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Neural Development

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923395/regulation-of-downstream-neuronal-genes-by-proneural-transcription-factors-during-initial-neurogenesis-in-the-vertebrate-brain
#1
Michelle Ware, Houda Hamdi-Rozé, Julien Le Friec, Véronique David, Valérie Dupé
BACKGROUND: Neurons arise in very specific regions of the neural tube, controlled by components of the Notch signalling pathway, proneural genes, and other bHLH transcription factors. How these specific neuronal areas in the brain are generated during development is just beginning to be elucidated. Notably, the critical role of proneural genes during differentiation of the neuronal populations that give rise to the early axon scaffold in the developing brain is not understood. The regulation of their downstream effectors remains poorly defined...
December 7, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871306/akirin2-is-essential-for-the-formation-of-the-cerebral-cortex
#2
Peter J Bosch, Leah C Fuller, Carolyn M Sleeth, Joshua A Weiner
BACKGROUND: The proper spatial and temporal regulation of dorsal telencephalic progenitor behavior is a prerequisite for the formation of the highly-organized, six-layered cerebral cortex. Premature differentiation of cells, disruption of cell cycle timing, excessive apoptosis, and/or incorrect neuronal migration signals can have devastating effects, resulting in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders involving microcephaly and/or lissencephaly. Though genes encoding many key players in cortical development have been identified, our understanding remains incomplete...
November 21, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863528/oligodendrocyte-development-in-the-embryonic-tuberal-hypothalamus-and-the-influence-of-ascl1
#3
Candace M Marsters, Jessica M Rosin, Hayley F Thornton, Shaghayegh Aslanpour, Natasha Klenin, Grey Wilkinson, Carol Schuurmans, Quentin J Pittman, Deborah M Kurrasch
BACKGROUND: Although the vast majority of cells in our brains are glia, we are only beginning to understand programs governing their development, especially within the embryonic hypothalamus. In mice, gliogenesis is a protracted process that begins during embryonic stages and continues into the early postnatal period, with glial progenitors first producing oligodendrocyte precursor cells, which then differentiate into pro-oligodendrocytes, pro-myelinating oligodendrocytes, and finally, mature myelinating oligodendrocytes...
November 18, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784329/netrin1-dcc-signaling-promotes-neuronal-migration-in-the-dorsal-spinal-cord
#4
Harald J Junge, Andrea R Yung, Lisa V Goodrich, Zhe Chen
BACKGROUND: Newborn neurons often migrate before undergoing final differentiation, extending neurites, and forming synaptic connections. Therefore, neuronal migration is crucial for establishing neural circuitry during development. In the developing spinal cord, neuroprogenitors first undergo radial migration within the ventricular zone. Differentiated neurons continue to migrate tangentially before reaching the final positions. The molecular pathways that regulate these migration processes remain largely unknown...
October 26, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770832/contralateral-migration-of-oculomotor-neurons-is-regulated-by-slit-robo-signaling
#5
Brielle Bjorke, Farnaz Shoja-Taheri, Minkyung Kim, G Eric Robinson, Tatiana Fontelonga, Kyung-Tai Kim, Mi-Ryoung Song, Grant S Mastick
BACKGROUND: Oculomotor neurons develop initially like typical motor neurons, projecting axons out of the ventral midbrain to their ipsilateral targets, the extraocular muscles. However, in all vertebrates, after the oculomotor nerve (nIII) has reached the extraocular muscle primordia, the cell bodies that innervate the superior rectus migrate to join the contralateral nucleus. This motor neuron migration represents a unique strategy to form a contralateral motor projection. Whether migration is guided by diffusible cues remains unknown...
October 22, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27609139/differential-timing-of-granule-cell-production-during-cerebellum-development-underlies-generation-of-the-foliation-pattern
#6
Emilie Legué, Jackie L Gottshall, Edouard Jaumouillé, Alberto Roselló-Díez, Wei Shi, Luis Humberto Barraza, Senna Washington, Rachel L Grant, Alexandra L Joyner
BACKGROUND: The mouse cerebellum (Cb) has a remarkably complex foliated three-dimensional (3D) structure, but a stereotypical cytoarchitecture and local circuitry. Little is known of the cellular behaviors and genes that function during development to determine the foliation pattern. In the anteroposterior axis the mammalian cerebellum is divided by lobules with distinct sizes, and the foliation pattern differs along the mediolateral axis defining a medial vermis and two lateral hemispheres...
September 8, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27503008/fragile-x-mental-retardation-protein-knockdown-in-the-developing-xenopus-tadpole-optic-tectum-results-in-enhanced-feedforward-inhibition-and-behavioral-deficits
#7
Torrey L S Truszkowski, Eric J James, Mashfiq Hasan, Tyler J Wishard, Zhenyu Liu, Kara G Pratt, Hollis T Cline, Carlos D Aizenman
BACKGROUND: Fragile X Syndrome is the leading monogenetic cause of autism and most common form of intellectual disability. Previous studies have implicated changes in dendritic spine architecture as the primary result of loss of Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein (FMRP), but recent work has shown that neural proliferation is decreased and cell death is increased with either loss of FMRP or overexpression of FMRP. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of loss of FMRP on behavior and cellular activity...
August 8, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27089953/the-role-of-heparan-sulfate-deficiency-in-autistic-phenotype-potential-involvement-of-slit-robo-srgaps-mediated-dendritic-spine-formation
#8
REVIEW
Christine Pérez, Darrell Sawmiller, Jun Tan
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are the second most common developmental cause of disability in the United States. ASDs are accompanied with substantial economic and emotional cost. The brains of ASD patients have marked structural abnormalities, in the form of increased dendritic spines and decreased long distance connections. These structural differences may be due to deficiencies in Heparin Sulfate (HS), a proteoglycan involved in a variety of neurodevelopmental processes. Of particular interest is its role in the Slit/Robo pathway...
April 18, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053191/characterization-of-primary-cilia-during-the-differentiation-of-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-the-zebrafish
#9
Paola Lepanto, Camila Davison, Gabriela Casanova, Jose L Badano, Flavio R Zolessi
BACKGROUND: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation in vivo is a highly stereotyped process, likely resulting from the interaction of cell type-specific transcription factors and tissue-derived signaling factors. The primary cilium, as a signaling hub in the cell, may have a role during this process but its presence and localization during RGC generation, and its contribution to the process of cell differentiation, have not been previously assessed in vivo. METHODS: In this work we analyzed the distribution of primary cilia in vivo using laser scanning confocal microscopy, as well as their main ultrastructural features by transmission electron microscopy, in the early stages of retinal histogenesis in the zebrafish, around the time of RGC generation and initial differentiation...
April 6, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27048518/expression-and-functional-analysis-of-the-wnt-beta-catenin-induced-mir-135a-2-locus-in-embryonic-forebrain-development
#10
Giuliana Caronia-Brown, Angela Anderegg, Rajeshwar Awatramani
BACKGROUND: Brain size and patterning are dependent on dosage-sensitive morphogen signaling pathways - yet how these pathways are calibrated remains enigmatic. Recent studies point to a new role for microRNAs in tempering the spatio-temporal range of morphogen functions during development. Here, we investigated the role of miR-135a, derived from the mir-135a-2 locus, in embryonic forebrain development. METHOD: 1. We characterized the expression of miR-135a, and its host gene Rmst, by in situ hybridization (ish)...
April 5, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27008623/the-phr-proteins-intracellular-signaling-hubs-in-neuronal-development-and-axon-degeneration
#11
REVIEW
Brock Grill, Rodney K Murphey, Melissa A Borgen
During development, a coordinated and integrated series of events must be accomplished in order to generate functional neural circuits. Axons must navigate toward target cells, build synaptic connections, and terminate outgrowth. The PHR proteins (consisting of mammalian Phr1/MYCBP2, Drosophila Highwire and C. elegans RPM-1) function in each of these events in development. Here, we review PHR function across species, as well as the myriad of signaling pathways PHR proteins regulate. These findings collectively suggest that the PHR proteins are intracellular signaling hubs, a concept we explore in depth...
March 23, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969432/bacurd1-kctd13-and-bacurd2-tnfaip1-are-interacting-partners-to-rnd-proteins-which-influence-the-long-term-positioning-and-dendritic-maturation-of-cerebral-cortical-neurons
#12
Ivan Gladwyn-Ng, Lieven Huang, Linh Ngo, Shan Shan Li, Zhengdong Qu, Hannah Kate Vanyai, Hayley Daniella Cullen, John Michael Davis, Julian Ik-Tsen Heng
BACKGROUND: The development of neural circuits within the embryonic cerebral cortex relies on the timely production of neurons, their positioning within the embryonic cerebral cortex as well as their terminal differentiation and dendritic spine connectivity. The RhoA GTPases Rnd2 and Rnd3 are important for neurogenesis and cell migration within the embryonic cortex (Nat Commun 4:1635, 2013), and we recently identified the BTB/POZ domain-containing Adaptor for Cul3-mediated RhoA Degradation family member Bacurd2 (also known as Tnfaip1) as an interacting partner to Rnd2 for the migration of embryonic mouse cortical neurons (Neural Dev 10:9, 2015)...
March 11, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26896392/evx1-and-evx2-specify-excitatory-neurotransmitter-fates-and-suppress-inhibitory-fates-through-a-pax2-independent-mechanism
#13
José L Juárez-Morales, Claus J Schulte, Sofia A Pezoa, Grace K Vallejo, William C Hilinski, Samantha J England, Sarah de Jager, Katharine E Lewis
BACKGROUND: For neurons to function correctly in neuronal circuitry they must utilize appropriate neurotransmitters. However, even though neurotransmitter specificity is one of the most important and defining properties of a neuron we still do not fully understand how neurotransmitter fates are specified during development. Most neuronal properties are determined by the transcription factors that neurons express as they start to differentiate. While we know a few transcription factors that specify the neurotransmitter fates of particular neurons, there are still many spinal neurons for which the transcription factors specifying this critical phenotype are unknown...
February 19, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26878848/region-specific-role-of-growth-differentiation-factor-5-in-the-establishment-of-sympathetic-innervation
#14
Gerard W O'Keeffe, Humberto Gutierrez, Laura Howard, Christopher W Laurie, Catarina Osorio, Núria Gavaldà, Sean L Wyatt, Alun M Davies
BACKGROUND: Nerve growth factor (NGF) is the prototypical target-derived neurotrophic factor required for sympathetic neuron survival and for the growth and ramification of sympathetic axons within most but not all sympathetic targets. This implies the operation of additional target-derived factors for regulating terminal sympathetic axon growth and branching. RESULTS: Here report that growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5), a widely expressed member of the transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) superfamily required for limb development, promoted axon growth from mouse superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons independently of NGF and enhanced axon growth in combination with NGF...
February 15, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26819088/identification-of-molecular-signatures-specific-for-distinct-cranial-sensory-ganglia-in-the-developing-chick
#15
Cedric Patthey, Harry Clifford, Wilfried Haerty, Chris P Ponting, Sebastian M Shimeld, Jo Begbie
BACKGROUND: The cranial sensory ganglia represent populations of neurons with distinct functions, or sensory modalities. The production of individual ganglia from distinct neurogenic placodes with different developmental pathways provides a powerful model to investigate the acquisition of specific sensory modalities. To date there is a limited range of gene markers available to examine the molecular pathways underlying this process. RESULTS: Transcriptional profiles were generated for populations of differentiated neurons purified from distinct cranial sensory ganglia using microdissection in embryonic chicken followed by FAC-sorting and RNAseq...
January 27, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26791407/charcot-marie-tooth-2b-associated-rab7-mutations-cause-axon-growth-and-guidance-defects-during-vertebrate-sensory-neuron-development
#16
Olga Y Ponomareva, Kevin W Eliceiri, Mary C Halloran
BACKGROUND: Charcot-Marie-Tooth2b (CMT2b) is an axonal form of a human neurodegenerative disease that preferentially affects sensory neurons. CMT2b is dominantly inherited and is characterized by unusually early onset, presenting in the second or third decade of life. Five missense mutations in the gene encoding Rab7 GTPase have been identified as causative in human CMT2b disease. Although several studies have modeled CMT2b disease in cultured neurons and in Drosophila, the mechanisms by which defective Rab7 leads to disease remain poorly understood...
January 20, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26782621/microtubule-associated-protein-1b-is-required-for-shaping-the-neural-tube
#17
Pradeepa Jayachandran, Valerie N Olmo, Stephanie P Sanchez, Rebecca J McFarland, Eudorah Vital, Jonathan M Werner, Elim Hong, Neus Sanchez-Alberola, Aleksey Molodstov, Rachel M Brewster
BACKGROUND: Shaping of the neural tube, the precursor of the brain and spinal cord, involves narrowing and elongation of the neural tissue, concomitantly with other morphogenetic changes that contribue to this process. In zebrafish, medial displacement of neural cells (neural convergence or NC), which drives the infolding and narrowing of the neural ectoderm, is mediated by polarized migration and cell elongation towards the dorsal midline. Failure to undergo proper NC results in severe neural tube defects, yet the molecular underpinnings of this process remain poorly understood...
January 18, 2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27553035/lmx1b-is-required-for-the-glutamatergic-fates-of-a-subset-of-spinal-cord-neurons
#18
William C Hilinski, Jonathan R Bostrom, Samantha J England, José L Juárez-Morales, Sarah de Jager, Olivier Armant, Jessica Legradi, Uwe Strähle, Brian A Link, Katharine E Lewis
BACKGROUND: Alterations in neurotransmitter phenotypes of specific neurons can cause imbalances in excitation and inhibition in the central nervous system (CNS), leading to diseases. Therefore, the correct specification and maintenance of neurotransmitter phenotypes is vital. As with other neuronal properties, neurotransmitter phenotypes are often specified and maintained by particular transcription factors. However, the specific molecular mechanisms and transcription factors that regulate neurotransmitter phenotypes remain largely unknown...
2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27539083/in-vivo-functional-analysis-of-drosophila-robo1-immunoglobulin-like-domains
#19
Marie C Reichert, Haley E Brown, Timothy A Evans
BACKGROUND: In animals with bilateral symmetry, midline crossing of axons in the developing central nervous system is regulated by Slit ligands and their neuronal Roundabout (Robo) receptors. Multiple structural domains are present in an evolutionarily conserved arrangement in Robo family proteins, but our understanding of the functional importance of individual domains for midline repulsive signaling is limited. METHODS: We have examined the functional importance of each of the five conserved immunoglobulin-like (Ig) domains within the Drosophila Robo1 receptor...
2016: Neural Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468987/dual-leucine-zipper-kinase-regulates-expression-of-axon-guidance-genes-in-mouse-neuronal-cells
#20
Andréanne Blondeau, Jean-François Lucier, Dominick Matteau, Lauralyne Dumont, Sébastien Rodrigue, Pierre-Étienne Jacques, Richard Blouin
BACKGROUND: Recent genetic studies in model organisms, such as Drosophila, C. elegans and mice, have highlighted a critical role for dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) in neural development and axonal responses to injury. However, exactly how DLK fulfills these functions remains to be determined. Using RNA-seq profiling, we evaluated the global changes in gene expression that are caused by shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous DLK in differentiated Neuro-2a neuroblastoma cells. RESULTS: Our analysis led to the identification of numerous up- and down-regulated genes, among which several were found to be associated with system development and axon guidance according to gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses, respectively...
2016: Neural Development
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