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Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Daniel W Grupe, Stacey M Schaefer, Regina C Lapate, Andrew J Schoen, Lauren K Gresham, Jeanette A Mumford, Richard J Davidson
Emotional processing often continues beyond the presentation of emotionally evocative stimuli, which can result in affective biasing or coloring of subsequently encountered events. Here, we describe neural correlates of affective coloring and examine how individual differences in affective style impact the magnitude of affective coloring. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging in 117 adults who passively viewed negative, neutral, and positive pictures presented 2s prior to neutral faces. Brain responses to neutral faces were modulated by the valence of preceding pictures, with greater activation for faces following negative (vs...
February 13, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Sarah M Tashjian, Diane Goldenberg, Martin M Monti, Adriana Galván
Sleep suffers during adolescence and is related to academic, emotional and social behaviors. How this normative change relates to ongoing brain development remains unresolved. The default mode network (DMN), a large-scale brain network important for complex cognition and socioemotional processing, undergoes intra-network integration and inter-network segregation during adolescence. Using resting state functional connectivity and actigraphy over 14 days we examined correlates of naturalistic individual differences in sleep duration and quality in the DMN at rest in fifty-five human adolescents (ages 14-18)...
February 7, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Liman Man Wai Li, Junji Ma, Ying Lin, Linlin Fan, Shengqi Zhong, Junkai Yang, Yingyu Huang, Li Gu, Leyi Fan, Siyang Luo, Zhengjia Dai, Xiang Wu
Independent versus interdependent self-construal is a concept that reflects how people perceive the relationship between self and other people, which has been extensively examined across disciplines. However, little evidence on the whole-brain functional connectivity pattern of independent versus interdependent self-construal has been reported. Here, in a sample of 51 healthy participants, we used resting-state fMRI and voxel-based functional connectivity analysis [i.e., Functional connectivity strength (FCS) and seed-based functional connectivity (FC)] by measuring the temporal correlation of blood oxygen level-dependent signals between spatially separate brain regions to investigate the neural mechanism of independent versus interdependent self-construal...
January 29, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Johannes T Krautheim, Benjamin Straube, Udo Dannlowski, Martin Pyka, Henriette Schneider-Hassloff, Rebecca Drexler, Axel Krug, Jens Sommer, Marcella Rietschel, Stephanie H Witt, Tilo Kircher
A high frequency of outgroup contact - as experienced by urban dwellers and migrants - possibly increases schizophrenia risk. This risk might be further amplified by genetic and environmental risk factors, such as the A-allele of rs1006737 within the Calcium Voltage-Gated Channel Subunit Alpha1 C (CACNA1C) gene and Childhood Interpersonal Trauma (CIT). Both have been related to ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) functioning. We investigated vACC functioning, during ingroup and outgroup emotion perception in relation to rs1006737 and CIT...
January 29, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Karine Jospe, Agnes Flöel, Michal Lavidor
Previous research has demonstrated that the Action-Observation Network (AON) is involved in both emotional-embodiment (empathy) and action-embodiment mechanisms. In this study, we hypothesized that interfering with the AON will impair action recognition and that this impairment will be modulated by empathy levels. In Experiment 1 (n = 90), participants were asked to recognize facial expressions while their facial motion was restricted. In Experiment 2 (n = 50), we interfered with the AON by applying transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) to the motor cortex...
January 25, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Amanda Distefano, Felicia Jackson, Amanda R Levinson, Zachary P Infantolino, Johanna M Jarcho, Brady D Nelson
Affective science research on reward processing has primarily focused on monetary rewards. There has been a growing interest in evaluating the neural basis of social decision-making and reward processing. The present study employed a within-subject design and compared the reward positivity (RewP), an event-related potential component that is present following favorable feedback and absent or reduced following unfavorable feedback, during monetary and social reward tasks. Specifically, 114 participants (75 females) completed a monetary reward task and a novel social reward task that were matched on trial structure, timing, and feedback stimuli in a counterbalanced order...
January 24, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
W-T Hsu, M D Rosenberg, D Scheinost, R T Constable, M M Chun
The personality dimensions of neuroticism and extraversion are strongly associated with emotional experience and affective disorders. Previous studies reported fMRI activity correlates of these traits, but no study has used brain-based measures to predict them. Here, using a fully cross-validated approach, we predict novel individuals' neuroticism and extraversion from functional connectivity (FC) data observed as they simply rested during fMRI scanning. We applied a data-driven technique, connectome-based predictive modeling (CPM), to resting-state FC data and neuroticism and extraversion scores (self-reported NEO Five Factor Inventory) from 114 participants of the Nathan Kline Institute Rockland sample...
January 24, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Kathrin N Karle, Thomas Ethofer, Heike Jacob, Carolin Brück, Michael Erb, Martin Lotze, Sophia Nizielski, Astrid Schütz, Dirk Wildgruber, Benjamin Kreifelts
Facial expressions and voice modulations are among the most important communicational signals to convey emotional information. The ability to correctly interpret this information is highly relevant for successful social interaction and represents an integral component of emotional competencies that have been conceptualized under the term emotional intelligence. Here, we investigated the relationship of emotional intelligence as measured with the Salovey-Caruso-Emotional-Intelligence-Test (MSCEIT) with cerebral voice and face processing using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging...
January 22, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Pan Feng, Benjamin Becker, Yong Zheng, Tingyong Feng
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 22, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Carlotta Fossataro, Giulia Bucchioni, Federico D'Agata, Valentina Bruno, Rosalba Morese, Pierre Krystkowiak, Francesca Garbarini
The relationship between pain expectancy and motor system plays a crucial role in the human defensive system. Here, we took advantage of the inhibitory modulation of the motor pathway to the muscle of the hand receiving painful stimuli, by recording motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS). We employed a classical conditioning paradigm in which neutral (visual and auditory) stimuli were conditioned by pairing either painful or not-painful stimuli (electric shocks) in separated groups...
January 8, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Carien M van Reekum, Stacey M Schaefer, Regina C Lapate, Catherine J Norris, Patricia A Tun, Margie E Lachman, Carol A Ryff, Richard J Davidson
The capacity to adaptively respond to negative emotion is in part dependent upon lateral areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Lateral PFC areas are particularly susceptible to age-related atrophy, which affects executive function (EF). We used structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to test the hypothesis that older age is associated with greater medial PFC engagement during processing of negative information, and that this engagement is dependent upon the integrity of grey matter structure in lateral PFC as well as EF...
January 8, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Seth M Levine, Michael Pfaller, Jonas Reichenberger, Youssef Shiban, Andreas Mühlberger, Rainer Rupprecht, Jens V Schwarzbach
While prior work has demonstrated that fear-conditioning changes the neural representation of previously neutral stimuli, it remains unknown to what extent this new representation abstracts away from specific fears and which brain areas are involved therein. To investigate this question, we sought commonalities between experimentally-induced fear via electric shocks and pre-existing phobia. Using functional MRI, we tested the effect of fear-conditioning pictures of dogs in 21 spider-fearful participants across three phases: baseline, post-conditioning, and extinction...
December 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Pan Feng, Benjamin Becker, Yong Zheng, Tingyong Feng
Sleep plays an important role for successful fear memory consolidation. Growing evidence suggests that sleep disturbances might contribute to the development and the maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a disorders characterized by dysregulations in fear learning mechanisms, as well as exaggerated arousal and salience processing. Against this background, the present study examined the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on the acquisition of fear and the subsequent neural consolidation. To this end, the present study assessed fear acquisition and associated changes in fMRI-based amygdala-functional connectivity following 24h of SD...
December 20, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Eda Mizrak, Henrik Singmann, Ilke Öztekin
Proactive interference (PI) is the tendency for information learned earlier to interfere with more recently learned information. In the present study we induced PI by presenting items from the same category over several trials. This results in a build-up of PI and reduces the discriminability of the items in each subsequent trial. We introduced emotional (e.g., disgust) and neutral (e.g., furniture) categories and examined how increasing levels of PI affected performance for both stimulus types. Participants were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) performing a 5-item probe recognition task...
December 20, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Rosemarie Nagel, Andrea Brovelli, Frank Heinemann, Giorgio Coricelli
In social interactions, strategic uncertainty arises when the outcome of one's choice depends on the choices of others. An important question is whether strategic uncertainty can be resolved by assessing subjective probabilities to the counterparts' behavior, as if playing against nature, and thus transforming the strategic interaction into a risky (individual) situation. By means of fMRI with human participants we tested the hypothesis that choices under strategic uncertainty are supported by the neural circuits mediating choices under individual risk and deliberation in social settings (i...
December 7, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Lorena R R Gianotti, Janek S Lobmaier, Cinzia Calluso, Franziska M Dahinden, Daria Knoch
Direct eye gaze is a powerful stimulus in social interactions, yet people vary considerably in the range of gaze lines that they accept as being direct (cone of direct gaze, CoDG). Here, we searched for a possible neural trait marker of these individual differences. We measured the width of the CoDG in 137 healthy participants and related their individual CoDG to their neural baseline activation as measured with resting electroencephalogram (EEG). Using a source-localization technique, we found that resting theta current density in the left temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and adjacent posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) was associated with the width of CoDG...
December 7, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Daniel Hovey, Susanne Henningsson, Diana S Cortes, Tanja Bänziger, Anna Zettergren, Jonas Melke, Håkan Fischer, Petri Laukka, Lars Westberg
The ability to correctly understand the emotional expression of another person is essential for social relationships and appears to be a partly inherited trait. The neuropeptides oxytocin and vasopressin have been shown to influence this ability as well as face processing in humans. Here, recognition of the emotional content of faces and voices, separately and combined, was investigated in 492 subjects, genotyped for 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight genes encoding proteins important for oxytocin and vasopressin neurotransmission...
November 28, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Alexy-Assaf Beck, Bruno Rossion, Dana Samson
The frequency-tagging approach has generally been confined to study low-level sensory processes and always found related activation over the occipital region. Here for the first time, we investigated with it, high-level socio-cognitive functions i.e. the processing of what other people are looking at which is referred to as level 1 visual perspective taking (VPT). Sixteen participants were presented with visual scenes alternating at 2.5 Hz which were depicting a person and an object in a room, while recording electrophysiological brain activity...
November 27, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Camilla N Clark, Hannah L Golden, Oliver McCallion, Jennifer M Nicholas, Miriam H Cohen, Catherine F Slattery, Ross W Paterson, Phillip D Fletcher, Catherine J Mummery, Jonathan D Rohrer, Sebastian J Crutch, Jason D Warren
Aberrant rule- and reward-based processes underpin abnormalities of socio-emotional behaviour in major dementias. However, these processes remain poorly characterised. Here we used music to probe rule decoding and reward valuation in patients with frontotemporal dementia syndromes and Alzheimer's disease relative to healthy age-matched individuals. We created short melodies that were either harmonically resolved ('finished') or unresolved ('unfinished'); the task was to classify each melody as finished or unfinished (rule processing) and rate its subjective pleasantness (reward valuation)...
November 24, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Annett Schirmer
This meta-analysis compares the brain structures and mechanisms involved in facial and vocal emotion recognition. Neuroimaging studies contrasting emotional with neutral (face: N = 76, voice: N = 34) and explicit with implicit emotion processing (face: N = 27, voice: N = 20) were collected to shed light on stimulus and goal driven mechanisms, respectively. Activation likelihood estimations were conducted on the full data sets for the separate modalities and on reduced, modality-matched data sets for modality comparison...
November 23, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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