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Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Onno Kruse, Isabell Tapia León, Rudolf Stark, Tim Klucken
Appetitive extinction receives attention as an important model for the treatment of psychiatric disorders. However, in humans, its underlying neural correlates remain unknown. To close this gap, we investigated appetitive acquisition and extinction with fMRI in a 2-day Monetary Incentive Delay paradigm.During appetitive conditioning, one stimulus (CS+) was paired with monetary reward, while another stimulus (CS-) was never rewarded. 24h later, subjects underwent extinction, in which neither CS was reinforced...
November 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Frederike Beyer, Nura Sidarus, Sofia Bonicalzi, Patrick Haggard
Diffusion of responsibility across agents has been proposed to underlie decreased helping and increased aggression in group behaviour. However, few studies have directly investigated effects of the presence of other people on how we experience the consequences of our actions. This EEG study investigated whether diffusion of responsibility simply reflects a post-hoc self-serving bias, or rather has direct effects on how we process the outcomes of our actions, and our experience of agency over them. Participants made voluntary actions whose outcomes were more or less negative...
November 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
E E Hecht, L M Mahovetz, T M Preuss, W D Hopkins
The ability to recognize one's own reflection is shared by humans and only a few other species, including chimpanzees. However, this ability is highly variable across individual chimpanzees. In humans, self-recognition involves a distributed, right-lateralized network including frontal and parietal regions involved in the production and perception of action. The superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) is a system of white matter tracts linking these frontal and parietal regions. The current study measured mirror self-recognition (MSR) and SLF anatomy in 60 chimpanzees using diffusion tensor imaging...
November 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Robert P Spunt, Emily Ellsworth, Ralph Adolphs
Humans cannot help but attribute human emotions to nonhuman animals. While such attributions are often regarded as gratuitous anthropomorphisms and held apart from the attributions humans make about each other's internal states, they may be the product of a general mechanism for flexibly interpreting adaptive behavior. To examine this, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans to compare the neural mechanisms associated with attributing emotions to humans and nonhuman animal behavior. While undergoing fMRI, participants first passively observed the facial displays of human, nonhuman primate, and domestic dogs, and subsequently judged the acceptability of emotional (e...
November 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Tobias Schuwerk, Matthias Schurz, Fabian Müller, Rainer Rupprecht, Monika Sommer
Cortical networks underpinning attentional control and mentalizing converge at the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ). It is debated whether the rTPJ is fractionated in neighboring, but separate functional modules underpinning attentional control and mentalizing, or whether one overarching cognitive mechanism explains the rTPJ's role in both domains. Addressing this question, we combined attentional control and mentalizing in a factorial design within one task. We added a social context condition, in which another individual's mental states became apparently task-relevant, to a spatial cueing paradigm...
October 26, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Ralph Adolphs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 25, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Lisa Feldman Barrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Lisa Feldman Barrett
The science of emotion has been using folk psychology categories derived from philosophy to search for the brain basis of emotion. The last two decades of neuroscience research have brought us to the brink of a paradigm shift in understanding the workings of the brain, however, setting the stage to revolutionize our understanding of what emotions are and how they work. In this paper, we begin with the structure and function of the brain, and from there deduce what the biological basis of emotions might be. The answer is a brain-based, computational account called the theory of constructed emotion...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Ralph Adolphs
In this debate with Lisa Feldman Barrett, I defend a view of emotions as biological functional states. Affective neuroscience studies emotions in this sense, but it also studies the conscious experience of emotion ("feelings"), our ability to attribute emotions to others and to animals ("attribution", "anthropomorphizing"), our ability to think and talk about emotion ("concepts of emotion", "semantic knowledge of emotion"), and the behaviors caused by an emotion ("expression of emotions", "emotional reactions")...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Zorina Von Siebenthal, Olivier Boucher, Isabelle Rouleau, Maryse Lassonde, Franco Lepore, Dang K Nguyen
Besides the prefrontal cortex, the insula and medial structures of the temporal lobe are thought to be involved in risky decision-making. However, their respective contributions to decision processes remain unclear due to the lack of studies involving patients with isolated insular damage. We assessed adult patients who underwent resection of the insula (n = 13) or of the anterior temporal lobe (including medial structures) (n = 13) as part of their epilepsy surgery, and a group of healthy volunteers (n = 20), on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and on the Cups Task...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Noa Ofen, Susan Whitfield Gabrieli, Xiaoqian J Chai, Rebecca F Schwarzlose, John D E Gabrieli
Although a growing body of literature suggests that cognitive control processes are involved in deception, much about the neural correlates of lying remains unknown. In this study, we tested whether brain activation associated with deception, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), can be detected either in preparation for or during the execution of a lie, and whether they depend on the content of the lie. We scanned participants while they lied or told the truth about either their personal experiences (episodic memories) or personal beliefs...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Takamitsu Watanabe, Takeshi Otowa, Osamu Abe, Hitoshi Kuwabara, Yuta Aoki, Tatsunobu Natsubori, Hidemasa Takao, Chihiro Kakiuchi, Kenji Kondo, Masashi Ikeda, Nakao Iwata, Kiyoto Kasai, Tsukasa Sasaki, Hidenori Yamasue
Oxytocin appears beneficial for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and more than 20 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in oxytocin receptor (OXTR) are relevant to ASD. However, neither biological functions of OXTR SNPs in ASD nor critical OXTR SNPs that determine oxytocin's effects on ASD remain unknown. Here, using a machine-learning algorithm that was designed to evaluate collective effects of multiple SNPs and automatically identify most informative SNPs, we examined relationships between 27 representative OXTR SNPs and six types of behavioral/neural response to oxytocin in ASD individuals...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
J Anthony Richey, Merage Ghane, Andrew Valdespino, Marika C Coffman, Marlene V Strege, Susan W White, Thomas H Ollendick
BACKGROUND: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) involves abnormalities in social motivation, which may be independent of well-documented differences in fear and arousal systems. Yet, the neurobiology underlying motivational difficulties in SAD is not well understood. The aim of the current study was to spatiotemporally dissociate reward circuitry dysfunction from alterations in fear and arousal-related neural activity during anticipation and notification of social and nonsocial reward and punishment...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Karolina Hansen, Melanie C Steffens, Tamara Rakić, Holger Wiese
Most research on ethnicity in neuroscience and social psychology has focused on visual cues. However, accents are central social markers of ethnicity and strongly influence evaluations of others. Here, we examine how varying auditory (vocal accent) and visual (facial appearance) information about others affects neural correlates of ethnicity-related expectancy violations. Participants listened to standard German and Turkish-accented speakers and were subsequently presented with faces whose ethnic appearance was either congruent or incongruent to these voices...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Brent L Hughes, Jamil Zaki, Nalini Ambady
Observers frequently form impressions of other people based on complex or conflicting information. Rather than being objective, these impressions are often biased by observers' motives. For instance, observers often downplay negative information they learn about ingroup members. Here, we characterize the neural systems associated with biased impression formation. Participants learned positive and negative information about ingroup and outgroup social targets. Following this information, participants worsened their impressions of outgroup, but not ingroup, targets...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
L Tomova, J Majdandžić, A Hummer, C Windischberger, M Heinrichs, C Lamm
Recent behavioral investigations suggest that acute stress can increase prosocial behavior. Here, we investigated whether increased empathy represents a potential mechanism for this finding. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we assessed the effects of acute stress on neural responses related to automatic and regulatory components of empathy for pain as well as subsequent prosocial behavior. Stress increased activation in brain areas associated with the automatic sharing of others' pain, such as the anterior insula, the anterior midcingulate cortex, and the primary somatosensory cortex...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Brent L Hughes, Nalini Ambady, Jamil Zaki
Trust and cooperation often break down across group boundaries, contributing to pernicious consequences, from polarized political structures to intractable conflict. As such, addressing such conflicts requires first understanding why trust is reduced in intergroup settings. Here, we clarify the structure of intergroup trust using neuroscientific and behavioral methods. We found that trusting ingroup members produced activity in brain areas associated with reward, whereas trusting outgroup members produced activity in areas associated with top-down control...
October 19, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Fanny Gollier-Briant, Marie-Laure Paillère-Martinot, Hervé Lemaitre, Ruben Miranda, Hélène Vulser, Robert Goodman, Jani Penttilä, Maren Struve, Tahmine Fadai, Viola Kappel, Luise Poustka, Yvonne Grimmer, Uli Bromberg, Patricia Conrod, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth J Barker, Arun L W Bokde, Christian Büchel, Herta Flor, Juergen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Claire Lawrence, Karl Mann, Frauke Nees, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Vincent Frouin, Marcella Rietschel, Trevor W Robbins, Michael N Smolka, Gunter Schumann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Eric Artiges
Negative life events (NLE) contribute to anxiety and depression disorders, but their relationship with brain functioning in adolescence has rarely been studied. We hypothesized that neural response to social threat would relate to NLE in the frontal-limbic emotional regions. Participants (N = 685) were drawn from the Imagen database of 14-year-old community adolescents recruited in schools. They underwent functional MRI while viewing angry and neutral faces, as a probe to neural response to social threat...
October 3, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Nathalie E Holz, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Arlette F Buchmann, Dorothea Blomeyer, Christine Jennen-Steinmetz, Sarah Baumeister, Michael M Plichta, Anna Cattrell, Gunter Schumann, Günter Esser, Martin Schmidt, Jan Buitelaar, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Manfred Laucht
Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At age 25 years, functional MRI data during two affective tasks, i.e. a reward (N = 171) and a face-matching paradigm (N = 181) and anatomical scans (N = 181) were acquired in right-handed currently healthy participants of an epidemiological study followed since birth...
October 2, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Evangelia G Chrysikou, Claire Gorey, Robin L Aupperle
Approach-avoidance conflict refers to situations associated with both rewarding and threatening outcomes. The approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) task was developed to measure approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Approach behavior during this task has been linked to self-reported anxiety sensitivity and has elicited anterior cingulate, insula, caudate, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activity, with right lateral PFC tracking the extent of approach behavior. Guided by these results, we used excitatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to demonstrate the causal involvement of right dlPFC in approach-avoidance conflict decision-making...
October 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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