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Advances in Cognitive Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154617/how-to-stop-cognitive-processes-is-as-important-as-how-to-start-them-commentary-on-dipoppa-et-al
#1
Matthias H J Munk
We are used to dealing with concepts which provide explanations for how cognitive processes are initiated. But we hardly ever spend time on trying to explain how such processes are turned off again and, thus, do not compromise subsequent processes.
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154616/controlling-working-memory-operations-by-selective-gating-the-roles-of-oscillations-and-synchrony
#2
Mario Dipoppa, Marcin Szwed, Boris S Gutkin
Working memory (WM) is a primary cognitive function that corresponds to the ability to update, stably maintain, and manipulate short-term memory (ST M) rapidly to perform ongoing cognitive tasks. A prevalent neural substrate of WM coding is persistent neural activity, the property of neurons to remain active after having been activated by a transient sensory stimulus. This persistent activity allows for online maintenance of memory as well as its active manipulation necessary for task performance. WM is tightly capacity limited...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154615/the-snarc-effect-in-number-memorization-and-retrieval-what-is-the-impact-of-congruency-magnitude-and-the-exact-position-of-numbers-in-short-term-memory-processing
#3
Małgorzata Gut, Rafał Staniszewski
Mental representations of numbers are spatially organized along a Mental Number Line (MNL). One widely proven manifestation of this relationship is the Spatial Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC) effect. It refers to the phenomenon of faster responses to numbers when there is congruency between the reaction side and the number position on the MNL . Although long-term memory is considered to house the MNL, short-term memory (STM) load may also modulate responses to numbers and the SN ARCRC effect...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154614/to-what-extent-can-motor-imagery-replace-motor-execution-while-learning-a-fine-motor-skill
#4
Jagna Sobierajewicz, Sylwia Szarkiewicz, Anna Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Wojciech Jaśkowski, Rob van der Lubbe
Motor imagery is generally thought to share common mechanisms with motor execution. In the present study, we examined to what extent learning a fine motor skill by motor imagery may substitute physical practice. Learning effects were assessed by manipulating the proportion of motor execution and motor imagery trials. Additionally, learning effects were compared between participants with an explicit motor imagery instruction and a control group. A Go/NoGo discrete sequence production (DSP) task was employed, wherein a five-stimulus sequence presented on each trial indicated the required sequence of finger movements after a Go signal...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154613/the-effect-of-unitizing-word-pairs-on-recollection-versus-familiarity-based-retrieval-further-evidence-from-erps
#5
Siri-Maria Kamp, Regine Bader, Axel Mecklinger
We investigated the contribution of familiarity and recollection to associative retrieval of word pairs depending on the extent to which the pairs have been unitized through task instructions in the encoding phase. Participants in the unitization condition encoded word pairs in the context of a definition that tied them together such that they were treated as a coherent new item, while in the control condition word pairs were inserted into a sentence frame in which each word remained an individual unit. Contrasting event-related potentials (ERERPs) elicited in a subsequent recognition test by old (intact) and recombined (a new combination of two words from different study pairs) word pairs, an early frontal effect, the putative ER P correlate of familiarity-based retrieval, was apparent in the unitization condition...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154612/two-sides-of-the-same-coin-erp-and-wavelet-analyses-of-visual-potentials-evoked-and-induced-by-task-relevant-faces
#6
Rob H J Van der Lubbe, Izabela Szumska, Małgorzata Fajkowska
New analysis techniques of the electroencephalogram (EEG) such as wavelet analysis open the possibility to address questions that may largely improve our understanding of the EEG and clarify its relation with related potentials (ER Ps). Three issues were addressed. 1) To what extent can early ERERP components be described as transient evoked oscillations in specific frequency bands? 2) Total EEG power (TP) after a stimulus consists of pre-stimulus baseline power (BP), evoked power (EP), and induced power (IP), but what are their respective contributions? 3) The Phase Reset model proposes that BP predicts EP, while the evoked model holds that BP is unrelated to EP; which model is the most valid one? EEG results on NoGo trials for 123 individuals that took part in an experiment with emotional facial expressions were examined by computing ERPs and by performing wavelet analyses on the raw EEG and on ER Ps...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154611/editorial-special-issue-neuronus
#7
EDITORIAL
Rob H J Van der Lubbe, Michał Kuniecki
This special issue of the 12th volume of Advances in Cognitive Psychology is devoted to the Neuronus conference that took place in Kraków in 2015. In this editorial letter, we will focus on a selection of the materials and some follow-up research that was presented during this conference. We will also briefly introduce the conference contributions that successfully passed an external reviewing process.
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127412/early-vocabulary-in-relation-to-gender-bilingualism-type-and-duration-of-childcare
#8
M Stolarova, A A Brielmann, C Wolf, T Rinker, T Burke, H Baayen
This study investigates the predictive value of child-related and environmental characteristics for early lexical development. The German productive vocabulary of 51 2-year-olds (27 girls), assessed via parental report, was analyzed taking children's gender, the type of early care they experienced, and their mono- versus bilingual language composition into consideration. The children were from an educationally homogeneous group of families and state-regulated daycare facilities with high structural quality...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115997/has-the-standard-cognitive-reflection-test-become-a-victim-of-its-own-success
#9
Matthew Haigh
The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a hugely influential problem solving task that measures individual differences in the propensity to reflect on and override intuitive (but incorrect) solutions. The validity of this three-item measure depends on participants being naïve to its materials and objectives. Evidence from 142 volunteers recruited online suggests this is often not the case. Over half of the sample had previously seen at least one of the problems, predominantly through research participation or the media...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512529/interplay-between-the-object-and-its-symbol-the-size-congruency-effect
#10
Manqiong Shen, Jiushu Xie, Wenjuan Liu, Wenjie Lin, Zhuoming Chen, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos, Ruiming Wang
Grounded cognition suggests that conceptual processing shares cognitive resources with perceptual processing. Hence, conceptual processing should be affected by perceptual processing, and vice versa. The current study explored the relationship between conceptual and perceptual processing of size. Within a pair of words, we manipulated the font size of each word, which was either congruent or incongruent with the actual size of the referred object. In Experiment 1a, participants compared object sizes that were referred to by word pairs...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512528/phenomenological-characteristics-of-autobiographical-memories-responsiveness-to-an-induced-negative-mood-state-in-those-with-and-without-a-previous-history-of-depression
#11
Andrew E P Mitchell
In this study we investigated the relative accessibility of phenomenological characteristics in autobiographical memories of 104 students with and without a previous history of a depression. Participants recalled personal events that were elicited with cue words and then asked to rate these personal events for a number of phenomenological characteristics. The characteristics were typicality, rumination, valence, importance of others, expectancy, desirability, and personal importance. The effects of previous history of depression (without history or with previous history of depression) and self-reported mood (pre- and post-negative mood induction) on autobiographical recall was examined by employing a mixed factor design...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512527/do-rare-stimuli-evoke-large-p3s-by-being-unexpected-a-comparison-of-oddball-effects-between-standard-oddball-and-prediction-oddball-tasks
#12
Rolf Verleger, Kamila Śmigasiewicz
The P3 component of event-related potentials increases when stimuli are rarely presented. It has been assumed that this oddball effect (rare-frequent difference) reflects the unexpectedness of rare stimuli. The assumption of unexpectedness and its link to P3 amplitude were tested here. A standard- oddball task requiring alternative key-press responses to frequent and rare stimuli was compared with an oddball-prediction task where stimuli had to be first predicted and then confirmed by key-pressing. Oddball effects in the prediction task depended on whether the frequent or the rare stimulus had been predicted...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512526/the-effects-of-the-amount-of-information-on-episodic-memory-binding
#13
Frine Torres-Trejo, Selene Cansino
The effects of increasing the number of items to be remembered on associative recognition and cued recall were examined. Thirty participants were asked during encoding to determine whether two- and three-item stimuli contained natural objects, artificial objects, or both. In an associative recognition task, the participants indicated whether the stimuli were identical to those presented during encoding, were rearranged by exchanging one of the two-item stimuli for one of the three-item stimuli, or represented a new stimulus...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512525/developmental-changes-in-mental-rotation-a-dissociation-between-object-based-and-egocentric-transformations
#14
Sandra Kaltner, Petra Jansen
The present study was conducted to investigate developmental changes of mental rotation performance. We compared children, adults, and older adults regarding their performance in object-based and egocentric transformations. Both children and older adults showed higher overall reaction times compared to adults. Results were interpreted against the background of impaired working memory capacity in both children and older adults. Since mental changes in working memory are mediated by age differences in cognitive processing speed, cognitive speed is supposed to be the underlying factor...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27168868/fast-and-conspicuous-quantifying-salience-with-the-theory-of-visual-attention
#15
Alexander Krüger, Jan Tünnermann, Ingrid Scharlau
Particular differences between an object and its surrounding cause salience, guide attention, and improve performance in various tasks. While much research has been dedicated to identifying which feature dimensions contribute to salience, much less regard has been paid to the quantitative strength of the salience caused by feature differences. Only a few studies systematically related salience effects to a common salience measure, and they are partly outdated in the light of new findings on the time course of salience effects...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152129/word-meaning-frequencies-affect-negative-compatibility-effects-in-masked-priming
#16
Andreas Brocher, Jean-Pierre Koenig
Negative compatibility effects (NCEs)-that is, slower responses to targets in related than unrelated prime-target pairs, have been observed in studies using stimulus-response (S-R) priming with stimuli like arrows and plus signs. Although there is no consensus on the underlying mechanism, explanations tend to locate NCEs within the motor-response system. A characteristic property of perceptuo-motor NCEs is a biphasic pattern of activation: A brief period in which very briefly presented (typically) masked primes facilitate processing of related targets is followed by a phase of target processing impairment...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152128/abnormalities-in-the-visual-processing-of-viewing-complex-visual-stimuli-amongst-individuals-with-body-image-concern
#17
A J F Duncum, K J Atkins, F L Beilharz, M E Mundy
Individuals with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) and clinically concerning body-image concern (BIC) appear to possess abnormalities in the way they perceive visual information in the form of a bias towards local visual processing. As inversion interrupts normal global processing, forcing individuals to process locally, an upright-inverted stimulus discrimination task was used to investigate this phenomenon. We examined whether individuals with nonclinical, yet high levels of BIC would show signs of this bias, in the form of reduced inversion effects (i...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152127/counterfactual-evaluation-of-outcomes-in-social-risk-decision-making-situations-the-cognitive-developmental-paradox-revisited
#18
Iván Padrón, María Jose Rodrigo, Manuel de Vega
We report a study that examined the existence of a cognitive developmental paradox in the counterfactual evaluation of decision-making outcomes. According to this paradox adolescents and young adults could be able to apply counterfactual reasoning and, yet, their counterfactual evaluation of outcomes could be biased in a salient socio-emotional context. To this aim, we analyzed the impact of health and social feedback on the counterfactual evaluation of outcomes in a laboratory decision-making task involving short narratives with the presence of peers...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152126/does-controlling-for-temporal-parameters-change-the-levels-of-processing-effect-in-working-memory
#19
Vanessa M Loaiza, Valérie Camos
The distinguishability between working memory (WM) and long-term memory has been a frequent and long-lasting source of debate in the literature. One recent method of identifying the relationship between the two systems has been to consider the influence of long-term memory effects, such as the levels-of-processing (LoP) effect, in WM. However, the few studies that have examined the LoP effect in WM have shown divergent results. This study examined the LoP effect in WM by considering a theoretically meaningful methodological aspect of the LoP span task...
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27152125/dear-readers-authors-reviewers-and-editorial-board-members-of-advances-in-cognitive-psychology
#20
(no author information available yet)
In this first newsletter of 2016 we first wanted to wish all our readers, authors, reviewers, and editorial board members a happy, healthy, inspiring, but also peaceful new year. Recently, the fourth issue of Advances in Cognitive Psychology of 2015 was completed, which is of course freely available on our website. The current newsletter will also be included in the first issue of 2016.
2016: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
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