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Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry

Yu Hirano, Naoshi Kojima, Yasuo Komatsu
Interstrand cross-linking of DNA or RNA inhibits the double strands from dissociating into single strands. This article contains detailed procedures for the synthesis of a novel interstrand cross-linker that comprises a bis-aminooxy naphthalene derivative and a description of its use in the preparation of sequence-specific interstrand cross-linked oligonucleotide duplexes. The interstrand cross-linker covalently connects a pair of apurinic/apyrimidinic sites in DNA/RNA duplexes with bis(aminooxy) groups. The resulting oxime linkages are stable under physiological conditions and greatly improve the thermal stability of the duplex...
October 13, 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Samy Mohamady, Scott D Taylor
This article describes a straight-forward chemical method for the synthesis of nucleoside-5'-O-tetraphosphates, such as cytosine-, guanosine-, adenosine-, and uridine-5'-O-tetraphosphates, starting from the corresponding nucleoside monophosphates and trimetaphosphate, a readily available and inexpensive starting material. The procedure involves reacting the tri(tetrabutylammonium) salt of trimetaphosphate with mesitylenesulfonyl chloride and N-methylimidazole. The resulting activated cyclic trimetaphosphate is reacted with the tetrabutylammonium salts of nucleoside monophosphates...
October 11, 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Vladimir E Oslovsky, Mikhail S Drenichev, Cyril S Alexeev, Pavel N Solyev, Roman S Esipov, Sergey N Mikhailov
This unit describes an effective method for the preparation of natural cytokinins and their synthetic derivatives based on enzymatic cleavage of the N-glycosidic bond of N6 -substituted adenosine or O6 -substituted inosine derivatives in the presence of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) and Na2 HAsO4 . The arsenolysis reaction is irreversible due to the hydrolysis of the resulting α-D-ribose-1-arsenate. As a result, the desired products are formed in near-quantitative yields, as indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis, and can easily be isolated...
October 9, 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
A Emilia Arguello, Tharan Srikumar, Ralph E Kleiner
Post-transcriptional modifications play an important role in RNA biology. In particular, the addition of small chemical groups to the nucleobases of mRNA can affect how modified transcripts are processed in the cell, thereby impacting gene expression programs. In order to study the molecular mechanisms underlying these modifications, it is necessary to characterize their 'readers', that is, proteins that directly bind to these modifications to mediate their functional consequences; this is a major challenge because we lack approaches to precisely manipulate RNA chemistry in the cell and because protein-modified RNA interactions can be low affinity...
December 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Ruth Suchsland, Bettina Appel, Sabine Müller
We have developed two methods, in solution and on solid phase, that give easy access to trinucleotide phosphoramidites capable of undergoing coupling reactions by the solid-phase phosphoramidite approach. The solution protocol is characterized by application of 5'-O-dimethoxytrityl (DMT) and 3'-O-tert-butyldimethylsilyl (TBDMS) as a pair of orthogonal protecting groups and 2-cyanoethyl (CE) for protection of the phosphate. Starting with suitably functionalized monomers, synthesis proceeds in the 3'- to 5'-direction, delivering the fully protected trinucleotide...
December 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
M Benjamin Turner, Brooke A Anderson, George N Samaan, Michael Coste, Dillon D Burns, Byron W Purse
DEA tC is a tricyclic 2'-deoxycytidine analog that can be incorporated into oligonucleotides by solid-phase synthesis and that exhibits a large fluorescence enhancement when correctly base-paired with a guanine base in a DNA-DNA duplex. The synthesis of DEA tC begins with 5-amino-2-methylbenzothiazole and provides the DEA tC nucleobase analog over five synthetic steps. This nucleobase analog is then silylated using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)acetamide and conjugated to Hoffer's chlorosugar to provide the protected DEA tC nucleoside in good yield...
December 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Shatrughn Bhilare, Siva Sankar Murthy Bandaru, Anant R Kapdi, Yogesh S Sanghvi, Carola Schulzke
The synthesis and catalytic applications of the highly water-soluble ligand 7-phospha-1,3,5-triaza-admantane butane sultonate (PTABS) has been described. The synthesized PTABS ligand along with palladium acetate exhibits excellent reactivity towards the amination reaction of 6-chloro-9-(β-D-ribofuranosyl)-9H-purine at ambient temperature. This protocol offers an advantage over the previously published procedures for the amination of 6-chloropurine nucleoside furnishing 6-N-substituted adenosine analogues. The validation of the present strategy has been demonstrated via synthesis of a uracil-based, anti-diabetic drug alogliptin...
September 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Renaud Zelli, Waël Zeinyeh, Jean-Luc Décout
A one-pot glycosylation and cyclization procedure is described for the synthesis of 6-chloropurine ribonucleosides from chloropyrimidines. From such a procedure and modification of the obtained chloropurine ribonucleosides, many drug candidates or molecular tools for biological study designed from their similarity to naturally occurring nucleosides could be obtained. The synthesis begins by preparation of several amidinoaminochloropyrimidines as precursors for the one-pot procedure. Then, by adding trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf) to a mixture of a pyrimidine and 1-O-acetyl-2,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-β-D-ribose, different 6-chloropurine ribonucleosides are obtained...
September 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Elisa Pileggi, Michaela Serpi, Fabrizio Pertusati
This synthetic protocol describes two strategies for the preparation of pyrimidine alkenyl acyclic nucleoside phosphonoamidates (ANPs), including linear and trisubstituted alkenyl derivatives. For the first procedure, a bis-trimethylsilyl ester of the parent alkenyl ANPs is the key intermediate that reacts with the desired amino acid ester and aryl alcohol. For the second procedure, an allyl phosphonoamidate bearing the ProTide promoieties is the key synthon employed as olefin partner for a cross-metathesis reaction with an alkylated nucleobase...
September 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Line Dahl Poulsen, Jeppe Vinther
RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) has become the preferred method for global quantification of bacterial gene expression. With the continued improvements in sequencing technology and data analysis tools, the most labor-intensive and expensive part of an RNA-seq experiment is the preparation of sequencing libraries, which is also essential for the quality of the data obtained. Here, we present a straightforward and inexpensive basic protocol for preparation of strand-specific RNA-seq libraries from bacterial RNA as well as a computational pipeline for the data analysis of sequencing reads...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Thomas Zettl, Rhiju Das, Pehr A B Harbury, Daniel Herschlag, Jan Lipfert, Rebecca S Mathew, Xuesong Shi
Most structural techniques provide averaged information or information about a single predominant conformational state. However, biological macromolecules typically function through series of conformations. Therefore, a complete understanding of macromolecular structures requires knowledge of the ensembles that represent probabilities on a conformational free energy landscape. Here we describe an emerging approach, X-ray scattering interferometry (XSI), a method that provides instantaneous distance distributions for molecules in solution...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Yumeng Hao, Jen Bohon, Ryan Hulscher, Mollie C Rappé, Sayan Gupta, Tadepalli Adilakshmi, Sarah A Woodson
RNA footprinting by hydroxyl radical cleavage provides 'snapshots' of RNA tertiary structure or protein interactions that bury the RNA backbone. Generation of hydroxyl radicals with a high-flux synchrotron X-ray beam provides analysis on a short timescale (5-100 msec), which enables the structures of folding intermediates or other transient conformational states to be determined in biochemical solutions or cells. This article provides protocols for using synchrotron beamlines for hydroxyl radical footprinting...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Danielle Vlaho, Masad J Damha
This article describes an automated solid-phase approach for the synthesis of chimeric oligonucleotides containing phosphoramidate-modified internucleotide linkages. An optimized H-phosphonate synthetic cycle is combined with the commonly used phosphoramidite approach to obtain oligonucleotides comprising blocks having various types of internucleotide linkages. This article is specific to the synthesis of oligonucleotides having phosphoramidate modifications, but is adaptable to permit the incorporation of other modified linkages accessible through H-phosphonate diester intermediates...
June 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Christian Schwechheimer, Larissa Doll, Hans-Achim Wagenknecht
Fluorescence molecular imaging is widely used to visualize and observe different biomolecules, in particular DNA and RNA, in vivo and in real time. Typically, DNA strands are tagged with only one fluorophore, and, in the case of molecular beacons, an additional quencher is conjugated, which bears the risk of false-positive or false-negative results because only fluorescence intensities at one fluorescence wavelength (color) are compared. To address this drawback, the concept of "DNA/RNA traffic lights," which is characterized by a fluorescence color change due to energy transfer between two dyes, was developed by our working group...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Tohru Taniguchi, Kie Nakano, Kenji Monde
The chemistry of artificial nucleosides is associated with the difficulties in the characterization of the stereochemistry and conformation of their furanose ring moiety. This unit describes how to use vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy to identify the three-dimensional structure of nucleosides. The experimental part of this protocol is dedicated to obtain a VCD spectrum of a sample with high S/N ratio. The computational part generally starts with a conformational search using molecular mechanics and the following structural optimization by density functional theory calculation...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Alexander M Spring-Connell, Marina Evich, Markus W Germann
NMR spectroscopy is a versatile tool for determining the structure and dynamics of nucleic acids under solution conditions. In this unit, we provide an overview and detail of the experiments and methods used in our laboratory to determine the structure of oligonucleotides at natural abundance, thus limiting our approach to 1 H, 13 C, and 31 P NMR techniques. Isotopic labeling is heavily used in RNA NMR studies, however, labeling of DNA is still less common and, if modified nucleotides are investigated, is exceptionally expensive or not feasible...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Harsh V Jain, Jessica F Boehler, Kanneboyina Nagaraju, Serge L Beaucage
A synthetic 8-mer, amphipathic, trans-acting poly-2'-O-methyluridylic thiophosphate triester RNA element (2'-OMeUtaPS) can be prepared using solid-phase synthesis protocols. 2'-OMeUtaPS efficiently mediates the delivery of uncharged polyA-tailed phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PMO) sequences in HeLa pLuc 705 cells, as evidenced by flow cytometry measurements. In this cell line, 2'-OMeUtaPS-mediated transfection of an antisense polyA-tailed PMO sequence induces alternative splicing of an aberrant luciferase pre-mRNA splice site, leading to restoration of functional luciferase, as quantitatively measured using a typical luciferase assay...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Mikhail S Drenichev, Vladimir E Oslovsky, Vitali I Tararov, Sergey N Mikhailov
This unit describes preparation of N6 -substituted adenosines (cytokinin nucleosides), a unique class of compounds with a wide spectrum of biological activities. Regioselective alkylation of N6 -acetyl-2',3',5'-tri-O-acetyladenosine with alkyl halides under basic conditions or alcohols under Mitsunobu conditions followed by deprotection are the methods of choice for the preparation of the cytokinin nucleosides. The attractive feature of this strategy is the possibility of using a broad library of commercially available alkyl halides and alcohols under mild reaction conditions...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Koji Morita, Makoto Koizumi
2'-O,4'-C-Ethylene-bridged nucleic acid (ENA) is a sugar-modified oligonucleotide with an ethylene bridge between the 2'-oxygen and 4'-carbon of ribose. ENA not only has as high binding affinity to complementary RNA as conventional bridged/locked nucleic acid, but also has much higher nuclease resistance in plasma, which makes it a promising candidate for antisense therapeutics. This unit presents detailed protocols for the synthesis and characterization of ENA nucleosides and oligonucleotides. © 2018 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc...
March 2018: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Ning Zhang, Anthony A Sauve
A two-step chemical method for the synthesis of β-nicotinamide riboside (NR) is described. NR has achieved wide use as an NAD+ precursor (vitamin B3) and can significantly increase central metabolite NAD+ concentrations in mammalian cells. β-NR can be prepared with an efficient two-step procedure. The synthesis is initiated via coupling of commercially available 1,2,3,5-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-ribofuranose with ethyl nicotinate in the presence of trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf). 1 H NMR showed that the product was formed with complete stereoselectivity to produce only the β-isomer in high yield (>90% versus starting sugar)...
December 24, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
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