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Biomedical Materials

Ines Fasolino, Vincenzo Guarino, Marica Marrese, Valentina Cirillo, Marianna Vallifuoco, Maria Luisa Tamma, Valentina Vassallo, Adele Bracco, Fulvio Calise, Luigi Ambrosio
The discovery of new drugs to treat pathological cells in the case of aggressive liver primary cancer is imposing the identification of high-throughput screening systems to predict the in vivo response of new therapeutic molecules, in order to reduce current use of animals and drug testing costs. Recently, micro/nanostructured scaffolds have been adopted to reproduce the hepatic microenvironment due to their higher similarity to the biological niche with respect to the traditional two-dimensional culture plate, so providing novel in vitro models for reliably understanding molecular mechanisms related to cancer cells activity...
September 13, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Vidya Chamundeswari Narasimhan, Yuan Siang Lui, Yon Jin Chuah, Jing Shi Elaine Tan, Dong An Wang, Say Chye Joachim Loo
Tissue engineering (TE) is envisaged to play a vital role in improving the quality of life by restoring, maintaining or enhancing tissue and organ functions. TE scaffolds that are two dimensional (2D) in structure suffer from undesirable issues, such as pore blockage, and does not close mimic the native extra-cellular matrix (ECM) in tissues. Significant efforts have therefore been channeled to fabricate three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds using various techniques, especially electrospinning. In this study, we propose a modified one-step electrospinning process to arrive at a 3D scaffolds with highly interconnected pores...
September 12, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Marisol Zuluaga, Giulia Gregnanin, Claudia Cencetti, Chiara Di Meo, Virginie Gueguen, Didier Letourneur, Anne Meddahi-Pellé, Graciela Pavon-Djavid, Pietro Matricardi
After myocardial infarction, the heart's mechanical properties and its intrinsic capability to recover are compromised. To improve this recovery, several groups have developed cardiac patches based on different biomaterials strategies. Here, we developed polyvinylalcohol/dextran (PVA/Dex) elastic hydrogel patches, obtained through the freeze thawing (FT) process, with the aim to deliver locally a potent natural antioxidant molecule, astaxanthin, and to assist the heart's response against the generated myofibril stress...
September 6, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Tong Xu, Jing Yang, Jiamin Zhang, Yingnan Zhu, Qingsi Li, Chao Pan, Lei Zhang
Electrospinning technology can easily produce different shaped fibrous structures, making them highly valuable to various biomedical applications. However, surface contamination of biomolecules, cells, or blood has emerged as a significant challenge to the success of electrospun devices, especially artificial blood vessels, catheters and wound dressings etc. Many efforts have been made to resist the surface non-specific biomolecules or cells adsorption, but most of them require complex pre-treatment processes, hard-to-remove metal catalysts or rigorous reaction conditions...
September 1, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Jingfeng Li, Liang Yang, Xiaodong Guo, Wei Cui, Shuyi Yang, Jianping Wang, Yanzhen Qu, Zengwu Shao, Shuyun Xu
To develop bioactive bone graft materials that can induce rapid bone regeneration, a novel biomaterial was synthesized by coating true bone ceramic (TBC) substrates with strontium-substituted nano-hydroxyapatites (Sr concentrations of 0-10-40-100%) through sol-gel dip-coating approach. All coated TBC scaffolds retained the inherent natural trabecular structure, porosity, compressive strength and simultaneously possessed a micro/ nanotopography SrHA layer on the substrate surface. The dimension of the deposited crystal increased and the density of deposited apatite particles became sparse with increasing Sr content, but an unique HA crystalline phase was observed under all conditions...
September 1, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Qingtong Yu, Jingjing Chen, Wenwen Deng, Xia Cao, Michael Adu-Frimpong, Jiangnan Yu, Xi-Ming Xu
Direct reprogramming of other somatic cells into neurons is an alternative strategy for the recovery of injured nervous system. In this work we developed a new non-viral gene carrier based on Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (PYP). After modification with ethylenediamine, the cationized Porphyra yezoensis polysaccharide (Ed-PYP) was combined with plasmids encoding Ascl1, Brn2 and FoxA1 to form spherical nanoscale particles (Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles). Cytotoxicity assay proved that Ed-PYP-pABF nanoparticles had a safer property than Lipofectamine2000 and polyetherimide (PEI)...
August 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Julien Barthes, Angela Mutschler, Camille Dollinger, Guillaume Gaudinat, Philippe Lavalle, Vincent Le Houerou, Garrett B McGuinness, Nihal Engin Vrana
For in-dwelling implants, controlling the biological interface is a crucial parameter to promote tissue regeneration and prevent implant failure. For this purpose, one possibility is to facilitate the establishment of the interface with cell-laden hydrogel fixed to the implant. However, for proper functioning, the stability of the hydrogel on the implant should be ensured. Modification of implant surfaces with an adhesive represents a promising strategy to promote the adhesion of cell-laden hydrogel on the implant...
August 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Kevin Roberts, Jacob Schluns, Addison Walker, Jake D Jones, Kyle P Quinn, Jamie Hestekin, Jeffrey C Wolchok
The therapeutic potential of biological scaffolds as adjuncts to synthetic polymers motivates the engineering of fibers formed using the extracellular matrix (ECM) secreted by cells. To capture the ECM secreted by cells during in vitro culture, a solvent degradable hollow fiber membrane (HFM) was created and utilized as a cell culture platform. 3T3 fibroblasts were injected into the narrow (0.986 ± 0.042 mm) lumina of mesoporous polysulfone HFMs and maintained in culture for up to three weeks. Following cell culture, HFMs were dissolved using NMP solvent and the accumulated ECM was collected...
August 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Akalabya Bissoyi, Abhishek Kumar Singh, Subrat Kumar Pattanayak, Arindam Bit, Sudip Kumar Sinha, Ashish Patel, Vishal Jain, Pradeep Kumar Patra
The development of engineered bone tissue, as a promising alternative to the conventional bone grafts, is not rewarding yet and remained challenging. Thus, attempts have been made in the present study to synthesize polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) scaffolds by blending of chitosan (CS) to silk fibroin (SF) derived from non-mulberry silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) at three different pH (5.0, 6.0, and 7.0), and characterize in terms of morphology, ultrastructure and mechanical properties with SEM, FTIR, XRD and tensile strength analyses...
August 30, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Beata Kaczmarek, Alina Sionkowska, Fernando Monteiro, Angela Carvalho, Krzysztof Lukowicz, Anna Maria Osyczka
In this study the influence of dialdehyde starch addition on the properties of scaffold based on gelatin and chitosan obtained by freeze-drying method was investigated. In addition, the adhesion and proliferation of human osteosarcoma SaOS-2 cells was examined on obtained scaffolds. Chitosan and gelatin were mixed in different weigh ratios (75/25, 50/50, 25/75) with 1, 2 and 5 wt% addition of dialdehyde starch. The obtained scaffolds were subjected to mechanical testing, infrared spectroscopy, swelling measurements, low-pressure porosimetry and zeta potential measurement...
August 30, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Elena García-Gareta, Jia Hua, Alodia Orera, Nupur Kohli, Jonathan C Knowles, Gordon W Blunn
Titanium and its alloys or tantalum (Ta) are materials used in orthopaedic and dental implants due to their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, their bioactivity and osteoconductivity is low. With a view to improving these materials bioactivity we hypothesised that the surface of Ta and TiAl6V4 can be functionalised with biomimetic, amorphous nano-sized calcium-phosphate (CaP) apatite-like deposits, instead of creating uniform coatings, which can lead to flaking, delamination and poor adherence...
August 23, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Yuyun Yang, Kai Zheng, Ruifang Liang, Astrid Mainka, Nicola Taccardi, Judith A Roether, Rainer Detsch, Wolfgang Goldmann, Sannakaisa Virtanen, Aldo R Boccaccini
Copper (Cu)-containing bioactive glass nanoparticles (Cu-BGNs) were introduced in polycaprolactone (PCL) coating systems to improve the bioactivity, antibacterial property, and corrosion resistance of vulnerable magnesium matrices under physiological conditions. The influence of different amounts of Cu-BGNs in PCL coatings was thoroughly investigated determining the wettability, electrochemical properties, and antibacterial effects against Staphylococcus carnosus and Escherichia coli, as well as their cyto-compatibility...
August 23, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Hang Yao, Junpei Kang, Weichang Li, Jian Liu, Renjian Xie, Yingjun Wang, Sa Liu, Dong An Wang, Li Ren
Cartilage repairing graft had been widely studied and the osteochondral replacement hydrogels were proved to be an excellent method in research and clinical. However, it was difficult to solve three main issues in osteochondral replacement preparation at one time: surface lubrication, overall mechanical support and good simulations of cell regeneration. A novel integrated bilayered hydrogel osteochondral replacement was constructed by blending polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) in this study...
August 9, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Koushi Kumar, Vasudeva Rao Penugurti, Gila Levi, Yitzhak Mastai, Bramanandam Manavathi, Pradip Paik
Self-assembly is an important auto-organization process used in designing structural biomaterials which have potential capabilities in healing tissues after traumatic injuries. Notwithstanding, various materials with healing ability after injuries are available, substantial need still exists for developing new material to endorse the healing ability. To address this issue, we have developed a hierarchical 3-dimensional (3D) self-assembled zinc phosphate (Zn3(PO4)2) in presence of cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV)...
August 8, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Yan Shu, Fan Qiu, Yin Zhang, Weijing Cao, Zhenning Wu, Shangjiu Nian, Nianying Zhou
A novel vaterite-containing tricalcium silicate (V-C3S) was grafted by 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES), the amino groups have been successfully fixed on the vaterite-containing tricalcium silicate powder's surface (A-V-C3S). The setting behavior, mechanical properties, porosity, weight loss and anti-washout properties of the tricalcium silicate (C3S), V-C3S and A-V-C3S bone cement were systematically investigated. The in vitro induction of hydroxyapatite (HAp) formation of C3S, V-C3S and A-V-C3S bone cement were confirmed by XRD, FT-IR and SEM...
August 8, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Praveen Wulligundam, Bernadette Madathil, Sajin Raj Rg, Kumary Tv, Anil Kumar Pr
Most cell sheet engineering systems require a support or carrier to handle the harvested cell sheets. In this study, polyethylene terephthalate-based overhead projection transparency sheets (OHPS) were subjected to surface hydrolysis by alkali treatment to increase pliability and hydrophilicity and enable poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-glycidylmethacrylate) copolymer (NGMA) coating to impart thermoresponsiveness. NGMA was applied on the modified OHPS by the technique of spin coating using an indigenously designed spin coater...
August 4, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Toktam Ghassemi, Nasser Saghatolslami, Maryam M Matin, Reza Gheshlaghi, Ali Moradi
An optimized scaffold with adaptable architectural and biochemical properties is a goal for articular cartilage (AC) repair. Mechanically enhanced decellularized AC can be an optimistic ECM-derived scaffold. In this study, reinforced decellularized bovine AC was evaluated for a potential scaffold for cartilage repair applications. Individually dispersed single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were incorporated into chemically decellularized bovine AC samples. The mechanical and thermodynamic properties as well as biocompatibility of the samples were evaluated through compressive test, SEM, AFM, FTIR, TGA, DSC, and resazurin test...
August 4, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Luis M Delgado, Naledi Shologu, Kieran Fuller, Dimitrios Zeugolis
Collagen based devices are frequently associated with foreign body response. Although several pre- (e.g. species, state of animal, tissue) and post- (e.g. cross-linking, scaffold architecture) extraction method factors have a profound effect on foreign body response, little is known about which and how during the extraction process factors mediate foreign body response. In this study, we assessed the influence of acetic acid and hydrochloric acid and the utilisation or not of pepsin or salt precipitation during collagen extraction on the yield, purity, free amines, denaturation temperature, resistance to collagenase degradation and macrophage response...
August 2, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Lucas Cortella, Idágene A Cestari, Denise Guenther, Andrés Fabian Lasagni, Ismar Newton Cestari
Surface-induced thrombosis and lack of endothelialization are major drawbacks that hamper the widespread application of polyurethanes for the fabrication of implantable cardiovascular devices. Endothelialization of the blood-contacting surfaces of these devices may avoid thrombus formation and can be implemented by strategies that introduce micro and submicron patterns that favor adhesion and growth of endothelial cells. In this study, we used laser radiation to directly introduce topographical patterns in the low micrometer range on castor oil-based polyurethane, which is currently employed to fabricate cardiovascular devices...
August 1, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Mustafa Alqaysi, Alaa Aldaadaa, Nicky Mordan, Rishma Shah, Jonathan C Knowles
Degradable phosphate-based glasses that contain strontium, zinc and calcium were investigated to examine its function as an osteoconductive material. Glass beads of the general formula of (P2O5)-(Na2O)-(TiO2)-(CaO)-(SrO) or (ZnO) were prepared by melt quench technique followed by milling and spheroidisation. Glass bead size distribution was initially measured by SEM. Then, some of these samples were immersed in deionized water to evaluate both the surface changes and measure the ion release rate, whereas other glass beads samples were incubated in culture media to determine pH changes...
August 1, 2017: Biomedical Materials
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