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Biomedical Materials

Nian Shen, Julia A Riedl, Daniel A Carvajal-Berrio, Zackary Davis, Michael G Monaghan, Shannon Lee Layland, Svenja Hinderer, Katja Schenke-Layland
Bioreactors are essential cell and tissue culture tools that allow the introduction of biophysical signals into in vitro cultures. One major limitation is the need to interrupt experiments and sacrifice samples at certain time points for analyses. To address this issue, we designed a bioreactor that combines high-resolution contact-free imaging and continuous flow in a closed system that is compatible with various types of microscopes. The high-throughput fluid flow bioreactor was combined with two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) and validated...
November 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Sara Pourshahrestani, Nahrizul Adib Bin Kadri, Ehsan Zeimaran, Nicola Gargiulo, Shani Samuel, Sangeetha Vasudevaraj Naveen, Khairunnisa Hasikin, Tunku Kamarul, Mark R Towler
Mesoporous bioactive glass containing 1% Ga2O3 (1%Ga-MBG) is attractive for hemorrhage control because of its surface chemistry which can promote blood-clotting. The present study compares this proprietary inorganic coagulation accelerator with two commercial hemostats, CeloxTM (CX) and QuikClot Advanced Clotting Sponge PlusTM (ACS+). The results indicate that the number of adherent platelets were higher on the 1%Ga-MBG and CX surfaces than ACS+ whereas a greater contact activation was seen on 1%Ga-MBG and ACS+ surfaces than CX...
November 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Fernando Campos, Ana Belen Bonhame-Espinosa, Gerson Vizcaino, Ismael Angel Rodriguez, Daniel Durand-Herrera, Modesto T Lopez-Lopez, Indalecio Sánchez-Montesinos, Miguel Alaminos, María Del Carmen Sánchez-Quevedo, Víctor Carriel
Generation of biomimetic and biocompatible artificial tissues is the basic research objective for tissue engineering (TE). In this sense, the biofabrication of scaffolds that resemble the tissues' extracellular matrix (ECM) is an essential aim in this field. Uncompressed and nanostructured fibrin-agarose hydrogels (FAH and NFAH respectively) emerged as promising scaffold in TE, but its structure and biomechanical properties must be improved in order to broad their TE applications. Here we generated and characterized novel membrane-like models with increased structural and biomechanical properties based on the chemical cross-linking of FAH and NFAH with genipin (GP at 0...
November 15, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Antonio Márcio Scatolini, Silvana Marina Piccoli Pugine, Luci Cristina de Oliveira Vercik, Mariza Pires de Melo, Eliana Cristina da Silva Rigo
The aim of this work was to produce hydroxyapatite powder (HA) containing dry extract of green and red propolis, and to evaluate possible bactericidal activity of the materials in a short period of time through a fast release system. The ethanolic extracts of green and red propolis (EEP) were incorporated into the material by spray drying. After release tests, powders containing dry EEP were characterized regarding the content of total phenolics and flavonoids. Materials characterization was made by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR)...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Jessica M Stukel, Rebecca Kuntz Willits
Cells are sensitive to physical cues in their environment, such as the stiffness of the substrate, peptide density, and peptide affinity. Understanding how neural stem cells (NSCs) sense and respond to these matrix cues has the potential to improve disease outcome, particularly if a regenerative response can be exploited. While the material properties are known to influence other stem cells, little is known about how NSC differentiation is altered by this interplay of mechanical, or bulk properties, with peptide concentration and affinity, or microscale properties...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Maryam Seyedmajidi, Sina Haghanifar, Karimollah Hajian-Tilaki, Seyedali Seyedmajidi
Bone defects are common and persistent problems in clinical orthopedics and dentistry. The development of synthetic reconstruction materials is essential owing to the restricted access to natural bone grafts, disease transmission risks, surgical costs, donor-site morbidity, infections, and immune response-related complications. Accordingly, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the histopathological, histomorphometrical, and radiological characteristics of composite foams containing hydroxyapatite/bioactive glass (HA/BG) and fluorapatite/bioactive glass (FA/BG) as cell scaffolds in rat tibia reconstruction...
November 14, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Mazaher Gholipourmalekabadi, A Samadikuchaksaraei, Alexander Marcus Seifalian, Aleksandra Urbanska, Hossein Ghanbarian, John George Hardy, Mir Omrani, Masoud Mozafari, Rui Luis Reis, Subhas Chandra Kundu
Burn injury has been reported to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality and it is still considered as unmet clinical need. Although there is a myriad of effective stem cells suggested for skin regeneration, there is no one ideal scaffold. The aim of this study was to develop a 3D bi-layer scaffold made of biological decellularized human amniotic membrane (AM) with viscoelastic electrospun nanofibrous silk fibroin (ESF) spun on top. The fabricated 3D bi-layer AM/ESF scaffold was submerged in ethanol to induce β-sheet transformation as well as to get a tightly coated and inseparable bilayer...
November 10, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Jixin Xue, Aijuan He, Yueqian Zhu, Yu Liu, Dan Li, Zongqi Yin, Wenjie Zhang, Wei Liu, Yilin Cao, Guangdong Zhou
Acellular cartilage sheets (ACSs) have been demonstrated as a good biomaterial for cartilage regeneration as a result of their natural cartilage matrix components, cartilage-specific structures, and good biocompatibility. However, it remains unknown whether allogeneic ACSs could promote cartilage regeneration and repair cartilage defects in a large animal model. The current study explored the feasibility of repairing articular cartilage defects using ACS scaffold with or without autologous bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in a swine model...
November 10, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Rattapol Pinnaratip, Hao Meng, Rupak Rajachar, Bruce P Lee
A composite adhesive capable of inducing cellular infiltration was prepared by incorporating control clustered silica microparticle (MP) derived from the aggregation of silica nanoparticle (NP) into a catechol-terminated poly(ethylene glycol) bioadhesive (PEG-DA). Incorporation of MP into PEG-DA significantly improved the mechanical and adhesive properties of the bioadhesive. There was no statistical difference between the measured values for NP- and MP-incorporated adhesives, indicating that MP was equally as effective in enhancing the material properties of PEG-DA as NP...
November 6, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Michala Rampichova, Jiri Chvojka, Vera Jencova, Tereza Kubikova, Zbynek Tonar, Jakub Erben, Matej Buzgo, Jana Dankova, Andej Litvinec, Karolina Vocetkova, Martin Plencner, Eva Prosecka, Vera Sovkova, Vera Lukasova, Milena Kralickova, David Lukas, Evzen Amler
Fibrous scaffolds are desired in tissue engineering applications for their ability to mimic extracellular matrix. In this study we compared fibrous scaffolds prepared from polycaprolactone using three different fabrication methods, electrospinning, electro-blowing and melt-blown combined with electrospinning. Scaffolds differed in morphology, fiber diameters and pore sizes. Mesenchymal stem cell adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation on scaffolds was evaluated. The most promising scaffold was shown to be melt-blown in combination with electrospinning which combined properties of both technologies...
October 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Tobias Führmann, Priya Anandakumaran, Samantha Payne, Malgosia Pakulska, Balazs V Varga, Andras Nagy, Charles Tator, Molly S Shoichet
The lack of tissue regeneration after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) in animal models is largely attributed to the local inhibitory microenvironment. To overcome this inhibitory environment while promoting tissue regeneration, we investigated the combined delivery of chondroitinase ABC (chABC) with human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs). ChABC was delivered to the injured spinal cord at the site of injury by affinity release from a crosslinked methylcellulose hydrogel by injection into the intrathecal space...
October 30, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Beatriz Pazmino Betancourt, Stephen Florczyk, Mylene Simon, Derek Juba, Jack F Douglas, Walid Keyrouz, Peter Bajcsy, Christopher Lee, Carl G Simon
In living systems, it is frequently stated that form follows function by virtue of evolutionary pressures on organism development, but in the study of how functions emerge at the cellular level, function often follows form. We study this chicken versus egg problem of emergent structure-property relationships in living systems in the context of primary human bone marrow stromal cells cultured in a variety of microenvironments that have been shown to cause distinct patterns of cell function and differentiation...
October 26, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Zacnicte May, Ranjan Kumar, Tobias Führmann, Roger Tam, Katarina Vulic, Juan Forero, Ana M Lucas-Osma, Keith Fenrich, Peggy Assinck, Michael J Lee, Aaron Moulson, Molly S Shoichet, Wolfram Tetzlaff, Jeff Biernaskie, Karim Fouad
In this study, GFP+ skin-derived precursor Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) from adult rats were grafted into the injured spinal cord of immunosuppressed rats. Our goal was to improve grafted cell survival in the injured spinal cord, which is typically low. Cells were grafted in hyaluronan-methylcellulose hydrogel (HAMC) or hyaluronan-methylcellulose modified with laminin- and fibronectin-derived peptide sequences (eHAMC). The criteria for selection of hyaluronan was for its shear-thinning properties, making the hydrogel easy to inject, methylcellulose for its inverse thermal gelation, helping to keep grafted cells in situ, and fibronectin and laminin to improve cell attachment and, thus, prevent cell death due to dissociation from substrate molecules (i...
October 25, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Miriam Lopez-Alvarez, Vanesa López-Puente, Cosme Rodriguez-Valencia, Paula C Angelomé, Luis M Liz-Marzan, Julia Serra, Isabel Pastoriza-Santos, Pio Gonzalez
The use of statins in the field of bone regeneration is under current investigation due to the existing demand for non-toxic anabolic agents capable of enhancing bone formation in cases of substantial loss. Simvastatin, a coenzyme currently prescribed in clinics to inhibit cholesterol biosynthesis, has been proven to promote osteogenic differentiation by stimulating bone formation and inhibiting osteoclasts activity. We present the loading of simvastatin in mesoporous TiO2 thin films toward combining the pro-osteogenic properties of this molecule with the demonstrated bioactivity of titania...
October 25, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Ridvan Yamanoglu, Erdinc Efendi, Fetiye Kolayli, Huseyin Uzuner, Ismail Daoud
In this study, the mechanical, antibacterial properties and cell toxicity response of Ti-5Al2.5F alloy with different copper contents were investigated. The alloys were prepared by high-energy ball milling using elemental Ti, Al, Fe, and Cu powders and consolidated by a uniaxial vacuum hot press. Staphylococcus aureus strain ATCC 29213 and Escherichia coli strain ATCC 25922 were used to determine the antibacterial properties of the sintered alloys. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the samples was evaluated with HeLa (ATTC, CCL-2) cells using thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide...
October 24, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Mengting Li, LIli Gao, Junhong Chen, Yan Zhang, Jianxin Wang, Xiong Lu, Ke Duan, Jie Weng, Bo Feng
Classically activated M1 macrophages and alternatively activated M2 macrophages play key roles in regulating immune responses. M1 macrophages initiate angiogenesis in the early stages of wound healing or after implantation. However, their prolonged activation can lead to chronic inflammation. We speculated that biomedical implants with specific properties can induce a shift from M1 to M2 macrophages at a specific time point to promote tissue repair and wound healing. To investigate this possibility, drug-loaded double-layer sol-gel coatings were fabricated on TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs), which were used to modulate the switch from the M1 to the M2 phenotype by controlled release of interleukin (IL)-4...
October 23, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Bruna Gabriela Dos Santos Kotake, Miliane Gonçalves Gonzaga, Joaquim Coutinho-Netto, Edilson Ervolino, Fellipe Augusto Tocchini de Figueiredo, Joao Paulo Mardegan Issa
Bone grafts are used in the medical-surgical field for anatomical and functional reconstruction of lost bone areas, aiding the bone repair process by osteogenesis, osteinduction and osteoconduction. New materials such as F1 protein extracted from rubber tree Hevea brasiliensis, have been investigated and currently present important properties for tissue repair, and are associated with neoangiogenesis, promoting cell adhesion and extracellular matrix formation. This study was to investigate the association of different grafts with F1 protein...
October 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Marian Fürsatz, Mårten Skog, Petter Sivlér, Eleonor Palm, Christopher Aronsson, Andreas Skallberg, Grzegorz Greczynski, Hazem Khalaf, Torbjörn Bengtsson, Daniel Aili
Wound dressings based on bacterial cellulose (BC) can form a soft and conformable protective layer that can stimulate wound healing while preventing bacteria from entering the wound. Bacteria already present in the wound can, however, thrive in the moist environment created by the BC dressing which can aggravate the healing process. Possibilities to render the BC antimicrobial without affecting the beneficial structural and mechanical properties of the material would hence be highly attractive. Here we present methods for functionalization of BC with ε-Poly-L-Lysine (ε-PLL), a non-toxic biopolymer with broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity...
October 19, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Tia Kowal, Natalie C Hahn, Stephanie Eider, Jutta Marzillier, Daniella Marie Fodera, Ukrit Thamma, Himanshu Jain, Matthias M Falk
Tissue regeneration is a significantly improved alternative to tissue replacement by implants. It requires porous bioscaffolds for the restoration of natural tissue rather than relying on bio-inactive, often metallic implants. Recently, we developed technology for fabricating novel, nano-macroporous bioactive 'Tailored Amorphous Multi-Porous (TAMP)' hard tissue scaffolds using a 70 mol% SiO2-30 mol% CaO model composition. The TAMP silicate scaffolds, fabricated by a modified sol-gel process, have shown excellent biocompatibility via the rapid formation of hydroxyapatite in biological fluids as well as in early tests with bone forming cells...
October 16, 2017: Biomedical Materials
Zhi Chen, Jingjing You, Xiao Liu, Simon Cooper, Christopher Hodge, Gerard Sutton, Jeremy Micah Crook, Gordon G Wallace
Corneal transplantation is an important surgical treatment for many common corneal diseases. However, a worldwide shortage of tissue from suitable corneal donors has meant that many people are not able to receive sight-restoring operations. In addition, rejection is a major cause of corneal transplant failure. Bioengineering corneal tissue has recently gained widespread attention. In order to facilitate corneal regeneration, a range of materials is currently being investigated. The ideal substrate requires sufficient tectonic durability, biocompatibility with cultured cellular elements, transparency, and perhaps biodegradability and clinical-compliance...
October 12, 2017: Biomedical Materials
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