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Nature Nanotechnology

Andre Neumann, Jessica Lindlau, Léo Colombier, Manuel Nutz, Sina Najmaei, Jun Lou, Aditya D Mohite, Hisato Yamaguchi, Alexander Högele
Transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors represent elementary components of layered heterostructures for emergent technologies beyond conventional optoelectronics. In their monolayer form they host electrons with quantized circular motion and associated valley polarization and valley coherence as key elements of opto-valleytronic functionality. Here, we introduce two-dimensional polarimetry as means of direct imaging of the valley pseudospin degree of freedom in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides...
January 16, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Chen Zhang, Dalong Ni, Yanyan Liu, Heliang Yao, Wenbo Bu, Jianlin Shi
A material that rapidly absorbs molecular oxygen (known as an oxygen scavenger or deoxygenation agent (DOA)) has various industrial applications, such as in food preservation, anticorrosion of metal and coal deoxidation. Given that oxygen is vital to cancer growth, to starve tumours through the consumption of intratumoral oxygen is a potentially useful strategy in fighting cancer. Here we show that an injectable polymer-modified magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) nanoparticle can act as a DOA by scavenging oxygen in tumours and form by-products that block tumour capillaries from being reoxygenated...
January 9, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Abdul M Mohammed, Petr Šulc, John Zenk, Rebecca Schulman
Within cells, nanostructures are often organized using local assembly rules that produce long-range order. Because these rules can take into account the cell's current structure and state, they can enable complexes, organelles or cytoskeletal structures to assemble around existing cellular components to form architectures. Although many methods for self-assembling biomolecular nanostructures have been developed, few can be programmed to assemble structures whose form depends on the identity and organization of structures already present in the environment...
December 19, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Erik C Yusko, Brandon R Bruhn, Olivia M Eggenberger, Jared Houghtaling, Ryan C Rollings, Nathan C Walsh, Santoshi Nandivada, Mariya Pindrus, Adam R Hall, David Sept, Jiali Li, Devendra S Kalonia, Michael Mayer
Established methods for characterizing proteins typically require physical or chemical modification steps or cannot be used to examine individual molecules in solution. Ionic current measurements through electrolyte-filled nanopores can characterize single native proteins in an aqueous environment, but currently offer only limited capabilities. Here we show that the zeptolitre sensing volume of bilayer-coated solid-state nanopores can be used to determine the approximate shape, volume, charge, rotational diffusion coefficient and dipole moment of individual proteins...
December 19, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Fangfang Chen, Guankui Wang, James I Griffin, Barbara Brenneman, Nirmal K Banda, V Michael Holers, Donald S Backos, LinPing Wu, Seyed Moein Moghimi, Dmitri Simberg
When nanoparticles are intravenously injected into the body, complement proteins deposit on the surface of nanoparticles in a process called opsonization. These proteins prime the particle for removal by immune cells and may contribute toward infusion-related adverse effects such as allergic responses. The ways complement proteins assemble on nanoparticles have remained unclear. Here, we show that dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide core-shell nanoworms incubated in human serum and plasma are rapidly opsonized with the third complement component (C3) via the alternative pathway...
December 19, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Markus A Huber, Fabian Mooshammer, Markus Plankl, Leonardo Viti, Fabian Sandner, Lukas Z Kastner, Tobias Frank, Jaroslav Fabian, Miriam S Vitiello, Tyler L Cocker, Rupert Huber
The possibility of hybridizing collective electronic motion with mid-infrared light to form surface polaritons has made van der Waals layered materials a versatile platform for extreme light confinement and tailored nanophotonics. Graphene and its heterostructures have attracted particular attention because the absence of an energy gap allows plasmon polaritons to be tuned continuously. Here, we introduce black phosphorus as a promising new material in surface polaritonics that features key advantages for ultrafast switching...
December 12, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Dmitri N Basov, Michael M Fogler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Krishna Jayant, Jan J Hirtz, Ilan Jen-La Plante, David M Tsai, Wieteke D A M De Boer, Alexa Semonche, Darcy S Peterka, Jonathan S Owen, Ozgur Sahin, Kenneth L Shepard, Rafael Yuste
Dendritic spines are the primary site of excitatory synaptic input onto neurons, and are biochemically isolated from the parent dendritic shaft by their thin neck. However, due to the lack of direct electrical recordings from spines, the influence that the neck resistance has on synaptic transmission, and the extent to which spines compartmentalize voltage, specifically excitatory postsynaptic potentials, albeit critical, remains controversial. Here, we use quantum-dot-coated nanopipette electrodes (tip diameters ∼15-30 nm) to establish the first intracellular recordings from targeted spine heads under two-photon visualization...
December 12, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Liaoyong Wen, Rui Xu, Yan Mi, Yong Lei
Several physico-chemical effects and properties in the solid state involve nanoscale interactions between adjacent materials and morphologies. Arrays of binary nanostructures can generate intimate interactions between different sub-components, but fabricating binary nanostructures is challenging. Here, we propose a concept to achieve diverse binary nanostructure arrays with high degrees of controllability for each of the sub-components, including material, dimension and morphology. This binary nanostructuring concept originates with a distinctive binary-pore anodized aluminium oxide template that includes two dissimilar sets of pores in one matrix, where the openings of the two sets of pores are towards opposite sides of the template...
November 28, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Kumar Varoon Agrawal, Steven Shimizu, Lee W Drahushuk, Daniel Kilcoyne, Michael S Strano
Fluid phase transitions inside single, isolated carbon nanotubes are predicted to deviate substantially from classical thermodynamics. This behaviour enables the study of ice nanotubes and the exploration of their potential applications. Here we report measurements of the phase boundaries of water confined within six isolated carbon nanotubes of different diameters (1.05, 1.06, 1.15, 1.24, 1.44 and 1.52 nm) using Raman spectroscopy. The results reveal an exquisite sensitivity to diameter and substantially larger temperature elevations of the freezing transition (by as much as 100 °C) than have been theoretically predicted...
November 28, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Simon Haziza, Nitin Mohan, Yann Loe-Mie, Aude-Marie Lepagnol-Bestel, Sophie Massou, Marie-Pierre Adam, Xuan Loc Le, Julia Viard, Christine Plancon, Rachel Daudin, Pascale Koebel, Emilie Dorard, Christiane Rose, Feng-Jen Hsieh, Chih-Che Wu, Brigitte Potier, Yann Herault, Carlo Sala, Aiden Corvin, Bernadette Allinquant, Huan-Cheng Chang, François Treussart, Michel Simonneau
Brain diseases such as autism and Alzheimer's disease (each inflicting >1% of the world population) involve a large network of genes displaying subtle changes in their expression. Abnormalities in intraneuronal transport have been linked to genetic risk factors found in patients, suggesting the relevance of measuring this key biological process. However, current techniques are not sensitive enough to detect minor abnormalities. Here we report a sensitive method to measure the changes in intraneuronal transport induced by brain-disease-related genetic risk factors using fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs)...
November 28, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Grigory Tikhomirov, Philip Petersen, Lulu Qian
Scaling up the complexity and diversity of synthetic molecular structures will require strategies that exploit the inherent stochasticity of molecular systems in a controlled fashion. Here we demonstrate a framework for programming random DNA tilings and show how to control the properties of global patterns through simple, local rules. We constructed three general forms of planar network-random loops, mazes and trees-on the surface of self-assembled DNA origami arrays on the micrometre scale with nanometre resolution...
November 28, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Fei Zhang, Fan Hong, Hao Yan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Guillaume Goubert, Richard P Van Duyne
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Denis A Bandurin, Anastasia V Tyurnina, Geliang L Yu, Artem Mishchenko, Viktor Zólyomi, Sergey V Morozov, Roshan Krishna Kumar, Roman V Gorbachev, Zakhar R Kudrynskyi, Sergio Pezzini, Zakhar D Kovalyuk, Uli Zeitler, Konstantin S Novoselov, Amalia Patanè, Laurence Eaves, Irina V Grigorieva, Vladimir I Fal'ko, Andre K Geim, Yang Cao
A decade of intense research on two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals has revealed that their properties can differ greatly from those of the parent compound. These differences are governed by changes in the band structure due to quantum confinement and are most profound if the underlying lattice symmetry changes. Here we report a high-quality 2D electron gas in few-layer InSe encapsulated in hexagonal boron nitride under an inert atmosphere. Carrier mobilities are found to exceed 10(3) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) and 10(4) cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) at room and liquid-helium temperatures, respectively, allowing the observation of the fully developed quantum Hall effect...
November 21, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Jin-Hui Zhong, Xi Jin, Lingyan Meng, Xiang Wang, Hai-Sheng Su, Zhi-Lin Yang, Christopher T Williams, Bin Ren
An atomic- and molecular-level understanding of heterogeneous catalysis is required to characterize the nature of active sites and improve the rational design of catalysts. Achieving this level of characterization requires techniques that can correlate catalytic performances to specific surface structures, so as to avoid averaging effects. Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy combines scanning probe microscopy with plasmon-enhanced Raman scattering and provides simultaneous topographical and chemical information at the nano/atomic scale from ambient to ultrahigh-vacuum and electrochemical environments...
November 21, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Mahla Poudineh, Peter M Aldridge, Sharif Ahmed, Brenda J Green, Leyla Kermanshah, Vivian Nguyen, Carmen Tu, Reza M Mohamadi, Robert K Nam, Aaron Hansen, Srikala S Sridhar, Antonio Finelli, Neil E Fleshner, Anthony M Joshua, Edward H Sargent, Shana O Kelley
Profiling the heterogeneous phenotypes of rare circulating tumour cells (CTCs) in whole blood is critical to unravelling the complex and dynamic properties of these potential clinical markers. This task is challenging because these cells are present at parts per billion levels among normal blood cells. Here we report a new nanoparticle-enabled method for CTC characterization, called magnetic ranking cytometry, which profiles CTCs on the basis of their surface expression phenotype. We achieve this using a microfluidic chip that successfully processes whole blood samples...
November 21, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Antoine G Godin, Juan A Varela, Zhenghong Gao, Noémie Danné, Julien P Dupuis, Brahim Lounis, Laurent Groc, Laurent Cognet
The brain is a dynamic structure with the extracellular space (ECS) taking up almost a quarter of its volume. Signalling molecules, neurotransmitters and nutrients transit via the ECS, which constitutes a key microenvironment for cellular communication and the clearance of toxic metabolites. The spatial organization of the ECS varies during sleep, development and aging and is probably altered in neuropsychiatric and degenerative diseases, as inferred from electron microscopy and macroscopic biophysical investigations...
November 21, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Susan E Leggett, Ian Y Wong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 21, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Yizhan Wang, Offer Zeiri, Manoj Raula, Benjamin Le Ouay, Francesco Stellacci, Ira A Weinstock
The uptake of molecular guests, a hallmark of the supramolecular chemistry of cages and containers, has yet to be documented for soluble assemblies of metal nanoparticles. Here we demonstrate that gold nanoparticle-based supraspheres serve as a host for the hydrophobic uptake, transport and subsequent release of over two million organic guests, exceeding by five orders of magnitude the capacities of individual supramolecular cages or containers and rivalling those of zeolites and metal-organic frameworks on a mass-per-volume basis...
November 14, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
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