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Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655195/positive-autobiographical-memory-retrieval-reduces-temporal-discounting
#1
Karolina M Lempert, Megan E Speer, Mauricio R Delgado, Elizabeth A Phelps
People generally prefer rewards sooner rather than later. This phenomenon, temporal discounting, underlies many societal problems, including addiction and obesity. One way to reduce temporal discounting is to imagine positive future experiences. Since there is overlap in the neural circuitry associated with imagining future experiences and remembering past events, here we investigate whether recalling positive memories can also promote more patient choice. We found that participants were more patient after retrieving positive autobiographical memories, but not when they recalled negative memories...
June 26, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655179/to-err-is-perfectly-human-behavioural-and-neural-correlates-of-error-processing-and-perfectionism
#2
Antonia Barke, Stefan Bode, Peter Dechent, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Christina Van Heer, Jutta Stahl
The attitude towards one's own imperfection strongly varies between individuals. Here, we investigated variations in error-related activity depending on two sub-traits of perfectionism, Personal Standard Perfectionism (PSP) and Evaluative Concern Perfectionism (ECP) in a large scale functional magnetic resonance imaging study (N = 75) using a digit-flanker task. Participants with higher PSP scores showed both more post-error slowing and more neural activity in the medial-frontal gyrus including anterior cingulate cortex after errors...
June 26, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655171/regulatory-control-and-impulsivity-relate-to-resting-frontal-activity
#3
Lauren B Neal, Philip A Gable
Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) asserts three core personality systems: the behavioral approach system (BAS), the fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS), and the revised behavioral inhibition system (r-BIS). Past models of frontal activity link greater relative left frontal activity with Carver and White's (1994) BAS scale and trait impulsivity and greater relative right frontal activity with Carver and White's (1994) BIS scale. However, the original BIS scale assesses both FFFS and r-BIS. Past work linking the BIS scale and right frontal activity does not indicate which system is related to right frontal activity...
June 26, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575520/neural-dynamics-underlying-emotional-transmissions-between-individuals
#4
Y Golland, N Levit-Binnun, T Hendler, Y Lerner
Emotional experiences are frequently shaped by the emotional responses of co-present others. Research has shown that people constantly monitor and adapt to the incoming social-emotional signals, even without face-to-face interaction. And yet, the neural processes underlying such emotional transmissions have not been directly studied. Here we investigated how the human brain processes emotional cues which arrive from another, co-attending individual. We presented continuous emotional feedback to participants who viewed a movie in the scanner...
May 29, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575505/like-mother-like-daughter-putamen-activation-as-a-mechanism-underlying-intergenerational-risk-for-depression
#5
Natalie L Colich, Tiffany C Ho, Monica Ellwood-Lowe, Lara C Foland-Ross, Matthew D Sacchet, Joelle L LeMoult, Ian H Gotlib
Having a depressed mother is one of the strongest predictors for developing depression in adolescence. Given the role of aberrant reward processing in the onset and maintenance of depression, we examined the association between mothers' and their daughters' neural response to the anticipation of reward and loss. Fifteen non-depressed mothers with a history of recurrent depression and their never-disordered daughters, and 23 mothers without past or current depression and their never-disordered daughters, underwent fMRI while performing the monetary incentive delay (MID) task...
May 29, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575483/that-s-me-in-the-spotlight-neural-basis-of-individual-differences-in-self-consciousness
#6
Irene de Caso, Giulia Poerio, Elizabeth Jefferies, Jonathan Smallwood
A long-standing literature implicates activity within the default mode network (DMN) to processes linked to the self. However, contemporary work suggests that other large-scale networks networks might also be involved. For instance, goal-directed autobiographical planning requires positive functional connectivity (FC) between DMN and frontoparietal control (FPCN) networks. The present study examined the inter-relationship between trait self-focus (measured via a self-consciousness scale; SCS), incidental memory in a self-reference paradigm, and resting state FC of large-scale networks...
May 29, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575424/association-between-habenula-dysfunction-and-motivational-symptoms-in-unmedicated-major-depressive-disorder
#7
Wen-Hua Liu, Vincent Valton, Ling-Zhi Wang, Yu-Hua Zhu, Jonathan P Roiser
The lateral habenula plays a central role in reward and punishment processing and has been suggested to drive the cardinal symptom of anhedonia in depression. This hypothesis is largely based on observations of habenula hypermetabolism in animal models of depression, but the activity of habenula and its relationship with clinical symptoms in patients with depression remains unclear. High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and computational modelling were used to investigate the activity of the habenula during a probabilistic reinforcement learning task with rewarding and punishing outcomes in 21 unmedicated patients with major depression and 17 healthy participants...
May 29, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541505/the-impact-of-personal-relevance-on-emotion-processing-evidence-from-event-related-potentials-and-pupillary-responses
#8
Mareike Bayer, Katja Ruthmann, Annekathrin Schacht
Emotional stimuli attract attention and lead to increased activity in the visual cortex. The present study investigated the impact of personal relevance on emotion processing by presenting emotional words within sentences that referred to participants' significant others or to unknown agents. In event-related potentials, personal relevance increased visual cortex activity within 100 ms after stimulus onset and the amplitudes of the Late Positive Complex (LPC). Moreover, personally relevant contexts gave rise to augmented pupillary responses and higher arousal ratings, suggesting a general boost of attention and arousal...
May 25, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525641/erp-correlates-of-motivating-voices-quality-of-motivation-and-time-course-matters
#9
Konstantina Zougkou, Netta Weinstein, Silke Paulmann
Here, we conducted the first study to explore how motivations expressed through speech are processed in real-time. Participants listened to sentences spoken in two types of well-studied motivational tones (autonomy-supportive and controlling), or a neutral tone of voice. To examine this, listeners were presented with sentences that either signaled motivations through prosody (tone of voice) and words simultaneously (e.g., "You absolutely have to do it my way" spoken in a controlling tone of voice), or lacked motivationally biasing words (e...
May 19, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505380/potential-reward-reduces-the-adverse-impact-of-negative-distractor-stimuli
#10
Srikanth Padmala, Mihai Sirbu, Luiz Pessoa
Knowledge about interactions between reward and negative processing is rudimentary. Here, we employed functional MRI to probe how potential reward signaled by advance cues alters aversive distractor processing during perception. Behaviorally, the influence of aversive stimuli on task performance was reduced during the reward compared to no-reward condition. In the brain, at the task phase, paralleling the observed behavioral pattern, we observed significant interactions in the anterior insula and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, such that responses during the negative (vs...
May 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505355/uncovering-the-neuroanatomical-correlates-of-cognitive-affective-and-conative-theory-of-mind-in-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury-a-neural-systems-perspective
#11
Nicholas P Ryan, Cathy Catroppa, Richard Beare, Timothy J Silk, Stephen J Hearps, Miriam H Beauchamp, Keith Owen Yeates, Vicki A Anderson
Deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM) are common after neurological insult acquired in the first and second decade of life, however the contribution of large-scale neural networks to ToM deficits in children with brain injury is unclear. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated the sub-acute effect of brain injury on gray-matter volume of three large-scale, domain-general brain networks (the Default Mode Network, DMN; the Central Executive Network, CEN; and the Salience Network, SN), as well as two domain-specific neural networks implicated in social-affective processes (the Cerebro-Cerebellar Mentalizing Network, CCMN, and the Mirror Neuron/Empathy Network, MNEN)...
May 15, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475756/shared-states-using-mvpa-to-test-neural-overlap-between-self-focused-emotion-imagery-and-other-focused-emotion-understanding
#12
Suzanne Oosterwijk, Lukas Snoek, Mark Rotteveel, Lisa F Barrett, H Steven Scholte
The present study tested whether the neural patterns that support imagining "performing an action", "feeling a bodily sensation" or "being in a situation" are directly involved in understanding other people's actions, bodily sensations and situations. Subjects imagined the content of short sentences describing emotional actions, interoceptive sensations and situations (self-focused task), and processed scenes and focused on how the target person was expressing an emotion, what this person was feeling, and why this person was feeling an emotion (other-focused task)...
May 5, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472391/the-theory-of-constructed-emotion-an-active-inference-account-of-interoception-and-categorization
#13
Lisa Feldman Barrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338916/violent-offenders-respond-to-provocations-with-high-amygdala-and-striatal-reactivity
#14
Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Patrick M Fisher, Liv Vadskjær Hjordt, Erik Perfalk, Anine Persson Skibsted, Camilla Bock, Anders Ohlhues Baandrup, Marie Deen, Carsten Thomsen, Dorte M Sestoft, Gitte M Knudsen
The ability to successfully suppress impulses and angry affect is fundamental to control aggressive reactions following provocations. The aim of this study was to examine neural responses to provocations and aggression using a laboratory model of reactive aggression. We used a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging point-subtraction aggression paradigm in 44 men, of whom 18 were incarcerated violent offenders and 26 were control non-offenders. We measured brain activation following provocations (monetary subtractions), while the subjects had the possibility to behave aggressively or pursue monetary rewards...
May 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338882/tribal-love-the-neural-correlates-of-passionate-engagement-in-football-fans
#15
Isabel C Duarte, Sónia Afonso, Helena Jorge, Ricardo Cayolla, Carlos Ferreira, Miguel Castelo-Branco
The tribal character of the affective link between football fans and their teams is a well-recognized phenomenon. Other forms of love such as romantic or maternal attachment have previously been studied from a neuroimaging point of view. Here we aimed to investigate the neural basis of this tribal form of love, which implies both the feeling of belongingness and rivalry against opposing teams. A pool of 56 participants was submitted to an fMRI experimental design involving the presentation of winning and losing football moments of their loved, rival or neutral teams...
May 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338829/seeing-is-not-stereotyping-the-functional-independence-of-categorization-and-stereotype-activation
#16
Tiffany A Ito, Silvia Tomelleri
Social categorization has been viewed as necessarily resulting in stereotyping, yet extant research suggests the two processes are differentially sensitive to task manipulations. Here, we simultaneously test the degree to which race perception and stereotyping are conditionally automatic. Participants performed a sequential priming task while either explicitly attending to the race of face primes or directing attention away from their semantic nature. We find a dissociation between the perceptual encoding of race and subsequent activation of associated stereotypes, with race perception occurring in both task conditions, but implicit stereotyping occurring only when attention is directed to the race of the face primes...
May 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338795/-mom-i-don-t-want-to-hear-it-brain-response-to-maternal-praise-and-criticism-in-adolescents-with-major-depressive-disorder
#17
Jennifer S Silk, Kyung Hwa Lee, Rosalind D Elliott, Jill M Hooley, Ronald E Dahl, Anita Barber, Greg J Siegle
Recent research has implicated altered neural response to interpersonal feedback as an important factor in adolescent depression, with existing studies focusing on responses to feedback from virtual peers. We investigated whether depressed adolescents differed from healthy youth in neural response to social evaluative feedback from mothers. During neuroimaging, twenty adolescents in a current episode of major depressive disorder (MDD) and 28 healthy controls listened to previously recorded audio clips of their own mothers' praise, criticism and neutral comments...
May 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338793/sensitivity-to-perception-level-differentiates-two-subnetworks-within-the-mirror-neuron-system
#18
Shiri Simon, Roy Mukamel
Mirror neurons are a subset of brain cells that discharge during action execution and passive observation of similar actions. An open question concerns the functional role of their ability to match observed and executed actions. Since understanding of goals requires conscious perception of actions, we expect that mirror neurons potentially involved in action goal coding, will be modulated by changes in action perception level. Here, we manipulated perception level of action videos depicting short hand movements and measured the corresponding fMRI BOLD responses in mirror regions...
May 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338742/brain-mechanisms-for-loss-of-awareness-of-thought-and-movement
#19
Eamonn Walsh, David A Oakley, Peter W Halligan, Mitul A Mehta, Quinton Deeley
Loss or reduction of awareness is common in neuropsychiatric disorders and culturally influenced dissociative phenomena but the underlying brain mechanisms are poorly understood. fMRI was combined with suggestions for automatic writing in 18 healthy highly hypnotically suggestible individuals in a within-subjects design to determine whether clinical alterations in awareness of thought and movement can be experimentally modelled and studied independently of illness. Subjective ratings of control, ownership, and awareness of thought and movement, and fMRI data were collected following suggestions for thought insertion and alien control of writing movement, with and without loss of awareness...
May 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199707/mood-congruent-tuning-of-reward-expectation-in-positive-mood-evidence-from-frn-and-theta-modulations
#20
Katharina Paul, Gilles Pourtois
Positive mood broadens attention and builds additional mental resources. However, its effect on performance monitoring and reward prediction errors remain unclear. To examine this issue, we used a standard mood induction procedure (based on guided imagery) and asked 45 participants to complete a gambling task suited to study reward prediction errors by means of the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and mid-frontal theta band power. Results showed a larger FRN for negative feedback as well as a lack of reward expectation modulation for positive feedback at the theta level with positive mood, relative to a neutral mood condition...
May 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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