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Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547702/emerging-treatments-in-eating-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Michael Lutter
Eating disorders (EDs), including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, constitute a class of common and deadly psychiatric disorders. While numerous studies in humans highlight the important role of neurobiological alterations in the development of ED-related behaviors, the precise neural substrate that mediates this risk is unknown. Historically, pharmacological interventions have played a limited role in the treatment of eating disorders, typically providing symptomatic relief of comorbid psychiatric issues, like depression and anxiety, in support of the standard nutritional and psychological treatments...
May 25, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536851/targeting-adult-neurogenesis-to-optimize-hippocampal-circuits-in-aging
#2
REVIEW
Kathleen M McAvoy, Amar Sahay
Millions of individuals suffer from age-related cognitive decline, defined by impaired memory precision. Increased understanding of hippocampal circuit mechanisms underlying memory formation suggests a role for computational processes such as pattern separation and pattern completion in memory precision. We describe evidence implicating the dentate gyrus-CA3 circuit in pattern separation and completion, and examine alterations in dentate gyrus-CA3 circuit structure and function with aging. We discuss the role of adult hippocampal neurogenesis in memory precision in adulthood and aging, as well as the circuit mechanisms underlying the integration and encoding functions of adult-born dentate granule cells...
May 23, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536850/effectiveness-of-daily-prednisolone-to-slow-progression-of-human-t-lymphotropic-virus-type-1-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis-a-multicenter-retrospective-cohort-study
#3
Ariella L G Coler-Reilly, Tomoo Sato, Toshio Matsuzaki, Masanori Nakagawa, Masaaki Niino, Masahiro Nagai, Tatsufumi Nakamura, Norihiro Takenouchi, Natsumi Araya, Naoko Yagishita, Eisuke Inoue, Yoshihisa Yamano
Millions of people are infected with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) worldwide; notable endemic areas include Brazil, the Caribbean islands, Iran, and Japan. A small number of those infected develop the progressive neurodegenerative disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM), also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), which is characterized by chronic spinal cord inflammation and accompanying myelopathic symptoms. The corticosteroid prednisolone (PSL) is a classic treatment for HAM/TSP, yet its effectiveness remains controversial owing to insufficient and conflicting studies...
May 23, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512692/virtual-reality-enhanced-extinction-of-phobias-and-post-traumatic-stress
#4
REVIEW
Jessica L Maples-Keller, Carly Yasinski, Nicole Manjin, Barbara Olasov Rothbaum
Virtual reality (VR) refers to an advanced technological communication interface in which the user is actively participating in a computer-generated 3-dimensional virtual world that includes computer sensory input devices used to simulate real-world interactive experiences. VR has been used within psychiatric treatment for anxiety disorders, particularly specific phobias and post-traumatic stress disorder, given several advantages that VR provides for use within treatment for these disorders. Exposure therapy for anxiety disorder is grounded in fear-conditioning models, in which extinction learning involves the process through which conditioned fear responses decrease or are inhibited...
May 16, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497380/from-gene-to-behavior-l-type-calcium-channel-mechanisms-underlying-neuropsychiatric-symptoms
#5
REVIEW
Zeeba D Kabir, Arlene Martínez-Rivera, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha
The L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) Cav1.2 and Cav1.3, encoded by the CACNA1C and CACNA1D genes, respectively, are important regulators of calcium influx into cells and are critical for normal brain development and plasticity. In humans, CACNA1C has emerged as one of the most widely reproduced and prominent candidate risk genes for a range of neuropsychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia (SCZ), major depressive disorder, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder...
May 11, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488160/modulation-of-aversive-memory-by-adult-hippocampal-neurogenesis
#6
REVIEW
Michael R Drew, Kylie A Huckleberry
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) occurs in humans and every other mammalian species examined. Evidence that AHN is stimulated by a variety of treatments and behaviors with anxiolytic properties has sparked interest in harnessing AHN to treat anxiety disorders. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms through which AHN modulates fear and anxiety. In this review, we consider evidence that AHN modulates fear and anxiety by altering the processing of and memory for traumatic experiences. Based on studies of the role of AHN in Pavlovian fear conditioning, we conclude that AHN modulates the consequences of aversive experience by influencing 1) the efficiency of hippocampus-dependent memory acquisition; 2) generalization of hippocampal fear memories; 3) long-term retention of hippocampal aversive memories; and 4) the nonassociative effects of acute aversive experience...
May 9, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477247/why-psychiatry-needs-3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine-a-child-psychiatrist-s-perspective
#7
REVIEW
Ben Sessa
Since the late 1980s the psychoactive drug 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) has had a well-known history as the recreationally used drug ecstasy. What is less well known by the public is that MDMA started its life as a therapeutic agent and that in recent years an increasing amount of clinical research has been undertaken to revisit the drug's medical potential. MDMA has unique pharmacological properties that translate well to its proposed agent to assist trauma-focused psychotherapy. Psychological trauma-especially that which arises early in life from child abuse-underpins many chronic adult mental disorders, including addictions...
May 5, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405931/national-institutes-of-health-blueprint-neurotherapeutics-network-results-to-date-and-path-forward
#8
EDITORIAL
Charles L Cywin, Amir P Tamiz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 12, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397115/neural-substrates-of-depression-and-resilience
#9
REVIEW
Ming-Hu Han, Eric J Nestler
There is an urgent need for more effective medications to treat major depressive disorder, as fewer than half of depressed patients achieve full remission and many are not responsive with currently available antidepressant medications or psychotherapy. It is known that prolonged stressful events are an important risk factor for major depressive disorder. However, there are prominent individual variations in response to stress: a relatively small proportion of people (10-20%) experiencing prolonged stress develop stress-related psychiatric disorders, including depression (susceptibility to stress), whereas most stress-exposed individuals maintain normal psychological functioning (resilience to stress)...
April 10, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324454/reward-circuitry-in-addiction
#10
REVIEW
Sarah Cooper, A J Robison, Michelle S Mazei-Robison
Understanding the brain circuitry that underlies reward is critical to improve treatment for many common health issues, including obesity, depression, and addiction. Here we focus on insights into the organization and function of reward circuitry and its synaptic and structural adaptations in response to cocaine exposure. While the importance of certain circuits, such as the mesocorticolimbic dopamine pathway, are well established in drug reward, recent studies using genetics-based tools have revealed functional changes throughout the reward circuitry that contribute to different facets of addiction, such as relapse and craving...
March 21, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283968/erratum-to-enhanced-bulbar-function-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-the-nuedexta-treatment-trial
#11
Richard Smith, Erik Pioro, Kathleen Myers, Michael Sirdofsky, Kimberly Goslin, Gregg Meekins, Hong Yu, James Wymer, Merit Cudkowicz, Eric A Macklin, David Schoenfeld, Gary Pattee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 10, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271287/acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-a-transdiagnostic-behavioral-intervention-for-mental-health-and-medical-conditions
#12
REVIEW
Lilian Dindo, Julia R Van Liew, Joanna J Arch
Psychological interventions have a long history of successful treatment of patients suffering from mental health and certain medical conditions. At the same time, psychotherapy research has revealed key areas of growth for optimizing patient care. These include identifying novel treatment delivery methods that increase treatment adherence, developing new strategies to more effectively address the ever-growing population of patients with comorbid conditions, and elucidating the mechanisms by which effective treatments work in order to further refine their design...
March 7, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258545/the-role-of-immune-checkpoint-inhibition-in-the-treatment-of-brain-tumors
#13
REVIEW
Andrew S Luksik, Russell Maxwell, Tomas Garzon-Muvdi, Michael Lim
The standard of care for malignant gliomas of the brain has changed very little over the last few decades, and does not offer a cure for these rare, but fatal, tumors. The field of immunotherapy has brought potent new drugs into the oncological armamentarium, and is becoming recognized as a potentially important arm in the treatment of glioblastoma for adults. Immune checkpoints are inhibitory receptors found on immune cells that, when stimulated, cause those immune cells to become quiescent. While this is a natural mechanism to prevent excessive inflammatory damage and autoimmunity in otherwise healthy tissues, cancer cells may utilize this process to grow in the absence of targeted immune destruction...
March 3, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397114/neuro-oncology-current-concepts-and-emerging-therapeutics
#14
EDITORIAL
Burt Nabors, John Laterra
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389997/tumor-vaccines-for-malignant-gliomas
#15
REVIEW
Visish M Srinivasan, Sherise D Ferguson, Sungho Lee, Shiao-Pei Weathers, Brittany C Parker Kerrigan, Amy B Heimberger
Despite continued research efforts, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains the deadliest brain tumor. Immunotherapy offers a novel way to treat this disease, the genetic signature of which is not completely elucidated. Additionally, these tumors are known to induce immunosuppression in the surrounding tumor microenvironment via an array of mechanisms, making effective treatment all the more difficult. The immunotherapeutic strategy of using tumor vaccines offers a way to harness the activity of the host immune system to potentially control tumor progression...
April 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386677/medulloblastoma-molecular-classification-based-personal-therapeutics
#16
REVIEW
Tenley C Archer, Elizabeth L Mahoney, Scott L Pomeroy
Recent advances in cancer genomics have revealed 4 distinct subgroups of medulloblastomas, each with unique transcription profiles, DNA alterations and clinical outcome. Molecular classification of medulloblastomas improves predictions of clinical outcome, allowing more accurate matching of intensity of conventional treatments with chemotherapy and radiation to overall prognosis and setting the stage for the introduction of targeted therapies.
April 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374184/brain-cancer-stem-cells-in-adults-and-children-cell-biology-and-therapeutic-implications
#17
REVIEW
Tamara J Abou-Antoun, James S Hale, Justin D Lathia, Stephen M Dombrowski
Brain tumors represent some of the most malignant cancers in both children and adults. Current treatment options target the majority of tumor cells but do not adequately target self-renewing cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs have been reported to resist the most aggressive radiation and chemotherapies, and give rise to recurrent, treatment-resistant secondary malignancies. With advancing technologies, we now have a better understanding of the genetic, epigenetic and molecular signatures and microenvironmental influences which are useful in distinguishing between distinctly different tumor subtypes...
April 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349408/cancer-of-the-peripheral-nerve-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#18
REVIEW
Verena Staedtke, Ren-Yuan Bai, Jaishri O'Neill Blakeley
The RASopathy neurofibromatosis 1 is an autosomal dominant hereditary cancer syndrome that represents a major risk for the development of malignancies, particularly malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). MPNSTs are unique sarcomas that originate from the peripheral nerve and represent the only primary cancer of the peripheral nervous system. To date, surgery is the only treatment modality proven to have survival benefit for MPNSTs and even when maximal surgery is feasible, these tumors are rarely curable, despite the use of chemotherapy and radiation...
April 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321824/therapeutic-hypothesis-testing-with-rodent-brain-tumor-models
#19
REVIEW
Derek A Wainwright, Craig M Horbinski, Rintaro Hashizume, C David James
The development and application of rodent models for preclinical testing of novel therapeutics and approaches for treating brain tumors has been a mainstay of neuro-oncology preclinical research for decades, and is likely to remain so into the foreseeable future. These models serve as an important point of entry for analyzing the potential efficacy of experimental therapies that are being considered for clinical trial evaluation. Although rodent brain tumor models have seen substantial change, particularly since the introduction of genetically engineered mouse models, certain principles associated with the use of these models for therapeutic testing are enduring, and form the basis for this review...
April 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299724/convection-enhanced-delivery
#20
REVIEW
A M Mehta, A M Sonabend, J N Bruce
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a promising technique that generates a pressure gradient at the tip of an infusion catheter to deliver therapeutics directly through the interstitial spaces of the central nervous system. It addresses and offers solutions to many limitations of conventional techniques, allowing for delivery past the blood-brain barrier in a targeted and safe manner that can achieve therapeutic drug concentrations. CED is a broadly applicable technique that can be used to deliver a variety of therapeutic compounds for a diversity of diseases, including malignant gliomas, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease...
April 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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