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Nature Nanotechnology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789635/publisher-correction-quantum-engineering-of-transistors-based-on-2d-materials-heterostructures
#1
Giuseppe Iannaccone, Francesco Bonaccorso, Luigi Colombo, Gianluca Fiori
In the version of this Perspective originally published, in the email address for the author Giuseppe Iannaccone, the surname was incorrectly given as "innaconne"; this has now been corrected in all versions of the Perspective. Also, an error in the production process led to Figs. 1, 2 and 3 being of low resolution; these have now been replaced with higher-quality versions.
May 22, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784966/author-correction-ultrahard-carbon-film-from-epitaxial-two-layer-graphene
#2
Yang Gao, Tengfei Cao, Filippo Cellini, Claire Berger, Walter A de Heer, Erio Tosatti, Elisa Riedo, Angelo Bongiorno
In the version of this Article originally published, the second affiliation for Walter A. de Heer had not been included; it should be 'TICNN, Tianjin University, Tianjin, China'. This has now been added and the numbering of subsequent affiliations amended accordingly in all versions of the Article.
May 21, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784965/broadband-electrically-tunable-third-harmonic-generation-in-graphene
#3
Giancarlo Soavi, Gang Wang, Habib Rostami, David G Purdie, Domenico De Fazio, Teng Ma, Birong Luo, Junjia Wang, Anna K Ott, Duhee Yoon, Sean A Bourelle, Jakob E Muench, Ilya Goykhman, Stefano Dal Conte, Michele Celebrano, Andrea Tomadin, Marco Polini, Giulio Cerullo, Andrea C Ferrari
Optical harmonic generation occurs when high intensity light (>1010  W m- 2 ) interacts with a nonlinear material. Electrical control of the nonlinear optical response enables applications such as gate-tunable switches and frequency converters. Graphene displays exceptionally strong light-matter interaction and electrically and broadband tunable third-order nonlinear susceptibility. Here, we show that the third-harmonic generation efficiency in graphene can be increased by almost two orders of magnitude by controlling the Fermi energy and the incident photon energy...
May 21, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784964/high-speed-photothermal-off-resonance-atomic-force-microscopy-reveals-assembly-routes-of-centriolar-scaffold-protein-sas-6
#4
Adrian P Nievergelt, Niccolò Banterle, Santiago H Andany, Pierre Gönczy, Georg E Fantner
The self-assembly of protein complexes is at the core of many fundamental biological processes 1 , ranging from the polymerization of cytoskeletal elements, such as microtubules 2 , to viral capsid formation and organelle assembly 3 . To reach a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of self-assembly, high spatial and temporal resolutions must be attained. This is complicated by the need to not interfere with the reaction during the measurement. As self-assemblies are often governed by weak interactions, they are especially difficult to monitor with high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) due to the non-negligible tip-sample interaction forces involved in current methods...
May 21, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784963/single-entity-resolution-valving-of-nanoscopic-species-in-liquids
#5
Patric Eberle, Christian Höller, Philipp Müller, Maarit Suomalainen, Urs F Greber, Hadi Eghlidi, Dimos Poulikakos
Investigating biological and synthetic nanoscopic species in liquids, at the ultimate resolution of single entity, is important in diverse fields1-5 . Progress has been made6-10 , but significant barriers need to be overcome such as the need for intense fields, the lack of versatility in operating conditions and the limited functionality in solutions of high ionic strength for biological applications. Here, we demonstrate switchable electrokinetic nanovalving able to confine and guide single nano-objects, including macromolecules, with sizes down to around 10 nanometres, in a lab-on-chip environment...
May 21, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760523/combination-of-fucoidan-based-magnetic-nanoparticles-and-immunomodulators-enhances-tumour-localized-immunotherapy
#6
Chih-Sheng Chiang, Yu-Jung Lin, Rachel Lee, Yen-Ho Lai, Hung-Wei Cheng, Chia-Hung Hsieh, Woei-Cherng Shyu, San-Yuan Chen
Checkpoint immunotherapy that inhibits tumour immune evasion has demonstrated significant clinical success. However, the therapeutic response is limited to certain patient populations, and immunotoxicity as well as autoimmunity have compromised the therapeutic benefits. Here, we report on an inherently therapeutic fucoidan-dextran-based magnetic nanomedicine (IO@FuDex3 ) conjugated with a checkpoint inhibitor (anti-PD-L1) and T-cell activators (anti-CD3 and anti-CD28). IO@FuDex3 can repair the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment by reinvigorating tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes, while targeting the nanomedicine via magnetic navigation to the tumour to minimize off-target effects...
May 14, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760522/carbon-nanotube-bundles-with-tensile-strength-over-80-gpa
#7
Yunxiang Bai, Rufan Zhang, Xuan Ye, Zhenxing Zhu, Huanhuan Xie, Boyuan Shen, Dali Cai, Bofei Liu, Chenxi Zhang, Zhao Jia, Shenli Zhang, Xide Li, Fei Wei
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are one of the strongest known materials. When assembled into fibres, however, their strength becomes impaired by defects, impurities, random orientations and discontinuous lengths. Fabricating CNT fibres with strength reaching that of a single CNT has been an enduring challenge. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of CNT bundles (CNTBs) that are centimetres long with tensile strength over 80 GPa using ultralong defect-free CNTs. The tensile strength of CNTBs is controlled by the Daniels effect owing to the non-uniformity of the initial strains in the components...
May 14, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760521/robotic-assembly-of-artificial-nanomaterials
#8
Riccardo Frisenda, Andres Castellanos-Gomez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 14, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736036/exfoliation-of-a-non-van-der-waals-material-from-iron-ore-hematite
#9
Aravind Puthirath Balan, Sruthi Radhakrishnan, Cristiano F Woellner, Shyam K Sinha, Liangzi Deng, Carlos de Los Reyes, Banki Manmadha Rao, Maggie Paulose, Ram Neupane, Amey Apte, Vidya Kochat, Robert Vajtai, Avetik R Harutyunyan, Ching-Wu Chu, Gelu Costin, Douglas S Galvao, Angel A Martí, Peter A van Aken, Oomman K Varghese, Chandra Sekhar Tiwary, Anantharaman Malie Madom Ramaswamy Iyer, Pulickel M Ajayan
With the advent of graphene, the most studied of all two-dimensional materials, many inorganic analogues have been synthesized and are being exploited for novel applications. Several approaches have been used to obtain large-grain, high-quality materials. Naturally occurring ores, for example, are the best precursors for obtaining highly ordered and large-grain atomic layers by exfoliation. Here, we demonstrate a new two-dimensional material 'hematene' obtained from natural iron ore hematite (α-Fe2 O3 ), which is isolated by means of liquid exfoliation...
May 7, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736035/controlling-magnetism-in-2d-cri-3-by-electrostatic-doping
#10
Shengwei Jiang, Lizhong Li, Zefang Wang, Kin Fai Mak, Jie Shan
The atomic thickness of two-dimensional materials provides a unique opportunity to control their electrical 1 and optical 2 properties as well as to drive the electronic phase transitions 3 by electrostatic doping. The discovery of two-dimensional magnetic materials4-10 has opened up the prospect of the electrical control of magnetism and the realization of new functional devices 11 . A recent experiment based on the linear magneto-electric effect has demonstrated control of the magnetic order in bilayer CrI3 by electric fields 12 ...
May 7, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736034/exploring-the-speed-limit-of-toehold-exchange-with-a-cartwheeling-dna-acrobat
#11
Jieming Li, Alexander Johnson-Buck, Yuhe Renee Yang, William M Shih, Hao Yan, Nils G Walter
Dynamic DNA nanotechnology has yielded nontrivial autonomous behaviours such as stimulus-guided locomotion, computation and programmable molecular assembly. Despite these successes, DNA-based nanomachines suffer from slow kinetics, requiring several minutes or longer to carry out a handful of operations. Here, we pursue the speed limit of an important class of reactions in DNA nanotechnology-toehold exchange-through the single-molecule optimization of a novel class of DNA walker that undergoes cartwheeling movements over a field of complementary oligonucleotides...
May 7, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736033/band-structure-engineering-of-2d-materials-using-patterned-dielectric-superlattices
#12
Carlos Forsythe, Xiaodong Zhou, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Abhay Pasupathy, Pilkyung Moon, Mikito Koshino, Philip Kim, Cory R Dean
The ability to manipulate electrons in two-dimensional materials with external electric fields provides a route to synthetic band engineering. By imposing artificially designed and spatially periodic superlattice potentials, electronic properties can be further altered beyond the constraints of naturally occurring atomic crystals1-5 . Here, we report a new approach to fabricate high-mobility superlattice devices by integrating surface dielectric patterning with atomically thin van der Waals materials. By separating the device assembly and superlattice fabrication processes, we address the intractable trade-off between device processing and mobility degradation that constrains superlattice engineering in conventional systems...
May 7, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736032/a-critical-evaluation-of-nanopesticides-and-nanofertilizers-against-their-conventional-analogues
#13
Melanie Kah, Rai Singh Kookana, Alexander Gogos, Thomas Daniel Bucheli
Among a wide range of possible applications of nanotechnology in agriculture, there has been a particular interest in developing novel nanoagrochemicals. While some concerns have been expressed regarding altered risk profile of the new products, many foresee a great potential to support the necessary increase in global food production in a sustainable way. A critical evaluation of nanoagrochemicals against conventional analogues is essential to assess the associated benefits and risks. In this assessment, recent literature was critically analysed to determine the extent to which nanoagrochemicals differ from conventional products...
May 7, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713078/parallel-mapping-of-optical-near-field-interactions-by-molecular-motor-driven-quantum-dots
#14
Heiko Groß, Hannah S Heil, Jens Ehrig, Friedrich W Schwarz, Bert Hecht, Stefan Diez
In the vicinity of metallic nanostructures, absorption and emission rates of optical emitters can be modulated by several orders of magnitude1,2 . Control of such near-field light-matter interaction is essential for applications in biosensing 3 , light harvesting 4 and quantum communication5,6 and requires precise mapping of optical near-field interactions, for which single-emitter probes are promising candidates7-11 . However, currently available techniques are limited in terms of throughput, resolution and/or non-invasiveness...
April 30, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713077/tunnelling-spectroscopy-of-gate-induced-superconductivity-in-mos-2
#15
Davide Costanzo, Haijing Zhang, Bojja Aditya Reddy, Helmuth Berger, Alberto F Morpurgo
The ability to gate-induce superconductivity by electrostatic charge accumulation is a recent breakthrough in physics and nanoelectronics. With the exception of LaAlO3 /SrTiO3 interfaces, experiments on gate-induced superconductors have been largely confined to resistance measurements, which provide very limited information about the superconducting state. Here, we explore gate-induced superconductivity in MoS2 by performing tunnelling spectroscopy to determine the energy-dependent density of states (DOS) for different levels of electron density n...
April 30, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713076/a-framework-for-sustainable-nanomaterial-selection-and-design-based-on-performance-hazard-and-economic-considerations
#16
Mark M Falinski, Desiree L Plata, Shauhrat S Chopra, Thomas L Theis, Leanne M Gilbertson, Julie B Zimmerman
Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and ENM-enabled products have emerged as potentially high-performance replacements to conventional materials and chemicals. As such, there is an urgent need to incorporate environmental and human health objectives into ENM selection and design processes. Here, an adapted framework based on the Ashby material selection strategy is presented as an enhanced selection and design process, which includes functional performance as well as environmental and human health considerations...
April 30, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713075/full-control-of-ligand-positioning-reveals-spatial-thresholds-for-t-cell-receptor-triggering
#17
Haogang Cai, James Muller, David Depoil, Viveka Mayya, Michael P Sheetz, Michael L Dustin, Shalom J Wind
Elucidating the rules for receptor triggering in cell-cell and cell-matrix contacts requires precise control of ligand positioning in three dimensions. Here, we use the T cell receptor (TCR) as a model and subject T cells to different geometric arrangements of ligands, using a nanofabricated single-molecule array platform. This comprises monovalent TCR ligands anchored to lithographically patterned nanoparticle clusters surrounded by mobile adhesion molecules on a supported lipid bilayer. The TCR ligand could be co-planar with the supported lipid bilayer (2D), excluding the CD45 transmembrane tyrosine phosphatase, or elevated by 10 nm on solid nanopedestals (3D), allowing closer access of CD45 to engaged TCR...
April 30, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713074/multifunctional-biophotonic-nanostructures-inspired-by-the-longtail-glasswing-butterfly-for-medical-devices
#18
Vinayak Narasimhan, Radwanul Hasan Siddique, Jeong Oen Lee, Shailabh Kumar, Blaise Ndjamen, Juan Du, Natalie Hong, David Sretavan, Hyuck Choo
Numerous living organisms possess biophotonic nanostructures that provide colouration and other diverse functions for survival. While such structures have been actively studied and replicated in the laboratory, it remains unclear whether they can be used for biomedical applications. Here, we show a transparent photonic nanostructure inspired by the longtail glasswing butterfly (Chorinea faunus) and demonstrate its use in intraocular pressure (IOP) sensors in vivo. We exploit the phase separation between two immiscible polymers (poly(methyl methacrylate) and polystyrene) to form nanostructured features on top of a Si3 N4 substrate...
April 30, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713073/calcium-dependent-molecular-fmri-using-a-magnetic-nanosensor
#19
Satoshi Okada, Benjamin B Bartelle, Nan Li, Vincent Breton-Provencher, Jiyoung J Lee, Elisenda Rodriguez, James Melican, Mriganka Sur, Alan Jasanoff
Calcium ions are ubiquitous signalling molecules in all multicellular organisms, where they mediate diverse aspects of intracellular and extracellular communication over widely varying temporal and spatial scales 1 . Though techniques to map calcium-related activity at a high resolution by optical means are well established, there is currently no reliable method to measure calcium dynamics over large volumes in intact tissue 2 . Here, we address this need by introducing a family of magnetic calcium-responsive nanoparticles (MaCaReNas) that can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
April 30, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686293/plasmon-induced-carrier-polarization-in-semiconductor-nanocrystals
#20
Penghui Yin, Yi Tan, Hanbing Fang, Manu Hegde, Pavle V Radovanovic
Spintronics 1 and valleytronics 2 are emerging quantum electronic technologies that rely on using electron spin and multiple extrema of the band structure (valleys), respectively, as additional degrees of freedom. There are also collective properties of electrons in semiconductor nanostructures that potentially could be exploited in multifunctional quantum devices. Specifically, plasmonic semiconductor nanocrystals3-10 offer an opportunity for interface-free coupling between a plasmon and an exciton. However, plasmon-exciton coupling in single-phase semiconductor nanocrystals remains challenging because confined plasmon oscillations are generally not resonant with excitonic transitions...
April 23, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
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