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Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28083813/serum-calcium-concentration-in-ethylene-glycol-poisoning
#1
Michael Hodgman, Jeanna M Marraffa, Susan Wojcik, William Grant
INTRODUCTION: The diagnosis of ethylene glycol intoxication can be challenging. Definitive testing for ethylene glycol is not readily available and clinical decisions are often based on clinical suspicion and the results of more readily available tests. One of these findings is hypocalcemia, presumable through complexation with the ethylene glycol metabolite oxalate. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients admitted to a tertiary care hospital between 2005 and 2013 with laboratory confirmed ethylene glycol intoxication...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000146/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-treatment-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Cecilia J Sorensen, Kristen DeSanto, Laura Borgelt, Kristina T Phillips, Andrew A Monte
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a syndrome of cyclic vomiting associated with cannabis use. Our objective is to summarize the available evidence on CHS diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. We performed a systematic review using MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 through September 24, 2015. Articles eligible for inclusion were evaluated using the Grading and Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Data were abstracted from the articles and case reports and were combined in a cumulative synthesis...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000145/articles-you-might-have-missed
#3
David C Watts, Eleanor R Oakley, Hannah R Malashock, Elizabeth C Moore, Frank LoVecchio
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921219/nationwide-scorpion-exposures-reported-to-us-poison-control-centers-from-2005-to-2015
#4
A Min Kang, Daniel E Brooks
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies of scorpion envenomation in the United States (US) have focused on Arizona and the bark scorpion, Centruroides sculpturatus. Although many other scorpion species live in the US, information about envenomations in other states is lacking. METHODS: Nationwide scorpion exposures from 2005 to 2015 were analyzed using the National Poison Data System. RESULTS: Of the 185,402 total exposures, Arizona (68.2%), Texas (10...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896660/ayahuasca-exposure-descriptive-analysis-of-calls-to-us-poison-control-centers-from-2005-to-2015
#5
C William Heise, Daniel E Brooks
BACKGROUND: Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic plant preparation which usually contains the vine Banisteriopsis caapi and the shrub Psychotria viridis. This tea originates from the Amazon Basin where it is used in religious ceremonies. Because interest in these religious groups spreading as well as awareness of use of ayahuasca for therapeutic and recreational purposes, its use is increasing. Banisteriopsis caapi is rich in β-carbolines, especially harmine, tetrahydroharmine and harmaline, which have monoamine oxidase inhibiting (MAOI) activity...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778237/in-response-to-the-evolution-of-recommended-naloxone-dosing-for-opioid-overdose-by-medical-specialty
#6
LETTER
Juliana Lombardi, Eric Villeneuve, Sophie Gosselin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778236/in-reply-the-evolution-of-recommended-naloxone-dosing-for-opioid-overdose-by-medical-specialty
#7
Nicholas J Connors, Lewis S Nelson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752985/suspected-adulteration-of-commercial-kratom-products-with-7-hydroxymitragynine
#8
Alicia G Lydecker, Abhisheak Sharma, Christopher R McCurdy, Bonnie A Avery, Kavita M Babu, Edward W Boyer
INTRODUCTION: Kratom (Mitragyna speciosa), a plant native to Southeast Asia, has been used for centuries for its stimulant and opium-like effects. Mitragynine and 7-hydroxymitragynine, exclusive to M. speciosa, are the alkaloids primary responsible for Kratom's biologic and psychoactive profile, and likely contribute to its problematic use. We purchased several commercially available Kratom analogs for analysis and through our results, present evidence of probable adulteration with the highly potent and addictive plant alkaloid, 7-hydroxymitragynine...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699638/articles-you-might-have-missed
#9
Sara Lookabill, Dalia Alwasiyah, Matthew Stripp, William Kerns
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631586/the-vitamin-b12-analog-cobinamide-is-an-effective-antidote-for-oral-cyanide-poisoning
#10
Jangwoen Lee, Sari B Mahon, David Mukai, Tanya Burney, Behdod S Katebian, Adriano Chan, Vikhyat S Bebarta, David Yoon, Gerry R Boss, Matthew Brenner
INTRODUCTION: Cyanide is a major chemical threat, and cyanide ingestion carries a higher risk for a supra-lethal dose exposure compared to inhalation but provides an opportunity for effective treatment due to a longer treatment window and a gastrointestinal cyanide reservoir that could be neutralized prior to systemic absorption. We hypothesized that orally administered cobinamide may function as a high-binding affinity scavenger and that gastric alkalinization would reduce cyanide absorption and concurrently increase cobinamide binding, further enhancing antidote effectiveness...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501853/pilot-trial-of-intravenous-lipid-emulsion-treatment-for-severe-nifedipine-induced-shock
#11
Christine M Murphy, Cliff Williams, Michael E Quinn, Brian Nicholson, Thomas Shoe, Michael C Beuhler, William P Kerns
Animal studies and human case reports show promise in using lipid rescue to treat refractory calcium channel antagonist toxicity. However, the majority of research and clinical experience has focused on non-dihydropyridine agents. Thus, we sought to investigate the value of lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy for dihydropyridine-induced shock. This IACUC-approved study utilized seven swine that were sedated with alpha-chloralose, mechanically ventilated, and instrumented for drug delivery and hemodynamic measures...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456263/single-versus-multiple-hyperbaric-sessions-for-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-a-murine-model
#12
Shaun D Carstairs, Alexander D Miller, Alicia B Minns, Jay Duchnick, Robert H Riffenburgh, Richard F Clark, Christian A Tomaszewski
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) has been advocated for treatment of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. There exists considerable debate as to whether HBO prevents delayed neurologic sequelae (DNS) due to CO poisoning. Additionally, existing data in the literature supporting HBO efficacy do not identify an optimal number of HBO treatments. We sought to determine in a mouse model whether there is a difference between one versus multiple HBO sessions for the prevention of DNS. Fifty mice were randomized into five groups of ten mice each: (1) control, receiving no CO exposure or treatment; (2) CO poisoned, receiving no treatment (CO group); (3) CO poisoned, receiving normobaric oxygen for 58 min following the end of exposure (CO + NBO group); (4) CO poisoned, followed by one session of HBO(CO + HBO1); and (5) CO poisoned, followed by three HBO treatment sessions, one every 6 h (CO + HBO3)...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456262/acute-toxicity-associated-with-use-of-5f-derivations-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-with-analytical-confirmation
#13
Rachelle Abouchedid, James H Ho, Simon Hudson, Alison Dines, John R H Archer, David M Wood, Paul I Dargan
INTRODUCTION: Synthetic Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (SCRAs) are the largest group of new psychoactive substances reported to the European Warning System and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime to date. The heterogeneous nature and speed of diversification of these compounds make it challenging to accurately characterise and predict harms of these compounds in pre-clinical studies, ahead of their appearance. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 19-year-old female who purchased three products from a headshop: two new psychoactive substances (sachets of "cannabis tea" and "mushroom tea") as well as two LSD blotters...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27381429/teletoxicology-patient-assessment-using-wearable-audiovisual-streaming-technology
#14
Aaron B Skolnik, Peter R Chai, Christian Dameff, Richard Gerkin, Jessica Monas, Angela Padilla-Jones, Steven Curry
BACKGROUND: Audiovisual streaming technologies allow detailed remote patient assessment and have been suggested to change management and enhance triage. The advent of wearable, head-mounted devices (HMDs) permits advanced teletoxicology at a relatively low cost. A previously published pilot study supports the feasibility of using the HMD Google Glass® (Google Inc.; Mountain View, CA) for teletoxicology consultation. This study examines the reliability, accuracy, and precision of the poisoned patient assessment when performed remotely via Google Glass®...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352082/wearable-devices-and-biosensing-future-frontiers
#15
EDITORIAL
Peter R Chai
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27352081/exposure-calls-to-u-s-poison-centers-involving-electronic-cigarettes-and-conventional-cigarettes-september-2010-december-2014
#16
Kevin Chatham-Stephens, Royal Law, Ethel Taylor, Stephanie Kieszak, Paul Melstrom, Rebecca Bunnell, Baoguang Wang, Hannah Day, Benjamin Apelberg, Lee Cantrell, Howell Foster, Joshua G Schier
INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette use is increasing, and the long-term impact on public health is unclear. We described the acute adverse health effects from e-cigarette exposures reported to U.S. poison centers. METHODS: We compared monthly counts and demographic, exposure, and health effects data of calls about e-cigarettes and conventional cigarettes made to poison centers from September 2010 through December 2014. RESULTS: Monthly e-cigarette calls increased from 1 in September 2010, peaked at 401 in April 2014, and declined to 295 in December 2014...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27342463/making-surveys-count-enhancing-the-rigor-of-survey-based-research-in-medical-toxicology
#17
EDITORIAL
Gillian A Beauchamp, Jeanmarie Perrone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27295188/the-influence-of-polyethylene-glycol-solution-on-the-dissolution-rate-of-sustained-release-morphine
#18
Michael Hodgman, Michael G Holland, Ulrich Englich, Susan M Wojcik, William D Grant, Erich Leitner
INTRODUCTION: Whole bowel irrigation (WBI) is a management option for overdose of medications poorly adsorbed to activated charcoal, with modified release properties, or for body packers. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a mixture of ethylene oxide polymers of varying molecular weight. PEG with an average molecular weight of 3350 g/mol is used for WBI. PEG electrolyte lavage solution has been shown in vitro to hasten the dissolution of acetaminophen. The impact of PEG on the pharmacokinetics of extended release pharmaceuticals is unknown...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27277955/an-infant-with-a-prolonged-sympathomimetic-toxidrome-after-lisdexamfetamine-dimesylate-ingestion
#19
Kelly E Wood, Matthew D Krasowski
INTRODUCTION: Stimulant medications are approved to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children over the age of 6 years. Fatal ingestion of stimulants by children has been reported, although most ingestions do not result in severe toxicity. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, a once daily long-acting stimulant, is a prodrug requiring conversion to its active form, dextroamphetamine, in the bloodstream. Based on its unique pharmacokinetics, peak levels of d-amphetamine are delayed...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255136/clinical-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoid-receptor-agonists-compared-with-marijuana-in-emergency-department-patients-with-acute-drug-overdose
#20
Milana Zaurova, Robert S Hoffman, David Vlahov, Alex F Manini
INTRODUCTION: Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists (SCRAs) are heterogeneous compounds originally intended as probes of the endogenous cannabinoid system or as potential therapeutic agents. We assessed the clinical toxicity associated with recent SCRA use in a large cohort of drug overdose patients. METHODS: This subgroup analysis of a large (n = 3739) drug overdose cohort study involved consecutive ED patients at two urban teaching hospitals collected between 2009 and 2013...
December 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
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