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Current Protocols in Protein Science

Matthew J Wither, Kirk C Hansen, Julie A Reisz
Recent technological advances in mass spectrometry (MS) have made possible the investigation and quantification of complex mixtures of biomolecules. The exceptional sensitivity and resolving power of today's mass spectrometers allow for the detection of proteins and peptides at low femtomole quantities; however, these attributes demand high sample purity to minimize artifacts and achieve the highest degree of biomolecule identification. Tissue preparation for proteomic studies is particularly challenging due to their heterogeneity in cell type, presence of insoluble biomaterials, and wide diversity of biomolecules...
November 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Fanchi Meng, Lukasz Kurgan
Secondary structure of proteins refers to local and repetitive conformations, such as α-helices and β-strands, which occur in protein structures. Computational prediction of secondary structure from protein sequences has a long history with three generations of predictive methods. This unit summarizes several recent third-generation predictors. We discuss their inputs and outputs, availability, and predictive performance and explain how to perform and interpret their predictions. We cover methods for the prediction of the 3-class secondary structure states (helix, strand, and coil) as well as the 8-class secondary structure states...
November 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Aaron Goldman, Sandra Harper, David W Speicher
Staining of blot membranes enables the visualization of bound proteins. Proteins are usually transferred to blot membranes by electroblotting, by direct spotting of protein solutions, or by contact blots. Staining allows the efficiency of transfer to the membrane to be monitored. This unit describes protocols for staining proteins after electroblotting from polyacrylamide gels to blot membranes such as polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF), nitrocellulose, or nylon membranes. The same methods can be used if proteins are directly spotted, either manually or using robotics...
November 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Xing-Jun Cao, Benjamin A Garcia
Lysine methylation is a common protein post-translational modification dynamically mediated by protein lysine methyltransferases (PKMTs) and protein lysine demethylases (PKDMs). Beyond histone proteins, lysine methylation on non-histone proteins plays a substantial role in a variety of functions in cells and is closely associated with diseases such as cancer. A large body of evidence indicates that the dysregulation of some PKMTs leads to tumorigenesis via their non-histone substrates. However, most studies on other PKMTs have made slow progress owing to the lack of approaches for extensive screening of lysine methylation sites...
November 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Benjamin Webb, Andrej Sali
Comparative protein structure modeling predicts the three-dimensional structure of a given protein sequence (target) based primarily on its alignment to one or more proteins of known structure (templates). The prediction process consists of fold assignment, target-template alignment, model building, and model evaluation. This unit describes how to calculate comparative models using the program MODELLER and how to use the ModBase database of such models, and discusses all four steps of comparative modeling, frequently observed errors, and some applications...
November 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Kieran F Geoghegan
Chemical modification of amino groups in proteins serves a diversity of preparative and analytical purposes. The most prominent is to attach nonpeptide groups with useful properties to proteins. Examples of these groups include biotin for affinity capture and fluorescent dyes for detectability. A widely applied chemistry, and one for which many reagents are available, is reaction of the activated ester of a carboxylic acid (often a succinimidyl ester) with amino groups at mildly basic pH. Reductive alkylation using a carbonyl compound and a hydride-donating reducing agent is another valued reaction with multiple applications...
November 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
(no author information available yet)
The basic theory of protein precipitation by addition of ammonium sulfate is presented, and the most common applications are listed. Tables are provided for calculating the appropriate amount of ammonium sulfate to add to a particular protein solution.
April 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
(no author information available yet)
The reagents and methods for purification and use of the most commonly used denaturants, guanidine hydrochloride (guanidine-HCl) and urea, are described. Other protein denaturants and reagents used to fold proteins are briefly mentioned. Sulfhydryl reagents (reducing agents) and "oxido-shuffling" (or oxidative regeneration) systems are also described.
April 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Michael A Massiah, Katharine M Wright, Haijuan Du
This unit describes a straightforward and efficient method of using sarkosyl to solubilize and recover difficult recombinant proteins, such as GST- and His6 -tagged fusion proteins, that are overexpressed in E. coli. This protocol is especially useful for rescuing recombinant proteins overexpressed in M9 minimal medium. Sarkosyl added to lysis buffers helps with both protein solubility and cell lysis. Higher percentage sarkosyl (up to 10%) can extract >95% of soluble protein from inclusion bodies. In the case of sarkosyl-solubilized GST-fusion proteins, batch-mode affinity purification requires addition of a specific ratio of Triton X-100 and CHAPS, while sarkosyl-solubilized His6 -tagged fusion proteins can be directly purified on Ni(2+) resin columns...
April 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Marcella Orwick-Rydmark, Thomas Arnold, Dirk Linke
Extraction of membrane proteins from biological membranes is usually accomplished with the help of detergents. This unit describes the use of detergents to solubilize and purify membrane proteins. The chemical and physical properties of the different classes of detergents typically used with biological samples are discussed. A separate section addresses the compatibility of detergents with applications downstream of the membrane protein purification process, such as optical spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, protein crystallography, biomolecular NMR, or electron microscopy...
April 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Li Lei, Martin Egli
Fish and human cytochrome P450 (P450) 17A1 catalyze both steroid 17α-hydroxylation and 17α,20-lyase reactions. Fish P450 17A2 catalyzes only 17α-hydroxylation. Both enzymes are microsomal-type P450s, integral membrane proteins that bind to the membrane through their N-terminal hydrophobic segment, the signal anchor sequence. The presence of this N-terminal region renders expression of full-length proteins challenging or impossible. For some proteins, variable truncation of the signal anchor sequence precludes expression or results in poor expression levels...
April 1, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Daumantas Matulis
Selective precipitation of proteins can be used as a bulk method to recover the majority of proteins from a crude lysate, as a selective method to fractionate a subset of proteins from a protein solution, or as a very specific method to recover a single protein of interest from a purification step. This unit describes a number of methods suitable for selective precipitation. In each of the protocols that are outlined, the physical or chemical basis of the precipitation process, the parameters that can be varied for optimization, and the basic steps for developing an optimized precipitation are described...
February 2, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Constance J Jeffery
Bacterial integral membrane proteins play many important roles, including sensing changes in the environment, transporting molecules into and out of the cell, and in the case of commensal or pathogenic bacteria, interacting with the host organism. Working with membrane proteins in the lab can be more challenging than working with soluble proteins because of difficulties in their recombinant expression and purification. This protocol describes a standard method to express, solubilize, and purify bacterial integral membrane proteins...
February 2, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Michal Zolkiewski, Liudmila S Chesnokova, Stephan N Witt
Protein aggregation is a common problem in protein biochemistry and is linked to many cellular pathologies and human diseases. The molecular chaperone ClpB can resolubilize and reactivate aggregated proteins. This unit describes the procedure for following reactivation of an aggregated enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase mediated by ClpB from Escherichia coli in cooperation with another molecular chaperone, DnaK. The procedures for purification of these chaperones are also described.
February 2, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Sven Fridrich, Konstantin Karmilin, Walter Stöcker
Substrate cleavage by metalloproteinases involves nucleophilic attack on the scissile peptide bond by a water molecule that is polarized by a catalytic metal, usually a zinc ion, and a general base, usually the carboxyl group of a glutamic acid side chain. The zinc ion is most often complexed by imidazole nitrogens of histidine side chains. This arrangement suggests that the physiological pH optimum of most metalloproteinases is in the neutral range. In addition to their catalytic metal ion, many metalloproteinases contain additional transition metal or alkaline earth ions, which are structurally important or modulate the catalytic activity...
February 2, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Kevin D Sarge
Sumoylation, wherein small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) proteins are covalently attached to specific lysine residues of target proteins, plays an important role in regulating many diverse cellular processes via its control of the functional properties of the modified proteins. Identification of new sumoylated proteins is expected to expand understanding of the role this modification has in cell function. This unit describes two different assays for determining whether a particular protein is sumoylated: the first method employs immunoprecipitation of the protein followed by SUMO immunoblot...
February 2, 2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Guoping Ren, Na Ke, Mehmet Berkmen
Escherichia coli continues to be a popular expression host for the production of proteins, yet successful recombinant expression of active proteins to high yields remains a trial and error process. This is mainly due to decoupling of the folding factors of a protein from its native host, when expressed recombinantly in E. coli. Failure to fold could be due to many reasons but is often due to lack of post-translational modifications that are absent in E. coli. One such post-translational modification is the formation of disulfide bonds, a common feature of secreted proteins...
2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Norio Yamamoto, Yoko Yamashita, Yasukiyo Yoshioka, Shin Nishiumi, Hitoshi Ashida
Membrane proteins account for 70% to 80% of all pharmaceutical targets, indicating their clinical relevance and underscoring the importance of identifying differentially expressed membrane proteins that reflect distinct disease properties. The translocation of proteins from the bulk of the cytosol to the plasma membrane is a critical step in the transfer of information from membrane-embedded receptors or transporters to the cell interior. To understand how membrane proteins work, it is important to separate the membrane fraction of cells...
2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Daniel Ivanusic, Joachim Denner, Norbert Bannert
This unit provides a guide and detailed protocol for studying membrane protein-protein interactions (PPI) using the acceptor-sensitized Förster resonance electron transfer (FRET) method in combination with the proximity ligation assay (PLA). The protocol in this unit is focused on the preparation of FRET-PLA samples and the detection of correlative FRET/PLA signals as well as on the analysis of FRET-PLA data and interpretation of correlative results when using cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) as a FRET donor and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) as a FRET acceptor...
2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
Björn Koos, Ola Söderberg
Proximity-dependent hybridization chain reaction (proxHCR) is a novel technique for detection of protein interaction, post-translational modifications (PTMs), or protein expression. The method is based upon antibodies targeting the proteins of interest that are covalently conjugated to DNA oligonucleotides, which enables the induction of a hybridization chain reaction (HCR) to generate a fluorescent signal visible under a microscope. In contrast to the in situ proximity ligation assay (in situ PLA), which is another method that utilizes antibody-DNA conjugates to detect protein interactions, proxHCR does not require enzymatic steps...
2016: Current Protocols in Protein Science
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