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Nature Nanotechnology

Sung Min Park, Bo Wang, Saikat Das, Seung Chul Chae, Jin-Seok Chung, Jong-Gul Yoon, Long-Qing Chen, Sang Mo Yang, Tae Won Noh
Flexoelectricity is an electromechanical coupling between electrical polarization and a strain gradient1 that enables mechanical manipulation of polarization without applying an electrical bias2,3 . Recently, flexoelectricity was directly demonstrated by mechanically switching the out-of-plane polarization of a uniaxial system with a scanning probe microscope tip3,4 . However, the successful application of flexoelectricity in low-symmetry multiaxial ferroelectrics and therefore active manipulation of multiple domains via flexoelectricity have not yet been achieved...
March 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Daniel R Peet, Nigel J Burroughs, Robert A Cross
Kinesin-1 is a nanoscale molecular motor that walks towards the fast-growing (plus) ends of microtubules, hauling molecular cargo to specific reaction sites in cells. Kinesin-driven transport is central to the self-organization of eukaryotic cells and shows great promise as a tool for nano-engineering1 . Recent work hints that kinesin may also play a role in modulating the stability of its microtubule track, both in vitro2,3 and in vivo4 , but the results are conflicting5-7 and the mechanisms are unclear. Here, we report a new dimension to the kinesin-microtubule interaction, whereby strong-binding state (adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-bound and apo) kinesin-1 motor domains inhibit the shrinkage of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) microtubules by up to two orders of magnitude and expand their lattice spacing by ~1...
March 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Peter Wadley, Sonka Reimers, Michal J Grzybowski, Carl Andrews, Mu Wang, Jasbinder S Chauhan, Bryan L Gallagher, Richard P Campion, Kevin W Edmonds, Sarnjeet S Dhesi, Francesco Maccherozzi, Vit Novak, Joerg Wunderlich, Tomas Jungwirth
Antiferromagnets have several favourable properties as active elements in spintronic devices, including ultra-fast dynamics, zero stray fields and insensitivity to external magnetic fields1 . Tetragonal CuMnAs is a testbed system in which the antiferromagnetic order parameter can be switched reversibly at ambient conditions using electrical currents2 . In previous experiments, orthogonal in-plane current pulses were used to induce 90° rotations of antiferromagnetic domains and demonstrate the operation of all-electrical memory bits in a multi-terminal geometry3 ...
March 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Wei Chen, Shuyu Chen, Tengfei Liang, Qiang Zhang, Zhongli Fan, Hang Yin, Kuo-Wei Huang, Xixiang Zhang, Zhiping Lai, Ping Sheng
Freshwater flux and energy consumption are two important benchmarks for the membrane desalination process. Here, we show that nanoporous carbon composite membranes, which comprise a layer of porous carbon fibre structures grown on a porous ceramic substrate, can exhibit 100% desalination and a freshwater flux that is 3-20 times higher than existing polymeric membranes. Thermal accounting experiments demonstrated that the carbon composite membrane saved over 80% of the latent heat consumption. Theoretical calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations revealed the unique microscopic process occurring in the membrane...
March 5, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Tosan Omabegho, Pinar S Gurel, Clarence Y Cheng, Laura Y Kim, Paul V Ruijgrok, Rhiju Das, Gregory M Alushin, Zev Bryant
An incorrect Supplementary Information file was originally published. The file has been replaced with the correct one.
March 2, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Ruojie Sha, Limin Xiang, Chaoren Liu, Alexander Balaeff, Yuqi Zhang, Peng Zhang, Yueqi Li, David N Beratan, Nongjian Tao, Nadrian C Seeman
Self-assembling circuit elements, such as current splitters or combiners at the molecular scale, require the design of building blocks with three or more terminals. A promising material for such building blocks is DNA, wherein multiple strands can self-assemble into multi-ended junctions, and nucleobase stacks can transport charge over long distances. However, nucleobase stacking is often disrupted at junction points, hindering electric charge transport between the two terminals of the junction. Here, we show that a guanine-quadruplex (G4) motif can be used as a connector element for a multi-ended DNA junction...
February 26, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Yongji Gong, Hongtao Yuan, Chun-Lan Wu, Peizhe Tang, Shi-Ze Yang, Ankun Yang, Guodong Li, Bofei Liu, Jorik van de Groep, Mark L Brongersma, Matthew F Chisholm, Shou-Cheng Zhang, Wu Zhou, Yi Cui
Doped semiconductors are the most important building elements for modern electronic devices1 . In silicon-based integrated circuits, facile and controllable fabrication and integration of these materials can be realized without introducing a high-resistance interface2,3 . Besides, the emergence of two-dimensional (2D) materials enables the realization of atomically thin integrated circuits4-9 . However, the 2D nature of these materials precludes the use of traditional ion implantation techniques for carrier doping and further hinders device development10 ...
February 26, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Ramya Parameswaran, João L Carvalho-de-Souza, Yuanwen Jiang, Michael J Burke, John F Zimmerman, Kelliann Koehler, Andrew W Phillips, Jaeseok Yi, Erin J Adams, Francisco Bezanilla, Bozhi Tian
Optical methods for modulating cellular behaviour are promising for both fundamental and clinical applications. However, most available methods are either mechanically invasive, require genetic manipulation of target cells or cannot provide subcellular specificity. Here, we address all these issues by showing optical neuromodulation with free-standing coaxial p-type/intrinsic/n-type silicon nanowires. We reveal the presence of atomic gold on the nanowire surfaces, likely due to gold diffusion during the material growth...
February 19, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Manuel Bonilla, Sadhu Kolekar, Yujing Ma, Horacio Coy Diaz, Vijaysankar Kalappattil, Raja Das, Tatiana Eggers, Humberto R Gutierrez, Manh-Huong Phan, Matthias Batzill
Reduced dimensionality and interlayer coupling in van der Waals materials gives rise to fundamentally different electronic1 , optical2 and many-body quantum3-5 properties in monolayers compared with the bulk. This layer-dependence permits the discovery of novel material properties in the monolayer regime. Ferromagnetic order in two-dimensional materials is a coveted property that would allow fundamental studies of spin behaviour in low dimensions and enable new spintronics applications6-8 . Recent studies have shown that for the bulk-ferromagnetic layered materials CrI3 (ref...
February 19, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Guglielmo Lanzani
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 19, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
David Bléger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Tetiana Orlova, Federico Lancia, Charles Loussert, Supitchaya Iamsaard, Nathalie Katsonis, Etienne Brasselet
Molecular machines operated by light have been recently shown to be able to produce oriented motion at the molecular scale1,2 as well as do macroscopic work when embedded in supramolecular structures3-5. However, any supramolecular movement irremediably ceases as soon as the concentration of the interconverting molecular motors or switches reaches a photo-stationary state6,7. To circumvent this limitation, researchers have typically relied on establishing oscillating illumination conditions-either by modulating the source intensity8,9 or by using bespoke illumination arrangements10-13...
February 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Eunho Cha, Mumukshu D Patel, Juhong Park, Jeongwoon Hwang, Vish Prasad, Kyeongjae Cho, Wonbong Choi
Among the candidates to replace Li-ion batteries, Li-S cells are an attractive option as their energy density is about five times higher (~2,600 Wh kg-1 ). The success of Li-S cells depends in large part on the utilization of metallic Li as anode material. Metallic lithium, however, is prone to grow parasitic dendrites and is highly reactive to several electrolytes; moreover, Li-S cells with metallic Li are also susceptible to polysulfides dissolution. Here, we show that ~10-nm-thick two-dimensional (2D) MoS2 can act as a protective layer for Li-metal anodes, greatly improving the performances of Li-S batteries...
February 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Nicolas Mounet, Marco Gibertini, Philippe Schwaller, Davide Campi, Andrius Merkys, Antimo Marrazzo, Thibault Sohier, Ivano Eligio Castelli, Andrea Cepellotti, Giovanni Pizzi, Nicola Marzari
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have emerged as promising candidates for next-generation electronic and optoelectronic applications. Yet, only a few dozen 2D materials have been successfully synthesized or exfoliated. Here, we search for 2D materials that can be easily exfoliated from their parent compounds. Starting from 108,423 unique, experimentally known 3D compounds, we identify a subset of 5,619 compounds that appear layered according to robust geometric and bonding criteria. High-throughput calculations using van der Waals density functional theory, validated against experimental structural data and calculated random phase approximation binding energies, further allowed the identification of 1,825 compounds that are either easily or potentially exfoliable...
February 6, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Olle Eriksson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Kyung Song, Sangwoo Ryu, Hyungwoo Lee, Tula R Paudel, Christoph T Koch, Bumsu Park, Ja Kyung Lee, Si-Young Choi, Young-Min Kim, Jong Chan Kim, Hu Young Jeong, Mark S Rzchowski, Evgeny Y Tsymbal, Chang-Beom Eom, Sang Ho Oh
The breaking of symmetry across an oxide heterostructure causes the electronic orbitals to be reconstructed at the interface into energy states that are different from their bulk counterparts 1 . The detailed nature of the orbital reconstruction critically affects the spatial confinement and the physical properties of the electrons occupying the interfacial orbitals2-4. Using an example of two-dimensional electron liquids forming at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces5,6 with different crystal symmetry, we show that the selective orbital occupation and spatial quantum confinement of electrons can be resolved with subnanometre resolution using inline electron holography...
February 5, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Hajime Shigemitsu, Takahiro Fujisaku, Wataru Tanaka, Ryou Kubota, Saori Minami, Kenji Urayama, Itaru Hamachi
In the version of this Article originally published online, in Fig. 4b, in the lower-right image, the value of r was incorrect; it should have read 'r = 0.72'. This has now been corrected in all versions of the Article.
January 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Ranit Kedmi, Nuphar Veiga, Srinivas Ramishetti, Meir Goldsmith, Daniel Rosenblum, Niels Dammes, Inbal Hazan-Halevy, Limor Nahary, Shani Leviatan-Ben-Arye, Michael Harlev, Mark Behlke, Itai Benhar, Judy Lieberman, Dan Peer
Previous studies have identified relevant genes and signalling pathways that are hampered in human disorders as potential candidates for therapeutics. Developing nucleic acid-based tools to manipulate gene expression, such as short interfering RNAs1-3 (siRNAs), opens up opportunities for personalized medicine. Yet, although major progress has been made in developing siRNA targeted delivery carriers, mainly by utilizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for targeting4-8, their clinical translation has not occurred...
January 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Shuming Wang, Pin Chieh Wu, Vin-Cent Su, Yi-Chieh Lai, Mu-Ku Chen, Hsin Yu Kuo, Bo Han Chen, Yu Han Chen, Tzu-Ting Huang, Jung-Hsi Wang, Ray-Ming Lin, Chieh-Hsiung Kuan, Tao Li, Zhenlin Wang, Shining Zhu, Din Ping Tsai
Metalenses consist of an array of optical nanoantennas on a surface capable of manipulating the properties of an incoming light wavefront. Various flat optical components, such as polarizers, optical imaging encoders, tunable phase modulators and a retroreflector, have been demonstrated using a metalens design. An open issue, especially problematic for colour imaging and display applications, is the correction of chromatic aberration, an intrinsic effect originating from the specific resonance and limited working bandwidth of each nanoantenna...
January 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Davide Maccariello, William Legrand, Nicolas Reyren, Karin Garcia, Karim Bouzehouane, Sophie Collin, Vincent Cros, Albert Fert
Magnetic skyrmions are topologically protected whirling spin textures that can be stabilized in magnetic materials by an asymmetric exchange interaction between neighbouring spins that imposes a fixed chirality. Their small size, together with the robustness against external perturbations, make magnetic skyrmions potential storage bits in a novel generation of memory and logic devices. To this aim, their contribution to the electrical transport properties of a device must be characterized-however, the existing demonstrations are limited to low temperatures and mainly in magnetic materials with a B20 crystal structure...
January 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
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