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Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry

Ning Zhang, Anthony A Sauve
A two-step chemical method for the synthesis of β-nicotinamide riboside (NR) is described. NR has achieved wide use as an NAD+ precursor (vitamin B3) and can significantly increase central metabolite NAD+ concentrations in mammalian cells. β-NR can be prepared with an efficient two-step procedure. The synthesis is initiated via coupling of commercially available 1,2,3,5-tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-ribofuranose with ethyl nicotinate in the presence of trimethylsilyl trifluoromethanesulfonate (TMSOTf). 1 H NMR showed that the product was formed with complete stereoselectivity to produce only the β-isomer in high yield (>90% versus starting sugar)...
December 24, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Ge-Min Fang, Oliver Seitz
"Label-free" fluorescent probes that avoid additional steps or building blocks for conjugation of fluorescent dyes with oligonucleotides can significantly reduce the time and cost of parallel bioanalysis of a large number of nucleic acid samples. A method for the synthesis of "label-free" bicysteine-modified PNA probes using solid-phase synthesis and procedures for sequence-specific DNA in situ fluorescent labeling is described here. The concept is based on the adjacent alignment of two bicysteine-modified peptide nucleic acids on a DNA target to form a structurally optimized bipartite tetracysteine motif, which induces a sequence-specific fluorogenic reaction with commercially available biarsenic dyes, even in complex media such as cell lysate...
December 24, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Hideaki Wakamatsu, Kozue Nitta, Nozomi Shoji, Yoshihiro Natori, Yukako Saito, Yuichi Yoshimura
The detailed practical synthesis of 4'-thionucleosides starting from L-arabinose is described here. 1,4-Anhydro-2,3-O-isopropylidene-4-thioribitol, which is the key intermediate for the synthesis of 4'-thionucleosides, is obtained from L-arabinose in several steps, including a novel reductive ring-contraction reaction. After oxidation of the key intermediate, the sulfoxide is subjected to Pummerer-type thioglycosylation in the presence of persilylated nucleobases to obtain the 4'-thioribonucleosides in good yield and β-selectively...
December 24, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Anu Stella Mathews, Haikang Yang, Carlo Montemagno
Synthesis, purification, and characterization of 3'-O-caged 2'-deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates (dNTPs), namely 3'-O-(2-nitrobenzyl)-2'-deoxy ribonucleoside triphosphates (NB-dNTPs) and 3'-O-(4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzyl)-2'-deoxy ribonucleoside triphosphates (DMNB-dNTPs), are discussed in detail. A total of eight 3'-O-caged dNTPs are synthesized with specific protocols depending on the nitrogenous base on the first carbon, i.e., adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine, as well as the photo-cleavable group, i...
December 24, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Muthian Shanmugasundaram, Annamalai Senthilvelan, Anilkumar R Kore
This unit describes a simple, reliable, and efficient chemical method for the synthesis of 5-(3-aminoallyl)-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-O-triphosphate (AA-dUTP) and 5-(3-aminoallyl)-uridine-5'-O-triphosphate (AA-UTP), starting from the corresponding nucleoside triphosphate. The presented strategy involves regioselective iodination of nucleoside triphosphate using N-iodosuccinimide followed by the palladium-catalyzed Heck coupling with allylamine to provide the corresponding (E)-5-aminoallyl-uridine-5'-O-triphosphate in good yields...
December 24, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Yusuke Maeda, Nazuki Niwa, Yoshihito Ueno
Benzene-glycol nucleic acid-DNA chimeras form thermally and thermodynamically stable duplexes with complementary RNAs, and have base-discriminating abilities. This unit describes the synthesis of four nucleoside analogs, an adenine, cytosine, thymine, and guanine analogs with base-benzene-glycol structure. The synthesis starts with conversion of (S)-mandelic acid in arylboronic acid derivative, common intermediate. Nucleobase coupling of the intermediate and phosphitylation afford to phosphoroamidite units...
September 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Noriko Saito-Tarashima, Masashi Ota, Noriaki Minakawa
Herein is described a detailed protocol for the synthesis of 4'-selenoribonucleoside derivatives that involves the use of a hypervalent iodine species. These derivatives are versatile units for the preparation of 4'-selenoRNA. Large-scale synthesis of a 4-selenosugar starting from D-ribose is achieved in eight steps, including a final chromatographic purification. The resulting 4-selenosugar is then subjected to the one-pot Pummerer-like reaction using hypervalent iodine in the presence of silylated nucleobases...
September 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Shuntaro Takahashi, Naoki Sugimoto
Nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) can form various non-canonical structures. Because some serious diseases are caused by the conformational change of G-quadruplex DNA structures, the development of ligands that bind and stabilize G-quadruplex DNA is of interest to the field of nucleic acid chemistry. Volumetric changes (ΔV) in the biomolecular reaction include the structural change of biomolecules and hydration behaviors, which provide information about the tertiary interaction between G-quadruplex DNA and ligands...
September 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Ondřej Kostov, Ondřej Páv, Ivan Rosenberg
This unit comprises the straightforward synthesis of protected 2'-deoxyribonucleoside-O-methyl-(H)-phosphinates in both 3'- and 5'-series. These compounds represent a new class of monomers compatible with the solid-phase synthesis of oligonucleotides using H-phosphonate chemistry and are suitable for the preparation of both 3'- and 5'-O-methylphosphonate oligonucleotides. The synthesis of 4-toluenesulfonyloxymethyl-(H)-phosphinic acid as a new reagent for the preparation of O-methyl-(H)-phosphinic acid derivatives is described...
September 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Sarah A Woodson
This unit provides protocols for using native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to distinguish folding and unfolding conformers of RNA. It is useful for studying conformers that can exchange in a period of minutes or seconds, and that are thus difficult to study by solution-based methods. Conformers that have been separated and immobilized in the gel matrix can be used to study catalytic activity with or without being eluted from the gel. The method can be applied to a wide variety of catalytic RNAs and RNA-protein complexes...
September 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Xianbin Yang
The oligoribonucleotide phosphorodithioate (PS2-RNA) modification uses two sulfur atoms to replace two non-bridging oxygen atoms at an internucleotide phosphorodiester backbone linkage. Like a natural phosphodiester RNA backbone linkage, a PS2-modified backbone linkage is achiral at phosphorus. PS2-RNAs are highly stable to nucleases and several in vitro assays have demonstrated their biological activity. For example, PS2-RNAs silenced mRNA in vitro and bound to protein targets in the form of PS2-aptamers (thioaptamers)...
September 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Olga Eguaogie, Joseph S Vyle
Using vibration ball milling, 5'-chloro-5'-deoxyadenosine (CldA) reacts cleanly with 4-methoxybenzyl mercaptan (MobSH), under basic conditions, to the corresponding thioether (MobSdA), which is isolated following precipitation and trituration. Under acidic conditions, in a one-pot, two-step process, MobSdA is transformed into 5'-deoxy-5'-(5-nitropyridyl-2-disulfanyl)-adenosine (NPySSdA). Michaelis-Arbuzov (M-A) reaction of NPySSdA with tris(trimethylsilyl) phosphite proceeds to completion within 30 min as determined by (31) P NMR, and the persilylated M-A product thus formed can be stored in solution under anhydrous conditions at room temperature for several days (in contrast, the anionic phosphorothiolate monoester is labile to hydrolysis)...
September 18, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Arindom Chatterjee, Chanchal K Malik, Ashis K Basu
This unit describes the detailed procedure in five parts for the synthesis of the C8-2'-deoxyguanosine-3-aminobenzanthrone adduct located in a desired site in an oligonucleotide. The synthesis of the protected 2'-deoxyguanosine, O(6) -benzyl-N(2) -DMTr-3'-5'-bisTBDMS-C8-Br-2'-deoxyguanosine, is described in the first part. The synthesis of the reduced carcinogen 3-aminobenzanthrone is detailed in part two. The third part outlines the key step of the adduct formation between the reduced carcinogen and the protected nucleoside by a palladium-catalyzed cross coupling reaction...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Geeta Meher, Nabin K Meher, Radhakrishnan P Iyer
Oligonucleotides carrying a variety of chemical modifications including conjugates are finding increasing applications in therapeutics, diagnostics, functional genomics, proteomics, and as research tools in chemical and molecular biology. The successful synthesis of oligonucleotides primarily depends on the use of appropriately protected nucleoside building blocks including the exocyclic amino groups of the nucleobases, the hydroxyl groups at the 2'-, 3'-, and 5'-positions of the sugar moieties, and the internucleotide phospho-linkage...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Oleksandr Plashkevych, Ram Shankar Upadhayaya, Jyoti Chattopadhyaya
In light of the impressive gene-silencing properties of carba-LNA modified oligo DNA and RNA, both in antisense RNA and siRNA approaches, which have been confirmed as proof-of-concept for biochemical applications in post-transcriptional gene silencing, we envision the true potential of carba-LNA modifications to be revealed soon. Herein we provide detailed protocols for synthesis of carba-LNA-A, -G, -(5-Me) C, and -T nucleosides on a medium/large scale (gram scale), as well as important guidelines for incorporation of these modified carba-LNAs into DNA or RNA oligonucleotides...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Ali Nikoomanzar, Matthew R Dunn, John C Chaput
Polymerase engineering is making it possible to synthesize xeno-nucleic acid polymers (XNAs) with diverse backbone structures and chemical functionality. The ability to copy genetic information back and forth between DNA and XNA has led to a new field of science known as synthetic genetics, which aims to study the genetic concepts of heredity and evolution in artificial genetic polymers. Since many of the polymerases needed to synthesize XNA polymers are not available commercially, researchers must express and purify these enzymes as recombinant proteins from E...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Anaïs Depaix, Suzanne Peyrottes, Béatrice Roy
This unit describes a one-pot, two step synthesis of ribonucleoside 5'-di- and 5'-triphosphates, as well as their purification. The first step of the synthesis involves the activation of an unprotected ribonucleoside 5'-monophosphate with 2-chloro-1,3-dimethylimidazolinium hexafluorophosphate and imidazole, in a mixture of water/acetonitrile. The resulting phosphorimidazolate intermediate is then treated with inorganic phosphate or pyrophosphate to afford the corresponding nucleoside 5'-di- or 5'-triphosphates...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Pramod K Sahu, Dnyandev B Jarhad, Gyudong Kim, Lak Shin Jeong
5'-Homo-4'-selenonucleosides, a class of next-generation nucleosides, are synthesized from D-ribose via a 4-selenosugar intermediate. The key step in synthesizing this intermediate is a seleno-Michael reaction. 5'-Homo-4'-selenouridine and -adenosine are prepared using Pummerer-type and Vorbrüggen condensation, respectively. © 2017 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Andrzej Grajkowski, Jacek Cieślak, Serge L Beaucage
An efficient process for the purification of synthetic phosphorothioate and native DNA sequences is presented. The process is based on the use of an aminopropylated silica gel support functionalized with aminooxyalkyl functions to enable capture of DNA sequences through an oximation reaction with the keto function of a linker conjugated to the 5'-terminus of DNA sequences. Deoxyribonucleoside phosphoramidites carrying this linker, as a 5'-hydroxyl protecting group, have been synthesized for incorporation into DNA sequences during the last coupling step of a standard solid-phase synthesis protocol executed on a controlled pore glass (CPG) support...
June 19, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
Jon D Moulton
Morpholino oligonucleotides are stable, uncharged, water-soluble molecules used to block complementary sequences of RNA, preventing processing, read-through, or protein binding at those sites. Morpholinos are typically used to block translation of mRNA and to block splicing of pre-mRNA, though they can block other interactions between biological macromolecules and RNA. Morpholinos are effective, specific, and lack non-antisense effects. They work in any cell that transcribes and translates RNA, but must be delivered into the nuclear/cytosolic compartment to be effective...
March 2, 2017: Current Protocols in Nucleic Acid Chemistry
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