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Biomarker Insights

Geoff Pollott, Amanda Brito, Christopher Gardiner, Charlotte Lawson
Cow's milk is economically important to the agricultural industry with the nutritive value of milk being routinely measured. This does not give full insight into normal mammary tissue turnover during the course of lactation, which could be important for both an understanding of milk production and animal welfare. We have previously demonstrated that submicron particles, including extracellular vesicles (EVs), can be measured in unprocessed cow's milk by flow cytometry and that they correlate with stage of lactation...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Inès J Beumer, Marion Persoon, Anke Witteveen, Christa Dreezen, Suet-Feung Chin, Stephen-John Sammut, Mireille Snel, Carlos Caldas, Sabine Linn, Laura J van 't Veer, Rene Bernards, Annuska M Glas
BACKGROUND: MammaPrint® is a microarray-based gene expression test cleared by the US Food and Drug Administration to assess recurrence risk in early-stage breast cancer, aimed to guide physicians in making neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment decisions. The increase in the incidence of invasive lobular carcinomas (ILCs) over the past decades and the modest representation of ILC in the MammaPrint development data set calls for a stratified survival analysis dedicated to this specific subgroup...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Mustafa E Sitar
It is encouraging to observe that a search for publications on "asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA)" in PubMed, as updated on June 2016, yielded >2500 items, 24 years after a splendid paper published by Vallance et al in which the authors proposed that ADMA accumulation could be a cardiovascular risk factor in chronic kidney diseases. ADMA is the endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase and is related to endothelial dysfunction, which plays an important role in vascular damage elicited by various cardiometabolic risk factors...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Sara Bobillo Pérez, Javier Rodríguez-Fanjul, Iolanda Jordan García, Julio Moreno Hernando, Martín Iriondo Sanz
OBJECTIVES: To assess the kinetics of procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in newborns after cardiothoracic surgery (CS), with and without cardiopulmonary bypass, and to assess whether PCT was better than CRP in identifying sepsis in the first 72 hours after CS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study of newborns admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit after CS. INTERVENTIONS: PCT and CRP were sequentially drawn 2 hours before surgery and at 0, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours after surgery...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Venkatramreddy Velma, Shaloam R Dasari, Paul B Tchounwou
Cisplatin is a known antitumor drug, but its mechanisms of action are not fully elucidated. In this research, we studied the anticancer potential of cisplatin at doses of 1, 2, or 3 µM using HL-60 cells as a test model. We investigated cisplatin effects at the molecular level using RNA sequencing, cell cycle analysis, and apoptotic assay after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours of treatment. The results show that many genes responsible for molecular and cellular functions were significantly altered. Cisplatin treatment also caused the cells to be arrested at the DNA synthesis phase, and as the time increases, the cells gradually accumulated at the sub-G1 phase...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Adel Gouri, Aoulia Dekaken, Khalid El Bairi, Arifa Aissaoui, Nihad Laabed, Mohamed Chefrour, Joseph Ciccolini, Gérard Milano, Sadek Benharkat
Shifting from the historical TNM paradigm to the determination of molecular and genetic subtypes of tumors has been a major improvement to better picture cancerous diseases. The sharper the picture is, the better will be the possibility to develop subsequent strategies, thus achieving higher efficacy and prolonged survival eventually. Recent studies suggest that urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA Receptor (uPAR), and plasmino-gen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) may play a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Shariq I Sherwani, Haseeb A Khan, Aishah Ekhzaimy, Afshan Masood, Meena K Sakharkar
Diabetes is a global endemic with rapidly increasing prevalence in both developing and developed countries. The American Diabetes Association has recommended glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) as a possible substitute to fasting blood glucose for diagnosis of diabetes. HbA1c is an important indicator of long-term glycemic control with the ability to reflect the cumulative glycemic history of the preceding two to three months. HbA1c not only provides a reliable measure of chronic hyperglycemia but also correlates well with the risk of long-term diabetes complications...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Habib Mawad, Louis-Philippe Laurin, Jean-François Naud, François A Leblond, Nathalie Henley, Michel Vallée, Vincent Pichette, Martine Leblanc
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study is to describe the changes in urinary and serum levels of novel biomarkers after gadolinium contrast administration in patients with normal renal function. METHODS: We measured four biomarkers in 28 volunteers: interleukin-18 (IL-18), N-acetyl-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and cystatin C. Urinary and serum samples were collected at 0, 3, and 24 hours following gadolinium administration. RESULTS: Baseline serum creatinine was 57...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Vanessa Rameh, Antoine Kossaify
Pulmonary hypertension is a severe and debilitating disease with no definite cure, and the domain of targeted therapies is a promising field for better management of this severe condition. The disease comprises pulmonary arterial remodeling, hypoxia, endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation, with subsequent organ damage including right heart and liver dysfunction. Biomarkers have a valuable role at different levels of the disease, from diagnosis to risk assessment and management, in order to decrease the burden of the disease in terms of both morbidity and mortality...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Federica Genovese, Zsolt S Kàrpàti, Signe H Nielsen, Morten A Karsdal
The aim of this study was to set up an ex vivo model for renal interstitial fibrosis in order to investigate the extracellular matrix (ECM) turnover profile in the fibrotic kidney. We induced kidney fibrosis in fourteen 12-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) surgery of the right ureter. The left kidney (contralateral) was used as internal control. Six rats were sham operated and used as the control group. Rats were terminated two weeks after the surgery; the kidneys were excised and precision-cut kidney slices (PCKSs) were cultured for five days in serum-free medium...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Neveen Salah El Din Hemimi, Amal A Mansour, Mona Mohamed Abdelsalam
BACKGROUND: The guanine nucleotide-binding protein beta polypeptide 3 (GNB3) 825T allele encodes a product that enhances the activation of heterotrimeric G proteins, which is associated with the occurrence of the splice variant Gβ3 s that could play a role in vascular reactivity and hyperproliferation of smooth muscle cells, that makes such proteins attractive candidate gene products for susceptibility to essential hypertension (EH). OBJECTIVE: To predict the risk for EH in individuals with C825T genetic polymorphism of G protein β3 gene...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Andrew J Ghio, Dina M Schreinemachers
Heme oxygenase (HO) catalyzes the breakdown of heme to carbon monoxide, iron, and biliverdin. While the use of genetically altered animal models in investigation has established distinct associations between HO activity and systemic iron availability, studies have not yet confirmed such participation of HO in iron homeostasis of humans. Carbon monoxide produced through HO activity will bind to hemoglobin in circulating erythrocytes, and therefore, blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) can be used as an index of HO activity...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Afzal Ahmad, Poornima Manjrekar, Charu Yadav, Ashish Agarwal, Rukmini Mysore Srikantiah, Anupama Hegde
AIM: This study aimed at evaluation of ischemia-modified albumin (IMA), malondialdehyde (MDA), and advanced oxidative protein products (AOPP) as markers of vascular injury in diabetic nephropathy (DN) with derivation of cutoff values for the same. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Study population comprised 60 diabetes patients and 30 controls, with diabetes patients further categorized into three groups based on urine albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) of <30 mg/g (diabetes without microalbuminuria), 30-300 mg/g (early DN), and >300 mg/g of creatinine (overt DN)...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Balamurugan Packialakshmi, Rohana Liyanage, Jackson O Lay, Ronald Okimoto, Narayan C Rath
Femoral head necrosis (FHN) is a skeletal problem in broiler chickens, where the proximal femoral head cartilage shows susceptibility to separation from its growth plate. The selected birds with FHN showed higher body weights and reduced plasma cholesterol. The proteomic differences in the plasma of healthy and FHN-affected chickens were explored using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to prospect for protein biomarkers...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Laura Santucci, Maurizio Bruschi, Giovanni Candiano, Francesca Lugani, Andrea Petretto, Alice Bonanni, Gian Marco Ghiggeri
Urine proteome is a potential source of information in renal diseases, and it is considered a natural area of investigation for biomarkers. Technology developments have markedly increased the power analysis on urinary proteins, and it is time to confront methodologies and results of major studies on the topics. This is a first part of a series of reviews that will focus on the urine proteome as a site for detecting biomarkers of renal diseases; the theme of the first review concerns methodological aspects applied to normal urine...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Mohamed H Mahfouz, Adel M Assiri, Mohammed H Mukhtar
Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most serious microvascular complications of diabetes. The study aims to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) as biomarkers for early detection of nephropathy in type 2 diabetic patients. The current study was performed on 150 type 2 diabetic patients. These patients were classified into three equal groups according to their albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), including patients with normoalbuminuria (ACR <30 mg/g creatinine), patients with microalbuminuria (ACR = 30-300 mg/g creatinine), and patients with macroalbuminuria (ACR >300 mg/g creatinine)...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Karina Vargas-Sanchez, Antonios Vekris, Klaus G Petry
To streamline in vivo biomarker discovery, we developed a suppression subtractive DNA hybridization technique adapted for phage-displayed combinatorial libraries of 12 amino acid peptides (PhiSSH). Physical DNA subtraction is performed in a one-tube-all-reactions format by sequential addition of reagents, producing the enrichment of specific clones of one repertoire. High-complexity phage repertoires produced by in vivo selections in the multiple sclerosis rat model (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, EAE) and matched healthy control rats were used to evaluate the technique...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Daniel J O'Shannessy, Darren W Davis, Kenna Anderes, Elizabeth B Somers
This study describes our efforts to further the field of noninvasive diagnostics, specifically in the area of liquid biopsies in oncology. We employed laser scanning cytometry using highly selective antibodies to interrogate circulating tumor cells (CTCs) that were isolated using ApoStream(®) technology to identify folate receptor alpha (FRα)-positive cells. We demonstrate that FRα(+) CTCs can be isolated from patients with metastatic cancers, including NSCLC adenocarcinoma, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer, whereas squamous cell lung cancer and normal healthy controls were devoid of FRα(+) CTCs...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Kevin W Diebel, Kun Zhou, Aaron B Clarke, Lynne T Bemis
High-throughput sequencing studies of small RNAs reveal a complex milieu of noncoding RNAs in biological samples. Early data analysis was often limited to microRNAs due to their regulatory nature and potential as biomarkers; however, many more classes of noncoding RNAs are now being recognized. A class of fragments initially excluded from analysis were those derived from transfer RNAs (tRNAs) because they were thought to be degradation products. More recently, critical cellular function has been attributed to tRNA fragments (tRFs), and their conservation across all domains of life has propelled them into an emerging area of scientific study...
2016: Biomarker Insights
Michael R Bennett, Angad Pordal, Christopher Haffner, LaTawnya Pleasant, Qing Ma, Prasad Devarajan
BACKGROUND: Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (NS) is one of the most common glomerular disorders of childhood and is associated with increased urinary vitamin D-binding protein (uVDBP) excretion. We tested the hypothesis that uVDBP represents a biomarker to differentiate steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) from the more benign forms of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children with SRNS (n = 24), SSNS (n = 28), and normal controls (n = 5)...
2016: Biomarker Insights
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