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Conflict and Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30008800/prevalence-of-non-communicable-diseases-and-access-to-care-among-non-camp-syrian-refugees-in-northern-jordan
#1
Manuela Rehr, Muhammad Shoaib, Sara Ellithy, Suhib Okour, Cono Ariti, Idriss Ait-Bouziad, Paul van den Bosch, Anais Deprade, Mohammad Altarawneh, Abdel Shafei, Sadeq Gabashneh, Annick Lenglet
Background: Tackling the high non-communicable disease (NCD) burden among Syrian refugees poses a challenge to humanitarian actors and host countries. Current response priorities are the identification and integration of key interventions for NCD care into humanitarian programs as well as sustainable financing. To provide evidence for effective NCD intervention planning, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among non-camp Syrian refugees in northern Jordan to investigate the burden and determinants for high NCDs prevalence and NCD multi-morbidities and assess the access to NCD care...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002727/small-and-light-arms-violence-reduction-as-a-public-health-measure-the-case-of-libya
#2
REVIEW
Gemma Bowsher, Patrick Bogue, Preeti Patel, Peter Boyle, Richard Sullivan
The conflict environment in Libya is characterized by continued pervasive insecurity amidst the widespread availability of small arms and light weapons (SALW). After the First Civil War, armed brigades took the law into their own hands and the resulting violence terminated a short-lived post-conflict period that has relapsed into a Second Civil War. The Libyan government has struggled to assert authority over armed groups and these brigades, refusing to disarm have contributed directly the initiation of a second conflict; some are motivated by self-defense, status, criminality, vindication or political aims...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988565/provision-and-continuation-of-antiretroviral-therapy-during-acute-conflict-the-experience-of-msf-in-central-african-republic-and-yemen
#3
Cecilia Ferreyra, Daniel O'Brien, Beatriz Alonso, Abdulbasset Al-Zomour, Nathan Ford
Background: Unstable settings present challenges for the effective provision of antiretroviral treatment (ART). In this paper, we summarize the experience and results of providing ART and implementing contingency plans during acute instability in the Central African Republic (CAR) and Yemen. Case presentation: In CAR, MSF has provided HIV care in three conflict-affected rural regions; these were put on hold throughout the acute phase of violence. "Run-away bags" containing 3 or 4 months of ART were distributed to patients at MSF facilities...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29983733/performance-based-financing-in-three-humanitarian-settings-principles-and-pragmatism
#4
Maria Paola Bertone, Eelco Jacobs, Jurrien Toonen, Ngozi Akwataghibe, Sophie Witter
Background: Performance based financing (PBF) has been increasingly implemented across low and middle-income countries, including in fragile and humanitarian settings, which present specific features likely to require adaptation and to influence implementation of any health financing programme. However, the literature has been surprisingly thin in the discussion of how PBF has been adapted to different contexts, and in turn how different contexts may influence PBF. With case studies from three humanitarian settings (northern Nigeria, Central African Republic and South Kivu in the Democratic Republic of Congo), we examine why and how PBF has emerged and has been adapted to those unsettled and dynamic contexts, what the opportunities and challenges have been, and what lessons can be drawn...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29977331/-the-needs-have-clearly-evolved-as-time-has-gone-on-a-qualitative-study-to-explore-stakeholders-perspectives-on-the-health-needs-of-syrian-refugees-in-greece-following-the-2016-european-union-turkey-agreement
#5
Rebecca Hémono, Bridget Relyea, Jennifer Scott, Sinan Khaddaj, Angeliki Douka, Alison Wringe
Background: By 2017, more than 500,000 Syrian refugees had passed through Greece seeking safety and asylum. Understanding how their health needs evolved over the refugee crisis in Greece and in relation to changing migration policy, and exploring the challenges involved in delivering their healthcare is timely as non-governmental organizations (NGOs) transition health service provision to the Greek health authorities. Methods: We conducted a qualitative study to explore stakeholders' perspectives on delivering health services to Syrian refugees over the course of the humanitarian response in Greece from 2015 to 2017...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881448/a-scoping-review-of-the-associations-between-mental-health-and-factors-related-to-hiv-acquisition-and-disease-progression-in-conflict-affected-populations
#6
REVIEW
Erica Koegler, Caitlin E Kennedy
The association between poor mental health and factors related to HIV acquisition and disease progression (also referred to as HIV-related factors) may be stronger among conflict-affected populations given elevated rates of mental health disorders. We conducted a scoping review of the literature to identify evidence-based associations between mental health (depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) and factors related to HIV acquisition and progression in conflict-affected populations...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29853989/wishful-thinking-versus-operational-commitment-is-the-international-guidance-on-priority-sexual-and-reproductive-health-interventions-in-humanitarian-settings-becoming-unrealistic
#7
REVIEW
Nguyen Toan Tran, Catrin Schulte-Hillen
Twenty-one years ago, a global consortium of like-minded institutions designed the landmark Minimum Initial Service Package (MISP) for sexual and reproductive health (SRH) to guide national and international humanitarian first responders in preventing morbidity and mortality at the onset of chaos, destruction, and high insecurity caused by disasters or conflicts. Since then, the MISP has undergone limited change and has become an international reference in humanitarian response. This article discusses our perspectives regarding the 2018 changes to the MISP that have created division among humanitarian field practitioners, academics, advocates, and development agencies...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29796081/a-factor-analytic-investigation-of-dsm-5-ptsd-symptoms-in-a-culturally-diverse-sample-of-refugees-resettled-in-australia
#8
Philippa Specker, Belinda J Liddell, Yulisha Byrow, Richard A Bryant, Angela Nickerson
Background: Refugees and asylum-seekers are often exposed to multiple types of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and report elevated rates of psychological disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Considering this, refugee populations merit continued research in the field of traumatic stress to better understand the psychological impact of these experiences. The symptom structure of PTSD underwent a major revision in the recent formulation in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), and this reformulation has yet to be comprehensively investigated in the context of PTSD arising from traumatic events experienced by refugees...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785204/using-digital-health-to-enable-ethical-health-research-in-conflict-and-other-humanitarian-settings
#9
REVIEW
Eric D Perakslis
Conducting research in a humanitarian setting requires quantifiable quality measures to ensure ethical study conduct. Digital health technologies are proven to improve research study quality and efficacy via automated data collection, improvement of data reliability, fidelity and resilience and by improved data provenance and traceability. Additionally, digital health methodologies can improve patient identity, patient privacy, study transparency, data sharing, competent informed consent, and the confidentiality and security of humanitarian operations...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785203/conflict-and-tuberculosis-in-sudan-a-10-year-review-of-the-national-tuberculosis-programme-2004-2014
#10
Sara A Hassanain, Jeffrey K Edwards, Emilie Venables, Engy Ali, Khadiga Adam, Hafiz Hussien, Asma Elsony
Background: Sudan is a fragile developing country, with a low expenditure on health. It has been subjected to ongoing conflicts ever since 1956, with the Darfur crisis peaking in 2004. The conflict, in combination with the weak infrastructure, can lead to poor access to healthcare. Hence, this can cause an increased risk of infection, greater morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis (TB), especially amongst the poor, displaced and refugee populations. This study will be the first to describe TB case notifications, characteristics and outcomes over a ten-year period in Darfur in comparison with the non-conflict Eastern zones within Sudan...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760768/mechanisms-of-change-for-interventions-aimed-at-improving-the-wellbeing-mental-health-and-resilience-of-children-and-adolescents-affected-by-war-and-armed-conflict-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#11
REVIEW
Tania Josiane Bosqui, Bassam Marshoud
Despite increasing research and clinical interest in delivering psychosocial interventions for children affected by war, little research has been conducted on the underlying mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. This review aimed to identify these processes in order to inform existing interventions and highlight research gaps. A systematic review of reviews was conducted drawing from academic databases (PubMed, PILOTS, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews) and field resources (e.g. Médecins Sans Frontières and the Psychosocial Centre of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), with extracted data analysed using Thematic Content Analysis...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743939/review-of-attacks-on-health-care-facilities-in-six-conflicts-of-the-past-three-decades
#12
REVIEW
Carolyn Briody, Leonard Rubenstein, Les Roberts, Eamon Penney, William Keenan, Jeffrey Horbar
Background: In the ongoing conflicts of Syria and Yemen, there have been widespread reports of attacks on health care facilities and personnel. Tabulated evidence does suggest hospital bombings in Syria and Yemen are far higher than reported in other conflicts but it is unclear if this is a reporting artefact. Objective: This article examines attacks on health care facilities in conflicts in six middle- to high- income countries that have occurred over the past three decades to try and determine if attacks have become more common, and to assess the different methods used to collect data on attacks...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713372/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-access-in-southern-syria-analysis-of-survey-data-and-recommendations-for-response
#13
Mustafa Sikder, Umar Daraz, Daniele Lantagne, Roberto Saltori
Background: Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context. Methods: Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in 17 sub-districts of two governorates in opposition controlled southern Syria...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686727/epidemiological-findings-of-major-chemical-attacks-in-the-syrian-war-are-consistent-with-civilian-targeting-a-short-report
#14
Jose M Rodriguez-Llanes, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin-Samuel Schlüter, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks
Evidence of use of toxic gas chemical weapons in the Syrian war has been reported by governmental and non-governmental international organizations since the war started in March 2011. To date, the profiles of victims of the largest chemical attacks in Syria remain unknown. In this study, we used descriptive epidemiological analysis to describe demographic characteristics of victims of the largest chemical weapons attacks in the Syrian war. We analysed conflict-related, direct deaths from chemical weapons recorded in non-government-controlled areas by the Violation Documentation Center, occurring from March 18, 2011 to April 10, 2017, with complete information on the victim's date and place of death, cause and demographic group...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657578/notes-from-the-field-a-case-of-hepatic-failure-and-reflections-on-current-status-of-healthcare-of-syrian-refugees-in-lebanon
#15
Salim M Saiyed, John Kahler, Mutaz Kalabani
Recent trends and research suggest health conditions of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon are deteriorating. The following case study highlights some of the problems that refugees encounter seeking health care services in Lebanon. A coordinated response from Non-governmental organization (NGO) with intense focus on non-communicable disease (NCD) is needed to avert further worsening of health conditions on the ground.
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619077/risk-factors-for-vitamin-a-and-d-deficiencies-among-children-under-five-in-the-state-of-palestine
#16
Aeysha Bushra Chaudhry, Shakoor Hajat, Najwa Rizkallah, Ala'a Abu-Rub
Background: Vitamin A and D are essential for the proper growth and development of a child. Due to the complex political circumstances in the state of Palestine, research on micronutrient deficiency is scarce. Methods: The Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) and UNICEF conducted a national cross-sectional survey in 2013 after the implementation of various micronutrient supplementation and fortification programs. Risk factors for levels of vitamin A ( n  = 1054) and vitamin D ( n  = 150) were assessed among children aged 6 to 59 months using chi-square tests and logistic regression with each of the outcome variables, vitamin A and D deficiencies...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599819/the-new-who-decision-making-framework-on-vaccine-use-in-acute-humanitarian-emergencies-msf-experience-in-minkaman-south-sudan
#17
Monica Rull, Sophie Masson, Nicolas Peyraud, Marco Simonelli, Alexandre Ventura, Claire Dorion, Francisco J Luquero, Florent Uzzeni, Iza Cigleneki
Introduction: The main causes of death during population movements can be prevented by addressing the population's basic needs. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a framework for decision making to help prioritize vaccinations in acute humanitarian emergencies. This article describes MSF's experience of applying this framework in addition to addressing key population needs in a displacement setting in Minkaman, South Sudan. Case description: Military clashes broke out in South Sudan in December 2013...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588655/reflections-from-the-lebanese-field-first-heal-thyself
#18
Zeina Chemali, Hannah Smati, Kelsey Johnson, Christina P C Borba, Gregory L Fricchione
Humanitarian aid workers caring for Syrian refugees face major stressors as they attend to refugees' needs on the field. Without adequate psychosocial support, evidence has shown that fieldworkers experience high burnout and turnover as well as long-term poor mental health. Unfortunately, scarce training in this regard leaves them ill-equipped to care for themselves and practice resilience while handling trauma in the field. This paper highlights our reflection on working with mindfulness programs during humanitarian crises, specifically how our program, Stress Management and Relaxation Response Training (SMART), has helped over time fieldworkers and the community they cared for...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560023/monitoring-and-evaluation-of-mental-health-and-psychosocial-support-programs-in-humanitarian-settings-a-scoping-review-of-terminology-and-focus
#19
Jura L Augustinavicius, M Claire Greene, Daniel P Lakin, Wietse A Tol
Background: Monitoring and evaluation of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programs is critical to facilitating learning and providing accountability to stakeholders. As part of an inter-agency effort to develop recommendations on MHPSS monitoring and evaluation, this scoping review aimed to identify the terminology and focus of monitoring and evaluation frameworks in this field. Methods: We collected program documents (logical frameworks (logframes) and theories of change) from members of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Reference Group on MHPSS, and systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature across five databases...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545828/a-qualitative-approach-to-understand-antiretroviral-therapy-art-adherence-for-refugees-living-in-nakivale-refugee-settlement-in-uganda
#20
Kelli N O'Laughlin, Shada A Rouhani, Julius Kasozi, Kelsy E Greenwald, Nicholas R Perkons, Zikama M Faustin, Ingrid V Bassett, Norma C Ware
Background: Refugees living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suffer unique hardships that may increase their vulnerability to interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: To investigate refugees' experiences adhering to ART, we conducted inperson interviews with refugees on ART ( n  = 73) and HIV clinic staff ( n  = 4) in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in southwest Uganda from March to July 2011. Three analysts used a conventional content analysis approach to evaluate these data...
2018: Conflict and Health
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