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Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience

Ruina Dai, Ran Liu, Tao Liu, Zong Zhang, Xiang Xiao, Peipei Sun, Xiaoting Yu, Dahui Wang, Chaozhe Zhu
Interpersonal sensorimotor synchronization (interpersonal SMS) is the foundation of complex human social interaction. Previous studies primarily focused on the individual cognitive processes of interpersonal SMS. However, all individuals compose an entire interaction system with emerged holistic properties during interpersonal SMS. Therefore, we proposed the `holistic cognitive and neural processes' of interpersonal SMS and defined quantitative measurements that included Holistic Correction Gain (HCG), Holistic Timekeeper Variance (HTV) and Holistic Motor Variance (HMV) based on linear error correction model and inter-brain couplings obtained by hyperscanning technique...
October 13, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Paige Ethridge, Aislinn Sandre, Melanie A Dirks, Anna Weinberg
Anhedonia is associated with multiple forms of psychopathology, yet relatively little is known about how anhedonia develops. Emerging evidence suggests that anhedonia is the result of interactions between life stress and the brain's reward systems, and that social stress, in particular, may drive these processes. One potent form of social stress is peer victimization, but very little research has focused on peer victimization beyond adolescence, and even less has examined the associations between peer victimization and neural response to rewards...
October 11, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Adam X Gorka, Bari Fuchs, Christian Grillon, Monique Ernst
Previous research demonstrates that aversive stimuli can interrupt appetitive processing and that brain regions involved with the processing of potential rewards, such as the ventral striatum (VS), also respond to threatening information. Potential losses can likewise activate the VS and, thus, the full extent to which threat can impact neural responses during incentive processing remains unclear. Here, unpredictable threat of shock was used to induce anxiety while participants performed the monetary incentive delay (MID) task during functional MRI...
October 5, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Meghan E Quinn, Jonathan P Stange, Lisanne M Jenkins, Samantha Corwin, Sophie R DelDonno, Katie L Bessette, Robert C Welsh, Scott A Langenecker
Individuals in a major depressive episode often display impairment in cognitive control, and this impairment exists outside of the acute phase of illness. Impairment in cognitive control also has been associated with exposure to childhood adversity. The current study examined whether exposure to childhood adversity can explain variance in a component of cognitive control - inhibitory control - independent of diagnostic status in young adults with and without a history of depression. Healthy control individuals (n = 40) and individuals with remitted major depressive disorder (n = 53) completed a task measuring inhibitory control, reported level of childhood adversity, and completed a scanning session to assess gray matter volume and resting state connectivity in regions associated with cognitive control...
October 3, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Guangheng Dong, Lingxiao Wang, Xiaoxia Du, Marc N Potenza
Backgrounds: More males than females play video games and develop problems with gaming. However, little is known regarding how males and females who game on the Internet may differ with respect to neural responses to gaming cues. Methods: Behavioral and fMRI data were recorded from 40 female and 68 male Internet gamers. This study included three components, including participation in: a pre-gaming cue-craving task, 30 minutes of online gaming, and a post-gaming cue-elicited-craving task. Group differences were examined at pre-gaming, post-gaming and post-gaming versus pre-gaming times...
September 28, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Nathalie E Holz, Regina Boecker-Schlier, Christine Jennen-Steinmetz, Erika Hohm, Arlette F Buchmann, Dorothea Blomeyer, Sarah Baumeister, Michael M Plichta, Günter Esser, Martin Schmidt, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Tobias Banaschewski, Daniel Brandeis, Manfred Laucht
Reward processing is altered in various psychopathologies and has been shown to be susceptible to genetic and environmental influences. Here, we examined whether maternal care may buffer familial risk for psychiatric disorders in terms of reward processing.Functional MRI during a monetary incentive delay task was acquired in participants of an epidemiological cohort study followed since birth (N=172, 25 years). Early maternal stimulation was assessed during a standardized nursing/playing setting at the age of 3 months...
September 25, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Katie Lancaster, Lauren Goldbeck, Meghan H Puglia, James P Morris, Jessica J Connelly
Oxytocin has anxiolytic properties whose mechanisms of action are still being identified. DNA methylation in the promoter region of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), an epigenetic modification that putatively reflects a downtuning of the oxytocin system, has previously been implicated in the regulation of fear-related responses through the amygdala. In this study, we attempted to characterize the relationship between methylation of OXTR and anxiogenesis using two distinct endophenotypes: autonomic nervous system activity and subcortical brain structure...
September 25, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Matthew S Shane, Lindsay L Groat
Historically, psychopathic individuals have been described as suffering a chronic hyporesponsivity to negatively-valent stimuli. While a wide body of empirical work indicates that the psychopath does not manifest normal reactivity to emotional stimuli, it does not similarly indicate that they cannot do so. The current fMRI study evaluated voluntary control of emotional reactivity by examining the extent to which offenders with low- medium- and high-psychopathy scores could up-(and down-) regulate their neural activity to negatively-valent stimuli...
September 25, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Tiffany C Ho, Anna Cichocki, Anthony J Gifuni, M Catalina Camacho, Sarah J Ordaz, Manpreet K Singh, Ian H Gotlib
Suicidal ideation (SI), a potent risk factor for suicide attempts, increases in adolescence. While alterations in dopaminergic functioning have been implicated in suicidal acts-particularly in adults-we do not know whether morphological alterations in dopamine-rich regions of the brain, such as the striatum, are vulnerability factors for the emergence of SI in adolescents. At baseline, a community sample of 152 adolescents (89 female; mean age: 11.41 ± 1.01 years) completed an MRI scan that was used to estimate gray matter volumes (GMV) of three striatal structures: caudate, nucleus accumbens, and putamen...
September 25, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Mariana Mohr, Charlotte Krahé, Brianna Beck, Aikaterini Fotopoulou
Pain is modulated by social context. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown that romantic partners can provide a potent form of social support during pain. However, such studies have only focused on passive support, finding a relatively late-onset modulation of pain-related neural processing. In this study, we examine for the first time dynamic touch by one's romantic partner as an active form of social support. Specifically, 32 partners provided social, active, affective (versus active but neutral) touch according to the properties of a specific C tactile afferent pathway to their romantic partners, who then received laser-induced pain...
September 24, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Sarah Mohr, Anxu Wang, Andrew D Engell
It is widely accepted that holistic processing is critical for early face recognition, but recent work has suggested a larger role for feature-based processing. The earliest step in familiar face recognition is thought to be matching a perceptual representation of a familiar face to a stored representation of that face, which is thought to be indexed by the N250r event-related potential (ERP). In the current face priming studies, we investigated whether this perceptual representation can be effectively activated by feature-based processing...
September 21, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Lisa Wirz, Martin Reuter, Andrea Felten, Lars Schwabe
Stress has a critical impact on affective and cognitive processing. Based on rodent data suggesting that endocannabinoid signaling via CB1 receptors serves as an emotional buffer, we hypothesized that a common variant of the gene coding for the CB1 receptor modulates affective processing under stress (CNR1; rs1049353 A vs. G allele). Therefore, 139 participants, genotyped for this polymorphism, underwent a stress or control manipulation before they viewed emotionally neutral and negative pictures in an MRI scanner...
September 19, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Xiao-Fei Yang, Gabriela Pavarini, Simone Schnall, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Witnessing exemplary actions triggers admiration, a positive emotion that can pertain to concrete skills, or move the onlooker beyond physical characteristics to appreciate the abstract, moral implications. Participants reacted to narratives depicting skilled or virtuous protagonists first during a videotaped interview, then during fMRI. We analyzed participants' gaze aversion (an indicator of disengaging from the immediate environment) and verbal construals (mentions of concrete characteristics, versus abstract beliefs and values) during the interview, and relations to individuals' subsequent neural activations...
September 13, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Rahil Rojiani, Xian Zhang, Adam Noah, Joy Hirsch
Nonverbal communication of emotion is essential to human interaction and relevant to many clinical applications, yet it is an understudied topic in social neuroscience. Drumming is an ancient nonverbal communication modality for expression of emotion that has not been previously investigated in this context. We investigate the neural response to live, natural communication of emotion via drumming using a novel dual-brain neuroimaging paradigm. Hemodynamic signals were acquired using whole-head functional near infrared spectroscopy...
September 12, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Emilie Olié, Kimberly Doell, Corrado Corradi-Dell'Acqua, Philippe Courtet, Nader Perroud, Sophie Schwartz
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) often engage in dangerous self-injurious behaviors (SIBs) as a maladaptive technique to decrease heightened feelings of distress (e.g. negative feelings caused by social exclusion). The reward system has recently been proposed as a plausible neural substrate, which may influence the interaction between social distress and physical pain processing in patients that engage in SIBs. Using functional MRI in 20 adult BPD patients with a history of SIBs and 23 healthy controls (HCs), we found a hyper-activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and amygdala when painful stimuli were presented to BPD patients (but not HCs) in a state of heightened distress, induced via social exclusion...
September 10, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Peter A Bos, Hannah Spencer, Estrella R Montoya
Infant faces have distinctive features that together are described as baby schema, a configuration that facilitates caregiving motivation and behavior, and increases the perception of cuteness. In the current functional MRI study, we investigated the effect of a within-subjects intranasal oxytocin administration (24IU) and caregiving motivation on neural responses to infant faces of varying baby schema in 22 healthy nulliparous women. Overall, infant faces elicited activation in several brain regions involved in reward and salience processing, including the ventral tegmental area (VTA), putamen, amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and insula, and this activation was related to self-reported caregiving motivation...
September 7, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Kuniyuki Nishina, Haruto Takagishi, Fermin Alan, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Hidehiko Takahashi, Masamichi Sakagami, Toshio Yamagishi
Previous studies have shown that genetic variations in rs53576, a common variant of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), are associated with attitudinal trust in men. However, the pathway from gene to behaviour has not been elucidated. We conducted the present study to determine whether amygdala volume mediates the association between OXTR rs53576 genotypes and attitudinal trust. Our results revealed that the left amygdala volume was significantly smaller in GG men than in AA and AG men, whereas it was significantly smaller in AA and AG women than in GG women...
September 7, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Emily L Belleau, Walker S Pedersen, Tara A Miskovich, Fred J Helmstetter, Christine L Larson
Fear extinction is a powerful model of adaptive and anxiety-related maladaptive fear inhibition. This learning process is dependent upon plastic interactions between the amygdala, anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC), hippocampus, and the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). With regard to the amygdala, the basolateral (BLA) and centromedial amygdala (CMA) serve unique roles in fear extinction. In a large sample (N = 91), the current study examined pre- to post- extinction changes in resting state connectivity (RSFC) of fear inhibition and expression pathways...
August 23, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Michel-Pierre Coll
Empathy has received considerable attention from the field of cognitive and social neuroscience. A significant portion of these studies used the event-related potential (ERP) technique to study the mechanisms of empathy for pain in others in different conditions and clinical populations. These show that specific ERP components measured during the observation of pain in others are modulated by several factors and altered in clinical populations. However, issues present in this literature such as analytical flexibility and lack of type 1 error control raise doubts regarding the validity and reliability of these conclusions...
August 22, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Yangyang Yi, Liman Man Wai Li, Yu Xiao, Junji Ma, Linlin Fan, Zhengjia Dai
Loneliness results from lacking satisfied social connections. However, little is known how trait loneliness, which is a stable personal characteristic, is influenced by different types of social support (i.e. emotional and instrumental support) through the brain activity associated with loneliness. To explore these questions, data of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) of 92 healthy participants were analyzed. We identified loneliness-related brain regions by correlating participants' loneliness scores with amplitudes of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of R-fMRI data...
September 11, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
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