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Nature Nanotechnology

Sabyasachi Barik, Mohammad Hafezi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Tongchao Liu, Lingpiao Lin, Xuanxuan Bi, Leilei Tian, Kai Yang, Jiajie Liu, Maofan Li, Zonghai Chen, Jun Lu, Khalil Amine, Kang Xu, Feng Pan
The solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) is probably the least understood component in Li-ion batteries. Considerable effort has been put into understanding its formation and electrochemistry under realistic battery conditions, but mechanistic insights have mostly been inferred indirectly. Here we show the formation of the SEI between a graphite anode and a carbonate electrolyte through combined atomic-scale microscopy and in situ and operando techniques. In particular, we weigh the graphitic anode during its initial lithiation process with an electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance, which unequivocally identifies lithium fluoride and lithium alkylcarbonates as the main chemical components at different potentials...
November 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Mikhail I Shalaev, Wiktor Walasik, Alexander Tsukernik, Yun Xu, Natalia M Litchinitser
Photonic topological insulators offer the possibility to eliminate backscattering losses and improve the efficiency of optical communication systems. Despite considerable efforts, a direct experimental demonstration of theoretically predicted robust, lossless energy transport in topological insulators operating at near-infrared frequencies is still missing. Here, we combine the properties of a planar silicon photonic crystal and the concept of topological protection to design, fabricate and characterize an optical topological insulator that exhibits the valley Hall effect...
November 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Shuang Pi, Can Li, Hao Jiang, Weiwei Xia, Huolin Xin, J Joshua Yang, Qiangfei Xia
The memristor1,2 is a promising building block for next-generation non-volatile memory3 , artificial neural networks4-7 and bio-inspired computing systems8,9 . Organizing small memristors into high-density crossbar arrays is critical to meet the ever-growing demands in high-capacity and low-energy consumption, but this is challenging because of difficulties in making highly ordered conductive nanoelectrodes. Carbon nanotubes, graphene nanoribbons and dopant nanowires have potential as electrodes for discrete nanodevices10-14 , but unfortunately these are difficult to pack into ordered arrays...
November 12, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Yuanhui Li, Juan M Artés, Busra Demir, Sumeyye Gokce, Hashem M Mohammad, Mashari Alangari, M P Anantram, Ersin Emre Oren, Joshua Hihath
The ongoing discoveries of RNA modalities (for example, non-coding, micro and enhancer) have resulted in an increased desire for detecting, sequencing and identifying RNA segments for applications in food safety, water and environmental protection, plant and animal pathology, clinical diagnosis and research, and bio-security. Here, we demonstrate that single-molecule conductance techniques can be used to extract biologically relevant information from short RNA oligonucleotides, that these measurements are sensitive to attomolar target concentrations, that they are capable of being multiplexed, and that they can detect targets of interest in the presence of other, possibly interfering, RNA sequences...
November 5, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Kai Yang, Philip Willke, Yujeong Bae, Alejandro Ferrón, Jose L Lado, Arzhang Ardavan, Joaquín Fernández-Rossier, Andreas J Heinrich, Christopher P Lutz
Nuclear spins serve as sensitive probes in chemistry1 and materials science2 and are promising candidates for quantum information processing3-6 . NMR, the resonant control of nuclear spins, is a powerful tool for probing local magnetic environments in condensed matter systems, which range from magnetic ordering in high-temperature superconductors7,8 and spin liquids9 to quantum magnetism in nanomagnets10,11 . Increasing the sensitivity of NMR to the single-atom scale is challenging as it requires a strong polarization of nuclear spins, well in excess of the low polarizations obtained at thermal equilibrium, as well as driving and detecting them individually4,5,12 ...
November 5, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Laurent Limot
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Delphine Bouilly
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 5, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Christopher Safranski, Eric A Montoya, Ilya N Krivorotov
Spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in multilayers of ferromagnetic (FM) and non-magnetic (NM) metals can manipulate the magnetization of the FM layer efficiently. This is employed, for example, in non-volatile magnetic memories for energy-efficient mobile electronics1,2 and spin torque nano-oscillators3-7 for neuromorphic computing8 . Recently, spin torque nano-oscillators also found use in microwave-assisted magnetic recording, which enables ultrahigh-capacity hard disk drives9 . Most SOT devices employ spin Hall10,11 and Rashba12 effects, which originate from spin-orbit coupling within the NM layer and at the FM/NM interfaces, respectively...
October 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Soongyu Yi, Ming Zhou, Zongfu Yu, Pengyu Fan, Nader Behdad, Dianmin Lin, Ken Xingze Wang, Shanhui Fan, Mark Brongersma
Sensing the direction of sounds gives animals clear evolutionary advantage. For large animals, with an ear-to-ear spacing that exceeds audible sound wavelengths, directional sensing is simply accomplished by recognizing the intensity and time differences of a wave impinging on its two ears1 . Recent research suggests that in smaller, subwavelength animals, angle sensing can instead rely on a coherent coupling of soundwaves between the two ears2-4 . Inspired by this natural design, here we show a subwavelength photodetection pixel that can measure both the intensity and incident angle of light...
October 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Yue Luo, Gabriella D Shepard, Jenny V Ardelean, Daniel A Rhodes, Bumho Kim, Katayun Barmak, James C Hone, Stefan Strauf
Solid-state single-quantum emitters are crucial resources for on-chip photonic quantum technologies and require efficient cavity-emitter coupling to realize quantum networks beyond the single-node level1,2 . Monolayer WSe2 , a transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductor, can host randomly located quantum emitters3-6 , while nanobubbles7 as well as lithographically defined arrays of pillars in contact with the transition metal dichalcogenide act as spatially controlled stressors8,9 . The induced strain can then create excitons at defined locations...
October 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Ji Wang, Hui-Jiuan Chen, Tian Hang, Yang Yu, Guishi Liu, Gen He, Shuai Xiao, Bo-Ru Yang, Chengduan Yang, Fanmao Liu, Jun Tao, Mei X Wu, Xi Xie
Microbial biochemicals have been indicated as the primary stimulators of innate immunity, the first line of the body's defence against infections. However, the influence of topological features on a microbe's surface on immune responses remains largely unknown. Here we demonstrate the ability of TiO2 microparticles decorated with nanospikes (spiky particles) to activate and amplify the immune response in vitro and in vivo. The nanospikes exert mechanical stress on the cells, which results in potassium efflux and inflammasome activation in macrophages and dendritic cells during phagocytosis...
October 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Brandon M Johnson, Robert D Junkins, Jenny P-Y Ting
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 29, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Jonas H Weber, Benjamin Kambs, Jan Kettler, Simon Kern, Julian Maisch, Hüseyin Vural, Michael Jetter, Simone L Portalupi, Christoph Becher, Peter Michler
Efficient fibre-based long-distance quantum communication via quantum repeaters relies on deterministic single-photon sources at telecom wavelengths, potentially exploiting the existing world-wide infrastructures. For upscaling the experimental complexity in quantum networking, two-photon interference (TPI) of remote non-classical emitters in the low-loss telecom bands is of utmost importance. Several experiments have been conducted regarding TPI of distinct emitters, for example, using trapped atoms1 , ions2 , nitrogen vacancy centres3,4 , silicon vacancy centres5 , organic molecules6 and semiconductor quantum dots7,8 ...
October 22, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Janos Szebeni, Dmitri Simberg, África González-Fernández, Yechezkel Barenholz, Marina A Dobrovolskaia
Infusion reactions (IRs) are complex, immune-mediated side effects that mainly occur within minutes to hours of receiving a therapeutic dose of intravenously administered pharmaceutical products. These products are diverse and include both traditional pharmaceuticals (for example biological agents and small molecules) and new ones (for example nanotechnology-based products). Although IRs are not unique to nanomedicines, they represent a hurdle for the translation of nanotechnology-based drug products. This Perspective offers a big picture of the pharmaceutical field and examines current understanding of mechanisms responsible for IRs to nanomedicines...
October 22, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Jorge Leira-Iglesias, Alessandra Tassoni, Takuji Adachi, Michael Stich, Thomas M Hermans
Supramolecular polymers, such as microtubules, operate under non-equilibrium conditions to drive crucial functions in cells, such as motility, division and organelle transport1 . In vivo and in vitro size oscillations of individual microtubules2,3 (dynamic instabilities) and collective oscillations4 have been observed. In addition, dynamic spatial structures, like waves and polygons, can form in non-stirred systems5 . Here we describe an artificial supramolecular polymer made of a perylene diimide derivative that displays oscillations, travelling fronts and centimetre-scale self-organized patterns when pushed far from equilibrium by chemical fuels...
October 15, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Job Boekhoven
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Diwei Ho, Jessica A Kretzmann, Marck Norret, Priyanka Toshniwal, Jean-Pierre Veder, Haibo Jiang, Paul Guagliardo, Alaa M Munshi, Reena Chawla, Cameron W Evans, Tristan D Clemons, Michelle Nguyen, Amy L Kretzmann, Amanda J Blythe, Martin Saunders, Michael Archer, Melinda Fitzgerald, Jeffrey A Keelan, Charles S Bond, Matt R Kilburn, Laurence H Hurley, Nicole M Smith, K Swaminathan Iyer
Gold nanorods are one of the most widely explored inorganic materials in nanomedicine for diagnostics, therapeutics and sensing1 . It has been shown that gold nanorods are not cytotoxic and localize within cytoplasmic vesicles following endocytosis, with no nuclear localization2,3 , but other studies have reported alterations in gene expression profiles in cells following exposure to gold nanorods, via unknown mechanisms4 . In this work we describe a pathway that can contribute to this phenomenon. By mapping the intracellular chemical speciation process of gold nanorods, we show that the commonly used Au-thiol conjugation, which is important for maintaining the noble (inert) properties of gold nanostructures, is altered following endocytosis, resulting in the formation of Au(I)-thiolates that localize in the nucleus5 ...
October 8, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Wei-Chiao Huang, Bingbing Deng, Cuiyan Lin, Kevin A Carter, Jumin Geng, Aida Razi, Xuedan He, Upendra Chitgupi, Jasmin Federizon, Boyang Sun, Carole A Long, Joaquin Ortega, Sheetij Dutta, C Richter King, Kazutoyo Miura, Shwu-Maan Lee, Jonathan F Lovell
Pfs25 is a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine antigen candidate, but its apparently limited immunogenicity in humans has hindered clinical development. Here, we show that recombinant, polyhistidine-tagged (his-tagged) Pfs25 can be mixed at the time of immunization with pre-formed liposomes containing cobalt porphyrin-phospholipid, resulting in spontaneous nanoliposome antigen particleization (SNAP). Antigens are stably presented in uniformly orientated display via his-tag insertion in the cobalt porphyrin-phospholipid bilayer, without covalent modification or disruption of antigen conformation...
October 8, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
Robert S Oakes, Christopher M Jewell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 8, 2018: Nature Nanotechnology
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