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Conflict and Health

Mohammed Jawad, Ali Khader, Christopher Millett
BACKGROUND: Evidence is conflicting as to the whether tobacco smoking prevalence is higher in refugee than non-refugee populations. The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence and frequency of tobacco smoking in Palestine refugee and non-refugee adolescent populations in the Middle East. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) conducted in Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and the West Bank among adolescent Palestine refugees and non-refugees...
2016: Conflict and Health
Catrin Schulte-Hillen, Nelly Staderini, Jean-François Saint-Sauveur
MSF responds to needs for the termination of pregnancy, including on request (TPR); it is part of the organization's work aimed at reducing maternal mortality and suffering; and preventing unsafe abortions in the countries where we work. Following the publication of "Why don't humanitarian organizations provide safe abortion care?" we offer an insight into MSF's experience over the past few years. The article looks at the legal concerns and proposes that the importance of addressing maternal mortality should replace them and the operational set-up and action organized in a way that mitigates risks...
2016: Conflict and Health
Kyle G Ratner, Lindsay B Katona
Global health professionals regularly conduct healthcare trainings, such as first aid courses, in disadvantaged communities across the world. Many of these communities lack healthcare infrastructure because of war and political conflict. The authors draw on their experience conducting a first aid course in South Sudan to provide a perspective on how healthcare trainings for people with no medical background can be used to bridge ethnic, political, and religious differences. They argue that a necessary step for turning a healthcare training into a vehicle for peacebuilding is to bring people from different communities to the same physical space to learn the course material together...
2016: Conflict and Health
Alex Adaku, James Okello, Blakeley Lowry, Jeremy C Kane, Stephen Alderman, Seggane Musisi, Wietse A Tol
BACKGROUND: Since December 2013, an armed conflict in South Sudan has resulted in the displacement of over 2.2 million people, more than 270,000 of whom are presently in refugee settlements located throughout Uganda. Existing literature suggests that refugees are at increased risk for a range of mental health and psychosocial problems. There is international consensus on the importance of needs and resource assessments to inform potential mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) interventions...
2016: Conflict and Health
Hani Mansourian, Beth L Rubenstein, Craig Spencer, Makini Chisolm-Straker, Eva Noble, Anna Skeels, Chiara Ceriotti, Lindsay Stark
BACKGROUND: This article reports on the use of the 'neighborhood method' to measure the prevalence and basic characteristics of children who became separated from their parents or usual caregivers subsequent to an attack by the M23 militia group in North Kivu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. METHODS: A two-stage household cluster survey was conducted in 522 households in North Kivu in August 2014. Heads of households were asked about separated children in their household, as well as the households of their two closest neighbors...
2016: Conflict and Health
Amanda J Nguyen, Concetta Feo, Kyuri Idrisov, Giovanni Pintaldi, Annick Lenglet, Zalina Tsatsaeva, Paul Bolton, Judith Bass
BACKGROUND: A decade of conflict in Chechnya destroyed infrastructure and resulted in widespread exposure to violence. Amidst substantial reconstruction, periodic violence has contributed to an ongoing atmosphere of insecurity. We conducted a qualitative study to understand the mental health and psychosocial problems affecting adult Chechens in this context to inform development of assessment tools for an evaluation study related to individual counseling. METHODS: Data were collected in July 2014...
2016: Conflict and Health
Chathika K Weerasuriya, Saw Oo Tan, Lykourgos Christos Alexakis, Aung Kaung Set, Marcus J Rijken, Paul Martyn, François Nosten, Rose McGready
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/1752-1505-6-5.].
2016: Conflict and Health
Mehmet Büyüktiryaki, Fuat Emre Canpolat, Evrim Alyamaç Dizdar, Nilüfer Okur, Gülsüm Kadıoğlu Şimşek
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s13031-015-0066-1.].
2016: Conflict and Health
Walid Ammar, Alissar Radi, Fadi El-Jardali
This letter intends to clarify information and misconceptions found in the article "Syrian refugees in Lebanon: the search for universal health coverage" which was published June 1st, 2016, and to challenge the core notion of fragmentation as presented by the authors. It also highlights the fact that the article does not recognize the severe shortage in refugees health financing and unmet promises by the international community, and calls for immediate action and far greater support from that community to address the needs of refugees in Lebanon...
2016: Conflict and Health
Peter Heudtlass, Niko Speybroeck, Debarati Guha-Sapir
BACKGROUND: Complex humanitarian emergencies are characterised by a break-down of health systems. All-cause mortality increases and non-violent excess deaths (predominantly due to infectious diseases) have been shown to outnumber violent deaths even in exceptionally brutal conflicts. However, affected populations are very heterogeneous and refugees, internally displaced persons (IDPs) and resident (non-displaced) populations differ substantially in their access to health services. We aim to show how this translates into health outcomes by quantifying excess all-cause mortality in emergencies by displacement status...
2016: Conflict and Health
Alexander Hamilton, Charlie Foster, Justin Richards, Rajendra Surenthirakumaran
BACKGROUND: Mental disorders contribute to the global disease burden and have an increased prevalence among children in emergency settings. Good physical health is crucial for mental well-being, although physical health is multifactorial and the nature of this relationship is not fully understood. Using Sri Lanka as a case study, we assessed the baseline levels of, and the association between, mental health and physical health in Tamil school children. METHODS: We conducted a cross sectional study of mental and physical health in 10 schools in Kilinochchi town in northern Sri Lanka...
2016: Conflict and Health
Alessia Trovato, Anthony Reid, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Chiara Montaldo, Tom Decroo, Philip Owiti, Francesco Bongiorno, Stefano Di Carlo
BACKGROUND: In recent years Europe has received an increasing influx of migrants, many of whom risked their lives crossing the Mediterranean Sea. In October 2013, Italy launched a search and rescue operation at sea in response to migrant deaths during the sea crossing. In August 2014, Médecins sans Frontières and the local Ministry of Health established an outpatient clinic at Augusta harbor, in Sicily, which received 26 % of total sea migrants arrived in Italy in 2014, to provide immediate medical assessment and care...
2016: Conflict and Health
Karl Blanchet, Fouad M Fouad, Tejendra Pherali
The crisis in Syria has forced more than 4 million people to find refuge outside Syria. In Lebanon, in 2015, the refugee population represented 30 % of the total population. International health assistance has been provided to refugee populations in Lebanon. However, the current humanitarian system has also contributed to increase fragmentation of the Lebanese health system. Ensuring universal health coverage to vulnerable Lebanese, Syrian and Palestinian refugees will require in Lebanon to redistribute the key functions and responsibilities of the Ministry of Health and its partners to generate more coherence and efficiency...
2016: Conflict and Health
Jocelyn Td Kelly, Lindsay Branham, Michele R Decker
BACKGROUND: Globally, an estimated 300,000 children under the age of 18 participate in combat situations; those in armed groups in particular suffer prolonged exposure to psychological and physical abuse. The Lord's Resistance Army (LRA) is a rebel movement known for its widespread conscription of children; yet little is known about this process once the group moved beyond northern Uganda. In this paper, we describe the processes related to abduction and indoctrination of youth by the LRA in northeastern Democratic Republic of the Congo ( DRC)...
2016: Conflict and Health
Arild Vaktskjold, Mohammad Yaghi, Usama Balawi, Bjørn Iversen, Wendy Venter
BACKGROUND: The majority of Gazans who were killed or injured in the 2014 Israel-Gaza war were civilians, and one-fourth of the population were internally displaced. As the Gaza Strip is a small territory, the whole population was exposed to the war and its effects on the health care system, supplies and infrastructure. Our aim was to assess the overall, sex and age-group mortality in Gaza for the period July-September 2014 that was not caused by war injuries, and the proportion of non-trauma deaths among adults that occurred outside hospital wards...
2016: Conflict and Health
A L Wirtz, N Glass, K Pham, N Perrin, L S Rubenstein, S Singh, A Vu
BACKGROUND: Conflict affected refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are at increased vulnerability to gender-based violence (GBV). Health, psychosocial, and protection services have been implemented in humanitarian settings, but GBV remains under-reported and available services under-utilized. To improve access to existing GBV services and facilitate reporting, the ASIST-GBV screening tool was developed and tested for use in humanitarian settings. This process was completed in four phases: 1) systematic literature review, 2) qualitative research that included individual interviews and focus groups with GBV survivors and service providers, respectively, 3) pilot testing of the developed screening tool, and 4) 3-month implementation testing of the screening tool...
2016: Conflict and Health
Shada A Rouhani, Jennifer Scott, Gillian Burkhardt, Monica A Onyango, Sadia Haider, Ashley Greiner, Katherine Albutt, Michael VanRooyen, Susan A Bartels
BACKGROUND: Sexual violence is prevalent in eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and has resulted in sexual violence-related pregnancies (SVRPs). Despite restrictive laws, women may seek to terminate SVRPs; however, there are limited data on termination of SVRPs. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted in 2012 in Bukavu, DRC. Adult women who self-reported an SVRP and termination of that SVRP were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). Trained female interviewers verbally administered a quantitative survey to all participants and a semi-structured qualitative survey to a subset...
2016: Conflict and Health
Therese McGinn, Sara E Casey
BACKGROUND: Although sexual and reproductive health services have become more available in humanitarian settings over the last decade, safe abortion services are still rarely provided. The authors' observations suggest that four reasons are typically given for this gap: 'There's no need'; 'Abortion is too complicated to provide in crises'; 'Donors don't fund abortion services'; and 'Abortion is illegal'. DISCUSSION: However, each of these reasons is based on false premises...
2016: Conflict and Health
Mujalli Mhailan Murshidi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Conflict and Health
Jennifer Whitmill, Curtis Blanton, Sathyanarayanan Doraiswamy, Nadine Cornier, Marian Schilperood, Paul Spiegel, Barbara Tomczyk
BACKGROUND: The United Nations Refugee Agency's Health Information System issues analytical reports on the current camp conditions and trends for priority reproductive health issues. The goal was to assess the status of reproductive health by analyzing seven indicators and comparing them to standards and host country estimates. METHODS: Data on seven indicators were extracted from the database during a seven-year period (2007 through 2013). A standardized country inclusion criterion was created based on the year of country implementation and the percentage of missing reports per camp and year...
2016: Conflict and Health
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