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Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30006767/targeting-the-neuromuscular-junction-in-als
#1
EDITORIAL
James Wymer, David R Borchelt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987763/robotic-rehabilitation-and-spinal-cord-injury-a-narrative-review
#2
REVIEW
Marwa Mekki, Andrew D Delgado, Adam Fry, David Putrino, Vincent Huang
Mobility after spinal cord injury (SCI) is among the top goals of recovery and improvement in quality of life. Those with tetraplegia rank hand function as the most important area of recovery in their lives, and those with paraplegia, walking. Without hand function, emphasis in rehabilitation is placed on accessing one's environment through technology. However, there is still much reliance on caretakers for many activities of daily living. For those with paraplegia, if incomplete, orthoses exist to augment walking function, but they require a significant amount of baseline strength and significant energy expenditure to use...
July 9, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987762/angiotensin-type-1-receptor-antagonists-protect-against-alpha-synuclein-induced-neuroinflammation-and-dopaminergic-neuron-death
#3
Ana I Rodriguez-Perez, Diego Sucunza, Maria A Pedrosa, Pablo Garrido-Gil, Jaime Kulisevsky, Jose L Lanciego, Jose L Labandeira-Garcia
The loss of dopaminergic neurons and α-synuclein accumulation are major hallmarks of Parkinson's disease (PD), and it has been suggested that a major mechanism of α-synuclein toxicity is microglial activation. The lack of animal models that properly reproduce PD, and particularly the underlying synucleinopathy, has hampered the clarification of PD mechanisms and the development of effective therapies. Here, we used neurospecific adeno-associated viral vectors serotype 9 coding for either the wild-type or mutated forms of human alpha-synuclein (WT and SynA53T, respectively) under the control of a synapsin promoter to further induce a marked dopaminergic neuron loss together with an important microglial neuroinflammatory response...
July 9, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987761/retraining-reflexes-clinical-translation-of-spinal-reflex-operant-conditioning
#4
REVIEW
Amir Eftekhar, James J S Norton, Christine M McDonough, Jonathan R Wolpaw
Neurological disorders, such as spinal cord injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, cerebral palsy, and multiple sclerosis cause motor impairments that are a huge burden at the individual, family, and societal levels. Spinal reflex abnormalities contribute to these impairments. Spinal reflex measurements play important roles in characterizing and monitoring neurological disorders and their associated motor impairments, such as spasticity, which affects nearly half of those with neurological disorders. Spinal reflexes can also serve as therapeutic targets themselves...
July 9, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29987760/abstracts-of-20th-annual-asent-meeting
#5
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 9, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29959653/comparison-of-single-session-dose-response-effects-of-whole-body-vibration-on-spasticity-and-walking-speed-in-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury
#6
REVIEW
Stephen Estes, Jennifer A Iddings, Somu Ray, Neva J Kirk-Sanchez, Edelle C Field-Fote
Spasticity affects approximately 65% of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) and negatively impacts function and quality of life. Whole body vibration (WBV) appears to reduce spasticity and improve walking function; however, the optimal dose (frequency/duration) is not known. We compared single-session effects of four different WBV frequency/duration dose conditions on spasticity and walking speed, in preparation for a planned multi-session study. Thirty-five participants with motor-incomplete SCI received four different doses of WBV: high frequency (50 Hz)/short duration (180 s), high frequency/long duration (360 s), low frequency (30 Hz)/short duration, and low frequency/long duration, plus a control intervention consisting of sham electrical stimulation...
June 29, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946982/correction-to-pyruvate-kinase-m2-increases-angiogenesis-neurogenesis-and-functional-recovery-mediated-by-upregulation-of-stat3-and-focal-adhesion-kinase-activities-after-ischemic-stroke-in-adult-mice
#7
Dongdong Chen, Ling Wei, Zhi-Ren Liu, Jenny J Yang, Xiaohuan Gu, Zheng Z Wei, Li-Ping Liu, Shan Ping Yu
The original version of this article was updated to correct the misspelling of Li-Ping Liu's name.
June 26, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29946981/targeted-plasticity-in-the-corticospinal-tract-after-human-spinal-cord-injury
#8
REVIEW
Lasse Christiansen, Monica A Perez
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often results in impaired or absent sensorimotor function below the level of the lesion. Recent electrophysiological studies in humans with chronic incomplete SCI demonstrate that voluntary motor output can be to some extent potentiated by noninvasive stimulation that targets the corticospinal tract. We discuss emerging approaches that use transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex and electrical stimulation over a peripheral nerve as tools to induce plasticity in residual corticospinal projections...
June 26, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29922905/treatment-of-refractory-and-super-refractory-status-epilepticus
#9
Samhitha Rai, Frank W Drislane
Refractory and super-refractory status epilepticus (SE) are serious illnesses with a high risk of morbidity and even fatality. In the setting of refractory generalized convulsive SE (GCSE), there is ample justification to use continuous infusions of highly sedating medications-usually midazolam, pentobarbital, or propofol. Each of these medications has advantages and disadvantages, and the particulars of their use remain controversial. Continuous EEG monitoring is crucial in guiding the management of these critically ill patients: in diagnosis, in detecting relapse, and in adjusting medications...
June 19, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948920/now-is-the-critical-time-for-engineered-neuroplasticity
#10
REVIEW
Chet T Moritz
Recent advances in neuroscience and devices are ushering in a new generation of medical treatments. Engineered biodevices are demonstrating the potential to create long-term changes in neural circuits, termed neuroplasticity. Thus, the approach of engineering neuroplasticity is rapidly expanding, building on recent demonstrations of improved quality of life for people with movement disorders, epilepsy, and spinal cord injury. In addition, discovering the fundamental mechanisms of engineered neuroplasticity by leveraging anatomically well-documented systems like the spinal cord is likely to provide powerful insights into solutions for other neurotraumas, such as stroke and traumatic brain injury, as well as neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson disease, and multiple sclerosis...
June 11, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29948919/advances-and-limitations-of-current-epigenetic-studies-investigating-mammalian-axonal-regeneration
#11
REVIEW
Ilaria Palmisano, Simone Di Giovanni
Axonal regeneration relies on the expression of regenerative associated genes within a coordinated transcriptional programme, which is finely tuned as a result of the activation of several regenerative signalling pathways. In mammals, this chain of events occurs in neurons following peripheral axonal injury, however it fails upon axonal injury in the central nervous system, such as in the spinal cord and the brain. Accumulating evidence has been suggesting that epigenetic control is a key factor to initiate and sustain the regenerative transcriptional response and that it might contribute to regenerative success versus failure...
June 8, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29882081/cortical-reorganization-of-sensorimotor-systems-and-the-role-of-intracortical-circuits-after-spinal-cord-injury
#12
REVIEW
Hisham Mohammed, Edmund R Hollis
The plasticity of sensorimotor systems in mammals underlies the capacity for motor learning as well as the ability to relearn following injury. Spinal cord injury, which both deprives afferent input and interrupts efferent output, results in a disruption of cortical somatotopy. While changes in corticospinal axons proximal to the lesion are proposed to support the reorganization of cortical motor maps after spinal cord injury, intracortical horizontal connections are also likely to be critical substrates for rehabilitation-mediated recovery...
June 7, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29869055/pyruvate-kinase-m2-increases-angiogenesis-neurogenesis-and-functional-recovery-mediated-by-upregulation-of-stat3-and-focal-adhesion-kinase-activities-after-ischemic-stroke-in-adult-mice
#13
Dongdong Chen, Ling Wei, Zhi-Ren Liu, Jenny J Yang, Xiaohuan Gu, Zheng Z Wei, Li-Ping Liu, Shan Ping Yu
Ischemic stroke remains a serious threat to human life. Generation of neuronal and vascular cells is an endogenous regenerative mechanism in the adult brain, which may contribute to tissue repair after stroke. However, the regenerative activity is typically insufficient for significant therapeutic effects after brain injuries. Pyruvate kinase isoform M2 (PKM2) is a key regulator for energy metabolism. PKM2 also has nonmetabolic roles involving regulations of gene expression, cell proliferation, and migration in cancer cells as well as noncancerous cells...
June 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790082/chronic-administration-of-pimozide-fails-to-attenuate-motor-and-pathological-deficits-in-two-mouse-models-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#14
Silvia Pozzi, Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Jean-Pierre Julien
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease which presently does not have any efficient therapeutic approach. Pimozide, a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved neuroepileptic drug, has been recently proposed as a promising treatment for ALS patients based on apparent stabilization of right hand muscles after a short-time administration. A new clinical trial started at the end of 2017 to recruit patients with a prolonged drug delivery schedule. Here, our aim was to investigate the effects of chronic administration of pimozide on disease progression and pathological events in two mouse models of ALS...
May 22, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736859/pigment-epithelium-derived-factor-plays-a-role-in-alzheimer-s-disease-by-negatively-regulating-a%C3%AE-42
#15
Mao Huang, Weiwei Qi, Shuhuan Fang, Ping Jiang, Cong Yang, Yousheng Mo, Chang Dong, Yan Li, Jun Zhong, Weibin Cai, Zhonghan Yang, Ti Zhou, Qi Wang, Xia Yang, Guoquan Gao
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF), a unique neurotrophic protein, decreases with aging. Previous reports have conflicted regarding whether the PEDF concentration is altered in AD patients. In addition, the effect of PEDF on AD has not been documented. Here, we tested serum samples of 31 AD patients and 271 normal controls. We found that compared to PEDF levels in young and middle-aged control subjects, PEDF levels were reduced in old-aged controls and even more so in AD patients...
May 7, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736858/clinical-trials-in-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#16
REVIEW
Jayne Donovan, Steven Kirshblum
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in impaired neurologic function that for many individuals is permanent and significantly impacts health, function, quality of life, and life expectancy. Many efforts have been taken to develop effective treatments for SCI; nevertheless, proven therapies targeting neurologic regeneration and functional recovery have been limited. Existing therapeutic approaches, including early surgery, strict blood pressure control, and consideration of treatment with steroids, remain debated and largely focus on mitigating secondary injury after the primary trauma has occurred...
May 7, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736857/neuropathic-pain-after-spinal-cord-injury-challenges-and-research-perspectives
#17
REVIEW
Rani Shiao, Corinne A Lee-Kubli
Neuropathic pain is a debilitating consequence of spinal cord injury (SCI) that remains difficult to treat because underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. In part, this is due to limitations of evaluating neuropathic pain in animal models in general, and SCI rodents in particular. Though pain in patients is primarily spontaneous, with relatively few patients experiencing evoked pains, animal models of SCI pain have primarily relied upon evoked withdrawals. Greater use of operant tasks for evaluation of the affective dimension of pain in rodents is needed, but these tests have their own limitations such that additional studies of the relationship between evoked withdrawals and operant outcomes are recommended...
May 7, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728852/glial-cells-shape-pathology-and-repair-after-spinal-cord-injury
#18
REVIEW
Andrew D Gaudet, Laura K Fonken
Glial cell types were classified less than 100 years ago by del Rio-Hortega. For instance, he correctly surmised that microglia in pathologic central nervous system (CNS) were "voracious monsters" that helped clean the tissue. Although these historical predictions were remarkably accurate, innovative technologies have revealed novel molecular, cellular, and dynamic physiologic aspects of CNS glia. In this review, we integrate recent findings regarding the roles of glia and glial interactions in healthy and injured spinal cord...
May 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728851/mesenchymal-stem-cell-macrophage-choreography-supporting-spinal-cord-repair
#19
REVIEW
Inés Maldonado-Lasunción, Joost Verhaagen, Martin Oudega
Spinal cord injury results in destructive events that lead to tissue loss and functional impairments. A hallmark of spinal cord injury is the robust and persistent presence of inflammatory macrophages. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are known to benefit repair of the damaged spinal cord often associated with improved functional recovery. Transplanted MSCs immediately encounter the abundance of inflammatory macrophages in the injury site. It is known that MSCs interact closely and reciprocally with macrophages during tissue healing...
May 4, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717413/spinal-cord-injury-scarring-and-inflammation-therapies-targeting-glial-and-inflammatory-responses
#20
REVIEW
Michael B Orr, John C Gensel
Deficits in neuronal function are a hallmark of spinal cord injury (SCI) and therapeutic efforts are often focused on central nervous system (CNS) axon regeneration. However, secondary injury responses by astrocytes, microglia, pericytes, endothelial cells, Schwann cells, fibroblasts, meningeal cells, and other glia not only potentiate SCI damage but also facilitate endogenous repair. Due to their profound impact on the progression of SCI, glial cells and modification of the glial scar are focuses of SCI therapeutic research...
May 1, 2018: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
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