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-against-breast-cancer-how-can-we-use-this-information-to-prevent-treat-the-disease
#15
C V Rao
Breast cancers (BCs) are the most common malignancies among women worldwide. Giving birth to a first child before 24 years of age decreases the BC risk by about half, when women reach menopausal years. The scientific evidence suggests that the actions of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) are responsible for this decrease. Human BC cells and tissues contain hCG/luteinizing hormone receptors. The activation of the receptors results in an increase in cell differentiation and apoptosis. Conversely, it decreases the cell proliferation, invasion, and survival...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715965/dual-triggering-with-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist-and-standard-dose-human-chorionic-gonadotropin-in-patients-with-a-high-immature-oocyte-rate
#16
Alberta Maria Fabris, M Cruz, V Legidos, C Iglesias, M Muñoz, J A García-Velasco
In in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, some patients show a high rate of immature oocytes retrieved after controlled ovarian stimulation. In vitro oocyte maturation is an experimental technique, with poorer results than conventional IVF. For this reason, improving in vivo maturation could meliorate the reproductive outcome of these patients. We performed a retrospective, not interventional, study analyzing the difference in the number and percentage of mature oocytes retrieved in patients with more than 50% immature oocytes in a previous IVF cycle triggered with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) compared to the number and rate of mature oocytes retrieved in subsequent cycles, triggered with both gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRH-a) and hCG...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715964/uterine-and-abdominal-muscle-electromyographic-activities-in-control-and-pcea-treated-nulliparous-women-during-the-second-stage-of-labor
#17
Xueya Qian, Pin Li, Shao-Qing Shi, Robert E Garfield, Huishu Liu
OBJECTIVE: Patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA), used to relieve pain during delivery, delays labor but the mechanism is unknown. The aim was to investigate the effects of PCEA on uterine and abdominal muscles electromyographic (EMG) activity during the second stage of labor. METHODS: This study included 45 nulliparous pregnant women without PCEA, 42 women with standard PCEA treatment given during the first stage of labor and stopped near the end of the first stage, and 22 women with standard PCEA treatment with continued use throughout the first and second stages of labor...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715963/in-the-spotlight
#18
Maria Rosa Maduro
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920344/smad3-4-binding-to-promoter-ii-of-p450arom-so-as-to-regulate-aromatase-expression-in-endometriosis
#19
Juan Qu, Yuanyuan Zhu, Xiadi Wu, Juan Zheng, Zhen Hou, Yugui Cui, Yundong Mao, Jiayin Liu
Activin A can stimulate aromatase P450 (P450arom) expression in eutopic endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) of endometriosis by activin type I receptor-Smad pathway. In order to identify Smad3/4 binding to P450arom promoter II that mediates activin A response in ESCs, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products of a serial truncated deletion of the P450arom promoter II region between -904 and +87 bp were inserted into the pGL3-basic vector to generate the promoter reporter plasmids. Luciferase reporter plasmids were cotransfected into cells with or without activin A (25 ng/mL)...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920342/experimentally-induced-preterm-birth-in-sheep-following-a-clinical-course-of-antenatal-betamethasone-effects-on-growth-and-long-term-survival
#20
Vivian B Nguyen, Robert De Matteo, Richard Harding, Aneta Stefanidis, Graeme R Polglase, M Jane Black
Preterm births account for approximately 10% of births worldwide, with the majority (∼80%) being moderate preterm. Our aim was to determine the effects of moderate preterm birth on survival and long-term growth of male and female offspring using an ovine model of preterm birth that was preceded by a clinically relevant dose of corticosteroids. Ewes were induced to deliver preterm or at term; those assigned to deliver preterm were administered antenatal betamethasone (11.4 mg, 2 doses, 24 hours apart). The growth (body weight and body dimensions) of offspring was monitored to adulthood (62 weeks) when the animals were humanely killed for organ collection...
August 2017: Reproductive Sciences
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