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Neural Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219109/live-imaging-of-developing-mouse-retinal-slices
#1
Anthony P Barrasso, Shang Wang, Xuefei Tong, Audrey E Christiansen, Irina V Larina, Ross A Poché
BACKGROUND: Ex vivo, whole-mount explant culture of the rodent retina has proved to be a valuable approach for studying retinal development. In a limited number of recent studies, this method has been coupled to live fluorescent microscopy with the goal of directly observing dynamic cellular events. However, retinal tissue thickness imposes significant technical limitations. To obtain 3-dimensional images with high quality axial resolution, investigators are restricted to specific areas of the retina and require microscopes, such as 2-photon, with a higher level of depth penetrance...
September 15, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30219101/dscam-differentially-modulates-pre-and-postsynaptic-structural-and-functional-central-connectivity-during-visual-system-wiring
#2
Rommel A Santos, Ariel J C Fuertes, Ginger Short, Kevin C Donohue, Hanjuan Shao, Julian Quintanilla, Parinaz Malakzadeh, Susana Cohen-Cory
BACKGROUND: Proper patterning of dendritic and axonal arbors is a critical step in the formation of functional neuronal circuits. Developing circuits rely on an array of molecular cues to shape arbor morphology, but the underlying mechanisms guiding the structural formation and interconnectivity of pre- and postsynaptic arbors in real time remain unclear. Here we explore how Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule (DSCAM) differentially shapes the dendritic morphology of central neurons and their presynaptic retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons in the developing vertebrate visual system...
September 15, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217225/genomic-analysis-of-transcriptional-networks-directing-progression-of-cell-states-during-mge-development
#3
Magnus Sandberg, Leila Taher, Jianxin Hu, Brian L Black, Alex S Nord, John L R Rubenstein
BACKGROUND: Homeodomain (HD) transcription factor (TF) NKX2-1 critical for the regional specification of the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) as well as promoting the GABAergic and cholinergic neuron fates via the induction of TFs such as LHX6 and LHX8. NKX2-1 defines MGE regional identity in large part through transcriptional repression, while specification and maturation of GABAergic and cholinergic fates is mediated in part by transcriptional activation via TFs such as LHX6 and LHX8...
September 14, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213267/sympathetic-tales-subdivisons-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-and-the-impact-of-developmental-studies
#4
REVIEW
Uwe Ernsberger, Hermann Rohrer
Remarkable progress in a range of biomedical disciplines has promoted the understanding of the cellular components of the autonomic nervous system and their differentiation during development to a critical level. Characterization of the gene expression fingerprints of individual neurons and identification of the key regulators of autonomic neuron differentiation enables us to comprehend the development of different sets of autonomic neurons. Their individual functional properties emerge as a consequence of differential gene expression initiated by the action of specific developmental regulators...
September 13, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121077/ensheathing-cells-utilize-dynamic-tiling-of-neuronal-somas-in-development-and-injury-as-early-as-neuronal-differentiation
#5
Evan L Nichols, Lauren A Green, Cody J Smith
BACKGROUND: Glial cell ensheathment of specific components of neuronal circuits is essential for nervous system function. Although ensheathment of axonal segments of differentiated neurons has been investigated, ensheathment of neuronal cell somas, especially during early development when neurons are extending processes and progenitor populations are expanding, is still largely unknown. METHODS: To address this, we used time-lapse imaging in zebrafish during the initial formation of the dorsal root ganglia (DRG)...
August 18, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103787/identification-and-characterization-of-mushroom-body-neurons-that-regulate-fat-storage-in-drosophila
#6
Bader Al-Anzi, Kai Zinn
BACKGROUND: In an earlier study, we identified two neuronal populations, c673a and Fru-GAL4, that regulate fat storage in fruit flies. Both populations partially overlap with a structure in the insect brain known as the mushroom body (MB), which plays a critical role in memory formation. This overlap prompted us to examine whether the MB is also involved in fat storage homeostasis. METHODS: Using a variety of transgenic agents, we selectively manipulated the neural activity of different portions of the MB and associated neurons to decipher their roles in fat storage regulation...
August 13, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089513/mutations-in-dock1-disrupt-early-schwann-cell-development
#7
Rebecca L Cunningham, Amy L Herbert, Breanne L Harty, Sarah D Ackerman, Kelly R Monk
BACKGROUND: In the peripheral nervous system (PNS), specialized glial cells called Schwann cells produce myelin, a lipid-rich insulating sheath that surrounds axons and promotes rapid action potential propagation. During development, Schwann cells must undergo extensive cytoskeletal rearrangements in order to become mature, myelinating Schwann cells. The intracellular mechanisms that drive Schwann cell development, myelination, and accompanying cell shape changes are poorly understood...
August 8, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001203/does-experience-provide-a-permissive-or-instructive-influence-on-the-development-of-direction-selectivity-in-visual-cortex
#8
REVIEW
Arani Roy, Ian K Christie, Gina M Escobar, Jason J Osik, Marjena Popović, Neil J Ritter, Andrea K Stacy, Shen Wang, Jozsef Fiser, Paul Miller, Stephen D Van Hooser
In principle, the development of sensory receptive fields in cortex could arise from experience-independent mechanisms that have been acquired through evolution, or through an online analysis of the sensory experience of the individual animal. Here we review recent experiments that suggest that the development of direction selectivity in carnivore visual cortex requires experience, but also suggest that the experience of an individual animal cannot greatly influence the parameters of the direction tuning that emerges, including direction angle preference and speed tuning...
July 12, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29960596/structural-aspects-of-plasticity-in-the-nervous-system-of-drosophila
#9
REVIEW
Atsushi Sugie, Giovanni Marchetti, Gaia Tavosanis
Neurons extend and retract dynamically their neurites during development to form complex morphologies and to reach out to their appropriate synaptic partners. Their capacity to undergo structural rearrangements is in part maintained during adult life when it supports the animal's ability to adapt to a changing environment or to form lasting memories. Nonetheless, the signals triggering structural plasticity and the mechanisms that support it are not yet fully understood at the molecular level. Here, we focus on the nervous system of the fruit fly to ask to which extent activity modulates neuronal morphology and connectivity during development...
July 1, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958540/postnatal-developmental-dynamics-of-cell-type-specification-genes-in-brn3a-pou4f1-retinal-ganglion-cells
#10
Vladimir Vladimirovich Muzyka, Matthew Brooks, Tudor Constantin Badea
BACKGROUND: About 20-30 distinct Retinal Ganglion Cell (RGC) types transmit visual information from the retina to the brain. The developmental mechanisms by which RGCs are specified are still largely unknown. Brn3a is a member of the Brn3/Pou4f transcription factor family, which contains key regulators of RGC postmitotic specification. In particular, Brn3a ablation results in the loss of RGCs with small, thick and dense dendritic arbors ('midget-like' RGCs), and morphological changes in other RGC subpopulations...
June 29, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29945667/analysis-of-novel-caudal-hindbrain-genes-reveals-different-regulatory-logic-for-gene-expression-in-rhombomere-4-versus-5-6-in-embryonic-zebrafish
#11
Priyanjali Ghosh, Jennifer M Maurer, Charles G Sagerström
BACKGROUND: Previous work aimed at understanding the gene regulatory networks (GRNs) governing caudal hindbrain formation identified morphogens such as Retinoic Acid (RA) and Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), as well as transcription factors like hoxb1b, hoxb1a, hnf1ba, and valentino as being required for rhombomere (r) r4-r6 formation in zebrafish. Considering that the caudal hindbrain is relatively complex - for instance, unique sets of neurons are formed in each rhombomere segment - it is likely that additional essential genes remain to be identified and integrated into the caudal hindbrain GRN...
June 26, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875010/strategies-for-assembling-columns-and-layers-in-the-drosophila-visual-system
#12
REVIEW
S Sean Millard, Matthew Y Pecot
A striking feature of neural circuit structure is the arrangement of neurons into regularly spaced ensembles (i.e. columns) and neural connections into parallel layers. These patterns of organization are thought to underlie precise synaptic connectivity and provide a basis for the parallel processing of information. In this article we discuss in detail specific findings that contribute to a framework for understanding how columns and layers are assembled in the Drosophila visual system, and discuss their broader implications...
June 7, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875009/assembly-and-maintenance-of-gabaergic-and-glycinergic-circuits-in-the-mammalian-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
Clare R Gamlin, Wan-Qing Yu, Rachel O L Wong, Mrinalini Hoon
Inhibition in the central nervous systems (CNS) is mediated by two neurotransmitters: gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and glycine. Inhibitory synapses are generally GABAergic or glycinergic, although there are synapses that co-release both neurotransmitter types. Compared to excitatory circuits, much less is known about the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate synaptic partner selection and wiring patterns of inhibitory circuits. Recent work, however, has begun to fill this gap in knowledge, providing deeper insight into whether GABAergic and glycinergic circuit assembly and maintenance rely on common or distinct mechanisms...
June 7, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855378/development-functional-organization-and-evolution-of-vertebrate-axial-motor-circuits
#14
REVIEW
Kristen P D'Elia, Jeremy S Dasen
Neuronal control of muscles associated with the central body axis is an ancient and essential function of the nervous systems of most animal species. Throughout the course of vertebrate evolution, motor circuits dedicated to control of axial muscle have undergone significant changes in their roles within the motor system. In most fish species, axial circuits are critical for coordinating muscle activation sequences essential for locomotion and play important roles in postural correction. In tetrapods, axial circuits have evolved unique functions essential to terrestrial life, including maintaining spinal alignment and breathing...
June 1, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29855353/homeostatic-plasticity-in-neural-development
#15
REVIEW
Nai-Wen Tien, Daniel Kerschensteiner
Throughout life, neural circuits change their connectivity, especially during development, when neurons frequently extend and retract dendrites and axons, and form and eliminate synapses. In spite of their changing connectivity, neural circuits maintain relatively constant activity levels. Neural circuits achieve functional stability by homeostatic plasticity, which equipoises intrinsic excitability and synaptic strength, balances network excitation and inhibition, and coordinates changes in circuit connectivity...
June 1, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751817/tcf7l2-is-essential-for-neurogenesis-in-the-developing-mouse-neocortex
#16
Olga Chodelkova, Jan Masek, Vladimir Korinek, Zbynek Kozmik, Ondrej Machon
Generation of neurons in the embryonic neocortex is a balanced process of proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitor cells. Canonical Wnt signalling is crucial for expansion of radial glial cells in the ventricular zone and for differentiation of intermediate progenitors in the subventricular zone. We detected abundant expression of two transcrtiption factors mediating canonical Wnt signalling, Tcf7L1 and Tcf7L2, in the ventricular zone of the embryonic neocortex. Conditional knock-out analysis showed that Tcf7L2, but not Tcf7L1, is the principal Wnt mediator important for maintenance of progenitor cell identity in the ventricular zone...
May 11, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712572/astrocytes-neurons-synapses-a-tripartite-view-on-cortical-circuit-development
#17
REVIEW
Isabella Farhy-Tselnicker, Nicola J Allen
In the mammalian cerebral cortex neurons are arranged in specific layers and form connections both within the cortex and with other brain regions, thus forming a complex mesh of specialized synaptic connections comprising distinct circuits. The correct establishment of these connections during development is crucial for the proper function of the brain. Astrocytes, a major type of glial cell, are important regulators of synapse formation and function during development. While neurogenesis precedes astrogenesis in the cortex, neuronal synapses only begin to form after astrocytes have been generated, concurrent with neuronal branching and process elaboration...
May 1, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673388/neural-circuits-driving-larval-locomotion-in-drosophila
#18
REVIEW
Matthew Q Clark, Aref Arzan Zarin, Arnaldo Carreira-Rosario, Chris Q Doe
More than 30 years of studies into Drosophila melanogaster neurogenesis have revealed fundamental insights into our understanding of axon guidance mechanisms, neural differentiation, and early cell fate decisions. What is less understood is how a group of neurons from disparate anterior-posterior axial positions, lineages and developmental periods of neurogenesis coalesce to form a functional circuit. Using neurogenetic techniques developed in Drosophila it is now possible to study the neural substrates of behavior at single cell resolution...
April 19, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653548/linking-neuronal-lineage-and-wiring-specificity
#19
REVIEW
Hongjie Li, S Andrew Shuster, Jiefu Li, Liqun Luo
Brain function requires precise neural circuit assembly during development. Establishing a functional circuit involves multiple coordinated steps ranging from neural cell fate specification to proper matching between pre- and post-synaptic partners. How neuronal lineage and birth timing influence wiring specificity remains an open question. Recent findings suggest that the relationships between lineage, birth timing, and wiring specificity vary in different neuronal circuits. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the cellular, molecular, and developmental mechanisms linking neuronal lineage and birth timing to wiring specificity in a few specific systems in Drosophila and mice, and review different methods employed to explore these mechanisms...
April 13, 2018: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573745/monocular-enucleation-alters-retinal-waves-in-the-surviving-eye
#20
Samuel Wilson Failor, Arash Ng, Hwai-Jong Cheng
BACKGROUND: Activity in neurons drives afferent competition that is critical for the refinement of nascent neural circuits. In ferrets, when an eye is lost in early development, surviving retinogeniculate afferents from the spared eye spread across the thalamus in a manner that is dependent on spontaneous retinal activity. However, how this spontaneous activity, also known as retinal waves, might dynamically regulate afferent terminal targeting remains unknown. METHODS: We recorded retinal waves from retinae ex vivo using multi-electrode arrays...
March 24, 2018: Neural Development
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