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Biomedical Materials

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181477/eumelanin-releasing-spongy-like-hydrogels-for-skin-re-epithelialization-purposes
#1
Lucília Pereira da Silva, Sílvia Oliveira, Rogério Pirraco, Tírcia Santos, Rui Reis, Alexandra Marques, Vitor Correlo
Melanin function in the skin has been associated to pigmentation but other properties such as electrical conductance, photoprotection, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity, have also been recognized. Nonetheless, the use of melanin in a skin wound healing context was never considered. In this sense, eumelanin particles with a typical round and nano-sized morphology and electrical conductivity of 2.09x10-8S·cm-1 were extracted from the ink of Sepia officinalis. The ability of primary human keratinocytes to phagocyte eumelanin, which was then accumulated in cytosolic vesicles and nuclei surroundings, was demonstrated...
February 9, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181476/biological-and-mechanical-evaluation-of-poly-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-based-composites-reinforced-with-one-two-and-three-dimensional-carbon-biomaterials-for-bone-tissue-regeneration
#2
Tejinder Kaur, Senthilguru Kulanthaivel, Thirugnanam Arunachalam, Indranil Banerjee, Krishna Pramanik
Considering the fact that life on earth is carbon based, carbon materials are being introduced in biological systems. However, very limited information is existing concerning the potential effects of different structures of carbon materials on biological systems. In the present study, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) based carbonaceous composites were developed by reinforcing 1 wt% of three different carbon based materials i.e. carbon nanotubes (CNTs-one dimensional), graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs-two dimensional) and activated carbon (AC-three dimensional)...
February 9, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177302/a-fast-degrading-thiol-acrylate-based-hydrogel-for-cranial-regeneration
#3
Arbi M Emmakah, Huseyin Arman, John Bragg, Tanja Greene, Marta Alvarez, Paul Childress, W Scott Goebel, Melissa Kacena, Chien-Chi Lin, Tien-Min Chu
Successful regeneration of the cranium in patients suffering from cranial bone defects is an integral step to restore craniofacial function. However, restoration of craniofacial structure has been challenging due to its complex geometry, limited donor site availability, and poor graft integration. To address these problems, we investigated the use of a thiol-acrylate hydrogel as a cell carrier to facilitate cranial regeneration. Thiol-acrylate hydrogels were formulated with 5-15 wt% poly(ethylene glycol)-diacrylate (PEGDA) and 1-9 mM dithiothreitol (DTT)...
February 8, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145891/the-calcification-potential-of-cryogel-scaffolds-incorporated-with-various-forms-of-hydroxyapatite-for-bone-regeneration
#4
Katherine Hixon, Christopher Eberlin, Tracy Lu, Sydney Neal, Natasha Case, Sarah McBride-Gagyi, Scott A Sell
Cryogels are advantageous scaffolds for bone regeneration applications due to their high mechanical stability and macroporous structure. Anatomically, bone is composed of collagen and hydroxyapatite and during remodeling, these structural components are replaced. However, early forms of mineralization include calcium salts which take up to months to be converted to the desired hydroxyapatite form. Thus, it is beneficial to provide a primary source of hydroxyapatite within the scaffold, expediting the process of mineralization during bone regeneration...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143999/3d-hydrogel-based-microwell-arrays-as-a-tumor-microenvironment-model-to-study-breast-cancer-growth
#5
John Casey, Xiaoshan Yue, DungTrung Nguyen, Aylin Acun, Victoria Zellmer, Siyuan Zhang, Pinar Zorlutuna
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is distinctly heterogeneous and is involved in tumor growth, metastasis, and drug resistance. Mimicking this diverse microenvironment is essential for understanding tumor growth and metastasis. Despite the substantial scientific progress made with traditional cell culture methods, microfabricated three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures that can be precisely controlled to mimic the changes occur in the TME over tumor progression are necessary for simulating organ-specific TME in vitro...
February 1, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140347/properties-of-cao-sio2-p2o5-reinforced-calcium-phosphate-cements-and-in-vitro-osteoblast-response
#6
Lubomir Medvecky, Radoslava Stulajterova, Tibor Sopcak, Maria Giretova, Maria Faberova
Non-cytotoxic and bioactive tetracalcium phosphate/nanomonetite/calcium silicate-phosphate cements were prepared by simple mechanical mixing of starting powder precursors based on acid or basic tetracalcium phosphate/nanomonetite mixtures with 1 or 5 wt % addition of precititated amorphous or crystalline calcium silicate phosphate phases. The small additions (1-2 wt%) of crystalline CaSiP phase caused about a two-fold rise in the compressive strength of cements (up to 70 MPa) with simultaneous preservation of short setting time (around 5 minutes) and refinement of nanohydroxyapatite particles in microstructure...
January 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140340/electrospun-scaffolds-functionalized-with-heparin-and-vegf-increase-the-proliferation-of-endothelial-progenitor-cells
#7
Daikelly Iglesias Braghirolli, Virgínia Helfer, Pedro Chagastelles, Tiago Dalberto, Douglas Gamba, Patricia Pranke
In severe cases of peripheral arterial disease, tissue loss can occur and the use of vascular grafts can be necessary. However, currently, there are no suitable substitutes for application in small diameter vessels. The aim of this work has been to produce scaffolds with adequate properties for application as vascular substitutes. Polycaprolactone scaffolds were produced by the electrospinning technique. The surface of the scaffolds was functionalized with heparin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and their physical-chemical properties were characterized...
January 31, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106535/viscoelastic-behaviour-of-hydrogel-based-composites-for-tissue-engineering-under-mechanical-load
#8
Rok Kocen, M Gasik, Ana Gantar, Sasa Novak
Along with biocompatibility, bioinductivity and appropriate biodegradation, mechanical properties are also of crucial importance for tissue engineering scaffolds. Hydrogels, such as gellan gum, are usually soft materials, which may benefit from the incorporation of inorganic particles, e.g. bioactive glass, not only due to the acquired bioactivity, but also due to improved mechanical properties. They exhibit complex viscoelastic properties, which can be evaluated in various ways. In this work, to reliably evaluate the effect of the bioactive glass addition on viscoelastic properties of the composite hydrogel, we employed and compared three most commonly used techniques, analyzing their advantages and limitations: monotonic uniaxial unconfined compression, small amplitude oscillatory shear (SAOS) rheology and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA)...
January 20, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102826/ceramic-particle-engulfment-by-fibroblasts-does-not-alter-at-all-cell-behavior
#9
Pierre-Antoine Faye, Olivier Roualdes, Fabrice Rossignol, Daniel Jean Hartmann, Alexis Desmoulière
Despite many studies, the impact of ceramic particles on cell behavior remains still unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of ceramic nano-sized particles on fibroblastic cells. Fibroblasts (dermal fibroblasts freshly isolated from skin samples and WI26 fibroblastic cells) were cultured in monolayer in the presence of alumina or cerium-zirconia particles (��� 50 nm diameter) at two concentrations (100 or 500 ��g.mL-1). Fluorescent alumina particles were also used. Cell morphology, cytoplasmic ceramic incorporation using confocal and transmission electron microscopy, and migration using silicon insert, were analyzed...
January 19, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102173/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-antibacterial-and-osteogenic-activity-promoted-by-selenium-doped-calcium-phosphate-coatings
#10
Cosme Rodriguez-Valencia, Paula Freixeiro, Julia Serra, Carlos Ferreiros, Pio Gonzalez, Miriam Lopez-Alvarez
Selenium is an essential trace element present in 25 selenoenzymes, playing critical roles in a variety of physiological processes, such as anti-oxidative defense and the modulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. This paper characterizes selenium-doped calcium phosphate coatings and evaluates their effects on the osteogenic activity, the proliferation of osteosarcoma cells and biofilm formation. To do so, the structure and elemental composition of the obtained coatings were analyzed, in addition to their thicknesses, and they were compared to pure calcium phosphate coatings...
January 19, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065929/standardized-static-and-dynamic-evaluation-of-myocardial-tissue-properties
#11
Sherif Ramadan, Narinder Paul, Hani E Naguib
INTRODUCTION: Quantifying the mechanical behaviours of soft biological tissues is of considerable research interest. However, validity and reproducibility between different researchers and apparatus is questionable. This study aims to quantify the mechanical properties of myocardium while investigating methodologies that can standardize biological tissue testing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tensile testing was performed to obtain Young���s modulus and a dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) determined the viscoelastic properties...
January 9, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054934/evaluation-of-the-potential-of-chitosan-%C3%AE-1-3-glucan-ha-material-as-scaffold-for-living-bone-graft-production-i-in-vitro-i-by-comparison-of-adsc-and-bmdsc-behaviour-on-its-surface
#12
Agata Przekora, Marta Vandrovcova, Martina Travnickova, Julia Pajorova, Martin Molitor, Grazyna Ginalska, Lucie Bacakova
The opinion regarding the origin of adult stem cells that should be used for living bone construct generation is strongly divided in the scientific community. In this study, the potential of chitosan/β-1,3-glucan/HA material as scaffold for bone regeneration applications was evaluated by behaviour comparison of adult stem cells derived from both origins - adipose tissue (ADSCs) and bone marrow (BMDSCs). In the case of ADSC isolation, low and high negative pressures were applied during liposuction procedure in order to determine if negative pressure settings may have impact on subsequent cell behaviour <i>in vitro</i>...
January 5, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211364/antibacterial-effect-of-novel-biodegradable-and-bioresorbable-plda-mg-composites
#13
M C Fernández-Calderón, S C Cifuentes, M A Pacha-Olivenza, A M Gallardo-Moreno, L Saldaña, J L González-Carrasco, M T Blanco, N Vilaboa, M L González-Martín, C Pérez-Giraldo
Polylactic acid/Mg composites have been recently proposed for biodegradable osteosynthesis devices because, with regards to the neat polymer, they combine an enhanced biocompatibility and bioactivity with better mechanical properties, particularly creep strength. A question still arises about their bacterial behavior. For this purpose, composites of poly-L-D-lactic acid (PLDA) loaded with 1 and 10 wt.% of Mg microparticles were evaluated using Staphylococcus epidermidis, with special emphasis on the study of bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation...
February 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211362/marrow-isolated-adult-multilineage-inducible-cells-embedded-within-a-biologically-inspired-construct-promote-recovery-in-a-mouse-model-of-peripheral-vascular-disease
#14
Cristina Grau-Monge, Gaëtan J-R Delcroix, Andrea Bonnin-Marquez, Mike Valdes, Ead Lewis Mazen Awadallah, Daniel F Quevedo, Maxime R Armour, Ramon B Montero, Paul C Schiller, Fotios M Andreopoulos, Gianluca D'Ippolito
Peripheral vascular disease is one of the major vascular complications in individuals suffering from diabetes and in the elderly that is associated with significant burden in terms of morbidity and mortality. Stem cell therapy is being tested as an attractive alternative to traditional surgery to prevent and treat this disorder. The goal of this study was to enhance the protective and reparative potential of marrow-isolated adult multilineage inducible (MIAMI) cells by incorporating them within a bio-inspired construct (BIC) made of two layers of gelatin B electrospun nanofibers...
February 17, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157719/preclinical-safety-and-efficacy-evaluation-of-biocas-bioactive-calcium-sulfate-bone-cement
#15
Sony Sandhya, Parayanthala Valappil Mohanan, Arumugan Sabareeswaran, Hari Krishna Varma, Manoj Komath
A new bioactive calcium sulfate-based formulation (named 'BioCaS') has been developed for bone filler applications. This is a self-setting injectable cement where the preset form comprises bassanite obtained from the uniform submicron-sized precursor crystals of gypsum, modified with hydrogen orthophosphate ions. The results of the safety and efficacy evaluation of BioCaS cement, done as per the International Standards and guidelines, are presented in this paper. The study plan consisted of in vitro screening tests of cytotoxicity and haemolysis and in vivo biocompatibility evaluation, including an acute systemic toxicity test (in mice), an intracutaneous reactivity test (in rabbits), a pyrogen test (in rabbits) and a maximization sensitization test (in guinea pigs)...
February 3, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157718/in-vitro-comparative-assessment-of-decellularized-bovine-pericardial-patches-and-commercial-bioprosthetic-heart-valves
#16
Paola Aguiari, Laura Iop, Francesca Favaretto, Cátia Marisa Lourenco Fidalgo, Filippo Naso, Gabriella Milan, Vincenzo Vindigni, Michel Spina, Franco Bassetto, Andrea Bagno, Roberto Vettor, Gino Gerosa
Notwithstanding their wide exploitation, biological prosthetic heart valves are characterized by limited durability (10-15 years). The treatment of biological tissues with chemical crosslinking agents such as glutaraldehyde accounts for the enhanced risk of structural deterioration associated with the early failure of bioprosthetic valves. To overcome the shortcomings of the currently available solutions, adoption of decellularized biological tissues of animal origin has emerged as a promising approach. The present study aims to assess in vitro cardiovascular scaffolds composed of bovine pericardium decellularized with the novel TRITDOC (TRIton-X100 and TauroDeOxyCholic acid) procedure...
February 3, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157717/structure-and-properties-of-polycaprolactone-chitosan-nonwovens-tailored-by-solvent-systems
#17
Olga Urbanek, Paweł Sajkiewicz, Filippo Pierini, Maciej Czerkies, Dorota Kołbuk
Electrospinning of chitosan blends is a reasonable idea to prepare fibre mats for biomedical applications. Synthetic and natural components provide, for example, appropriate mechanical strength and biocompatibility, respectively. However, solvent characteristics and the polyelectrolyte nature of chitosan influence the spinnability of these blends. In order to compare the effect of solvent on polycaprolactone/chitosan fibres, two types of the most commonly used solvent systems were chosen, namely 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) and acetic acid (AA)/formic acid (FA)...
February 3, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120816/bioactivity-and-mechanical-stability-of-ti-6al-4v-implants-superplastically-embedded-with-hydroxyapatite-in-rats
#18
Hidayah Mohd Khalid, Iswadi Jauhari, Haryanti Azura Mohamad Wali, Suhaeb Abdulrazzaq Mahmod
In this in vivo study, Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were used to investigate the bioactivity as well as the microstructural and mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V samples embedded with hydroxyapatite (HA) using two different coating methods-superplastic embedment (SPE) and superplastic deformation (SPD). The HA layer thickness for the SPE and SPD samples increased from 249.1  ±  0.6 nm to 874.8  ±  13.7 nm, and from 206.1  ±  5.8 nm to 1162.7  ±  7.9 nm respectively, after 12 weeks of implantation...
January 25, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117305/dose-dependent-cytotoxicity-evaluation-of-graphite-nanoparticles-for-diamond-like-carbon-film-application-on-artificial-joints
#19
T T Liao, Q Y Deng, B J Wu, S S Li, X Li, J Wu, Y X Leng, Y B Guo, N Huang
While a diamond-like carbon (DLC)-coated joint prosthesis represents the implant of choice for total hip replacement in patients, it also leads to concern due to the cytotoxicity of wear debris in the form of graphite nanoparticles (GNs), ultimately limiting its clinical use. In this study, the cytotoxicity of various GN doses was evaluated. Mouse macrophages and osteoblasts were incubated with GNs (<30 nm diameter), followed by evaluation of cytotoxicity by means of assessing inflammatory cytokines, results of alkaline phosphatase assays, and related signaling protein expression...
January 24, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117304/effects-of-different-sterilization-methods-on-the-physico-chemical-and-bioresponsive-properties-of-plasma-treated-polycaprolactone-films
#20
Rouba Ghobeira, Charlot Philips, Heidi Declercq, Pieter Cools, Nathalie De Geyter, Ria Cornelissen, Rino Morent
For most tissue engineering applications, surface modification and sterilization of polymers are critical aspects determining the implant success. The first part of this study is thus dedicated to modifying polycaprolactone (PCL) surfaces via plasma treatment using a medium pressure dielectric barrier discharge, while the second part focuses on the sterilization of plasma-modified PCL. Chemical and physical surface changes are examined making use of water contact angle goniometry (WCA), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy...
January 24, 2017: Biomedical Materials
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