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Biomedical Materials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910828/biofilm-prevention-of-gram-negative-bacterial-pathogens-involved-in-periprosthetic-infection-by-antibiotic-loaded-calcium-sulfate-beads-in-vitro
#1
Robert P Howlin, Christopher Winnard, Connor J Frapwell, Jeremy S Webb, John J Cooper, Sean S Aiken, Paul Stoodley
Biofilm formation represents a key stage in the pathogenesis of prosthetic infections (PIs). More tolerant to antibiotics than their planktonic counterparts, biofilm bacteria are difficult to eradicate using conventional therapeutic regimes. A common approach in PI management is the adjunctive use of localised antibiotics in addition to systemic administration in an attempt to protect the implant from colonisation by infiltrating bacteria. This study evaluates the antibacterial and antibiofilm efficacy of antibiotic-loaded dissolvable calcium sulphate, previously shown to be effective against key gram-positive pathogens, against gram-negative species important in the establishment of chronic infection in PIs...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910822/prolonged-in-vitro-precultivation-alleviates-post-implantation-inflammation-and-promotes-stable-subcutaneous-cartilage-formation-in-a-goat-model
#2
Yi Liu, Dan Li, Zongqi Yin, Xusong Luo, Wei Liu, Wenjie Zhang, Zhiyong Zhang, Yilin Cao, Yu Liu, Guangdong Zhou
Synthetic biodegradable scaffolds such as polylactic acid coated polyglycolic acid (PLA-PGA) are especially suitable for engineering shaped cartilage such as auricle, but they induce a serious inflammatory reaction particularly in the immunologically aggressive subcutaneous site, leading to resorption of the engineered autologous cartilage. Our previous study in a rabbit model has demonstrated 2 weeks of in vitro precultivation could significantly alleviate the post-implantation inflammation induced by PLA-PGA engineered cartilaginous grafts, but reproduction of this result failed in a preclinical goat model...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910818/histomorphometric-and-transcriptome-evaluation-of-early-healing-bone-treated-with-a-novel-human-particulate-dentin-powder
#3
Yu-Chih Huang, Wei-Zhen Lew, Sheng-Wei Feng, Wei-Yi Lai, Yoshimitsu Abiko, Haw-Ming Huang
Human particulate dentin (HPD) shows potential as an alternative bone grafting material. However, the mechanism of bone healing at the molecular level after grafting with HPD is unclear. This study assessed the histological and global gene expression of bone tissues grafted with HPD. The HPD was prepared to 250-500 µm in size. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were performed to confirm the crystal structure, organic compound residues, and surface morphology, respectively...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910817/on-the-molecular-interaction-between-femoral-heads-and-polyethylene-liners-in-artificial-hip-joints-phenomenology-and-molecular-scale-phenomena
#4
Giuseppe Pezzotti, B Sonny Bal, Elisa Casagrande, Nobuhiko Sugano, Bryan J McEntire, Wenliang Zhu, Leonardo Puppulin
The chemical interaction of femoral heads with polyethylene liners is an important new area of research in total hip arthroplasty (THA) as a consequence of an unabating quest for elongated artificial joint lifetimes. It is a topic that goes beyond simple mechanical behavior or wear. It seeks to describe the prosthetic device as a whole by adding chemical considerations to mechanics and abrasion. One of the poorly understood chemical interactions is oxygen affinity of the femoral heads. While oxygen unavoidably diffuses into the non-crystalline enclaves of the polyethylene liner as a result of its contact with the tribolayer, a ceramic femoral head can either attract or release oxygen due to its tribochemical interactions...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910816/the-stimulatory-effect-of-silica-nanoparticles-on-osteogenic-differentiation-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells
#5
Xing Yang, Yuanyuan Li, Xujie Liu, Qianli Huang, Wei He, Ranran Zhang, Qingling Feng, Dafna Benayahu
Silica-based materials with favourable biocompatibility are generally considered as excellent candidates for applications in biomedical fields. However, previous researches mainly focused on the safety of silica-based materials, their effects on osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) still need further investigations. In this study, core-shell fluorescent silica nanoparticles (silica NPs) with three different sizes (S1 ~ 50 nm, S2 ~ 200 nm, S3 ~ 400 nm, respectively) were prepared according to the Stöber method...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910815/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-evaluations-of-a-novel-post-electrospinning-treatment-to-improve-the-fibrous-structure-of-chitosan-membranes-for-guided-bone-regeneration
#6
Hengjie Su, Kwei-Yu Liu, Anastasios Karydis, Daniel G Abebe, Chaoxi Wu, Kenneth M Anderson, Najib Ghadri, Pradeep Adatrow, Tomoko Fujiwara, Joel D Bumgardner
Electrospun chitosan membranes have been investigated for guided bone regeneration but are susceptible to swelling, dissolution, and loss of biomimetic nanofiber structure due to residual acid salts. A novel process was investigated for acidic salt removal from chitosan electrospun in 70% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) by treating with triethylamine (TEA)/acetone and di-tert-butyl dicarbonate (tBOC) instead of the common Na2CO3 treatment. TFA salt removal and nanofiber structure stabilization were confirmed by EDS, FTIR, (19)F NMR and electron microscopy before and after soaking in water...
December 2, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869107/studies-on-the-potential-risk-of-amyloidosis-from-exposure-to-silk-fibroin
#7
Satomi Tsukawaki, Tomoaki Murakami, Kazuhiko Suzuki, Yasumoto Nakazawa
Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis can be induced by the administration of amyloid fibrils to animals under inflammatory conditions. Silk fibroin (SF) is a main component protein of bombic silk and has amyloid-like features. The amyloidogenesis of SF solution in mice has been previously reported. Recently, the biochemical properties of silk have attracted increasing attention, and research and development have been undertaken regarding applications other than as a clothing material. However, the risk of AA amyloidosis from exposure to SF-related products is unknown...
November 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869102/novel-injectable-self-gelling-hydrogel-microparticle-composites-for-bone-regeneration-consisting-of-gellan-gum-and-calcium-and-magnesium-carbonate-microparticles
#8
Timothy E L Douglas, Agata Łapa, Katarzyna Reczyńska, Małgorzata Krok-Borkowicz, Krzysztof Pietryga, Sangram Keshari Samal, Heidi A Declercq, David Schaubroeck, Marijn Boone, Pascal Van der Voort, Karel De Schamphelaere, Christian V Stevens, Vitaliy Bliznuk, Lieve Balcaen, Bogdan V Parakhonskiy, Frank Vanhaecke, Veerle Cnudde, Elżbieta Pamuła, Andre G Skirtach
The suitability of hydrogel biomaterials for bone regeneration can be improved by incorporation of an inorganic phase in particle form, thus maintaining hydrogel injectability. In this study, carbonate microparticles containing different amounts of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) were added to solutions of the anionic polysaccharide gellan gum (GG) to crosslink GG by release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) from microparticles and thereby induce formation of hydrogel-microparticle composites. It was hypothesized that increasing Mg content of microparticles would promote GG hydrogel formation...
November 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834314/the-effect-of-collagen-hydrogel-on-3d-culture-of-ovarian-follicles
#9
Sunyoung Joo, Seh-Hoon Oh, Sivanandane Sittadjody, Emmanual C Opara, John D Jackson, Sang Jin Lee, James J Yoo, Anthony Atala
The in vivo function and phenotype of ovarian follicle cells are determined by many factors. When these cells are removed from the in vivo microenvironment and grown in a 2D in vitro environment, the function of the follicular cells is difficult to preserve. A collagen hydrogel was used to examine the hormone and oocyte maturation of ovary follicles in a 3D culture system. Ovarian follicles from rats were isolated and cultured in various concentration of type I collagen hydrogels ranging from 1% to 7% (weight/volume)...
November 11, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811394/sympathetic-neurotransmitters-promote-the-process-of-recellularization-in-decellularized-liver-matrix-via-activating-the-il-6-stat3-pathway
#10
Xudong Wen, Hongbo Huan, Xiaojun Wang, Xuejiao Chen, Lili Wu, Yujun Zhang, Weihui Liu, Ping Bie, Feng Xia
Recellularized liver, as an approach for hepatic tissue engineering, is an effective alternative to orthotopic liver transplantation for end-stage hepatic failure. When compared with normal liver, recellularized liver has a disparity in hepatocyte viability and function, owing to the difficulty of fully simulating the microenvironment of liver. Although the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is considered an important constituent of liver function, few studies have examined the effect of the SNS on hepatic tissue engineering...
November 4, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811389/hydrogel-fibers-encapsulating-human-stem-cells-in-an-injectable-calcium-phosphate-scaffold-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#11
Lin Wang, Ping Wang, Michael D Weir, Mark A Reynolds, Liang Zhao, Hockin H K Xu
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) and human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are exciting cell sources for use in regenerative medicine. There have been no reports on long hydrogel fibers encapsulating stem cells inside an injectable calcium phosphate cement (CPC) scaffold for bone tissue engineering. The objectives of this study were: (1) to develop a novel injectable CPC construct containing hydrogel fibers encapsulating cells for bone engineering, and (2) to investigate and compare cell viability, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hiPSC-MSCs, hESC-MSCs and hUCMSCs in injectable CPC...
November 4, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786167/rapid-fabrication-of-dense-45s5-bioglass-%C3%A2-compacts-through-spark-plasma-sintering-and-evaluation-of-their-in-vitro-biological-properties
#12
Zhong Li, Brianna C Thompson, Huanlong Hu, Khiam Aik Khor
It is challenging to obtain dense 45S5 Bioglass(®) (45S5) with controlled crystallinity and satisfactory mechanical properties by conventional sintering processes due to its fast crystallization above the first glass transition temperature. Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has stood out in this respect by virtue of its capability to provide fast heating and densification rates. However, there have been insufficient investigations into the in vitro biological properties of 45S5 compacts obtained by SPS. In this study, we report the fabrication of fully densified 45S5 pellets in the temperature range of 500 °C-600 °C through a rapid SPS process (sintering for 3 min) as well as the assessment of the influence of sintering temperature and aqueous aging on the biological properties of sintered pellets with L929 and MG63 cells...
October 27, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786166/impact-of-osmoregulatory-agents-on-the-recovery-of-collagen-conformation-in-decellularized-corneas
#13
Sumit Murab, Sourabh Ghosh
The process of decellularization of the cornea leads to the removal of cells and antigens. However, during decellularization the ultrastructure of the corneal matrix is usually damaged and a secondary conformation of the collagen fibrils is modulated resulting in altered transparency and physical properties. The strategy for recovering modulation in collagen conformation may help to attain the native physical properties and transparency of the cornea. Decellularized corneas were treated with varied concentrations of glycerol and dextran, and the collagen conformation was monitored by attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Raman spectroscopic analysis...
October 27, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786165/inflammatory-response-to-dextrin-based-hydrogel-associated-with-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-urinary-bladder-matrix-and-bonelike-%C3%A2-granules-in-rat-subcutaneous-implants
#14
Dina M Silva, Ana Rita Caseiro, Irina Amorim, Isabel Pereira, Fátima Faria, Tiago Pereira, José Domingos Santos, Francisco Miguel Gama, Ana Colette Maurício
Increasing relevance has been attributed to hydrogels due to their ability to provide an extracellular matrix (ECM)-like environment for cellular adhesion and proliferation, acting as mechanical scaffolds for tissue remodeling or as delivery matrices. In vivo biocompatibility of a hybrid dextrin hydrogel produced from oxidized dextrin and adipic acid dihydrazide and its combinations with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), ECM from a porcine bladder (urinary bladder matrix) and ceramic granules (Bonelike(®)), was evaluated following ISO 10993 after subcutaneous implantation in a rat model...
October 27, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767022/optimization-of-mechanical-properties-biocorrosion-properties-and-antibacterial-properties-of-as-cast-ti-cu-alloys
#15
Erlin Zhang, Jing Ren, Shengyi Li, Lei Yang, Gaowu Qin
Ti-Cu sintered alloys have shown good antibacterial abilities. However, the sintered method (powder metallurgy) is not convenient to produce devices with a complex structure. In this paper, Ti-Cu alloys with 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 wt.% Cu were prepared in an arc melting furnace and subjected to different heat treatments: solid solution and ageing, to explore the possibility of preparing an antibacterial Ti-Cu alloy by a casting method and to examine the effect of Cu content. Phase identification was conducted on an XRD diffraction meter, and the microstructure was observed by a metallographic microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy disperse spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767021/development-and-fabrication-of-a-two-layer-tissue-engineered-osteochondral-composite-using-hybrid-hydrogel-cancellous-bone-scaffolds-in-a-spinner-flask
#16
Kedong Song, Wenfang Li, Hai Wang, Yu Zhang, Liying Li, Yiwei Wang, Hong Wang, Ling Wang, Tianqing Liu
Biological treatment using engineered osteochondral composites has received growing attention for the repair of cartilage defects. Osteochondral composites combined with a dynamic culture provide great potential for improving the quality of constructs and cartilage regeneration as dynamic conditions mimic the in vivo condition where cells were constantly subjected to mechanical and chemical stimulation. In the present study, biophasic composites were produced in vitro consisting of cell-hydrogel (CH) and cell-cancellous bone (CB) constructs, followed by culturing in a dynamic system in a spinner flask...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767020/nanocomposite-scaffolds-with-tunable-mechanical-and-degradation-capabilities-co-delivery-of-bioactive-agents-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#17
Juan P Cattalini, Judith Roether, Alexander Hoppe, Fatemeh Pishbin, Luis Haro Durand, Alejandro Gorustovich, Aldo R Boccaccini, Silvia Lucangioli, Viviana Mouriño
Novel multifunctional nanocomposite scaffolds made of nanobioactive glass and alginate crosslinked with therapeutic ions such as calcium and copper were developed for delivering therapeutic agents, in a highly controlled and sustainable manner, for bone tissue engineering. Alendronate, a well-known antiresorptive agent, was formulated into microspheres under optimized conditions and effectively loaded within the novel multifunctional scaffolds with a high encapsulation percentage. The size of the cation used for the alginate crosslinking impacted directly on porosity and viscoelastic properties, and thus, on the degradation rate and the release profile of copper, calcium and alendronate...
October 21, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716648/enhancing-vascularization-of-a-gelatin-based-micro-cavitary-hydrogel-by-increasing-the-density-of-the-micro-cavities
#18
Jiayin Fu, Changjiang Fan, Wei Shan Lai, Dongan Wang
The transport of nutrients and oxygen by vascular networks into engineered tissue constructs is critical to their successful integration into host tissues. Hydrogel has achieved some promising results as scaffolds for vascularization. However, the vascularization of hydrogel is still constrained by its inherent submicron- or nano-sized pores. In this study, two gelatin-based micro-cavitary gel (Gel-MCG) constructs with varying densities of micro-cavities were developed with a photocrosslinkable gelatin methacrylate (Gel-MA) precursor and porogenic gelatin microspheres (MS), and their functions in supporting vascularization within hydrogels were evaluated with endothelial progenitor outgrowth cells (EPOCs)...
October 7, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716647/immobilization-of-salvianolic-acid-b-loaded-chitosan-microspheres-distributed-three-dimensionally-and-homogeneously-on-the-porous-surface-of-hydroxyapatite-scaffolds
#19
Jinyu Li, Qin Wang, Wei Zhi, Jianxin Wang, Bo Feng, Shuxin Qu, Yandong Mu, Jie Weng
Porous hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffolds combined with a drug delivery system have attracted much attention for bone tissue engineering. In this study, an easy and highly efficient method was developed to immobilize salvianolic acid B (Sal B)-loaded chitosan (CS) microspheres three dimensionally and homogeneously on the surface of HA scaffolds pre-coated with alginate. Porous HA scaffolds were prepared via a template-leaching process and CS microspheres (used as drug carriers) were fabricated by an emulsion method...
October 7, 2016: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716636/evaluation-of-amorphous-magnesium-phosphate-amp-based-non-exothermic-orthopedic-cements
#20
Elham Babaie, Boren Lin, Vijay K Goel, Sarit B Bhaduri
This paper reports for the first time the development of a biodegradable, non-exothermic, self-setting orthopedic cement composition based on amorphous magnesium phosphate (AMP). The occurrence of undesirable exothermic reactions was avoided through using AMP as the solid precursor. The phenomenon of self-setting with optimum rheology is achieved by incorporating a water soluble biocompatible/biodegradable polymer, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Additionally, PVA enables a controlled growth of the final phase via a biomimetic process...
October 7, 2016: Biomedical Materials
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