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Nature Nanotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436963/a-sting-activating-nanovaccine-for-cancer-immunotherapy
#1
Min Luo, Hua Wang, Zhaohui Wang, Haocheng Cai, Zhigang Lu, Yang Li, Mingjian Du, Gang Huang, Chensu Wang, Xiang Chen, Matthew R Porembka, Jayanthi Lea, Arthur E Frankel, Yang-Xin Fu, Zhijian J Chen, Jinming Gao
The generation of tumour-specific T cells is critically important for cancer immunotherapy. A major challenge in achieving a robust T-cell response is the spatiotemporal orchestration of antigen cross-presentation in antigen-presenting cells with innate stimulation. Here, we report a minimalist nanovaccine, comprising a simple physical mixture of an antigen and a synthetic polymeric nanoparticle, PC7A NP, which generates a strong cytotoxic T-cell response with low systemic cytokine expression. Mechanistically, the PC7A NP achieves efficient cytosolic delivery of tumour antigens to antigen-presenting cells in draining lymph nodes, leading to increased surface presentation while simultaneously activating type I interferon-stimulated genes...
April 24, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436962/cancer-immunotherapy-making-allies-of-phagocytes
#2
Steven Fiering
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 24, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436961/the-evolving-landscape-of-drug-products-containing-nanomaterials-in-the-united-states
#3
Sheetal R D'Mello, Celia N Cruz, Mei-Ling Chen, Mamta Kapoor, Sau L Lee, Katherine M Tyner
The Center for Drug Evaluation and Research (CDER) within the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is tracking the use of nanotechnology in drug products by building and interrogating a technical profile of products containing nanomaterials submitted to CDER. In this Analysis, data from more than 350 products show an increase in the submissions of drug products containing nanomaterials over the last two decades. Of these, 65% are investigational new drugs, 17% are new drug applications and 18% are abbreviated new drug applications, with the largest class of products being liposomal formulations intended for cancer treatments...
April 24, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436960/amyloid-fibril-systems-reduce-stabilize-and-deliver-bioavailable-nanosized-iron
#4
Yi Shen, Lidija Posavec, Sreenath Bolisetty, Florentine M Hilty, Gustav Nyström, Joachim Kohlbrecher, Monika Hilbe, Antonella Rossi, Jeannine Baumgartner, Michael B Zimmermann, Raffaele Mezzenga
Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major global public health problem. A sustainable and cost-effective strategy to reduce IDA is iron fortification of foods, but the most bioavailable fortificants cause adverse organoleptic changes in foods. Iron nanoparticles are a promising solution in food matrices, although their tendency to oxidize and rapidly aggregate in solution severely limits their use in fortification. Amyloid fibrils are protein aggregates initially known for their association with neurodegenerative disorders, but recently described in the context of biological functions in living organisms and emerging as unique biomaterial building blocks...
April 24, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436959/peptide-mhc-based-nanomedicines-for-autoimmunity-function-as-t-cell-receptor-microclustering-devices
#5
Santiswarup Singha, Kun Shao, Yang Yang, Xavier Clemente-Casares, Patricia Solé, Antonio Clemente, Jesús Blanco, Qin Dai, Fayi Song, Shang Wan Liu, Jun Yamanouchi, Channakeshava Sokke Umeshappa, Roopa Hebbandi Nanjundappa, Pascal Detampel, Matthias Amrein, César Fandos, Robert Tanguay, Susan Newbigging, Pau Serra, Anmar Khadra, Warren C W Chan, Pere Santamaria
We have shown that nanoparticles (NPs) can be used as ligand-multimerization platforms to activate specific cellular receptors in vivo. Nanoparticles coated with autoimmune disease-relevant peptide-major histocompatibility complexes (pMHC) blunted autoimmune responses by triggering the differentiation and expansion of antigen-specific regulatory T cells in vivo. Here, we define the engineering principles impacting biological activity, detail a synthesis process yielding safe and stable compounds, and visualize how these nanomedicines interact with cognate T cells...
April 24, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416817/controlling-propagation-and-coupling-of-waveguide-modes-using-phase-gradient-metasurfaces
#6
Zhaoyi Li, Myoung-Hwan Kim, Cheng Wang, Zhaohong Han, Sajan Shrestha, Adam Christopher Overvig, Ming Lu, Aaron Stein, Anuradha Murthy Agarwal, Marko Lončar, Nanfang Yu
Research on two-dimensional designer optical structures, or metasurfaces, has mainly focused on controlling the wavefronts of light propagating in free space. Here, we show that gradient metasurface structures consisting of phased arrays of plasmonic or dielectric nanoantennas can be used to control guided waves via strong optical scattering at subwavelength intervals. Based on this design principle, we experimentally demonstrate waveguide mode converters, polarization rotators and waveguide devices supporting asymmetric optical power transmission...
April 17, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416816/scalable-electrophysiology-in-intact-small-animals-with-nanoscale-suspended-electrode-arrays
#7
Daniel L Gonzales, Krishna N Badhiwala, Daniel G Vercosa, Benjamin W Avants, Zheng Liu, Weiwei Zhong, Jacob T Robinson
Electrical measurements from large populations of animals would help reveal fundamental properties of the nervous system and neurological diseases. Small invertebrates are ideal for these large-scale studies; however, patch-clamp electrophysiology in microscopic animals typically requires invasive dissections and is low-throughput. To overcome these limitations, we present nano-SPEARs: suspended electrodes integrated into a scalable microfluidic device. Using this technology, we have made the first extracellular recordings of body-wall muscle electrophysiology inside an intact roundworm, Caenorhabditis elegans...
April 17, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416815/in-situ-programming-of-leukaemia-specific-t-cells-using-synthetic-dna-nanocarriers
#8
Tyrel T Smith, Sirkka B Stephan, Howell F Moffett, Laura E McKnight, Weihang Ji, Diana Reiman, Emmy Bonagofski, Martin E Wohlfahrt, Smitha P S Pillai, Matthias T Stephan
An emerging approach for treating cancer involves programming patient-derived T cells with genes encoding disease-specific chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), so that they can combat tumour cells once they are reinfused. Although trials of this therapy have produced impressive results, the in vitro methods they require to generate large numbers of tumour-specific T cells are too elaborate for widespread application to treat cancer patients. Here, we describe a method to quickly program circulating T cells with tumour-recognizing capabilities, thus avoiding these complications...
April 17, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396607/resonant-electron-tunnelling-assisted-by-charged-domain-walls-in-multiferroic-tunnel-junctions
#9
Gabriel Sanchez-Santolino, Javier Tornos, David Hernandez-Martin, Juan I Beltran, Carmen Munuera, Mariona Cabero, Ana Perez-Muñoz, Jesus Ricote, Federico Mompean, Mar Garcia-Hernandez, Zouhair Sefrioui, Carlos Leon, Steve J Pennycook, Maria Carmen Muñoz, Maria Varela, Jacobo Santamaria
The peculiar features of domain walls observed in ferroelectrics make them promising active elements for next-generation non-volatile memories, logic gates and energy-harvesting devices. Although extensive research activity has been devoted recently to making full use of this technological potential, concrete realizations of working nanodevices exploiting these functional properties are yet to be demonstrated. Here, we fabricate a multiferroic tunnel junction based on ferromagnetic La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 electrodes separated by an ultrathin ferroelectric BaTiO3 tunnel barrier, where a head-to-head domain wall is constrained...
April 10, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396606/spectral-focusing-of-broadband-silver-electroluminescence-in-nanoscopic-fret-leds
#10
Robin P Puchert, Florian Steiner, Gerd Plechinger, Felix J Hofmann, Ines Caspers, Johanna Kirschner, Philipp Nagler, Alexey Chernikov, Christian Schüller, Tobias Korn, Jan Vogelsang, Sebastian Bange, John M Lupton
Few inventions have shaped the world like the incandescent bulb. Edison used thermal radiation from ohmically heated conductors, but some noble metals also exhibit 'cold' electroluminescence in percolation films, tunnel diodes, electromigrated nanoparticle aggregates, optical antennas or scanning tunnelling microscopy. The origin of this radiation, which is spectrally broad and depends on applied bias, is controversial given the low radiative yields of electronic transitions. Nanoparticle electroluminescence is particularly intriguing because it involves localized surface-plasmon resonances with large dipole moments...
April 10, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396605/bypassing-adverse-injection-reactions-to-nanoparticles-through-shape-modification-and-attachment-to-erythrocytes
#11
Peter Pope Wibroe, Aaron C Anselmo, Per H Nilsson, Apoorva Sarode, Vivek Gupta, Rudolf Urbanics, Janos Szebeni, Alan Christy Hunter, Samir Mitragotri, Tom Eirik Mollnes, Seyed Moein Moghimi
Intravenously injected nanopharmaceuticals, including PEGylated nanoparticles, induce adverse cardiopulmonary reactions in sensitive human subjects, and these reactions are highly reproducible in pigs. Although the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, roles for both the complement system and reactive macrophages have been implicated. Here, we show the dominance and importance of robust pulmonary intravascular macrophage clearance of nanoparticles in mediating adverse cardiopulmonary distress in pigs irrespective of complement activation...
April 10, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396604/position-dependent-and-millimetre-range-photodetection-in-phototransistors-with-micrometre-scale-graphene-on-sic
#12
Biddut K Sarker, Edward Cazalas, Ting-Fung Chung, Isaac Childres, Igor Jovanovic, Yong P Chen
The extraordinary optical and electronic properties of graphene make it a promising component of high-performance photodetectors. However, in typical graphene-based photodetectors demonstrated to date, the photoresponse only comes from specific locations near graphene over an area much smaller than the device size. For many optoelectronic device applications, it is desirable to obtain the photoresponse and positional sensitivity over a much larger area. Here, we report the spatial dependence of the photoresponse in backgated graphene field-effect transistors (GFET) on silicon carbide (SiC) substrates by scanning a focused laser beam across the GFET...
April 10, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396603/ferroelectric-tunnel-junctions-crossing-the-wall
#13
Evgeny Y Tsymbal, Julian P Velev
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 10, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369049/tunable-sieving-of-ions-using-graphene-oxide-membranes
#14
Jijo Abraham, Kalangi S Vasu, Christopher D Williams, Kalon Gopinadhan, Yang Su, Christie T Cherian, James Dix, Eric Prestat, Sarah J Haigh, Irina V Grigorieva, Paola Carbone, Andre K Geim, Rahul R Nair
Graphene oxide membranes show exceptional molecular permeation properties, with promise for many applications. However, their use in ion sieving and desalination technologies is limited by a permeation cutoff of ∼9 Å (ref. 4), which is larger than the diameters of hydrated ions of common salts. The cutoff is determined by the interlayer spacing (d) of ∼13.5 Å, typical for graphene oxide laminates that swell in water. Achieving smaller d for the laminates immersed in water has proved to be a challenge...
April 3, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369048/ion-sieving-and-desalination-energy-penalty-for-excess-baggage
#15
Ram Devanathan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369047/quantized-edge-modes-in-atomic-scale-point-contacts-in-graphene
#16
Amogh Kinikar, T Phanindra Sai, Semonti Bhattacharyya, Adhip Agarwala, Tathagata Biswas, Sanjoy K Sarker, H R Krishnamurthy, Manish Jain, Vijay B Shenoy, Arindam Ghosh
The zigzag edges of single- or few-layer graphene are perfect one-dimensional conductors owing to a set of gapless states that are topologically protected against backscattering. Direct experimental evidence of these states has been limited so far to their local thermodynamic and magnetic properties, determined by the competing effects of edge topology and electron-electron interaction. However, experimental signatures of edge-bound electrical conduction have remained elusive, primarily due to the lack of graphitic nanostructures with low structural and/or chemical edge disorder...
April 3, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369046/oil-spill-recovery-graphene-heaters-absorb-faster
#17
Despina Fragouli, Athanassia Athanassiou
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 3, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369045/joule-heated-graphene-wrapped-sponge-enables-fast-clean-up-of-viscous-crude-oil-spill
#18
Jin Ge, Lu-An Shi, Yong-Chao Wang, Hao-Yu Zhao, Hong-Bin Yao, Yin-Bo Zhu, Ye Zhang, Hong-Wu Zhu, Heng-An Wu, Shu-Hong Yu
The clean-up of viscous crude-oil spills is a global challenge. Hydrophobic and oleophilic oil sorbents have been demonstrated as promising candidates for oil-spill remediation. However, the sorption speeds of these oil sorbents for viscous crude oil are rather limited. Herein we report a Joule-heated graphene-wrapped sponge (GWS) to clean-up viscous crude oil at a high sorption speed. The Joule heat of the GWS reduced in situ the viscosity of the crude oil, which prominently increased the oil-diffusion coefficient in the pores of the GWS and thus speeded up the oil-sorption rate...
April 3, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369044/high-electron-mobility-and-quantum-oscillations-in-non-encapsulated-ultrathin-semiconducting-bi2o2se
#19
Jinxiong Wu, Hongtao Yuan, Mengmeng Meng, Cheng Chen, Yan Sun, Zhuoyu Chen, Wenhui Dang, Congwei Tan, Yujing Liu, Jianbo Yin, Yubing Zhou, Shaoyun Huang, H Q Xu, Yi Cui, Harold Y Hwang, Zhongfan Liu, Yulin Chen, Binghai Yan, Hailin Peng
High-mobility semiconducting ultrathin films form the basis of modern electronics, and may lead to the scalable fabrication of highly performing devices. Because the ultrathin limit cannot be reached for traditional semiconductors, identifying new two-dimensional materials with both high carrier mobility and a large electronic bandgap is a pivotal goal of fundamental research. However, air-stable ultrathin semiconducting materials with superior performances remain elusive at present. Here, we report ultrathin films of non-encapsulated layered Bi2O2Se, grown by chemical vapour deposition, which demonstrate excellent air stability and high-mobility semiconducting behaviour...
April 3, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346460/lithium-oxygen-batteries-the-reaction-mechanism-revealed
#20
Yang-Kook Sun, Chong S Yoon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 27, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
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