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Nature Nanotechnology

Manuel Melle-Franco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 13, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Jeffrey Abbott, Tianyang Ye, Ling Qin, Marsela Jorgolli, Rona S Gertner, Donhee Ham, Hongkun Park
Developing a new tool capable of high-precision electrophysiological recording of a large network of electrogenic cells has long been an outstanding challenge in neurobiology and cardiology. Here, we combine nanoscale intracellular electrodes with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) integrated circuits to realize a high-fidelity all-electrical electrophysiological imager for parallel intracellular recording at the network level. Our CMOS nanoelectrode array has 1,024 recording/stimulation 'pixels' equipped with vertical nanoelectrodes, and can simultaneously record intracellular membrane potentials from hundreds of connected in vitro neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes...
February 13, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Javeed Mahmood, Feng Li, Sun-Min Jung, Mahmut Sait Okyay, Ishfaq Ahmad, Seok-Jin Kim, Noejung Park, Hu Young Jeong, Jong-Beom Baek
The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a crucial step in electrochemical water splitting and demands an efficient, durable and cheap catalyst if it is to succeed in real applications. For an energy-efficient HER, a catalyst must be able to trigger proton reduction with minimal overpotential and have fast kinetics. The most efficient catalysts in acidic media are platinum-based, as the strength of the Pt-H bond is associated with the fastest reaction rate for the HER. The use of platinum, however, raises issues linked to cost and stability in non-acidic media...
February 13, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Niko Pavliček, Anish Mistry, Zsolt Majzik, Nikolaj Moll, Gerhard Meyer, David J Fox, Leo Gross
Triangulene, the smallest triplet-ground-state polybenzenoid (also known as Clar's hydrocarbon), has been an enigmatic molecule ever since its existence was first hypothesized. Despite containing an even number of carbons (22, in six fused benzene rings), it is not possible to draw Kekulé-style resonant structures for the whole molecule: any attempt results in two unpaired valence electrons. Synthesis and characterization of unsubstituted triangulene has not been achieved because of its extreme reactivity, although the addition of substituents has allowed the stabilization and synthesis of the triangulene core and verification of the triplet ground state via electron paramagnetic resonance measurements...
February 13, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Carl Leung, Adrian W Hodel, Amelia J Brennan, Natalya Lukoyanova, Sharon Tran, Colin M House, Stephanie C Kondos, James C Whisstock, Michelle A Dunstone, Joseph A Trapani, Ilia Voskoboinik, Helen R Saibil, Bart W Hoogenboom
Perforin is a key protein of the vertebrate immune system. Secreted by cytotoxic lymphocytes as soluble monomers, perforin can self-assemble into oligomeric pores of 10-20 nm inner diameter in the membranes of virus-infected and cancerous cells. These large pores facilitate the entry of pro-apoptotic granzymes, thereby rapidly killing the target cell. To elucidate the pathways of perforin pore assembly, we carried out real-time atomic force microscopy and electron microscopy studies. Our experiments reveal that the pore assembly proceeds via a membrane-bound prepore intermediate state, typically consisting of up to approximately eight loosely but irreversibly assembled monomeric subunits...
February 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Nico Mosso, Ute Drechsler, Fabian Menges, Peter Nirmalraj, Siegfried Karg, Heike Riel, Bernd Gotsmann
Heat transport and dissipation at the nanoscale severely limit the scaling of high-performance electronic devices and circuits. Metallic atomic junctions serve as model systems to probe electrical and thermal transport down to the atomic level as well as quantum effects that occur in one-dimensional (1D) systems. Whereas charge transport in atomic junctions has been studied intensively in the past two decades, heat transport remains poorly characterized because it requires the combination of a high sensitivity to small heat fluxes and the formation of stable atomic contacts...
February 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Oleg Kolosov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Kristiana Kandere-Grzybowska, Bartosz A Grzybowski
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 30, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Guobin Xue, Ying Xu, Tianpeng Ding, Jia Li, Jun Yin, Wenwen Fei, Yuanzhi Cao, Jin Yu, Longyan Yuan, Li Gong, Jian Chen, Shaozhi Deng, Jun Zhou, Wanlin Guo
Water evaporation is a ubiquitous natural process that harvests thermal energy from the ambient environment. It has previously been utilized in a number of applications including the synthesis of nanostructures and the creation of energy-harvesting devices. Here, we show that water evaporation from the surface of a variety of nanostructured carbon materials can be used to generate electricity. We find that evaporation from centimetre-sized carbon black sheets can reliably generate sustained voltages of up to 1 V under ambient conditions...
January 30, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
G Gines, A S Zadorin, J-C Galas, T Fujii, A Estevez-Torres, Y Rondelez
Information stored in synthetic nucleic acids sequences can be used in vitro to create complex reaction networks with precisely programmed chemical dynamics. Here, we scale up this approach to program networks of microscopic particles (agents) dispersed in an enzymatic solution. Agents may possess multiple stable states, thus maintaining a memory and communicate by emitting various orthogonal chemical signals, while also sensing the behaviour of neighbouring agents. Using this approach, we can produce collective behaviours involving thousands of agents, for example retrieving information over long distances or creating spatial patterns...
January 30, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Daryl McManus, Sandra Vranic, Freddie Withers, Veronica Sanchez-Romaguera, Massimo Macucci, Huafeng Yang, Roberto Sorrentino, Khaled Parvez, Seok-Kyun Son, Giuseppe Iannaccone, Kostas Kostarelos, Gianluca Fiori, Cinzia Casiraghi
Exploiting the properties of two-dimensional crystals requires a mass production method able to produce heterostructures of arbitrary complexity on any substrate. Solution processing of graphene allows simple and low-cost techniques such as inkjet printing to be used for device fabrication. However, the available printable formulations are still far from ideal as they are either based on toxic solvents, have low concentration, or require time-consuming and expensive processing. In addition, none is suitable for thin-film heterostructure fabrication due to the re-mixing of different two-dimensional crystals leading to uncontrolled interfaces and poor device performance...
January 30, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Markita Patricia Landry, Hiroki Ando, Allen Y Chen, Jicong Cao, Vishal Isaac Kottadiel, Linda Chio, Darwin Yang, Juyao Dong, Timothy K Lu, Michael S Strano
A distinct advantage of nanosensor arrays is their ability to achieve ultralow detection limits in solution by proximity placement to an analyte. Here, we demonstrate label-free detection of individual proteins from Escherichia coli (bacteria) and Pichia pastoris (yeast) immobilized in a microfluidic chamber, measuring protein efflux from single organisms in real time. The array is fabricated using non-covalent conjugation of an aptamer-anchor polynucleotide sequence to near-infrared emissive single-walled carbon nanotubes, using a variable chemical spacer shown to optimize sensor response...
January 23, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Andre Neumann, Jessica Lindlau, Léo Colombier, Manuel Nutz, Sina Najmaei, Jun Lou, Aditya D Mohite, Hisato Yamaguchi, Alexander Högele
Transition metal dichalcogenide semiconductors represent elementary components of layered heterostructures for emergent technologies beyond conventional optoelectronics. In their monolayer form they host electrons with quantized circular motion and associated valley polarization and valley coherence as key elements of opto-valleytronic functionality. Here, we introduce two-dimensional polarimetry as means of direct imaging of the valley pseudospin degree of freedom in monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides...
January 16, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Chen Zhang, Dalong Ni, Yanyan Liu, Heliang Yao, Wenbo Bu, Jianlin Shi
A material that rapidly absorbs molecular oxygen (known as an oxygen scavenger or deoxygenation agent (DOA)) has various industrial applications, such as in food preservation, anticorrosion of metal and coal deoxidation. Given that oxygen is vital to cancer growth, to starve tumours through the consumption of intratumoral oxygen is a potentially useful strategy in fighting cancer. Here we show that an injectable polymer-modified magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) nanoparticle can act as a DOA by scavenging oxygen in tumours and form by-products that block tumour capillaries from being reoxygenated...
January 9, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
Abdul M Mohammed, Petr Šulc, John Zenk, Rebecca Schulman
Within cells, nanostructures are often organized using local assembly rules that produce long-range order. Because these rules can take into account the cell's current structure and state, they can enable complexes, organelles or cytoskeletal structures to assemble around existing cellular components to form architectures. Although many methods for self-assembling biomolecular nanostructures have been developed, few can be programmed to assemble structures whose form depends on the identity and organization of structures already present in the environment...
December 19, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Erik C Yusko, Brandon R Bruhn, Olivia M Eggenberger, Jared Houghtaling, Ryan C Rollings, Nathan C Walsh, Santoshi Nandivada, Mariya Pindrus, Adam R Hall, David Sept, Jiali Li, Devendra S Kalonia, Michael Mayer
Established methods for characterizing proteins typically require physical or chemical modification steps or cannot be used to examine individual molecules in solution. Ionic current measurements through electrolyte-filled nanopores can characterize single native proteins in an aqueous environment, but currently offer only limited capabilities. Here we show that the zeptolitre sensing volume of bilayer-coated solid-state nanopores can be used to determine the approximate shape, volume, charge, rotational diffusion coefficient and dipole moment of individual proteins...
December 19, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Fangfang Chen, Guankui Wang, James I Griffin, Barbara Brenneman, Nirmal K Banda, V Michael Holers, Donald S Backos, LinPing Wu, Seyed Moein Moghimi, Dmitri Simberg
When nanoparticles are intravenously injected into the body, complement proteins deposit on the surface of nanoparticles in a process called opsonization. These proteins prime the particle for removal by immune cells and may contribute toward infusion-related adverse effects such as allergic responses. The ways complement proteins assemble on nanoparticles have remained unclear. Here, we show that dextran-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide core-shell nanoworms incubated in human serum and plasma are rapidly opsonized with the third complement component (C3) via the alternative pathway...
December 19, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Markus A Huber, Fabian Mooshammer, Markus Plankl, Leonardo Viti, Fabian Sandner, Lukas Z Kastner, Tobias Frank, Jaroslav Fabian, Miriam S Vitiello, Tyler L Cocker, Rupert Huber
The possibility of hybridizing collective electronic motion with mid-infrared light to form surface polaritons has made van der Waals layered materials a versatile platform for extreme light confinement and tailored nanophotonics. Graphene and its heterostructures have attracted particular attention because the absence of an energy gap allows plasmon polaritons to be tuned continuously. Here, we introduce black phosphorus as a promising new material in surface polaritonics that features key advantages for ultrafast switching...
December 12, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Dmitri N Basov, Michael M Fogler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 12, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Krishna Jayant, Jan J Hirtz, Ilan Jen-La Plante, David M Tsai, Wieteke D A M De Boer, Alexa Semonche, Darcy S Peterka, Jonathan S Owen, Ozgur Sahin, Kenneth L Shepard, Rafael Yuste
Dendritic spines are the primary site of excitatory synaptic input onto neurons, and are biochemically isolated from the parent dendritic shaft by their thin neck. However, due to the lack of direct electrical recordings from spines, the influence that the neck resistance has on synaptic transmission, and the extent to which spines compartmentalize voltage, specifically excitatory postsynaptic potentials, albeit critical, remains controversial. Here, we use quantum-dot-coated nanopipette electrodes (tip diameters ∼15-30 nm) to establish the first intracellular recordings from targeted spine heads under two-photon visualization...
December 12, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
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