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Reproductive Sciences

Elliott G Richards, Sherif A El-Nashar, John K Schoolmeester, Gary L Keeney, Andrea Mariani, Matthew R Hopkins, Sean C Dowdy, Gaurang S Daftary, Abimbola O Famuyide
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), a common health concern of women, is a heterogeneous clinical entity that is traditionally categorized into organic and nonorganic causes. Despite varied pharmacologic treatments, few offer sustained efficacy, as most are empiric, unfocused, and do not directly address underlying dysregulated molecular mechanisms. Characterization of such molecular derangements affords the opportunity to develop and use novel, more successful treatments for AUB. Given its implication in other organ systems, we hypothesized that bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) expression is altered in patients with AUB and hence comprehensively investigated dysregulation of BMP signaling pathways by systematically screening 489 samples from 365 patients for differences in the expression of BMP2, 4, 6, and 7 ligands, BMPR1A and B receptors, and downstream SMAD4, 6, and 7 proteins...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Sai-Hua Zheng, Dan-Feng Du, Xue-Lian Li
OBJECTIVE: Conflicting results regarding leptin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have been reported. We summarize all available evidence from human participant studies to evaluate leptin levels in PCOS. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, , and Web of Science databases were searched with English-language restriction for only human beings from the inception to December 31, 2015. Search terms included PCOS (polycystic ovary syndrome or PCOS) and leptin...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Kenna Degner, Ronald R Magness, Dinesh M Shah
The uterine vasculature undergoes marked changes during pregnancy in order to provide the necessary increase in blood flow to support growth and nutrition of the uterus, placenta, and developing fetus. Pregnancy-associated uterine vascular transformations are orchestrated by a complex array of endocrine and cellular mechanisms to bring about structural modifications at the maternal-fetal interface, which collectively lead to development of the uteroplacental circulation. Understanding intrinsic uterine vascular remodeling in pregnancy is essential for understanding the physiologic and pathophysiologic regulation of maternal uterine blood flow...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Ahmed Fadiel, Seung Do Choi, Bora Park, Tae-Hee Kim, Julia Buldo-Licciardi, Mitra Ahmadi, Alan Arslan, Khushbakhat Mittal, Frederick Naftolin
RATIONALE: Development of cervical squamous carcinoma (CXCA) is accompanied by changes in estrogen receptors (ERs, ERα and ERβ) and ezrin expression; however, reports have been conflicting. Using histologically documented staging of cervical biopsies, we determined ezrin and ER relationships during CXCA development. METHODS: Immunoreactive (ir) ezrin, ir-ERα, and ir-ERβ were studied in normal epithelium, carcinoma in situ/cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 1 to 3, and local invasion or metastatic CXCA...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Enitome E Bafor, Edward G Rowan, RuAngelie Edrada-Ebel
In recent times, additional pathways involved in the regulation of the myometrium have been suggested. This also holds true for the effect of drugs such as oxytocin (OT) and β-adrenergic agonists on the myometrium. Knowledge of these additional pathways will certainly prove useful in designing better therapies for pathologies of the myometrium. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the possibility of other pathways involved in the activities of both OT and ritodrine (RIT; a β-adrenergic agonist) in the myometrium by utilizing metabolomics and bioinformatics...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Isabelle Streuli, Pietro Santulli, Sandrine Chouzenoux, Charles Chapron, Frédéric Batteux
We investigated whether serum osteopontin (OPN) levels are different according to specific phenotypes of adenomyosis and endometriosis. We conducted a prospective laboratory study in a university referral center for endometriosis between May 2005 and May 2013 and included 148 nonpregnant women, younger than 42 years, undergoing surgery for a benign gynecological condition and who had a preoperative pelvic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The presence of focal and/or diffuse adenomyosis was determined by pelvic MRI, and women were classified into 3 groups: no-adenomyosis (No-AM), isolated diffuse adenomyosis (DIF-AM), and focal adenomyosis with or without diffuse adenomyosis (FOC-AM)...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Cui-Lan Li, Li-Ping Song, Shi-Yan Tang, Lee Jaden Gil Yu-Kang Zhou, Hong He, Xue-Tang Mo, Yi-Ming Liao
The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy, safety, and acceptability of low-dose mifepristone combined with self-administered misoprostol for ultra-early medical abortion. A total of 744 women with ultra-early pregnancy (amenorrhea ≤35 days) who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study. Equal numbers of participants were allocated randomly to the hospital administration and self-administration groups. All participants took 75 mg mifepristone at the initial visit and 400 µg oral misoprostol 24 hours later in the hospital or by self-administration...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Aynur Ersahin, Onder Celik, Mustafa Acet, Suphan Ersahin, Tuba Acet, Duygu Kara Bozkurt, Yasemin Yavuz, Selcuk Ilhan
The aim of this study was to determine whether endometrioma resection alters most commonly defined endometrial metabolites, lactate (Lac), N-acetylaspartate (NAA), creatine 1 (Cr1), creatine 2 (Cr2), and choline (Cho) during the window of implantation. Twenty patients with uni- or bilateral endometrioma and 7 patients having nonendometriotic benign ovarian cyst were included. Midluteal phase magnetic resonance spectroscopy analysis of eutopic endometrium was performed before surgery. Second spectrum of endometrium was obtained 3 to 5 months after laparoscopic endometrioma resection...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Ying Chang, Xu Chen, Hong-Yan Cui, Xing Li, Ya-Ling Xu
The aim of the present study was to determine a predictive model for early-onset preeclampsia with fetal growth restriction (FGR) to be used at 11(+0) to 13(+6) gestational weeks, by combining the maternal serum level of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), placental growth factor (PLGF), placental protein 13 (PP13), soluble endoglin (sEng), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and uterine artery Doppler. This was a retrospective cohort study of 4453 pregnant women. Uterine artery Doppler examination was conducted in the first trimester...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Vaibhave Ubba, Upendra Kumar Soni, Sangappa Chadchan, Vineet Kumar Maurya, Vijay Kumar, Ruchika Maurya, Himanshu Chaturvedi, Rajender Singh, Anila Dwivedi, Rajesh Kumar Jha
The function of RHOG, a RAC1 activator, was explored in the ovary during ovarian follicular development and pathological conditions. With the help of immunoblotting and immunolocalization, we determined the expression and localization of RHOG in normal (estrous cycle) and polycystic ovaries using Sprague Dawley (SD) rat model. Employing polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, we analyzed the transcript and expression levels of downstream molecules of RHOG, DOCK1, and RAC1 in the polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) ovary along with normal antral follicular theca and granulosa cells after dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Torie C Plowden, Micah J Hill, Shana M Miles, Benjamin Hoyt, Belinda Yauger, James H Segars, John M Csokmay, Rebecca J Chason
The technique used for embryo transfer (ET) can affect implantation. Prior research that evaluated the effect of postprocedural blood of the transfer catheter tip have yielded mixed results, and it is unclear whether this is actually a marker of difficulty of the transfer. Our objective was to estimate the effect of blood at the time of ET and the difficulty of ET on live birth rates (LBR). This retrospective cohort study utilized generalized estimating equations (GEEs) with nesting for repeated cycles for all analyses...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Caroline E Foust-Wright, Samantha J Pulliam, Rebecca Posthuma Batalden, Tucker K Berk, Milena M Weinstein, May M Wakamatsu, Mark Phillippe
AIM: The effect of hormone levels on the stimulation of Toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) in the bladder is unknown. We aimed to study the effect of estradiol and progesterone on TLR5 expression and function in human bladder epithelial cells. METHODS: After growing to near confluence, T24 human urinary bladder (HUB) cells were incubated in hormone-free (HF) media for 72 hours. Human urinary bladder cells were then incubated in (1) HF media, (2) estradiol media, (3) progesterone media, or (4) media containing estradiol and progesterone at physiologic concentrations...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Martha Lappas
Preventing spontaneous preterm birth is one of the most important issues facing perinatal medicine today. The pathophysiology of preterm labor, the single biggest cause of preterm birth, is poorly understood. Inflammation, however, plays a significant role in the terminal processes of human labor, which include myometrial contractions. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) drives the transcription of proinflammatory mediators involved in the terminal effector pathways of human labor and delivery. Recent studies in nongestational tissues have shown that the adaptor protein p62 interacts with NF-κB to induce inflammation...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Zhenzhi Wang, Dongxia Zhai, Danying Zhang, Lingling Bai, Ruipin Yao, Jin Yu, Wen Cheng, Chaoqin Yu
Insulin resistance (IR) is a clinical feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Quercetin, derived from Chinese medicinal herbs such as hawthorn, has been proven practical in the management of IR in diabetes. However, whether quercetin could decrease IR in PCOS is unknown. This study aims to observe the therapeutic effect of quercetin on IR in a PCOS rat model and explore the underlying mechanism. An IR PCOS rat model was established by subcutaneous injection with dehydroepiandrosterone. The body weight, estrous cycle, and ovary morphology of the quercetin-treated rats were observed...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Camila O Silveira, Carolina P Rezende, Márcia C Ferreira, Helen L Del Puerto, Fernando M Reis
Embryo implantation involves a complex sequence of events, and a large amount of molecules have been postulated to be involved in the interaction of embryo and endometrium. This study evaluated the endometrial expression of α-inhibin and β-glycan in the mid-secretory phase of women scheduled to in vitro fertilization (IVF) and tested whether these markers are associated with implantation failure. We performed a nested case-control study including 52 women submitted to IVF and embryo transfer, divided into 2 groups: cases with implantation failure (n = 33) and controls with confirmed clinical pregnancy (n = 19)...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Tiantian Li, Hui Mo, Wenfeng Chen, Li Li, Yao Xiao, Jing Zhang, Xiaofang Li, Ying Lu
This review aimed to focus on the recent progress of the understanding of the role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). In recent years, it has been increasingly recognized that PI3K plays an important role in PCOS whose pathogenesis is unclear. However, research continues into revealing the details of how PI3Ks are involved in developing PCOS. Previous studies have shown that activation of the PI3K-protein kinase B (Akt) signaling pathway has important effects on insulin resistance and endometrial cancer...
May 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Jorge Andrés Carvajal, María José Zambrano, Nur Mónica Theodor, Luis Emilio Moreno, Thiare Rosario Olguín, Paula Sofía Vanhauwaert, Nevenka Belén Rojas, Ana María Delpiano
Many pharmacological agents have been investigated to manage preterm labor; we postulate that a combination of tocolytic drugs may achieve a better effect in the prevention of uterine contractions without dose-dependent adverse effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of dual combinations of tocolytics in vitro. Human myometrium was obtained during elective cesarean sections (term without labor; n = 40). Myometrial strips were placed in organ baths for the measurement of isometric tension...
April 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Perrie F O'Tierney-Ginn, Melanie Gillingham, Jessica Fowler, Elizabeth Brass, Nicole E Marshall, Kent L Thornburg
The fetus largely depends on maternal supply and placental transport for its source of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs), which are essential for proper neurological and cardiovascular development. Pregnancy complications such as diabetes reduces neonatal LCPUFA supply, but little is known of how fatty acid delivery is affected by maternal body type or weight gain in uncomplicated pregnancies. In a cross-sectional study of maternal-neonatal pairs at term, we sought to determine the effect of gestational weight gain on neonatal LCPUFA supply...
April 2017: Reproductive Sciences
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March 2017: Reproductive Sciences
Julie K Phillips, Carole A McBride, Sarah A Hale, Richard J Solomon, Gary J Badger, Ira M Bernstein
During pregnancy, abnormal proteinuria is defined as urine protein excretion greater than 300 mg/24 h. Although widely accepted, this definition is not based on clinical outcomes. Our study aimed to longitudinally examine proteinuria in healthy women prior to, and in late pregnancy and to compare inpatient and outpatient 24-hour urine collections. Nulliparous women planning to conceive were recruited and completed a 24-hour urinary collection. Those who subsequently conceived completed a second 24-hour urinary collection in late pregnancy...
March 2017: Reproductive Sciences
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