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Advances in Cognitive Psychology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367868/the-effects-of-heuristics-and-apophenia-on-probabilistic-choice
#1
Zack W Ellerby, Richard J Tunney
Given a repeated choice between two or more options with independent and identically distributed reward probabilities, overall pay-offs can be maximized by the exclusive selection of the option with the greatest likelihood of reward. The tendency to match response proportions to reward contingencies is suboptimal. Nevertheless, this behaviour is well documented. A number of explanatory accounts have been proposed for probability matching. These include failed pattern matching, driven by apophenia, and a heuristic-driven response that can be overruled with sufficient deliberation...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362647/nonspecific-retroactive-interference-in-children-and-adults
#2
Jillen Fatania, Tom Mercer
Retroactive interference (RI) is a primary source of forgetting and occurs when new information disrupts or damages an existing memory. Prior research has shown that children are susceptible to RI when the to-be-remembered and interfering information are similar, but it is unclear whether they are also vulnerable to nonspecific RI . This form of interference occurs when a memory is disrupted by an unrelated and dissimilar distractor task, and the present study explored six- and seven-year-olds susceptibility to such nonspecific RI...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362646/different-paths-to-different-strategies-unique-associations-among-facets-of-the-dark-triad-empathy-and-trait-emotional-intelligence
#3
Edit Szabó, Tamás Bereczkei
Emotional deficits, such as limited empathy, are considered a fundamental aspect of the Dark Triad traits (narcissism, Machiavellianism, and psychopathy). However, the nature and extent of such deficiencies seem to vary among dark personalities. By applying multidimensional measures of empathy, emotional intelligence, and the Dark Triad, we aimed to investigate in more detail how individuals high in various dark traits understand and evaluate emotions. Results indicated that each trait, and, moreover, each facet thereof entailed unique emotional deficiencies...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362645/the-effects-of-similarity-on-high-level-visual-working-memory-processing
#4
Li Yang, Lei Mo
Similarity has been observed to have opposite effects on visual working memory (VWM) for complex images. How can these discrepant results be reconciled? To answer this question, we used a change-detection paradigm to test visual working memory performance for multiple real-world objects. We found that working memory for moderate similarity items was worse than that for either high or low similarity items. This pattern was unaffected by manipulations of stimulus type (faces vs. scenes), encoding duration (limited vs...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362644/effects-of-language-background-on-gaze-behavior-a-crosslinguistic-comparison-between-korean-and-german-speakers
#5
Florian Goller, Donghoon Lee, Ulrich Ansorge, Soonja Choi
Languages differ in how they categorize spatial relations: While German differentiates between containment ( in ) and support ( auf ) with distinct spatial words-(a) den Kuli IN die Kappe stecken ("put pen in cap"); (b) die Kappe AUF den Kuli stecken ("put cap on pen")-Korean uses a single spatial word ( kkita ) collapsing (a) and (b) into one semantic category, particularly when the spatial enclosure is tight-fit. Korean uses a different word (i.e., netha ) for loose-fits (e.g., apple in bowl)...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201259/erratum-developmental-changes-in-mental-rotation-a-dissociation-between-object-based-and-egocentric-transformations
#6
Sandra Kaltner, Petra Jansen
[This corrects the article on p. 67 in vol. 12, PMID: 27512525.].
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29085521/a-diffusive-particle-theory-of-free-recall
#7
Francesco Fumarola
Diffusive models of free recall have been recently introduced in the memory literature, but their potential remains largely unexplored. In this paper, a diffusive model of short-term verbal memory is considered, in which the psychological state of the subject is encoded as the instantaneous position of a particle diffusing over a semantic graph. The model is particularly suitable for studying the dependence of free-recall observables on the semantic properties of the words to be recalled. Besides predicting some well-known experimental features (forward asymmetry, semantic clustering, word-length effect), a novel prediction is obtained on the relationship between the contiguity effect and the syllabic length of words; shorter words, by way of their wider semantic range, are predicted to be characterized by stronger forward contiguity...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071008/selective-effects-of-sport-expertise-on-the-stages-of-mental-rotation-tasks-with-object-based-and-egocentric-transformations
#8
Tian Feng, Zhongqiu Zhang, Zhiguang Ji, Binbin Jia, Yawei Li
It is well established that motor expertise is linked to superior mental rotation ability, but few studies have attempted to explain the factors that influence the stages of mental rotation in sport experts. Some authors have argued that athletes are faster in the perceptual and decision stages but not in the rotation stages of object-based transformations; however, stimuli related to sport have not been used to test mental rotation with egocentric transformations. Therefore, 24 adolescent elite divers and 23 adolescent nonathletes completed mental rotation tasks with object-based and egocentric transformations...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071007/gender-classification-based-on-eye-movements-a-processing-effect-during-passive-face-viewing
#9
Negar Sammaknejad, Hamidreza Pouretemad, Changiz Eslahchi, Alireza Salahirad, Ashkan Alinejad
Studies have revealed superior face recognition skills in females, partially due to their different eye movement strategies when encoding faces. In the current study, we utilized these slight but important differences and proposed a model that estimates the gender of the viewers and classifies them into two subgroups, males and females. An eye tracker recorded participant's eye movements while they viewed images of faces. Regions of interest (ROIs) were defined for each face. Results showed that the gender dissimilarity in eye movements was not due to differences in frequency of fixations in the ROI s per se...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062438/examining-developmental-changes-in-children-s-motor-imagery-a-longitudinal-study
#10
Steffie Spruijt, Marijtje L A Jongsma, John van der Kamp, Bert Steenbergen
Using a longitudinal design, the present study examined developmental changes in the employment of (motor) imagery strategies on the hand laterality judgment (HLJ) task in children. All children ( N = 23) participated three times, at ages of 5, 6, and 7 years. Error percentages and response durations were compared to a priori defined sinusoid models, representing different strategies to judge hand laterality. Response durations of correct and incorrect trials were included. Observed data showed that task performance was affected by motor constraints, both in children who performed accurately at 5 years of age and in the children who did not...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062437/daytime-effect-of-monochromatic-blue-light-on-eeg-activity-depends-on-duration-and-timing-of-exposure-in-young-men
#11
Irena Iskra-Golec, Krystyna Golonka, Miroslaw Wyczesany, Lawrence Smith, Patrycja Siemiginowska, Joanna Wątroba
Growing evidence suggests an alerting effect of monochromatic blue light on brain activity. Little is known about the moderation of those effects by timing and duration of exposure. The present electroencephalography (EEG ) study examined such moderations on delta, theta, alpha1, alpha2, and beta EEG bands. A counterbalanced repeated-measures design was applied. The 16-hr daytime period was divided into three sessions: 07:00-12:20, 12:20-17:40, and 17:40-23:00 (timing of exposure). Two light conditions comparable in luminance but differing in wavelength were applied, namely polychromatic white light and monochromatic blue light (460 nm)...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038664/trypophobic-discomfort-is-spatial-frequency-dependent
#12
Kyoshiro Sasaki, Yuki Yamada, Daiichiro Kuroki, Kayo Miura
Clusters of holes, such as those in a lotus seedpod, induce trypophobic discomfort. Previous research has demonstrated that high-contrast energy at midrange spatial frequencies in images causes trypophobic discomfort. The present study examined the effects on discomfort of eliminating various spatial frequency components from the images to reveal how each spatial frequency contributes to the discomfort. Experiment 1 showed that eliminating midrange spatial frequencies did not affect trypophobic discomfort, while Experiment 2 revealed that images of holes that consisted of only high-spatial frequencies evoked less discomfort than other images and that images containing only low or midrange spatial frequencies induced as much trypophobic discomfort as did the original images...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038663/repetition-blindness-for-faces-a-comparison-of-face-identity-expression-and-gender-judgments
#13
Karen Murphy, Zoe Ward
Repetition blindness (RB) refers to the impairment in reporting two identical targets within a rapid serial visual presentation stream. While numerous studies have demonstrated RB for words and picture of objects, very few studies have examined RB for faces. This study extended this research by examining RB when the two faces were complete repeats (same emotion and identity), identity repeats (same individual, different emotion), and emotion repeats (different individual, same emotion) for identity, gender, and expression judgment tasks...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034047/processing-of-internal-and-external-signals-for-performance-monitoring-in-the-context-of-emotional-faces
#14
Christian Christian Valt, Marina Palazova, Birgit Stürmer
Performance monitoring can be based on internal or external signals. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether relating performance to external signals affects internal performance monitoring. Thirty participants performed a task in which responses were followed by faces whose expressions were partially contingent upon performance. Instructions given to half of the participants mentioned a link between task performance and the upcoming face expression. Instructed participants showed smaller error-related negativity (Ne/ERN) to erroneous responses and larger N170 to faces as compared to participants in the not-instructed group...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729890/varieties-of-confidence-intervals
#15
Denis Cousineau
Error bars are useful to understand data and their interrelations. Here, it is shown that confidence intervals of the mean (CI M s) can be adjusted based on whether the objective is to highlight differences between measures or not and based on the experimental design (within- or between-group designs). Confidence intervals (CIs) can also be adjusted to take into account the sampling mechanisms and the population size (if not infinite). Names are proposed to distinguish the various types of CIs and the assumptions underlying them, and how to assess their validity is explained...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717405/my-command-my-act-observation-inflation-in-face-to-face-interactions
#16
Roland Pfister, Katharina A Schwarz, Robert Wirth, Isabel Lindner
When observing another agent performing simple actions, these actions are systematically remembered as one's own after a brief period of time. Such observation inflation has been documented as a robust phenomenon in studies in which participants passively observed videotaped actions. Whether observation inflation also holds for direct, face-to-face interactions is an open question that we addressed in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants commanded the experimenter to carry out certain actions, and they indeed reported false memories of self-performance in a later memory test...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713452/training-of-visual-spatial-working-memory-in-preschool-children
#17
Miriam Gade, Christof Zoelch, Katja Seitz-Stein
Working memory, the ability to store and manipulate information is of great importance for scholastic achievement in children. In this study, we report four studies in which preschoolers were trained on a visual-spatial working memory span task, namely the Corsi Block Task. Across all four studies, we found significant training effects for the intervention groups compared to active control groups. Confirming recent research, no transfer effects to other working memory tasks were found. Most importantly, our training effects were mainly brought about by children performing below the median in the pretest and those showing median performance, thereby closing the gap to children performing above the median (compensation effect)...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713451/words-that-move-us-the-effects-of-sentences-on-body-sway
#18
John F Stins, Fernando Marmolejo-Ramos, Femke Hulzinga, Eric Wenker, Rouwen Cañal-Bruland
According to the embodied cognition perspective, cognitive systems and perceptuo-motor systems are deeply intertwined and exert a causal effect on each other. A prediction following from this idea is that cognitive activity can result in subtle changes in observable movement. In one experiment, we tested whether reading various sentences resulted in changes in postural sway. Sentences symbolized various human activities involving high, low, or no physical effort. Dutch participants stood upright on a force plate, measuring the body center of pressure, while reading a succession of sentences...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713450/generalized-benford-s-law-as-a-lie-detector
#19
Nicolas Gauvrit Gauvrit, Jean-Charles Houillon, Jean-Paul Delahaye
The first significant (leftmost nonzero) digit of seemingly random numbers often appears to conform to a logarithmic distribution, with more 1s than 2s, more 2s than 3s, and so forth, a phenomenon known as Benford's law . When humans try to produce random numbers, they often fail to conform to this distribution. This feature grounds the so-called Benford analysis , aiming at detecting fabricated data. A generalized Benford's law (GBL), extending the classical Benford's law, has been defined recently. In two studies, we provide some empirical support for the generalized Benford analysis, broadening the classical Benford analysis...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702093/human-eye-movements-after-viewpoint-shifts-in-edited-dynamic-scenes-are-under-cognitive-control
#20
Raphael Seywerth, Christian Valuch, Ulrich Ansorge
We tested whether viewers have cognitive control over their eye movements after cuts in videos of real-world scenes. In the critical conditions, scene cuts constituted panoramic view shifts: Half of the view following a cut matched the view on the same scene before the cut. We manipulated the viewing task between two groups of participants. The main experimental group judged whether the scene following a cut was a continuation of the scene before the cut. Results showed that following view shifts, fixations were determined by the task from 250 ms until 1...
2017: Advances in Cognitive Psychology
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