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Conflict and Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785204/using-digital-health-to-enable-ethical-health-research-in-conflict-and-other-humanitarian-settings
#1
REVIEW
Eric D Perakslis
Conducting research in a humanitarian setting requires quantifiable quality measures to ensure ethical study conduct. Digital health technologies are proven to improve research study quality and efficacy via automated data collection, improvement of data reliability, fidelity and resilience and by improved data provenance and traceability. Additionally, digital health methodologies can improve patient identity, patient privacy, study transparency, data sharing, competent informed consent, and the confidentiality and security of humanitarian operations...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785203/conflict-and-tuberculosis-in-sudan-a-10-year-review-of-the-national-tuberculosis-programme-2004-2014
#2
Sara A Hassanain, Jeffrey K Edwards, Emilie Venables, Engy Ali, Khadiga Adam, Hafiz Hussien, Asma Elsony
Background: Sudan is a fragile developing country, with a low expenditure on health. It has been subjected to ongoing conflicts ever since 1956, with the Darfur crisis peaking in 2004. The conflict, in combination with the weak infrastructure, can lead to poor access to healthcare. Hence, this can cause an increased risk of infection, greater morbidity and mortality from tuberculosis (TB), especially amongst the poor, displaced and refugee populations. This study will be the first to describe TB case notifications, characteristics and outcomes over a ten-year period in Darfur in comparison with the non-conflict Eastern zones within Sudan...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760768/mechanisms-of-change-for-interventions-aimed-at-improving-the-wellbeing-mental-health-and-resilience-of-children-and-adolescents-affected-by-war-and-armed-conflict-a-systematic-review-of-reviews
#3
REVIEW
Tania Josiane Bosqui, Bassam Marshoud
Despite increasing research and clinical interest in delivering psychosocial interventions for children affected by war, little research has been conducted on the underlying mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. This review aimed to identify these processes in order to inform existing interventions and highlight research gaps. A systematic review of reviews was conducted drawing from academic databases (PubMed, PILOTS, Cochrane Library for Systematic Reviews) and field resources (e.g. Médecins Sans Frontières and the Psychosocial Centre of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies), with extracted data analysed using Thematic Content Analysis...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743939/review-of-attacks-on-health-care-facilities-in-six-conflicts-of-the-past-three-decades
#4
REVIEW
Carolyn Briody, Leonard Rubenstein, Les Roberts, Eamon Penney, William Keenan, Jeffrey Horbar
Background: In the ongoing conflicts of Syria and Yemen, there have been widespread reports of attacks on health care facilities and personnel. Tabulated evidence does suggest hospital bombings in Syria and Yemen are far higher than reported in other conflicts but it is unclear if this is a reporting artefact. Objective: This article examines attacks on health care facilities in conflicts in six middle- to high- income countries that have occurred over the past three decades to try and determine if attacks have become more common, and to assess the different methods used to collect data on attacks...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713372/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-access-in-southern-syria-analysis-of-survey-data-and-recommendations-for-response
#5
Mustafa Sikder, Umar Daraz, Daniele Lantagne, Roberto Saltori
Background: Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are immediate priorities for human survival and dignity in emergencies. In 2010, > 90% of Syrians had access to improved drinking water. In 2011, armed conflict began and currently 12 million people need WASH services. We analyzed data collected in southern Syria to identify effective WASH response activities for this context. Methods: Cross-sectional household surveys were conducted in 2016 and 2017 in 17 sub-districts of two governorates in opposition controlled southern Syria...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686727/epidemiological-findings-of-major-chemical-attacks-in-the-syrian-war-are-consistent-with-civilian-targeting-a-short-report
#6
Jose M Rodriguez-Llanes, Debarati Guha-Sapir, Benjamin-Samuel Schlüter, Madelyn Hsiao-Rei Hicks
Evidence of use of toxic gas chemical weapons in the Syrian war has been reported by governmental and non-governmental international organizations since the war started in March 2011. To date, the profiles of victims of the largest chemical attacks in Syria remain unknown. In this study, we used descriptive epidemiological analysis to describe demographic characteristics of victims of the largest chemical weapons attacks in the Syrian war. We analysed conflict-related, direct deaths from chemical weapons recorded in non-government-controlled areas by the Violation Documentation Center, occurring from March 18, 2011 to April 10, 2017, with complete information on the victim's date and place of death, cause and demographic group...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657578/notes-from-the-field-a-case-of-hepatic-failure-and-reflections-on-current-status-of-healthcare-of-syrian-refugees-in-lebanon
#7
Salim M Saiyed, John Kahler, Mutaz Kalabani
Recent trends and research suggest health conditions of the Syrian refugees in Lebanon are deteriorating. The following case study highlights some of the problems that refugees encounter seeking health care services in Lebanon. A coordinated response from Non-governmental organization (NGO) with intense focus on non-communicable disease (NCD) is needed to avert further worsening of health conditions on the ground.
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619077/risk-factors-for-vitamin-a-and-d-deficiencies-among-children-under-five-in-the-state-of-palestine
#8
Aeysha Bushra Chaudhry, Shakoor Hajat, Najwa Rizkallah, Ala'a Abu-Rub
Background: Vitamin A and D are essential for the proper growth and development of a child. Due to the complex political circumstances in the state of Palestine, research on micronutrient deficiency is scarce. Methods: The Palestinian Ministry of Health (MOH) and UNICEF conducted a national cross-sectional survey in 2013 after the implementation of various micronutrient supplementation and fortification programs. Risk factors for levels of vitamin A ( n  = 1054) and vitamin D ( n  = 150) were assessed among children aged 6 to 59 months using chi-square tests and logistic regression with each of the outcome variables, vitamin A and D deficiencies...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599819/the-new-who-decision-making-framework-on-vaccine-use-in-acute-humanitarian-emergencies-msf-experience-in-minkaman-south-sudan
#9
Monica Rull, Sophie Masson, Nicolas Peyraud, Marco Simonelli, Alexandre Ventura, Claire Dorion, Francisco J Luquero, Florent Uzzeni, Iza Cigleneki
Introduction: The main causes of death during population movements can be prevented by addressing the population's basic needs. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) issued a framework for decision making to help prioritize vaccinations in acute humanitarian emergencies. This article describes MSF's experience of applying this framework in addition to addressing key population needs in a displacement setting in Minkaman, South Sudan. Case description: Military clashes broke out in South Sudan in December 2013...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588655/reflections-from-the-lebanese-field-first-heal-thyself
#10
Zeina Chemali, Hannah Smati, Kelsey Johnson, Christina P C Borba, Gregory L Fricchione
Humanitarian aid workers caring for Syrian refugees face major stressors as they attend to refugees' needs on the field. Without adequate psychosocial support, evidence has shown that fieldworkers experience high burnout and turnover as well as long-term poor mental health. Unfortunately, scarce training in this regard leaves them ill-equipped to care for themselves and practice resilience while handling trauma in the field. This paper highlights our reflection on working with mindfulness programs during humanitarian crises, specifically how our program, Stress Management and Relaxation Response Training (SMART), has helped over time fieldworkers and the community they cared for...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560023/monitoring-and-evaluation-of-mental-health-and-psychosocial-support-programs-in-humanitarian-settings-a-scoping-review-of-terminology-and-focus
#11
Jura L Augustinavicius, M Claire Greene, Daniel P Lakin, Wietse A Tol
Background: Monitoring and evaluation of mental health and psychosocial support (MHPSS) programs is critical to facilitating learning and providing accountability to stakeholders. As part of an inter-agency effort to develop recommendations on MHPSS monitoring and evaluation, this scoping review aimed to identify the terminology and focus of monitoring and evaluation frameworks in this field. Methods: We collected program documents (logical frameworks (logframes) and theories of change) from members of the Inter-Agency Standing Committee Reference Group on MHPSS, and systematically searched the peer-reviewed literature across five databases...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545828/a-qualitative-approach-to-understand-antiretroviral-therapy-art-adherence-for-refugees-living-in-nakivale-refugee-settlement-in-uganda
#12
Kelli N O'Laughlin, Shada A Rouhani, Julius Kasozi, Kelsy E Greenwald, Nicholas R Perkons, Zikama M Faustin, Ingrid V Bassett, Norma C Ware
Background: Refugees living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa suffer unique hardships that may increase their vulnerability to interruptions in antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods: To investigate refugees' experiences adhering to ART, we conducted inperson interviews with refugees on ART ( n  = 73) and HIV clinic staff ( n  = 4) in Nakivale Refugee Settlement in southwest Uganda from March to July 2011. Three analysts used a conventional content analysis approach to evaluate these data...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515646/risk-factors-for-unsafe-behaviors-toward-grenades-among-rural-populations-affected-by-explosive-devices-in-colombia
#13
Andrew T Boyd, Kristin Becknell, Steven Russell, Curtis Blanton, Susan T Cookson, Oleg O Bilukha, Mark Anderson
Background: Following decades of armed conflict, Colombia remains highly affected by explosive device (ED) contamination, especially in rural areas. Many victims are injured by EDs despite knowing their dangers. Determining risk factors for unsafe behaviors toward EDs, including grenades, is critical for preventing injuries. Methods: In 2012, CDC assisted Colombian partners in conducting a multi-stage knowledge, attitudes, and practices survey in rural ED-affected areas...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479374/responding-to-chemical-weapons-violations-in-syria-legal-health-and-humanitarian-recommendations
#14
REVIEW
Julia Brooks, Timothy B Erickson, Stephanie Kayden, Raul Ruiz, Stephen Wilkinson, Frederick M Burkle
Background: The repeated use of prohibited chemical weapons in the Syrian conflict poses serious health, humanitarian, and security threats to civilians, healthcare personnel, and first responders. Moreover, the use of chemical weapons constitutes a clear and egregious violation of international law-likely amounting to a war crime-for which continued impunity is setting a dangerous precedent in relation to current and future conflicts. This debate article calls upon concerned states, organizations, and individuals to respond urgently and unequivocally to this serious breach of international legal and humanitarian norms...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449879/the-impact-of-cognitive-processing-therapy-on-stigma-among-survivors-of-sexual-violence-in-eastern-democratic-republic-of-congo-results-from-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
S M Murray, J Augustinavicius, D Kaysen, D Rao, L K Murray, K Wachter, J Annan, K Falb, P Bolton, J K Bass
Background: Sexual violence is associated with a multitude of poor physical, emotional, and social outcomes. Despite reports of stigma by sexual violence survivors, limited evidence exists on effective strategies to reduce stigma, particularly in conflict-affected settings. We sought to assess the effect of group Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) on stigma and the extent to which stigma might moderate the effectiveness of CPT in treating mental health problems among survivors of sexual violence in the Democratic Republic of Congo...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445418/local-constructions-of-gender-based-violence-amongst-idps-in-northern-uganda-analysis-of-archival-data-collected-using-a-gender-and-age-segmented-participatory-ranking-methodology
#16
Alastair Ager, Carolyn Bancroft, Elizabeth Berger, Lindsay Stark
Background: Gender-based violence (GBV) is a significant problem in conflict-affected settings. Understanding local constructions of such violence is crucial to developing preventive and responsive interventions to address this issue. Methods: This study reports on a secondary analysis of archived data collected as part of formative qualitative work - using a group participatory ranking methodology (PRM) - informing research on the prevalence of GBV amongst IDPs in northern Uganda in 2006...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422946/evaluating-the-communities-care-program-best-practice-for-rigorous-research-to-evaluate-gender-based-violence-prevention-and-response-programs-in-humanitarian-settings
#17
N Glass, N Perrin, A Clough, A Desgroppes, F N Kaburu, J Melton, A Rink, S Read-Hamilton, M Marsh
Background: Gender-based violence (GBV) is a significant issue for women and girls in humanitarian settings. Innovative primary prevention programs are being developed and implemented with existing response programs to change harmful social norms that sustain GBV in humanitarian settings. Social norms are expectations of how women, men, girls and boys should behave, who should have power and control over behavior, and how families and communities value women and girls and support their rights and opportunities...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422945/differences-between-the-antibiotic-prescribing-pattern-of-newly-arrived-refugees-in-germany-and-the-german-population
#18
Fabian Kahl, Thomas Kühlein
The number of refugees arriving in Europe increased dramatically in 2015, challenging the German health system. Amongst others, the treatment of infectious diseases is an important topic in refugee healthcare. A high prevalence of multi-drug-resistant organisms has been identified among the refugee population. Still, little is known about the prescription of antibiotic medication for refugees. We conducted a descriptive analysis of all antibiotics prescribed to newly arrived refugees who were treated as outpatients between 10/01/2014 and 09/30/2015 in Erlangen, an average sized German town...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410702/the-impact-of-the-boko-haram-insurgency-in-northeast-nigeria-on-childhood-wasting-a-double-difference-study
#19
Gillian Dunn
Background: This research examines the relationship between violent conflict and childhood wasting in Northeast Nigeria, where residents have been subjected to fighting between the Nigerian government and Boko Haram - an extremist Islamist movement - since 2009. Methods: Using two Demographic and Health Surveys from before and after the Boko Haram insurgency started, a double-difference (difference-in-difference) approach is used to assess the impact of the conflict on mean weight-for-height z-scores and the likelihood of wasting...
2018: Conflict and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387145/provision-of-emergency-obstetric-care-at-secondary-level-in-a-conflict-setting-in-a-rural-area-of-afghanistan-is-the-hospital-fulfilling-its-role
#20
Daphne Lagrou, Rony Zachariah, Karen Bissell, Catherine Van Overloop, Masood Nasim, Hamsaya Nikyar Wagma, Shafiqa Kakar, Séverine Caluwaerts, Eva De Plecker, Renzo Fricke, Rafael Van den Bergh
Background: Provision of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (EmONC) reduces maternal mortality and should include three components: Basic Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care (BEmONC) offered at primary care level, Comprehensive EmONC (CEmONC) at secondary level and a good referral system in-between. In a conflict-affected province of Afghanistan (Khost), we assessed the performance of an Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) run CEmONC hospital without a primary care and referral system...
2018: Conflict and Health
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