Read by QxMD icon Read

Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry

Jingshu Guo, Robert J Turesky
Humans are continuously exposed to hazardous chemicals in the environment. These chemicals or their electrophilic metabolites can form adducts with genomic DNA, which can lead to mutations and the initiation of cancer. The identification of DNA adducts is required for understanding exposure and the etiological role of a genotoxic chemical in cancer risk. The analytical chemist is confronted with a great challenge because the levels of DNA adducts generally occur at <1 adduct per 10(7) nucleotides, and the amount of tissue available for measurement is limited...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Derek K O'Flaherty, Christopher J Wilds
This unit describes the preparation O(6) -2'-deoxyguanosine-butylene-O(6) -2'-deoxyguanosine dimer phosphoramidites and precursors for incorporation of site-specific intrastrand cross-links (IaCL) into DNA oligonucleotides. Protected 2'-deoxyguanosine dimers are produced using the Mitsunobu reaction. IaCL DNA containing the intradimer phosphodiester are first chemically phosphorylated, followed by a ring-closing reaction using the condensing reagent 1-(2-mesitylenesulfonyl)-3-nitro-1H-1,2,4-triazole. Phosphoramidites are incorporated into oligonucleotides by solid-phase synthesis and standard deprotection and cleavage protocols are employed...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Xianbin Yang
The oligodeoxynucleotide phosphorodithioate modification (PS2-ODN) uses two sulfur atoms to replace two non-bridging oxygen atoms at an internucleotide phosphordiester backbone linkage. Like a natural phosphodiester ODN backbone linkage, a PS2-modified backbone linkage is achiral at phosphorus. PS2-ODNs are highly stable to nucleases and numerous in vitro assays have demonstrated their biological activity. For example, PS2-ODNs activated RNase H in vitro, strongly inhibited human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase, induced B-cell proliferation and differentiation, and bound to protein targets in the form of PS2-aptamers (thioaptamers)...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Jianbing Liu, Zhen Xi
A facile and universal strategy to construct the poly linear small hairpin RNA (shRNA) expression cassettes with multiple shRNA transcription templates through polymerase chain reaction with flexible branched primers (branch-PCR) is described in this protocol. Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is not stable enough for the study of RNA interference (RNAi) delivery in mammalian cells. Therefore, the more stable shRNA transcription template is employed to produce the endogenous transcribed dsRNA. Then, the covalent crosslinked linear shRNA expression cassettes are constructed through the branch-PCR for the long-lasting RNAi effect in this protocol...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Magdalena Petrová, Ivan Rosenberg
This unit contains detailed synthetic protocols for the preparation of 4'-methoxy 2'-deoxynucleoside phosphoramidite monomers for A, G, C, T, and U. First, 3'-silyl-protected 2'-deoxynucleosides (dNs) are converted in two steps to 4',5'-enol acetates as the key starting compounds. Next, 4'-methoxy dNs are prepared by a one-pot procedure comprising N-iodosuccinimide-promoted methoxylation, hydrolysis, and reduction of the formed intermediates. Finally, 3'-phosphoramidites of 4'-methoxy dNs are obtained by a routine three-step procedure...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Harsh V Jain, Serge L Beaucage
An innovative approach to the delivery of uncharged peptide nucleic acids (PNA) and phosphorodiamidate morpholino (PMO) oligomers in mammalian cells is described and consists of extending the sequence of those oligomers with a short PNA-polyA or PMO-polyA tail. Recognition of the polyA-tailed PNA or PMO oligomers by an amphipathic trans-acting polythymidylic thiophosphate triester element (dTtaPS) results in efficient internalization of those oligomers in several cell lines. Our findings indicate that cellular uptake of the oligomers occurs through an energy-dependent mechanism and macropinocytosis appears to be the predo-minant endocytic pathway used for internalization...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Hiroto Fujita, Masayasu Kuwahara
Nucleic acid aptamers for small molecules are currently being developed and have a potential role in diverse applications including biosensing, diagnostics, and therapeutics involving low-molecular-weight biomarkers and drugs. To enhance and broaden their functions through chemical modification, systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) selection has been attempted with modified DNA/RNA libraries. Recently, we demonstrated the superior efficacy of base modification for affinity enhancement and the usefulness of unnatural nucleic acid libraries for development of small-molecule aptamers...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Yan Su, F Peter Guengerich
Pre-steady-state kinetic analysis is a powerful and widely used method to obtain multiple kinetic parameters. This protocol provides a step-by-step procedure for pre-steady-state kinetic analysis of single-nucleotide incorporation by a DNA polymerase. It describes the experimental details of DNA substrate annealing, reaction mixture preparation, handling of the RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, denaturing polyacrylamide DNA gel preparation, electrophoresis, quantitation, and data analysis. The core and unique part of this protocol is the rationale for preparation of the reaction mixture (the ratio of the polymerase to the DNA substrate) and methods for conducting pre-steady-state assays on an RQF-3 rapid quench-flow instrument, as well as data interpretation after analysis...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Martin Egli
A detailed understanding of chemical and biological function and the mechanisms underlying the molecular activities ultimately requires atomic-resolution structural data. Diffraction-based techniques such as single-crystal X-ray crystallography, electron microscopy, and neutron diffraction are well established and they have paved the road to the stunning successes of modern-day structural biology. The major advances achieved in the last twenty years in all aspects of structural research, including sample preparation, crystallization, the construction of synchrotron and spallation sources, phasing approaches, and high-speed computing and visualization, now provide specialists and nonspecialists alike with a steady flow of molecular images of unprecedented detail...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Jacqueline Gamboa Varela, Kent S Gates
The protocol describes the preparation and purification of interstrand DNA-DNA cross-links derived from the reaction of an N(4) -aminocytidine residue with an abasic site in duplex DNA. The procedures employ inexpensive, commercially available chemicals and enzymes to carry out post-synthetic modification of commercially available oligodeoxynucleotides. The yield of cross-linked duplex is typically better than 90%. If purification is required, the cross-linked duplex can be readily separated from single-stranded DNA starting materials by denaturing gel electrophoresis...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Vijay Gayakhe, Ajaykumar V Ardhapure, Anant R Kapdi, Yogesh S Sanghvi, Jose Luis Serrano, Carola Schulzke
The synthesis of a highly efficient, water soluble [Pd(Sacc)2 (TPA)2 ] complex for C-C bond formation is described. Additionally, application of the [Pd(Sacc)2 (TPA)2 ] complex for Suzuki-Miyaura arylation of all four nucleosides (5-iodo-2'-deoxyuridine [5-IdU], 5-iodo-2'-deoxycytidine [5-IdC], 8-bromo-2'-deoxyadenosine, and 8-bromo-2'-deoxyguanosine) with various aryl/heteroaryl boronic acids in plain water under milder conditions is demonstrated. © 2016 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Rémy Lartia
Synthesis of oligonucleotide ending with an aldehyde functional group at their 5'-end (5'-AON) is possible for both DNA (5'-AODN) and RNA (5'-AORN) series irrespectively of the nature of the last nucleobase. The 5'-alcohol of on-support ODN is mildly oxidized under Moffat conditions. Transient protection of the resulting aldehyde by N,N'-diphenylethylenediamine derivatives allows cleavage, deprotection, and RP-HPLC purification of the protected 5'-AON. Finally, 5'-AON is deprotected by usual acetic acid treatment...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Viktoras Masevičius, Milda Nainytė, Saulius Klimašauskas
S-Adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) is a ubiquitous methyl donor for a variety of biological methylation reactions catalyzed by methyltransferases (MTases). AdoMet analogs with extended propargylic chains replacing the sulfonium-bound methyl group can serve as surrogate cofactors for many DNA and RNA MTases enabling covalent deposition of these linear chains to their cognate targets sites in DNA or RNA. Here we describe synthetic procedures for the preparation of two representative examples of AdoMet analogs with a transferable hex-2-ynyl group carrying a terminal azide or amine functionality...
2016: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Lijing Fang, Zhengyin Pan, Paul M Cullis, Glenn A Burley, Wu Su
In this unit, the fully automated solid-phase synthetic strategy of hairpin Py-Im polyamides is described using triphosgene (BTC) as a coupling agent. This automated methodology is compatible with all the typical building blocks, enabling the facile synthesis of polyamide libraries in 9% to 20% yield in 3 days.
December 1, 2015: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Steven M Pauff, Andrew J Fallows, Simon P Mackay, Wu Su, Paul M Cullis, Glenn A Burley
Pyrrole-imidazole polyamides (PAs) are a family of DNA-binding peptides that bind in the minor groove of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) in a sequence-selective, programmable fashion. This protocol describes a detailed manual procedure for the solid-phase synthesis of this family of compounds. The protocol entails solution-phase synthesis of the Boc-protected pyrrole (Py) and imidazole (Im) carboxylic acid building blocks. This unit also describes the importance of choosing the appropriate condensing agent to form the amide linkages between each building block...
December 1, 2015: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Eriks Rozners, Daniel S Pilch, Martin Egli
This unit describes the application of calorimetry to characterize the thermodynamics of nucleic acids, specifically, the two major calorimetric methodologies that are currently employed: differential scanning (DSC) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). DSC is used to study thermally induced order-disorder transitions in nucleic acids. A DSC instrument measures, as a function of temperature (T), the excess heat capacity (C(p)(ex)) of a nucleic acid solution relative to the same amount of buffer solution...
December 1, 2015: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Mitsunobu Nakamura, Tadao Takada, Kazushige Yamana
The syntheses of 2'-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)uridine phosphoramidite, 2'-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)adenosine phosphoramidite, and multiple pyrene-attached oligo-RNAs are described in this unit. The 2'-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)nucleosides are converted into the corresponding 2'-O-(pyren-1-ylmethyl)nucleoside 3'-phosphoramidites, which can be incorporated into the specific position of oligo-RNAs by solid-phase oligonucleotide synthesis. The multiple pyrene-attached oligo-RNA forms an A-form duplex with a complementary multiple pyrene-attached oligo-RNA; the pyrenes are associated with π-stacking along the outside of the duplex...
December 1, 2015: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Akhilesh Kumar Shakya, Akshay Srivastava, Ashok Kumar
Three-dimensional monolithic columns are preferred stationary phase in column chromatography. Conventional columns based on silica or particles are efficient in bioseparation though associated with limitations of nonspecific interaction and uneven porosity that causes high mass transfer resistance for the movement of big molecules. Cryogels as a monolith column have shown promising application in bioseparation. Cryogels column can be synthesized in the form of a monolith at sub-zero temperature through gelation of pre-synthesized polymers or polymerization of monomers...
December 1, 2015: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Stefano D'Errico, Giorgia Oliviero, Nicola Borbone, Vincenzo Piccialli, Gennaro Piccialli
This unit contains four basic protocols describing the synthesis of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR), 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (ZPM), their 4-N functionalized derivatives, and two sugar-modified analogs of AICAR. The first and second basic protocols reveal the importance of solid-phase synthesis to obtain novel AICAR and ZMP imidazole-modified analogs in a short time, whereas the third and fourth basic protocols allow for the rapid preparation of 5'-F-AICAR and D-ribityl AICA.
December 1, 2015: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Shigeori Takenaka
This unit provides a procedure for synthesis of the potassium-sensing peptide-oligodeoxyribonucleotide conjugate PSO-5 for visualizing potassium ions (K(+) ) in living cells. It is constructed by combining an oligodeoxyribonucleotide carrying a thrombin-binding DNA aptamer (TBA) sequence with an uncharged peptide carrying biotin and the fluorescence tags fluorescein (FAM) and tetramethylrhodamine (TAMRA). The PSO-5 and biotin-modified nuclear export signal peptide are conjugated through streptavidin, and this sensing molecule is introduced into the cell where it is localized in the cytoplasm...
September 1, 2015: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"