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European Review of Aging and Physical Activity

Guy Shani, Amir Shapiro, Goldstein Oded, Kagan Dima, Itshak Melzer
BACKGROUND: Rapid compensatory stepping plays an important role in preventing falls when balance is lost; however, these responses cannot be accurately quantified in the clinic. The Microsoft Kinect™ system provides real-time anatomical landmark position data in three dimensions (3D), which may bridge this gap. METHODS: Compensatory stepping reactions were evoked in 8 young adults by a sudden platform horizontal motion on which the subject stood or walked on a treadmill...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Christopher McCrum, Marissa H G Gerards, Kiros Karamanidis, Wiebren Zijlstra, Kenneth Meijer
BACKGROUND: Falls are a leading cause of injury among older adults and most often occur during walking. While strength and balance training moderately improve falls risk, training reactive recovery responses following sudden perturbations during walking may be more task-specific for falls prevention. The aim of this review was to determine the variety, characteristics and effectiveness of gait perturbation paradigms that have been used for improving reactive recovery responses during walking and reducing falls among healthy older adults...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Annsofie Mahrs Träff, Elisabet Cedersund, Catharina Nord
BACKGROUND: Physical activity is often described as being important for people of all ages, but what different people mean when they talk about physical activity is unclear. METHOD: A phenomenographic method was used to analyze how 13 older people and 17 professionals answer the question, "If I say physical activity, what does the concept mean to you?" as part of semi-structured interviews conducted in four assisted living facilities in two different municipalities...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Miriam Cabrita, Richel Lousberg, Monique Tabak, Hermie J Hermens, Miriam M R Vollenbroek-Hutten
BACKGROUND: Pleasure is one determinant of intrinsic motivation and yet a dimension often forgotten when promoting physical activity among the older population. In this study we investigate the relation between daily activities and physical activity, experience of pleasure, and the interaction between pleasure and physical activity in the daily lives of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Participants carried a hip-worn accelerometer during 30 consecutive days resulting in a total of 320 days of data collection...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Alexander Barth, Anja Vatterrott, Ying Zhou, Anne Fink, Gabriele Doblhammer
BACKGROUND: Extremity injuries (EI) and dementia are important causes of long-term care (LTC), but they can also cause each other and are often present concurrently. Mobility-limiting EI can increase the risk of dementia, and dementia increases the risk for falls, which are often the cause of EI. When EI and dementia are present together, they can increase their negative effect on long-term care risk. This study aims to assess the strength of this interaction and the role of different body regions and severities of EI regarding LTC risk...
2016: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Jochen Klenk, Lars Schwickert, Luca Palmerini, Sabato Mellone, Alan Bourke, Espen A F Ihlen, Ngaire Kerse, Klaus Hauer, Mirjam Pijnappels, Matthis Synofzik, Karin Srulijes, Walter Maetzler, Jorunn L Helbostad, Wiebren Zijlstra, Kamiar Aminian, Christopher Todd, Lorenzo Chiari, Clemens Becker
BACKGROUND: Real-world fall events objectively measured by body-worn sensors can improve the understanding of fall events in older people. However, these events are rare and hence challenging to capture. Therefore, the FARSEEING (FAll Repository for the design of Smart and sElf-adaptive Environments prolonging Independent livinG) consortium and associated partners started to build up a meta-database of real-world falls. RESULTS: Between January 2012 and December 2015 more than 300 real-world fall events have been recorded...
2016: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Mélanie G M Perras, Shaelyn M Strachan, Michelle S Fortier, Brenden Dufault
BACKGROUND: Retirement is not always associated with greater engagement in physical activity. Previous interventions informed by possible selves, a type of future-oriented self-representation, proved useful to increase physical activity in young adults. We thus wanted to explore if a similar intervention would yield favorable outcomes in new retirees. We also examined whether possible selves could help increase identity relative to the physical activity context. Identity circumscribes the meanings which help individuals define who they are in a given role (i...
2016: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Daryoush D Vaziri, Konstantin Aal, Corinna Ogonowski, Thomas Von Rekowski, Michael Kroll, Hannah R Marston, Rakel Poveda, Yves J Gschwind, Kim Delbaere, Rainer Wieching, Volker Wulf
BACKGROUND: Falls are common in older adults and can result in serious injuries. Due to demographic changes, falls and related healthcare costs are likely to increase over the next years. Participation and motivation of older adults in fall prevention measures remain a challenge. The iStoppFalls project developed an information and communication technology (ICT)-based system for older adults to use at home in order to reduce common fall risk factors such as impaired balance and muscle weakness...
2016: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Jenny Foss Abrahamsen, Cathrine Haugland, Anette Hylen Ranhoff
BACKGROUND: The objective of the present study was to investigate 1) the role of different admission diagnoses and 2) the degree of functional loss, on the rate of recovery of older patients after acute hospitalization. Furthermore, to compare the predictive value of simple assessments that can be carried out in a hospital lacking geriatric service, with assessments including geriatric screening tests. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study, including 961community dwelling patients aged ≥ 70 years, transferred from medical, cardiac, pulmonary and orthopedic acute hospital departments to intermediate care in nursing home...
2016: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Slavko Rogan, Lorenz Radlinger, Heiner Baur, Dietmar Schmidtbleicher, Rob A de Bie, Eling D de Bruin
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of a combined innovative training regime consisting of stochastic resonance whole-body vibration (SR-WBV) and a dance video game (DVG) on physical performance and muscle strength in long-term-care dwelling elderly. METHODS: Thirthy long-term-care elderly were randomly allocated to an intervention group (IG; n = 16) receiving combined SR-WBV training and DVG, or a sham group (SG; n = 14). IG performed five sets one minute of SR-WBV, with one minute rest between sets (base frequency 3 Hz up to 6 Hz, Noise 4) during the first five weeks on three days per week...
2016: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Hans Drenth, Sytse Zuidema, Steven Bunt, Ivan Bautmans, Cees van der Schans, Hans Hobbelen
Diminishing motor function is commonly observed in the elderly population and is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences. Advanced Glycation End products (AGE's) may contribute to age-related decline in the function of cells and tissues in normal ageing. Although the negative effect of AGE's on the biomechanical properties of musculoskeletal tissues and the central nervous system have been previously described, the evidence regarding the effect on motor function is fragmented, and a systematic review on this topic is lacking...
2016: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Andreas Ejupi, Yves J Gschwind, Matthew Brodie, Wolfgang L Zagler, Stephen R Lord, Kim Delbaere
BACKGROUND: Quick protective reactions such as reaching or stepping are important to avoid a fall or minimize injuries. We developed Kinect-based choice reaching and stepping reaction time tests (Kinect-based CRTs) and evaluated their ability to differentiate between older fallers and non-fallers and the feasibility of administering them at home. METHODS: A total of 94 community-dwelling older people were assessed on the Kinect-based CRTs in the laboratory and were followed-up for falls for 6 months...
2016: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Patrick D Gajewski, Michael Falkenstein
This condensed review gives an overview about two methodological approaches to study the impact of physical activity on cognition in elderly, namely cross-sectional studies and randomized controlled intervention studies with pre- and post-measures. Moreover, this review includes studies investigating different types of physical activity and their relation to cognitive functions in older age. Behavioral data are considered but the main focus lies on neuroscientific methods like event-related potentials (ERPs) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2016: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Anne Canivet, Cédric T Albinet, Nathalie André, Jean Pylouster, Montserrat Rodríguez-Ballesteros, Alain Kitzis, Michel Audiffren
BACKGROUND: The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration is highest in the hippocampus compared with that in other brain structures and affects episodic memory, a cognitive function that is impaired in older adults. According to the neurotrophic hypothesis, BDNF released during physical activity enhances brain plasticity and consequently brain health. However, even if the physical activity level is involved in the secretion of neurotrophin, this protein is also under the control of a specific gene...
2015: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Oron Levin, Yael Netz
Some of the neurodegenerative processes in healthy aging, including changes in structural and biochemical properties of the brain, are argued to affect cortical inhibitory functions. Age-related deficits in the ability to control cerebral inhibition may explain wide range of motor and cognitive deficits that healthy older adults experience in daily life such as impaired coordination skills and declines in attention, concentration, and learning abilities. Importantly, evidence from many studies suggests that impaired inhibitory control in advancing age can be delayed or even alleviated by aerobic exercise training...
2015: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Hannah R Marston, Ashley Woodbury, Yves J Gschwind, Michael Kroll, Denis Fink, Sabine Eichberg, Karl Kreiner, Andreas Ejupi, Janneke Annegarn, Helios de Rosario, Arno Wienholtz, Rainer Wieching, Kim Delbaere
BACKGROUND: Falls in older people represent a major age-related health challenge facing our society. Novel methods for delivery of falls prevention programs are required to increase effectiveness and adherence to these programs while containing costs. The primary aim of the Information and Communications Technology-based System to Predict and Prevent Falls (iStoppFalls) project was to develop innovative home-based technologies for continuous monitoring and exercise-based prevention of falls in community-dwelling older people...
2015: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Slavko Rogan, Eling D de Bruin, Lorenz Radlinger, Christine Joehr, Christa Wyss, Neil-Jerome Stuck, Yvonne Bruelhart, Rob A de Bie, Roger Hilfiker
BACKGROUND: Dynapenia (age-associated loss of muscle strength not caused by neurologic or muscular diseases) and functional limitations (e.g. climbing stairs, chair rising) are important problems in elderly persons. Whole body vibration, used as an adjunct to classical resistance training or even as a stand-alone alternative, might help to reduce these problems. Its value might be highest in elderly persons with very low function, where whole body vibration can be used as a skilling up training until more conventional exercise types are possible...
2015: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Yves J Gschwind, Daniel Schoene, Stephen R Lord, Andreas Ejupi, Trinidad Valenzuela, Konstantin Aal, Ashley Woodbury, Kim Delbaere
BACKGROUND: There is good evidence that balance challenging exercises can reduce falls in older people. However, older people often find it difficult to incorporate such programs in their daily life. Videogame technology has been proposed to promote enjoyable, balance-challenging exercise. As part of a larger analysis, we compared feasibility and efficacy of two exergame interventions: step-mat-training (SMT) and Microsoft-Kinect® (KIN) exergames. METHODS: 148 community-dwelling people, aged 65+ years participated in two exergame studies in Sydney, Australia (KIN: n = 57, SMT: n = 91)...
2015: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Yves J Gschwind, Sabine Eichberg, Andreas Ejupi, Helios de Rosario, Michael Kroll, Hannah R Marston, Mario Drobics, Janneke Annegarn, Rainer Wieching, Stephen R Lord, Konstantin Aal, Daryoush Vaziri, Ashley Woodbury, Dennis Fink, Kim Delbaere
BACKGROUND: Falls and fall-related injuries are a serious public health issue. Exercise programs can effectively reduce fall risk in older people. The iStoppFalls project developed an Information and Communication Technology-based system to deliver an unsupervised exercise program in older people's homes. The primary aims of the iStoppFalls randomized controlled trial were to assess the feasibility (exercise adherence, acceptability and safety) of the intervention program and its effectiveness on common fall risk factors...
2015: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Mehrdad Anbarian, Mahnaz Marvi-Esfahani, Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Masoud Etemadifar, Seyed Mohammad Marandi, Mostafa Kamali
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the neurological diseases that affect the ability of subjects to stand and walk. The stability of MS subjects has been evaluated in various studies, mostly based on linear approach. Based on this approach it is controversial weather stability of MS subjects differ from normal or not. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate stability in three groups of MS subjects (spastic, ataxic and ataxic-spastic) using both linear and non-linear approaches...
2015: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
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