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Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23984460/clinical-snapshot-dripping-fluid-from-the-prepuce-of-a-paint-horse
#1
Adam Stern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23975586/feline-focus-diagnostic-testing-for-feline-thyroid-disease-hypothyroidism
#2
Mark E Peterson
Although naturally occurring hypothyroidism is very rare in cats, iatrogenic hypothyroidism is a recognized complication of treatment for hyperthyroidism. However, confirming the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in cats is not generally straightforward. The potential for false-negative and false-positive results exists with all thyroid function tests, especially in older cats that may have concurrent nonthyroidal illness. Therefore, all thyroid function test results must be interpreted in light of the cat's history, clinical signs, and other laboratory findings...
August 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23975585/feline-focus-diagnostic-testing-for-feline-thyroid-disease-hyperthyroidism
#3
Mark E Peterson
In older cats presenting with clinical features of hyperthyroidism, confirming the diagnosis of thyroid disease is usually straightforward. However, the potential for false-negative and false-positive results exists with all thyroid function tests, especially when used for routine screening of large numbers of asymptomatic cats. Therefore, all thyroid function test results must be interpreted in light of the cat's history, clinical signs, and other laboratory findings. If a high serum thyroxine (T4) value is found in a cat that lacks clinical signs of hyperthyroidism, or if hyperthyroidism is suspected in a cat with normal total T4 concentrations, repeating the total T4 analysis, determining the free T4 concentration, or performing thyroid scintigraphy may be needed to confirm the diagnosis...
August 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677867/canine-struvite-urolithiasis
#4
Douglas Palma, Cathy Langston, Kelly Gisselman, John McCue
Struvite calculi, composed of magnesium ammonium phosphate, have existed for thousands of years in human medicine and are a leading cause of calculi in companion animals. Struvite stones have also been called urease, infection-induced, phosphatic, and triple phosphate stones. They are the most common uroliths in dogs, in which most cases of struvite urolithiasis are associated with infection. Management of struvite urolithiasis requires a multimodal approach that addresses the presence of the urolith(s) and associated infection while identifying risk factors that predispose to the development of infection...
August 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677866/shock-pathophysiology
#5
Elizabeth Thomovsky, Paula A Johnson
Shock, defined as the state where oxygen delivery to tissues is inadequate for the demand, is a common condition in veterinary patients and has a high mortality rate if left untreated. The key to a successful outcome for any patient in shock involves having a clear understanding of the pathophysiology and compensatory mechanisms associated with shock. This understanding allows more efficient identification of patients in shock based on clinical signs and timely initiation of appropriate therapies based on the type and stage of shock identified...
August 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23894763/heatstroke-clinical-signs-diagnosis-treatment-and-prognosis
#6
Carey Hemmelgarn, Kristi Gannon
Heatstroke is a complex disease process that, in its most severe form, can result in multiorgan dysfunction and death. Heatstroke stems from the failure of the body’s thermoregulatory mechanisms, resulting in cellular damage and death. The organ systems most commonly affected in this disease process include the gastrointestinal tract and the coagulation, renal, cardiac, pulmonary, and central nervous systems. Heatstroke is diagnosed based on the patient history, physical examination, and clinicopathologic findings...
July 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677843/cutaneous-viral-dermatoses-in-dogs-and-cats
#7
Masahiko Nagata, Wayne Rosenkrantz
Cutaneous viral dermatoses are often underdiagnosed in dogs and cats because they are rare, and because it is difficult to identify an exact causative agent. Even so, practitioners in primary care may encounter some characteristic clinical features. This article reviews commonly encountered dermatoses, particularly papillomavirus-associated dermatoses in dogs and cats. It also provides a brief overview of several other dermatoses associated with feline herpesvirus, feline calicivirus, FeLV, and feline poxvirus...
July 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677842/cardiovascular-effects-of-thyroid-disease
#8
Jodi K Sangster, David L Panciera, Jonathan A Abbott
Thyroid hormones have many effects on cardiovascular function, and deficiency or excess of thyroid hormones can result in cardiac dysfunction. Abnormalities of the cardiovascular system are often identified during examination of hyperthyroid and hypothyroid patients. This article addresses the effects of thyroid hormones on the cardiovascular system and the clinical relevance of the cardiovascular response to thyroid dysfunction. In addition, treatment recommendations are presented.
July 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677841/heatstroke-thermoregulation-pathophysiology-and-predisposing-factors
#9
Carey Hemmelgarn, Kristi Gannon
Heatstroke is a common veterinary emergency that, depending on the severity of injury, can progress to a life-threatening condition. Heatstroke can be classic (nonexertional) or exertional. Classic heatstroke develops when the body is exposed to high external temperatures, whereas exertional heatstroke is caused by strenuous exercise. Thermoregulation is the intrinsic ability of the body to maintain core body temperature within normal limits through an intricate balance of heat conservation and heat dissipation...
July 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677840/hidden-dangers-in-the-kitchen-common-foods-toxic-to-dogs-and-cats
#10
Kim Gugler, Christopher Piscitelli, Jeffrey Dennis
Many foods and food additives that are safe for human consumption can be extremely toxic to pets. Recognizing the clinical signs and clinicopathologic changes associated with these toxins allows prompt initiation of appropriate therapy. As with many other toxins, decontamination and supportive care are the mainstays of therapy for food toxicosis. Educating owners about foods and food additives that are unsafe for dogs and cats can help prevent toxicosis.
July 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23814917/clinical-snapshot-equine-lymphoma
#11
Adam Stern, Scott M Austin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23814916/feline-small-cell-lymphosarcoma-versus-inflammatory-bowel-disease-treatment-and-prognosis
#12
Chirstian Eriksson de Rezende, Suliman Al-Ghazlat
Feline inflammatory bowel disease is a diagnosis of exclusion and a common cause of chronic gastrointestinal signs suhc as weight loss, variation in appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, and lethargy. Patients with intestinal small cell lymphosarcoma can present identical clinical signs, and differentiating between these two conditions can be a challenge. A companion article discusses the value of performing immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction testing on intestinal biopsy samples for this purpose.
June 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677823/hepatic-encephalopathy-diagnosis-and-treatment
#13
Melissa Salgado, Yonaira Cortes
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurologic syndrome resulting from the synergistic action of multiple pathologic factors, which are discussed in a companion article. Early recognition of the clinical signs can improve treatment outcome, as well as reduce the incidence of risk factors. Multimodal treatment of HE is usually indicated. Studies on the pathogenesis and treatment of HE in people may shed new light on further treatment modalities in small animal patients.
June 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677822/hepatic-encephalopathy-etiology-pathogenesis-and-clinical-signs
#14
Melissa Salgado, Yonaira Cortes
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a manifestation of clinical signs that may result from a variety of liver diseases. In small animals, HE is most commonly a result of portosystemic shunting. The pathogenesis is not completely understood, although it is likely multifactorial. Theories of pathogenesis include altered ammonia metabolism and glutamine and glutamate transmission, an increase in gamma-aminobutyric acid agonists and benzodiazepine-like substances, alterations of the serotonergic system and amino acid metabolism, elevated taurine levels, contributions from inflammatory mediators, and toxic effects of manganese...
June 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677821/feline-small-cell-lymphosarcoma-versus-inflammatory-bowel-disease-diagnostic-challenges
#15
Suliman Al-Ghazlat, Christan Eriksson de Rezende, Jean Ferreri
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and small cell lymphosarcoma (SCLSA) are common causes of chronic gastrointestinal (GI) tract disease in cats. The history, clinical signs, and results of blood work and imaging for these conditions are nonspecific and often overlap. After a thorough diagnostic workup and treatment trials to rule out other conditions, a definitive diagnosis requires histopathologic evaluation of GI tract biopsy specimens. Full-thickness tissue samples appear to be superior to endoscopic biopsy samples in providing an accurate diagnosis...
June 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677820/focus-on-nutrition-dietary-management-of-gastrointestinal-disease
#16
Marge Chandler
Nutrition plays a key role in the management of gastrointestinal disease, and some patients may be managed by dietary therapy alone. Dietary ingredients can have a negative or positive effect on the bowel. Negative factors in a diet may include toxins, allergens, toxic dietary excesses, or nutritional deficiencies. Diet also has a direct effect on intestinal physiology, affecting motility, cell renewal rate, intestinal microbiome, enzyme production, ammonia production, and volatile fatty acid content. This article discusses dietary therapy of acute gastroenteritis, chronic gastroenteropathies, and feline constipation...
June 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677783/old-or-new-a-comparison-of-mitotane-and-trilostane-for-the-management-of-hyperadrenocorticism
#17
Joel D Griffies
Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. With better recognition of the disease, more cases are being presented to clinicians for management. Mitotane, a 3- to 4-decade-old therapy, remains a viable and useful option for management of this disease. Thorough education and understanding of the drug are important, however, as the learning curve of how to manage its effects can be significant. Trilostane, a newer option for management of HAC, offers a simplified protocol and, often, smoother and faster control of the disease...
May 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677782/iliopsoas-muscle-injury-in-dogs
#18
Quentin Cabon, Christian Bolliger
The iliopsoas muscle is formed by the psoas major and iliacus muscles. Due to its length and diameter, the iliopsoas muscle is an important flexor and stabilizer of the hip joint and the vertebral column. Traumatic acute and chronic myopathies of the iliopsoas muscle are commonly diagnosed by digital palpation during the orthopedic examination. Clinical presentations range from gait abnormalities, lameness, and decreased hip joint extension to irreversible fibrotic contracture of the muscle. Rehabilitation of canine patients has to take into account the inciting cause, the severity of pathology and the presence of muscular imbalances...
May 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677781/treatment-of-systemic-hypertension-associated-with-kidney-disease
#19
REVIEW
Simona Buoncompagni, Mary H Bowles
Systemic hypertension is an increasingly diagnosed disorder in dogs and cats and frequently occurs secondary to chronic kidney disease. Prevention of damage to organs such as the kidneys, brain, heart, and eyes is one of the primary concerns in the management of veterinary patients with hypertension. This article reviews the guidelines for antihypertensive therapy in patients with, or at risk for, kidney disease, including the initiation of treatment and currently recommended medications.
May 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23677780/radiologic-interpretation-of-central-venous-catheter-placement
#20
Karine Gendron, Thierry Francey, Chiara Adami, Urs Geissbühler
When used in veterinary medicine, central venous catheters are typically inserted through the external jugular vein, with their caudal extension within the cranial vena cava. Radiographic or fluoroscopic guidance is recommended to assist in correctly placing these catheters. This article provides radiologic examples of common central venous catheter malpositions and complications.
May 2013: Compendium: Continuing Education for Veterinarians
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