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European Review of Aging and Physical Activity

Shruti Patelia, Rachael C Stone, Rona El-Bakri, Mehrnaz Adli, Joseph Baker
Background: Identifying the optimal type and amount of activity for the maintenance of function in older adults has proved challenging. On the one hand, Masters Athletes have been proposed as the ideal model of successful aging but most of this research has focused on physical functioning. On the other hand, the importance of cognitive engagement has been emphasized, which may be more strongly related to activities such as playing chess. The current study aimed to compare physical health outcomes (i...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Pierre Louis Bernard, Hubert Blain, Aurelie Gerazime, Olivier Maurelli, Jean Bousquet, Grégory Ninot
Background: The aims of this study were (i) to define the relationship between a physical reconditioning cycle using balance exercises and muscular-articular stress and the balance capabilities of sedentary older adults and (ii) to assess whether older adults with weaker equilibrium abilities have a significantly limited progression. Our sample consisted of 338 people (263 women, 75 men) with an age, weight and height of 74.4 years (+/- 8.6), 67 kg (+/- 13.6) and 161.4 cm (+/- 8) and with a body mass index of 25...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Akito Yoshiko, Aya Tomita, Ryosuke Ando, Madoka Ogawa, Shohei Kondo, Akira Saito, Noriko I Tanaka, Teruhiko Koike, Yoshiharu Oshida, Hiroshi Akima
Background: Older individuals have been shown to present muscle atrophy in conjunction with increased fat fraction in some muscles. The proportion of fat and connective tissue within the skeletal muscle can be estimated from axial B-mode ultrasound images using echo intensity (EI). EI was used to calculate the index of muscle quality. Walking, home-based weight-bearing resistance training, and its combinations are considered simple, easy, and practical exercise interventions for older adults...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Anne K Gulsvik, Marius Myrstad, Ida Wilson Landgraff, Nina Emaus, Anette Hylen Ranhoff
Background: Physical activity (PA) is generally beneficial for bone health, but the effect of high levels of PA over many years, in older women, is unknown. Methods: T-score from Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and self-reported baseline characteristics were recorded for 24 female, cross-country-skiing-competitors, aged 68-76 years, from the Birkebeiner Ageing Study. Data from 647 women in the same age range from the Tromso-6 population study, with recorded DXA findings, were used for comparison...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Jitka Vseteckova, Manik Deepak-Gopinath, Erica Borgstrom, Caroline Holland, Jan Draper, Yannis Pappas, Eamonn McKeown, Klara Dadova, Steve Gray
Objectives: Research suggests targeted exercise is important for people living with dementia, especially those living in residential care. The aim of this review was to collect and synthesize evidence on the known barriers and facilitators to adherence to group exercise of institutionalized older people living with dementia. Methods: We searched all available electronic databases. Additionally, we searched trial registries (, and WHO ICTRP) for ongoing studies...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Thwe Zar Chi Htut, Vimonwan Hiengkaew, Chutima Jalayondeja, Mantana Vongsirinavarat
Background: Physical exercise (PE), virtual reality-based exercise (VRE), and brain exercise (BE) can influence physical and cognitive conditions in older persons. However, it is not known which of the three types of exercises provide the best effects on physical and cognitive status, and which exercise is preferred by older persons. This study compared the effects of PE, VRE, and BE on balance, muscle strength, cognition, and fall concern. In addition, exercise effort perception and contentment in older persons was evaluated...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Anne-Violette Bruyneel, Simone C Gafner, Serge Ferrari, Gabriel Gold, Dominique Monnin, Philippe Terrier, Caroline H Bastiaenen, Lara Allet
Background: Reduced hip muscle strength has been shown to be a major factor related to falls in older persons. However, comprehensive assessment of hip abduction strength in the clinical setting is challenging. The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility and intra-rater reliability of a quick and simple hip abductor strength test in a functional standing position. Methods: Individuals over 65 years of age were recruited from the geriatric department of a university hospital and an outpatient clinic...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Kilian Rapp, Stefanie Mikolaizak, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Michael D Denkinger, Jochen Klenk
Background: Physical activity is considered an effective measure to promote health in older people. There is evidence that the number of outdoor trips increases physical activity by increasing walking duration. The objective of this study was to analyse the relationship between daily time out-of-home and walking duration. Furthermore, predictors for walking duration and time out-of-home were evaluated. Methods: Walking duration was measured prospectively over a 1 week period by a body-fixed sensor and the time out-of-home was assessed by a questionnaire at the same days...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Astrid Bergland, Marit Fougner, Anne Lund, Jonas Debesay
Background: Research that provides better understanding of the motivational processes in older age to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is sought after. We apply theoretical approaches to cultural capital, active and healthy aging health to shed light on the women's experiences in maintaining physical capabilities through an active lifestyle, and thereby facilitating their own inclusion in society. Thus, the aim of this paper is to explore why older home dwelling women over the age of 70 years or more spend time in physical exercise and their experiences about the importance of participating in group exercise for their daily life...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Philippe Jean-Luc Gradidge, Shane A Norris, Richard Munthali, Nigel J Crowther
Background: The increasing prevalence of obesity in sub-Saharan African women is not well understood, and black South African women in the region are particularly vulnerable. This study aimed to examine whether the relationship of socioeconomic status (SES) with changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) is mediated by physical activity in ageing African women. Methods: In a longitudinal analysis of the 518 caregivers associated with the Birth to Twenty Plus study, the role of SES associated with 10-year changes in BMI and WC was tested using structural equation modelling (SEM)...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Sunghye Kim, Michael E Miller, Marina Lin, W Jack Rejeski, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Anthony P Marsh, Leanne Groban
Background: Mobility is fundamental to maintenance of an independent lifestyle and can predict clinical outcomes after health events among older individuals. However, certain clinical situations do not accommodate physical or self-assessments. This investigation examines whether proxy-reported assessments of function using the Mobility Assessment Tool-short (MAT-sf) form is a reliable alternative. Methods: Sixty-six older persons (≥ age 70) and their proxies were enrolled...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Pantelis Theodoros Nikolaidis, Elias Villiger, Thomas Rosemann, Beat Knechtle
Background: The participation of master cross-country (XC) skiers in training and competition has increased during the last decades; however, little is known yet about whether these athletes differ from their younger counterparts in aspects of performance such as pacing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine the combined effect of age and performance (race time) on pacing in cross-country (XC) skiing. We analyzed all finishers ( n  = 79,722) in 'Vasaloppet' from 2012 to 2017, the largest cross-country skiing race in the world, classified according to their race time into 10 groups: 3-4 h, 4-5 h, ...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Kohei Watanabe, Motoki Kouzaki, Madoka Ogawa, Hiroshi Akima, Toshio Moritani
Background: Since age-related muscle strength loss cannot be explained solely by muscle atrophy, other determinants would also contribute to muscle strength in elderly. The present study aimed to clarify contribution of neuromuscular activation pattern to muscle strength in elderly group. From 88 elderlies (age: 61~ 83 years), multi-channel surface electromyography (EMG) of the vastus lateralis muscle was recorded with two-dimensional 64 electrodes during isometric submaximal ramp-up knee extension to assess neuromuscular activation pattern...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Ren Ru Zhao, Anthony J O'Sullivan, Maria A Fiatarone Singh
Background: Diabetes is an important risk factor for cognitive impairment. Although some studies suggest that physical exercise can minimize age-related cognitive declines or improve brain morphology or function, benefits in diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance are unclear. Therefore, our aim was to evaluate the efficacy of exercise or physical activity on cognition in adults with type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods: An electronic search for studies published from the earliest record until February 2017 was conducted using Medline, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, and PsycINFO...
2018: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Oron Levin, Yael Netz, Gal Ziv
The decline in cognitive and motor functions with age affects the performance of the aging healthy population in many daily life activities. Physical activity appears to mitigate this decline or even improve motor and cognitive abilities in older adults. The current systematic review will focus mainly on behavioral studies that look into the dual effects of different types of physical training (e.g., balance training, aerobic training, strength training, group sports, etc.) on cognitive and motor tasks in older adults with no known cognitive or motor disabilities or disease...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Daniela Ciprandi, Filippo Bertozzi, Matteo Zago, Claudia Lucia Pimenta Ferreira, Giuseppe Boari, Chiarella Sforza, Christel Galvani
Background: Gait variability can be considered an indirect measure of gait stability, in particular regarding temporal or spatial variability assessment. Physical activity, such as walking, is advised for the elderly and can be improved by gait stability. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between gait stability and physical activity in women of different age ranges. Methods: Forty-two healthy women of different age ranges (18-40 yrs. and 65-75 yrs...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Sören Dallmeyer, Pamela Wicker, Christoph Breuer
BACKGROUND: Aging societies represent a major challenge for health care systems all over the world. As older people tend to be more physically inactive, economic costs of inactivity are likely to increase notably. The present study aims to investigate this relationship between an aging society and economic costs of inactivity using the example of Germany. METHODS: Using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, this study applied the comparative risk assessment method developed by the WHO to estimate the direct costs of inactivity for the period 2001-2013 differentiated by gender-specific age-groups (15-29; 30-44; 45-64; 65+)...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Myrla Sales, Pazit Levinger, Remco Polman
BACKGROUND: There has been a lack of research examining the relationship among self-perceptions, behaviour, cognitions and functioning in older adults. This study, therefore, examined the relationship between global and physical self-perceptions, physical activity behaviour, and fear of falling taking into considerations objective measures of physical functioning in community dwelling older adults. METHODS/DESIGN: Sixty-six participants between 60 and 90 years old (71...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Tobias Morat, Jenny Krueger, Angus Gaedtke, Manuela Preuss, Joachim Latsch, Hans-Georg Predel
BACKGROUND: Several studies have already examined the positive effects of various forms of endurance training in patient groups and in healthy adults up to 60 years old. The aim of this study was to analyse the effects of Nordic Walking (NW) and XCO Walking (XCO) training on endurance capacity in healthy older adults, aged 60 years and older. METHODS: Twenty-three older participants (mean age: 69.9 ± 5.4 years) were randomly assigned to either the NW group or the XCO group...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
Lena Hübner, Claudia Voelcker-Rehage
Upper extremity motor performance declines with increasing age. However, older adults need to maintain, learn new and relearn known motor tasks. Research with young adults indicated that regular and acute physical activity might facilitate motor performance and motor learning processes. Therefore, this review aimed to examine the association between chronic physical activity and acute bouts of exercise on motor performance and motor learning in upper extremity motor tasks in older adults. Literature was searched via Cochrane library, PubMED, PsycINFO and Scopus and 27 studies met all inclusion criteria...
2017: European Review of Aging and Physical Activity
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