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Biomedical Materials

Ngoc Lam, Hanh Lam, Nasya Sturdivant, Kartik Balachandran
The study of heart valve homeostatic and disease mechanisms are often limited by the challenges in simulating the in vivo milieu, where valve cells are surrounded by the extracellular matrix in a three dimensional environment and experience multiple dynamic mechanical forces. Type I collagen is typically the most common three dimensional matrix used to culture valve cells in vitro. Unfortunately, this material has poor mechanical behavior due to an inherent propensity to compact significantly, unlike native valve leaflets...
May 9, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Vartika Dhyani, Neetu Singh
Silk biomaterials can be designed to provide architectural framework comparable of connate extracellular matrix in order to boost cell growth and eventual tissue regeneration. Silk (Bombyx mori) fibroins self-assemble into hydrophobic crystalline β sheets, which provide mechanical strength and tunable degradability. The next generation tissue engineering scaffolds aim at providing spatially controlled modulation of cell adhesion and differentiation, which can be achieved by spatially controlled surface functionalization of the scaffolds...
May 9, 2017: Biomedical Materials
André da Costa, Ana Pereira, Andreia Gomes, Jose Rodriguez-Cabello, Vitor Sencadas, Margarida Casal, Raul Machado
Genetically engineered protein polymers functionalized with bioactive domains offer potential as multifunctional versatile materials for biomedical use. The present work describes the fabrication and characterization of antimicrobial fibre mats comprising the antimicrobial elastin-like recombinamer CM4-A200. The CM4-A200 protein polymer derives from the genetic fusion of the ABP-CM4 antimicrobial peptide from <i>Bombyx mori</i> with 200 repetitions of the pentamer VPAVG. This is the first report on non-crosslinked fibre mats fabricated with an antimicrobial elastin-like recombinamer stable in solution...
May 4, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Vicky Nelson, Fawzan Dinnunhan, Paul Turner, James Faed, Jaydee Cabral
A chitosan/dextran-based (CD) injectable, surgical hydrogel has been developed and shown to be an effective post-operative aid in prevention of scar tissue formation in vivo. The CD hydrogel's effectiveness in a surgical setting prompted an investigation into its capacity as a potential delivery vehicle for bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) for regenerative wound healing applications. By housing BM-MSCs within a biocompatible, injectable, hydrogel matrix, viability and protection in cultivation, as well as direct delivery to the damaged site in the host tissue may be achieved...
May 4, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Tinotenda Gwisai, Nisha Hollingsworth, Sarah Cowles, Nagendran Tharmalingam, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Beth Fuchs, Anita Shukla
Device-associated and hospital-acquired infections remain amongst the greatest challenges in regenerative medicine. Furthermore, the rapid emergence of antibiotic resistance and lack of new classes of antibiotics has made the treatment of these bacterial infections increasingly difficult. The repurposing of Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved drugs for antimicrobial therapies is a powerful means of reducing the time and cost associated with drug discovery and development. In this work, niclosamide, a commercially available anthelmintic drug with recently identified antimicrobial properties, was found to prevent and combat existing biofilms of several relevant gram-positive bacteria, namely strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant S...
May 4, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Irina Kondyurina, Steven Wise, Alan Ngo, Elysse Filipe, Alexey Kondyurin, Anthony Weiss, Shisan Bao, Marcela Bilek
Polyurethanes are a diverse class of polymers, with independently tunable mechanical and biodegradation properties making them a versatile platform material for biomedical implants. Previous iterations have failed to adequately embody appropriate mechanical and biological properties, particularly for vascular medicine where strength, compliance and multifaceted biocompatibility are required. We have synthesized a new polyurethane formulation with finely tuned mechanical properties, combining high strength and extensibility with a low Young's modulus...
April 24, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Alena Wagner, Kristina Glenske, Anja Henß, Benjamin Kruppke, Sina Rößler, Thomas Hanke, Andreas Moritz, Marcus Rohnke, Monika Kressin, Stefan Arnhold, Reinhard Schnettler, Sabine Wenisch
Presently, we aim to elucidate osteogenic effects of two silica-based xerogels with different degrees of bioactivity on human bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells. By means of scanning electron microscopy and quantitative PCR enhanced osteogenic effects and the formation of an extracellular matrix could be ascribed to the sample with lower bioactivity. Given the high levels of bioactivity, the cells revealed remarkable sensitivity to extremely low calcium levels of the media. Therefore, additional experiments were performed to elucidate cell behavior under calcium deficient conditions...
April 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Zhenzhen Jia, Cui Yang, Jiajia Jiao, Xinyu Li, Dashuai Zhu, Yongchao Yang, Jingyi Yang, Yongzhe Che, Yun Lu, Xizeng Feng
A major issue in bone tissue engineering is the selection of biocompatible materials for implants, to reduce unwanted inflammatory reactions and promote cell adhesion. Bone tissues growth on suitable biomedical implants can shorten recovery and hospitalization after surgery. Therefore, a method to improve tissue-implant integration and healing would be of scientific and clinical interest. In this work, we permeated Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites (PDMS-C/C) and then coated it with 4, 5-dihydroxyanthraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (Rhein) to create Rhein-PDMS-C/C to increase its biocompatibility and reduce the occurrence of inflammatory reactions...
April 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Iris Fischer, Michael Westphal, Bella Rossbach, Nicole Bethke, Krithika Hariharan, Imran Ullah, Petra Reinke, Andreas Kurtz, Harald Stachelscheid
Native extracellular matrix (ECM) provides scaffolds for tissue engineering with natural architecture and biochemical composition. Maintaining the native ECM in decellularized tissues provides cues for cells, which promote their tissue specific arrangement and function. Several approaches have been used to decellularize ECM from the kidney in order to reestablish renal tissue but their comparability is hampered because methods for decellularization and assessment of ECM vary widely. Therefore, we applied a standardized immersion protocol to decellularize porcine kidney tissue with three detergents Triton X-100, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and sodium deoxycholate (SDC) at variable temperatures...
April 11, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Houhua Pan, Youtao Xie, Zequan Zhang, Kai Li, Dandan Hu, Xuebin Zheng, Tingting Tang
Immune systems play pivotal roles in determining the in vivo osseointegration of bone implants. While numerous evidences have shown that hierarchical implant surface can exhibit excellent osteogenic ability, however, its immune response has not been well elucidated, which will preclude the accurate knowledge of its osseointegration performance. In this study, the immunomodulatory property of the hierarchical macropore/nano surface as well as the detailed mechanism has been investigated. Macrophages were found switching to M2 phenotype on the hierarchical surface, and meanwhile decreased levels of inflammatory genes expression as well as increased expression of anti-inflammatory genes were endowed, which were probably regulated by the decisive role of cytoskeleton tension induced by specific cell shape...
April 5, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Alişan Kayabölen, Dilek Keskin, Andaç Aykan, Yıldırım Karslıoğlu, Fatih Zor, Aysen Tezcaner
Adipose tissue engineering is a promising field for regeneration of soft tissue defects. However, vascularization is needed since cells in thick implants cannot reach to nutrient and oxygen by diffusion. Obtaining a biocompatible scaffold with good mechanical properties is another problem. In this study, we aimed to develop thick and vascularized adipose tissue constructs supporting cell viability and adipose tissue regeneration. Hydrogels were prepared by mixing rat decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) and silk fibroin at different v/v ratios (3:1, 1:1 and 1:3) and vortexing...
March 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Wei Song, Joseph Seta, Liang Chen, Christopher Bergum, Zhubin Zhou, Praveen Kanneganti, Rachel Kast, Gregory Auner, Ming Shen, David Markel, Weiping Ren, Xiaowei Yu
Few studies have been reported focusing on developing implant surface nanofiber (NF) coating to prevent infection and enhance osseointegration by local drug release. In this study, coaxial doxycycline (Doxy)-doped polycaprolactone/polyvinyl alcohol (PCL/PVA) NFs were directly deposited on the titanium (Ti) implant surface during electrospinning. The interaction of loaded Doxy with both PVA and PCL NFs was characterized by Raman spectroscopy. The bonding strength of Doxy-doped NF coating on Ti implants was confirmed by a stand single-pass scratch test...
March 30, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Marie-Michèle Germaini, Rainer Detsch, Alina Grünewald, Amandine Magnaudeix, Fabrice Lalloué, Aldo Boccaccini, Eric Champion
The influence of carbonate substitution (4.4 wt%, mixed A/B type) in hydroxyapatite ceramics for bone remodeling scaffolds was investigated by analyzing separately the response of pre-osteoblasts and osteoclast-like cells. Carbonated hydroxyapatite (Ca<sub>9.5</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>5.5</sub>(CO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>0.5</sub>(OH)(CO<sub>3</sub>)<sub>0.25</sub> - CHA) mimicking the chemical composition of natural bone mineral and pure hydroxyapatite (Ca<sub>10</sub>(PO<sub>4</sub>)<sub>6</sub>(OH)<sub>2</sub> - CHA) porous ceramics were processed to obtain similar microstructure and surface physico-chemical properties (grain size, porosity ratio and pore size, surface roughness and zeta potential)...
March 29, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Young Jung No, Seyed-Iman Roohani-Esfahani, Zufu Lu, Jeffrey Shi, Hala Zreiqat
Gehlenite (GLN, Ca2SiAl2O7) is a bioceramic that has been recently shown to possess excellent mechanical strength and in vitro osteogenic properties for bone regeneration. Substitutional incorporation of strontium in place of calcium is an effective way to further enhance biological properties of calcium-based bioceramics and glasses. However, such strategy has the potential to affect other important physicochemical parameters such as strength and degradation due to differences in the ionic radius of strontium and calcium...
March 28, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Tiago Silva, Liliana Grenho, Joana Barros, José Silva, Rosana Pinto, Ana Matos, Bruno Colaço, Helena Fernandes, Ana Bettencourt, Pedro S Gomes
In the present work, it is aimed the development and biological characterization of a poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based minocycline delivery system, to be used as a space maintainer within craniofacial staged regenerative interventions. Developed delivery systems were characterized regarding solid state characteristics and assayed in vitro for anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activity, and cytocompatibility with human bone cells. Drug release profile allowed for an initial burst release and a more sustained and controlled release over time, with minimum inhibitory concentrations for the assayed and relevant pathogenic bacteria (i...
March 23, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Andreas Hoene, Cornelia Prinz, Uwe Walschus, Silke Lucke, Maciej Patrzyk, Lutz Wilhelm, Hans-Georg Neumann, Michael Schlosser
In the "Materials and methods" chapter of the article given above, in section 2.1 titled "Implant samples and preparation" on page 2 (top paragraph of the right column), an incorrect value of 1 μg mm-2 for the average Cu load of the surface was inadvertently specified. This was due to an accidental mix-up of electronic data sets from examination of different implant series. The correct value is 0.2 μg mm-2. No other data given in the article are affected. The authors kindly apologize for this mistake.
March 23, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Susan R Sandeman, Yishan Zheng, Ganesh Ingavle, Carol Howell, Sergey Mikhalovsky, Kolitha Basnayake, Owen Boyd, Andrew Davenport, Nigel Beaton, Nathan Davies
Nanoporous adsorbents are promising materials to augment the efficacy of haemodialysis for the treatment of end stage renal disease where mortality rates remain unacceptably high despite improvements in membrane technology. Complications are linked in part to inefficient removal of protein bound and high molecular weight uremic toxins including key marker molecules albumin bound indoxyl sulphate (IS) and p-cresyl sulphate (PCS) and large inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. The following study describes the assessment of a nanoporous activated carbon monolith produced using a novel binder synthesis route for scale up as an in line device to augment haemodialysis through adsorption of these toxins...
March 8, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Shengxiang Jiang, Yin Zhang, Yan Shu, Zhenning Wu, Weijing Cao, Wenxin Huang
An amino-functionalized mesoporous bioactive glass (N-MBG) with a higher drug loading capacity and longer drug release time was successfully prepared by using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in a short-time chemical reaction. The drug release performance on the mesoporous bioactive glass (MBG) and N-MBG were studied by loading gentamicin sulfate (GS) in a simulated body fluid (SBF) solution. The results have shown that the surface area of N-MBG increases to 355.01 m2g-1 after amination at 80 ℃ for 1 h compared with that of the MBG (288...
March 3, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Abdalla Abdal-Hay, Khalil Abdelrazek Khalil, Fawzi F Al-Jassir, Amira Gamal-Eldeen
Enhancing the cytocompatibility profiles including cell attachment, growth and viability of designed synthetic scaffolds have a pivotal role in tissue engineering applications. Polymer blending is one of the most effective methods for providing new desirable biomaterials for tissue scaffolds. This article reports a novel polyamide 6/ poly(Ɛ-caprolactone) (PA6/PCL) blends solution by varying the concentrations ratios of PA6 and PCL which was fabricated to create composite fibrous tissue scaffolds. Highly porous blends fibrous scaffold has been fabricated and their suitability as cell-support for EA...
February 27, 2017: Biomedical Materials
David J Cohen, Alice Cheng, Kaan Sahingur, Ryan M Clohessy, Louis B Hopkins, Barbara D Boyan, Zvi Schwartz
Long term success of bone-interfacing implants remains a challenge in compromised patients and in areas of low bone quality. While surface roughness at the micro/nanoscale can promote osteogenesis, macro-scale porosity is important for promoting mechanical stability of the implant over time. Currently, machining techniques permit pores to be placed throughout the implant, but the pores are generally uniform in dimension. The advent of laser sintering provides a way to design and manufacture implants with specific porosity and variable dimensions at high resolution...
April 28, 2017: Biomedical Materials
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