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Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Fanny Gollier-Briant, Marie-Laure Paillère-Martinot, Hervé Lemaitre, Ruben Miranda, Hélène Vulser, Robert Goodman, Jani Penttilä, Maren Struve, Tahmine Fadai, Viola Kappel, Luise Poustka, Yvonne Grimmer, Uli Bromberg, Patricia Conrod, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth J Barker, Arun L W Bokde, Christian Büchel, Herta Flor, Juergen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Andreas Heinz, Claire Lawrence, Karl Mann, Frauke Nees, Tomas Paus, Zdenka Pausova, Vincent Frouin, Marcella Rietschel, Trevor W Robbins, Michael N Smolka, Gunter Schumann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Eric Artiges
Negative life events (NLE) contribute to anxiety and depression disorders, but their relationship with brain functioning in adolescence has rarely been studied. We hypothesized that neural response to social threat would relate to NLE in the frontal-limbic emotional regions. Participants (N = 685) were drawn from the Imagen database of 14-year-old community adolescents recruited in schools. They underwent functional MRI while viewing angry and neutral faces, as a probe to neural response to social threat...
October 3, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Nathalie E Holz, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Arlette F Buchmann, Dorothea Blomeyer, Christine Jennen-Steinmetz, Sarah Baumeister, Michael M Plichta, Anna Cattrell, Gunter Schumann, Günter Esser, Martin Schmidt, Jan Buitelaar, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Manfred Laucht
Childhood family adversity (CFA) increases the risk for conduct disorder (CD) and has been associated with alterations in regions of affective processing like ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala. However, no study so far has demonstrated neural converging effects of CFA and CD in the same sample. At age 25 years, functional MRI data during two affective tasks, i.e. a reward (N = 171) and a face-matching paradigm (N = 181) and anatomical scans (N = 181) were acquired in right-handed currently healthy participants of an epidemiological study followed since birth...
October 2, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Evangelia G Chrysikou, Claire Gorey, Robin L Aupperle
Approach-avoidance conflict refers to situations associated with both rewarding and threatening outcomes. The approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) task was developed to measure approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Approach behavior during this task has been linked to self-reported anxiety sensitivity and has elicited anterior cingulate, insula, caudate, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activity, with right lateral PFC tracking the extent of approach behavior. Guided by these results, we used excitatory transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to demonstrate the causal involvement of right dlPFC in approach-avoidance conflict decision-making...
October 1, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Lara Bardi, Charlotte Desmet, Annabel Nijhof, Jan R Wiersema, Marcel Brass
There is extensive discussion on whether spontaneous and explicit forms of ToM are based on the same cognitive/neural mechanisms or rather reflect qualitatively different processes. For the first time, we analyzed the BOLD signal for false belief processing by directly comparing spontaneous and explicit task versions. In both versions, participants watched videos of a scene including an agent who acquires a true or false belief about the location of an object (belief formation phase). At the end of the movies (outcome phase), participants had to react to the presence of the object...
September 27, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Brian A Anderson
Through associative reward learning, arbitrary cues acquire the ability to automatically capture visual attention. Previous studies have examined the neural correlates of value-driven attentional orienting, revealing elevated activity within a network of brain regions encompassing the visual corticostriatal loop (caudate tail, lateral occipital complex (LOC), and early visual cortex) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Such attentional priority signals raise a broader question concerning how visual signals are combined with reward signals during learning to create a representation that is sensitive to the confluence of the two...
September 27, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
E A Evers, P Stiers, J G Ramaekers
Dopamine plays an important role in goal-directed behavior, through its modulatory influence on striatal neurons. It is unclear whether tonic dopamine levels, which regulate the vigor of acting, interact with the phasic dopamine response to reward that drives instrumental behavior.In a randomized placebo-controlled study in healthy volunteers, we show that methylphenidate, a drug that increases tonic dopamine levels, systematically reduced striatal phasic BOLD responses to gain and loss in a gambling task as measured with fMRI...
September 27, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Shota Uono, Wataru Sato, Takanori Kochiyama, Reiko Sawada, Yasutaka Kubota, Sayaka Yoshimura, Motomi Toichi
The recognition of facial expressions of emotion is adaptive for human social interaction, but the ability to do this and the manner in which it is achieved differs among individuals. Previous functional neuroimaging studies have demonstrated that some brain regions, such as the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), are active during the response to emotional facial expressions in healthy participants, and lesion studies have demonstrated that damage to these structures impairs the recognition of facial expressions...
September 26, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Song Wang, Ming Zhou, Taolin Chen, Xun Yang, Guangxiang Chen, Meiyun Wang, Qiyong Gong
As a personality trait, grit involves the tendency to strive to achieve long-term goals with continual passion and perseverance and plays an extremely crucial role in personal achievement. However, the neural mechanisms of grit remain largely unknown. In this study, we aimed to explore the association between grit and the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) in 217 healthy adolescent students using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). We found that an individual's grit was negatively related to the regional fALFF in the right dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC), which is involved in self-regulation, planning, goal setting and maintenance, and counterfactual thinking for reflecting on past failures...
September 26, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Anne Schienle, Sonja Übel, Albert Wabnegger
Cognitive reappraisal and placebo administration constitute two different approaches for modulating one's own emotional state. Whereas reappraisal is an explicit (effortful) type of self-regulation, placebo treatment initiates implicit processes of affective control. The brain mechanisms underlying these processes have not been directly compared with each other up until now; doing this enables the identification of distinct and shared neuronal features.We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with forty-five women, who were presented with disgusting and neutral images in a block design, at three experimental sessions, over three consecutive days...
September 23, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Jörg Gross, Carsten K W De Dreu
Rules, whether in the form of norms, taboos, or laws, regulate and coordinate human life. Some rules, however, are arbitrary and adhering to them can be personally costly. Rigidly sticking to such rules can be considered maladaptive. Here we test whether, at the neurobiological level, (mal)adaptive rule adherence is reduced by oxytocin - a hypothalamic neuropeptide that biases the biobehavioural approach-avoidance system. Participants (N=139) self-administered oxytocin or placebo intranasally, and reported their need for structure and approach-avoidance sensitivity...
September 23, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Keise Izuma, Kazuhisa Shibata, Kenji Matsumoto, Ralph Adolphs
Our attitudes towards others influence a wide range of everyday behaviors, and have been the most extensively studied concept in the history of social psychology. Yet they remain difficult to measure reliably and objectively, since both explicit and implicit measures are typically confounded by other psychological processes. We here address the feasibility of decoding incidental attitudes based on brain activations. Participants were presented with pictures of members of a Japanese idol group inside an fMRI scanner while performing an unrelated detection task, and subsequently (outside the scanner) performed an incentive-compatible choice task that revealed their attitude toward each celebrity...
September 20, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Doerte Simon, Michael Becker, Martin Mothes-Lasch, Wolfgang H R Miltner, Thomas Straube
Angry expressions of both voices and faces represent disorder-relevant stimuli in SAD. While individuals with social anxiety disorder (SAD) show greater amygdala activation to angry faces, previous work has failed to find comparable effects for angry voices. Here, we investigated whether voice sound-intensity, a modulator of a voice's threat-relevance, affects brain responses to angry prosody in SAD. We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore brain responses to voices varying in sound intensity and emotional prosody in SAD patients and healthy controls (HC)...
September 20, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Barbara R Braams, Eveline A Crone
Rewards reliably elicit ventral striatum activity. More recently studies have shown that vicarious rewards elicit similar activation. Ventral striatum responses to rewards for self peak during adolescence. However, it is currently not well understood how ventral striatum responses to vicarious rewards develop. In this study we test this question using behavioral and fMRI data. A total of 233 participants aged 9-26 years old played a gambling game in the scanner in which they could win or lose money for themselves, their best friend and mother...
September 20, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Diane Goldenberg, Eva H Telzer, Matthew D Lieberman, Andrew J Fuligni, Adriana Galván
Adolescence is a period of learning, exploration, and continuous adaptation to fluctuating environments. Response variability during adolescence is an important, understudied, and developmentally-appropriate behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the association between performance on a dynamic risky decision making task and white matter microstructure in a sample of 48 adolescents (14-16 yrs). Individuals with the greatest response variability on the task obtained the widest range of experience with potential outcomes to risky choice...
September 20, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
João F Guassi Moreira, Jay J Van Bavel, Eva H Telzer
Social groups aid human beings in several ways, ranging from the fulfillment of complex social and personal needs to the promotion of survival. Despite the importance of group affiliation to humans, there remains considerable variation in group preferences across development. In the current study, children and adolescents completed an explicit evaluation task of in-group and out-group members during functional neuroimaging. We found that participants displayed age-related increases in bilateral amygdala, fusiform gryus, and orbitofrontal cortex activation when viewing in-group relative to out-group faces...
September 14, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Sarah J Ordaz, Joelle LeMoult, Natalie L Colich, Gautam Prasad, Madeline Pollak, Morgan Popolizio, Alexandra Price, Michael Greicius, Ian H Gotlib
Rumination, and particularly ruminative brooding, perpetuates dysphoric mood states and contributes to the emergence of depression. Studies of adults and older adolescents have characterized the association between rumination and intrinsic functional connectivity within default mode (DMN), salience (SN), and executive control (ECN) networks; we know little, however, about the brain network basis of rumination during early puberty, a sensitive period for network reorganization. 112 early-puberty boys and girls completed resting-state scans, the Ruminative Response Scale, and the Youth Self-Report questionnaire...
September 14, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Carmelo M Vicario, Robert D Rafal, Sara Borgomaneri, Riccardo Paracampo, Ada Kritikos, Alessio Avenanti
The tongue holds a unique role in gustatory disgust. However, it is unclear whether the tongue representation in the motor cortex (tM1) is affected by the sight of distaste-related stimuli. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we recorded tongue motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as an index of tM1 cortico-hypoglossal excitability. MEPs were recorded while participants viewed pictures associated with gustatory disgust and revulsion (i.e., rotten foods and faces expressing distaste), non oral-related disgusting stimuli (i...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Laura Nawijn, Mirjam van Zuiden, Saskia B J Koch, Jessie L Frijling, Dick J Veltman, Miranda Olff
Therapeutic alliance and perceived social support are important predictors of treatment response for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Intranasal oxytocin administration may enhance treatment response by increasing sensitivity for social reward and thereby therapeutic alliance and perceived social support. As a first step to investigate this therapeutical potential, we investigated whether intranasal oxytocin enhances neural sensitivity to social reward in PTSD patients. Male and female police officers with (n=35) and without PTSD (n=37) were included in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over fMRI study...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Zdeňa A Op de Macks, Silvia A Bunge, Orly N Bell, Lance J Kriegsfeld, Andrew S Kayser, Ronald E Dahl
The onset of adolescence is associated with a developmental shift toward peers that contributes to increased prioritization for learning about and achieving social status, and an increased tendency to engage in risky behaviors. There is relatively little understanding about the specific links between these adolescent-typical phenomena, particularly regarding their neural underpinnings. Based on existing models that suggest the role of puberty in promoting adolescent status-seeking and risk-taking tendencies, we investigated the relation of pubertal hormones with behavioral and neural responses to status-relevant social information in the context of risk taking...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Nicole Wiggert, Frank H Wilhelm, Sabrina Boger, Claudio Georgii, Wolfgang Klimesch, Jens Blechert
Today's stressors largely arise from social interactions rather than from physical threat. However, the dominant laboratory model of emotional learning relies on physical stimuli (e.g. electric shock) whereas adequate models of social conditioning are missing, possibly due to more subtle and multilayered biobehavioral responses to such stimuli. To fill this gap, we acquired a broad set of measures during conditioning to negative social unconditioned stimuli, also taking into account long term maintenance of conditioning and inter-individual differences...
September 10, 2016: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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