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Nature Photonics

M Gilles, P-Y Bony, J Garnier, A Picozzi, M Guasoni, J Fatome
Domain walls are topological defects which occur at symmetry-breaking phase transitions. While domain walls have been intensively studied in ferromagnetic materials, where they nucleate at the boundary of neighbouring regions of oppositely aligned magnetic dipoles, their equivalent in optics have not been fully explored so far. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the existence of a universal class of polarization domain walls in the form of localized polarization knots in conventional optical fibres. We exploit their binding properties for optical data transmission beyond the Kerr limits of normally dispersive fibres...
February 2017: Nature Photonics
Kyle M Douglass, Christian Sieben, Anna Archetti, Ambroise Lambert, Suliana Manley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Nature Photonics
Haohua Tu, Yuan Liu, Dmitry Turchinovich, Marina Marjanovic, Jens Lyngsø, Jesper Lægsgaard, Eric J Chaney, Youbo Zhao, Sixian You, William L Wilson, Bingwei Xu, Marcos Dantus, Stephen A Boppart
The preparation, staining, visualization, and interpretation of histological images of tissue is well-accepted as the gold standard process for the diagnosis of disease. These methods were developed historically, and are used ubiquitously in pathology, despite being highly time and labor intensive. Here we introduce a unique optical imaging platform and methodology for label-free multimodal multiphoton microscopy that uses a novel photonic crystal fiber source to generate tailored chemical contrast based on programmable supercontinuum pulses...
August 2016: Nature Photonics
Krishna C Balram, Marcelo I Davanço, Jin Dong Song, Kartik Srinivasan
Optomechanical cavities have been studied for applications ranging from sensing to quantum information science. Here, we develop a platform for nanoscale cavity optomechanical circuits in which optomechanical cavities supporting co-localized 1550 nm photons and 2.4 GHz phonons are combined with photonic and phononic waveguides. Working in GaAs facilitates manipulation of the localized mechanical mode either with a radio frequency (RF) field through the piezo-electric effect, which produces acoustic waves that are routed and coupled to the optomechanical cavity by phononic crystal waveguides, or optically through the strong photoelastic effect...
May 2016: Nature Photonics
Mikael P Backlund, Amir Arbabi, Petar N Petrov, Ehsan Arbabi, Saumya Saurabh, Andrei Faraon, W E Moerner
Nanoscale localization of single molecules is a crucial function in several advanced microscopy techniques, including single-molecule tracking and wide-field super-resolution imaging (1). To date, a central consideration of such techniques is how to optimize the precision of molecular localization. However, as these methods continue to push toward the nanometre size scale, an increasingly important concern is the localization accuracy. In particular, single fluorescent molecules emit with an anisotropic radiation pattern of an oscillating electric dipole, which can cause significant localization biases using common estimators (2-5)...
2016: Nature Photonics
Kevin A Twedt, Jie Zou, Marcelo Davanco, Kartik Srinivasan, Jabez J McClelland, Vladimir A Aksyuk
Optical microresonators have proven powerful in a wide range of applications, including cavity quantum electrodynamics(1-3), biosensing(4), microfludics(5), and cavity optomechanics(6-8). Their performance depends critically on the exact distribution of optical energy, confined and shaped by the nanoscale device geometry. Near-field optical probes(9) can image this distribution, but the physical probe necessarily perturbs the near field, which is particularly problematic for sensitive high quality factor resonances(10,11)...
2016: Nature Photonics
Rebecca A B Burton, Aleksandra Klimas, Christina M Ambrosi, Jakub Tomek, Alex Corbett, Emilia Entcheva, Gil Bub
In nature, macroscopic excitation waves(1,2) are found in a diverse range of settings including chemical reactions, metal rust, yeast, amoeba and the heart and brain. In the case of living biological tissue, the spatiotemporal patterns formed by these excitation waves are different in healthy and diseased states(2,3). Current electrical and pharmacological methods for wave modulation lack the spatiotemporal precision needed to control these patterns. Optical methods have the potential to overcome these limitations, but to date have only been demonstrated in simple systems, such as the Belousov-Zhabotinsky chemical reaction(4)...
December 2015: Nature Photonics
Giulia Grancini, Ajay Ram Srimath Kandada, Jarvist M Frost, Alex J Barker, Michele De Bastiani, Marina Gandini, Sergio Marras, Guglielmo Lanzani, Aron Walsh, Annamaria Petrozza
Solar cells based on hybrid inorganic-organic halide perovskites have demonstrated high power conversion efficiencies in a range of architectures. The existence and stability of bound electron-hole pairs in these materials, and their role in the exceptional performance of optoelectronic devices, remains a controversial issue. Here we demonstrate, through a combination of optical spectroscopy and multiscale modeling as a function of the degree of polycrystallinity and temperature, that the electron-hole interaction is sensitive to the microstructure of the material...
October 1, 2015: Nature Photonics
Matjaž Humar, Seok Hyun Yun
Optical microresonators(1) which confine light within a small cavity are widely exploited for various applications ranging from the realization of lasers(2) and nonlinear devices(3, 4, 5) to biochemical and optomechanical sensing(6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11). Here we employ microresonators and suitable optical gain materials inside biological cells to demonstrate various optical functions in vitro including lasing. We explored two distinct types of microresonators: soft and hard, that support whispering-gallery modes (WGM)...
September 1, 2015: Nature Photonics
Sergei K Turitsyn, Anastasia E Bednyakova, Mikhail P Fedoruk, Serguei B Papernyi, Wallace R L Clements
An important group of nonlinear processes in optical fibre involves the mixing of four waves due to the intensity dependence of the refractive index. It is customary to distinguish between nonlinear effects that require external/pumping waves (cross-phase modulation and parametric processes such as four-wave mixing) and self-action of the propagating optical field (self-phase modulation and modulation instability). Here, we present a new nonlinear self-action effect, self-parametric amplification (SPA), which manifests itself as optical spectrum narrowing in normal dispersion fibre, leading to very stable propagation with a distinctive spectral distribution...
September 1, 2015: Nature Photonics
Puxiang Lai, Lidai Wang, Jian Wei Tay, Lihong V Wang
Non-invasively focusing light into strongly scattering media, such as biological tissue, is highly desirable but challenging. Recently, ultrasonically guided wavefront shaping technologies have been developed to address this limitation. So far, the focusing resolution of most implementations has been limited by acoustic diffraction. Here, we introduce nonlinear photoacoustically guided wavefront shaping (PAWS), which achieves optical diffraction-limited focusing in scattering media. We develop an efficient dual-pulse excitation approach to generate strong nonlinear photoacoustic (PA) signals based on the Grueneisen relaxation effect...
February 2015: Nature Photonics
Matthew B Bouchard, Venkatakaushik Voleti, César S Mendes, Clay Lacefield, Wesley B Grueber, Richard S Mann, Randy M Bruno, Elizabeth M C Hillman
We report a new 3D microscopy technique that allows volumetric imaging of living samples at ultra-high speeds: Swept, confocally-aligned planar excitation (SCAPE) microscopy. While confocal and two-photon microscopy have revolutionized biomedical research, current implementations are costly, complex and limited in their ability to image 3D volumes at high speeds. Light-sheet microscopy techniques using two-objective, orthogonal illumination and detection require a highly constrained sample geometry, and either physical sample translation or complex synchronization of illumination and detection planes...
February 2015: Nature Photonics
Roarke Horstmeyer, Haowen Ruan, Changhuei Yang
In the field of biomedical optics, optical scattering has traditionally limited the range of imaging within tissue to a depth of one millimetre. A recently developed class of wavefront-shaping techniques now aims to overcome this limit and achieve diffraction-limited control of light beyond one centimetre. By manipulating the spatial profile of an optical field before it enters a scattering medium, it is possible to create a micrometre-scale focal spot deep within tissue. To successfully operate in vivo, these wavefront-shaping techniques typically require feedback from within the biological sample...
2015: Nature Photonics
Nathan D Shemonski, Fredrick A South, Yuan-Zhi Liu, Steven G Adie, P Scott Carney, Stephen A Boppart
High-resolution in vivo imaging is of great importance for the fields of biology and medicine. The introduction of hardware-based adaptive optics (HAO) has pushed the limits of optical imaging, enabling high-resolution near diffraction-limited imaging of previously unresolvable structures(1,2). In ophthalmology, when combined with optical coherence tomography, HAO has enabled a detailed three-dimensional visualization of photoreceptor distributions(3,4) and individual nerve fibre bundles(5) in the living human retina...
2015: Nature Photonics
Cheng Ma, Xiao Xu, Yan Liu, Lihong V Wang
The ability to steer and focus light inside scattering media has long been sought for a multitude of applications. To form optical foci inside scattering media, the only feasible strategy at present is to guide photons by using either implanted(1) or virtual(2-4) guide stars, which can be inconvenient and limits potential applications. Here, we report a scheme for focusing light inside scattering media by employing intrinsic dynamics as guide stars. By time-reversing the perturbed component of the scattered light adaptively, we show that it is possible to focus light to the origin of the perturbation...
December 2014: Nature Photonics
Guosong Hong, Shuo Diao, Junlei Chang, Alexander L Antaris, Changxin Chen, Bo Zhang, Su Zhao, Dmitriy N Atochin, Paul L Huang, Katrin I Andreasson, Calvin J Kuo, Hongjie Dai
To date, brain imaging has largely relied on X-ray computed tomography and magnetic resonance angiography with limited spatial resolution and long scanning times. Fluorescence-based brain imaging in the visible and traditional near-infrared regions (400-900 nm) is an alternative but currently requires craniotomy, cranial windows and skull thinning techniques, and the penetration depth is limited to 1-2 mm due to light scattering. Here, we report through-scalp and through-skull fluorescence imaging of mouse cerebral vasculature without craniotomy utilizing the intrinsic photoluminescence of single-walled carbon nanotubes in the 1...
September 2014: Nature Photonics
Jonathan L Compton, Justin C Luo, Huan Ma, Elliot Botvinick, Vasan Venugopalan
We introduce an optical platform for rapid, high-throughput screening of exogenous molecules that affect cellular mechanotransduction. Our method initiates mechanotransduction in adherent cells using single laser-microbeam generated micro-cavitation bubbles (μCBs) without requiring flow chambers or microfluidics. These μCBs expose adherent cells to a microTsunami, a transient microscale burst of hydrodynamic shear stress, which stimulates cells over areas approaching 1mm(2). We demonstrate microTsunami-initiated mechanosignalling in primary human endothelial cells...
September 1, 2014: Nature Photonics
C Sánchez Muñoz, E Del Valle, A González Tudela, K Müller, S Lichtmannecker, M Kaniber, C Tejedor, J J Finley, F P Laussy
Controlling the ouput of a light emitter is one of the basic tasks of photonics, with landmarks such as the laser and single-photon sources. The development of quantum applications makes it increasingly important to diversify the available quantum sources. Here, we propose a cavity QED scheme to realize emitters that release their energy in groups, or "bundles" of N photons, for integer N. Close to 100% of two-photon emission and 90% of three-photon emission is shown to be within reach of state of the art samples...
July 2014: Nature Photonics
Adam T Eggebrecht, Silvina L Ferradal, Amy Robichaux-Viehoever, Mahlega S Hassanpour, Hamid Dehghani, Abraham Z Snyder, Tamara Hershey, Joseph P Culver
Mapping of human brain function has revolutionized systems neuroscience. However, traditional functional neuroimaging by positron emission tomography or functional magnetic resonance imaging cannot be used when applications require portability, or are contraindicated because of ionizing radiation (positron emission tomography) or implanted metal (functional magnetic resonance imaging). Optical neuroimaging offers a non-invasive alternative that is radiation free and compatible with implanted metal and electronic devices (for example, pacemakers)...
June 2014: Nature Photonics
Joerg Pfeifle, Victor Brasch, Matthias Lauermann, Yimin Yu, Daniel Wegner, Tobias Herr, Klaus Hartinger, Philipp Schindler, Jingshi Li, David Hillerkuss, Rene Schmogrow, Claudius Weimann, Ronald Holzwarth, Wolfgang Freude, Juerg Leuthold, Tobias J Kippenberg, Christian Koos
Optical frequency combs have the potential to revolutionize terabit communications(1). Generation of Kerr combs in nonlinear microresonators(2) represents a particularly promising option(3) enabling line spacings of tens of GHz. However, such combs may exhibit strong phase noise(4-6), which has made high-speed data transmission impossible up to now. Here we demonstrate that systematic adjustment of pump conditions for low phase noise(4,7-9) enables coherent data transmission with advanced modulation formats that pose stringent requirements on the spectral purity of the comb...
May 1, 2014: Nature Photonics
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