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American Journal of Disaster Medicine

Alexander Hart, Peter R Chai, Matthew K Griswold, Jeffrey T Lai, Edward W Boyer, John Broach
OBJECTIVE: This study seeks to understand the acceptability and perceived utility of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology to Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) scene management. DESIGN: Qualitative questionnaires regarding the ease of operation, perceived usefulness, and training time to operate UAVs were administered to Emergency Medical Technicians (n = 15). SETTING: A Single Urban New England Academic Tertiary Care Medical Center. PARTICIPANTS: Front-line emergency medical service (EMS) providers and senior EMS personnel in Incident Commander roles...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Eytan Ellenberg, Mark Taragin, Zvia Bar-On, Osnat Cohen, Ishay Ostfeld
IMPORTANCE: Medical impact of terror is a public health issue as the threat is growing all over the world. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to compare the number of injured and incidents in the three different databases and reports [Global Terrorism Database (GTD), Israeli Security Agency (ISA) and National Insurance Institute (NII)] in Israel. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Analyses of three different databases (GTD, ISA and NII) and basic comparison...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Michael Naor, Samuel N Heyman, Tarif Bader, Ofer Merin
OBJECTIVE: The Israeli Defense Force (IDF) Medical Corps developed a model of airborne field hospital. This model was structured to deal with disaster settings, requiring self-sufficiency, innovation and flexible operative mode in the setup of large margins of uncertainty regarding the disaster environment. The current study is aimed to critically analyze the experience, gathered in ten such missions worldwide. METHODS: Interviews with physicians who actively participated in the missions from 1988 until 2015 as chief medical officers combined with literature review of principal medical and auxiliary publications in order to assess and integrate information about the assembly of these missions...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Alexis Rump, Daniela Stricklin, Andreas Lamkowski, Stefan Eder, Michael Abend, Matthias Port
OBJECTIVE: In radiological emergencies, there is a risk of radionuclide incorporation. The radiological doses absorbed can be reduced by decorporation treatment. Antidote requirements depend on the scenario and treatment strategy ("urgent approach": immediate treatment of all patients with possible incorporation; "precautionary approach": treatment only after confirmation of incorporation). We calculated the number of daily antidote doses for different scenarios and the differences in outcome for both treatment strategies...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Christy Anthony, Tito Joe Thomas, Bridget M Berg, Rita V Burke, Jeffrey S Upperman
OBJECTIVE: Recent incidents have demonstrated that the US health system is unprepared for infectious pandemics resulting in a pediatric surge. Development of efficient plans and a structured and coordinated regional response to pediatric pandemic surge remains an opportunity. To address this gap, we conducted a literature review to assess current efforts, propose a response plan structure, and recommend policy actions. DESIGN: A literature review, utilizing MEDLINE and PubMed, through March 2017 identified articles regarding infectious disease pandemics affecting the US pediatric population...
October 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Isabelle Imamedjian, Nisreen Hamza M Maghraby, Valérie Homier
OBJECTIVE: A hospital mass casualty simulation exercise testing feasibility of two city buses and a tent as a hybrid system for patient decontamination. DESIGN: Observational study of a single mass casualty simulation exercise involving patient decontamination SETTING: Held on May 26, 2016 at the Montreal General Hospital, a Level 1 Trauma center without a garage. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-one medical staff including nurses, doctors, and patient attendants, and 30 volunteer-simulated patients...
July 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Osama A Samarkandi, Anas A Khan, Waleed Alazmy, Abdullah M Alobaid, Adel S Bashatah
Sandstorms represent a major natural hazard in the Arabian Peninsula. Their pulmonary consequences can be life-threatening, especially to those with a history of allergies, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Novel presentations of respiratory diseases caused by sandstorms can now be traced to specific chemical and organic components of sandstorms. We present an update of the pathophysiology of pulmonary conditions based on the results of clinical and epidemiologic research as well as from greater knowledge of the complex chemical composition of sandstorms...
July 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Koichi Imai, Hidenobu Ochiai, Keisuke Murakami
OBJECTIVE: To verify the life jacket's airway-securing capacity to keep the nose and mouth out of the water in a flood disaster. DESIGN: Physical experiment. SETTING: University of Miyazaki. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We experimented with an open channel in which we created a wave and running water. In the channel, we observed a dummy attached to a balloon as a buoyant body. We used 170-, 220-, and 320-ml balloons. Experiment 1, we reproduced a tsunami...
July 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Audrey Dadoun, Elene Khalil, Ilana Bank
Medical triage is the process of determining the priority of patients' treatments based on the severity of their condition. Triage provides the healthcare provider the ability to identify the most urgent cases first, with the goal of maximizing each individual patient's outcome. When resources are challenged, such as in a disaster, the healthcare provider's goal becomes to maximize overall population survival. In this context, the triage process must identify patients who require resources urgently, as well as those who have the best chance of survival...
July 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Kay Vonderschmidt
This mixed methods study explored surge planning for patients who will need rehabilitative care after a mass casualty incident. Planning for a patient surge incident typically considers only prehospital and hospital care. However, in many cases, disaster patients need rehabilitation for which planning is often overlooked. The purpose of this study was to explore this hidden dimension of patient rehabilitation for surge planning and preparedness and ask: 1. To what extent can an analysis of standard patient acuity assessment tools [Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment and Injury Severity Score] be used to project future demand for admission to rehabilitative care? 2...
July 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Hiroyuki Maeda, Hideaki Iwase, Akio Kanda, Itaru Morohashi, Kazuo Kaneko, Mutsuhiro Maeda, Yuki Kakinuma, Yusuke Takei, Shota Amemiya, Kazuyuki Mitsui
BACKGROUND: After an emergency or disaster, subsequent trauma can cause severe bleeding and this can often prove fatal, so promptly stopping that bleeding is crucial to preventing avoidable trauma deaths. A tourniquet is often used to restrict blood flow to an extremity. In operation and hospital, the tourniquet systems currently in use are pneumatically actuated by an air compressor, so they must have a steady power supply. These devices have several drawbacks: they vibrate and are noisy since they are pneumatically actuated and they are far from portable since they are large and heavy...
July 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Khaldoon H Alkhaldi, Meredith L Austin, Boris A Cura, Darrell Dantzler, Leslie Holland, David L Maples, Jamie C Quarrelles, Robert K Weinkle, Leonard J Marcus
The current hyper-volatile, -uncertain, -complex, and -ambiguous (VUCA) threat environment demands a more cohesive support structure for crisis leaders who may be faced with crises of increasing magnitude and frequency and, in some instances, multiple crisis events simultaneously. The project team investigates the perceptions of crisis leaders regarding establishing a crisis leader advisor position for crisis leaders to benefit from their experience while prosecuting crisis response activities. The team linked hyper-VUCA crises, crisis response frameworks, meta-leadership, crisis leader attributes, and advisor attributes...
April 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
John Broach, Mary-Elise Smith
INTRODUCTION: Emergency preparedness training is vital to a wide range of healthcare and public health disciplines. Although agencies may try to tailor their training efforts based on perceived need, the topics and methods of instruction may be misguided, resulting in wasted effort and poor participation in training events. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to understand in a rigorous way, the training preferences and barriers to training among practitioners in Massachusetts...
April 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Mark X Cicero, Travis Whitfill, Kevin Munjal, Manu Madhok, Maria Carmen G Diaz, Daniel J Scherzer, Barbara M Walsh, Angela Bowen, Michael Redlener, Scott A Goldberg, Nadine Symons, James Burkett, Joseph C Santos, David Kessler, Ryan N Barnicle, Geno Paesano, Marc A Auerbach
INTRODUCTION: Disaster triage training for emergency medical service (EMS) providers is not standardized. Simulation training is costly and time-consuming. In contrast, educational video games enable low-cost and more time-efficient standardized training. We hypothesized that players of the video game "60 Seconds to Survival" (60S) would have greater improvements in disaster triage accuracy compared to control subjects who did not play 60S. METHODS: Participants recorded their demographics and highest EMS training level and were randomized to play 60S (intervention) or serve as controls...
April 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Max Wyss
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Frederick B Rogers, William McCune, Shreya Jammula, Brian W Gross, Eric H Bradburn, Deborah K Riley, Jeffrey Manning
Described herein is the utilization of the hospital's Emergency Operations Plan and incident command structure to mitigate damage caused by the sudden loss of the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning system within the entire operating room suite. The ability to ameliorate a devastating situation that occurred during working hours at a busy Level II trauma center can be ascribed to the dedication of the leadership and clinical teams working seamlessly together. Their concerted efforts were augmented by adherence to an established protocol that had been thoroughly substantiated and practiced during numerous training simulations...
2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
J J Hoff, Gerard Carroll, Rick Hong
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the use of the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) method by Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hypothesized that EMS can categorize patients using the START algorithm accurately. DESIGN: Retrospective Chart Review. SETTING: Inner-city Tertiary-Care Institutional Emergency Department (ED). PARTICIPANTS: Patients ≥ 18 years transported by EMS with a START color of Red, Yellow, or Green during the state triage tag exercise, October 9-15, 2011...
2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Stephen C Morris, Janice K Pelley, Steven H Mitchell
Notification of backup staff and determining their ability to augment frontline staff is a major component of any disaster plan. However, the communication and organization of this effort has many challenges. These include communication system overload, the disaster setting, disrupted transportation, and staffing impacts on normal operations. An optimal disaster notification system must have the ability to be modified to include all hazards and the unique environment in which the plan is being made. This article highlights a unique disaster staff notification system using a novel technology, an outside administrator, and a multilayer system of redundant communication...
2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Sanaz Sohrabizadeh
Although international agreements have achieved significant milestones in the improvement of women's status, experiences from the fields show a discrepancy between words and actions. The aim of this brief communication was to identify the gap between experts' perceptions and the findings of a large qualitative field survey on women's status in the recent natural disasters of Iran. A total of 10 experts were asked to fill a checklist, which consisted of the concepts extracted from field data. The range of agreement between experts' perceptions and field data was between 40 and 100 percent...
2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
Jerry Godfrey Makama, Istifanus Anekoson Joshua, Elizabeth Jerry Makama
BACKGROUND: There has been an increase in the incidence of disasters in many parts of the world. Similarly, Nigeria has witnessed a recent increase of man-made disaster events such as plane crash, fire incidents, flood, and building collapse, including bomb blast orchestrated by terrorists that often create emergency situations. Therefore, the aim of the study was to evaluate family emergency plan and preparedness among medical practitioners in Zaria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study (May-July, 2013) of medical practitioners in Zaria, Nigeria...
2017: American Journal of Disaster Medicine
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