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Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516445/screening-of-healthcare-workers-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-the-low-tuberculosis-burden-country-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test-or-tuberculin-skin-test
#1
Sepideh Keshavarz Valian, Shima Mahmoudi, Babak Pourakbari, Mohammad Reza Abdolsalehi, Hamid Eshaghi, Setareh Mamishi
Healthcare workers (HCWs) are an important group at increased risk for exposure to various infectious agents including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Unfortunately, there is very limited data on the prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) among HCWs in Iran. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of LTBI among HCW's of Children Medical Center (CMC), an Iranian referral hospital, and to compare the feasibility of using tuberculin skin test (TST) and QuantiFERON-TB gold in tube test (QFT-GIT) to screen the LTBI among this population...
December 5, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30507356/the-contribution-of-the-clinica-del-lavoro-of-milan-to-the-development-of-industrial-hygiene-and-toxicology-in-the-twentieth-century
#2
Michele A Riva, Michael Belingheri, Silvia Fustinoni
In 1910, the founder of the Clinica del Lavoro of Milan, Luigi Devoto established a chemistry laboratory in the new institute, sustaining its importance in the study of occupational diseases. In 1948, the new director of the Clinica, Enrico C. Vigliani established the first laboratory of industrial hygiene in Italy, in the years of the economic boom. In 1960s, this laboratory, directed by Nicola Zurlo, significantly contributed to the research in the field. In 1980s and 1990s, the laboratory of the Clinica started to explore the field of environmental toxicology, studying the effects of benzene and other traffic pollutants on the general population...
December 3, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501483/history-evolution-and-future-of-environmental-health-in-uganda
#3
Rawlance Ndejjo, Edwinah Atusingwize, Frederick Oporia, Charles Ssemugabo, David Musoke, David K Ssemwanga, Abdullah Ali Halage, John Bosco Isunju, Winnifred Kansiimea, Ruth Mubeezi, Richard Kibirango Mugambe, Emery Patrice Mbaha, Paul Luyima, John C Ssempebwa
This article explores the history and evolution of Environmental Health in Uganda under four key themes: training and practice; research; governance, policy and regulatory framework; and challenges. The article also describes the future of the profession. Through a review of documents and key informant interviews, it is noted that Environmental Health in Uganda dates back to colonial times when the country was affected by diseases including plague, trypanosomiasis and small pox. Concerted efforts were advanced to train cadres that would improve the sanitation status and address the prevailing disease burden...
December 3, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501580/niosh-s-respiratory-health-division-50-years-of-science-and-service
#4
Kristin J Cummings, Doug O Johns, Jacek M Mazurek, Frank J Hearl, David N Weissman
The year 2017 marked the 50th anniversary of NIOSH's Respiratory Health Division (RHD). RHD began in 1967 as the Appalachian Laboratory for Occupational Respiratory Diseases (ALFORD), with a focus on coal workers' pneumoconiosis. ALFORD became part of NIOSH in 1971 and added activities to address work-related respiratory disease more generally. Health hazard evaluations played an important role in understanding novel respiratory hazards such as nylon flock, diacetyl, and indium-tin oxide. Epidemiologic and laboratory studies addressed many respiratory hazards, including coal mine dust, silica, asbestos, cotton dust, beryllium, diesel exhaust, and dampness and mold...
December 2, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30474499/paraquat-exposure-and-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#5
Wimonchat Tangamornsuksan, Ornrat Lohitnavy, Rosarin Sruamsiri, Nathorn Chaiyakunapruk, C Norman Scholfield, Brad Reisfeld, Manupat Lohitnavy
To reconcile and unify available results regarding paraquat exposure and Parkinson's disease (PD), we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the risk of PD associated with paraquat exposure. Six scientific databases including PubMed, Cochrane libraries, EMBASE, Scopus, ISI Web of Knowledge, and TOXLINE were systematically searched. The overall odds ratios (ORs) with corresponding 95% CIs were calculated using a random-effects model. Of 7,309 articles identified, 13 case control studies with 3,231 patients and 4,901 controls were included into our analysis...
November 25, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30449263/job-satisfaction-and-stress-among-healthcare-workers-in-public-hospitals-in-qatar
#6
Arij Yehya, Anoop Sankaranarayanan, Abdullatif Alkhal, Huda Alnoimi, Nabila Almeer, Abdulwahid Khan, Suhaila Ghuloum
This article explores predictors of job satisfaction and stress among clinicians and administrative staff at the public health sector in the State of Qatar. This is a rapidly growing sector, aiming for excellence in service, education and research. The vast majority of the staff are expatriates with different cultural backgrounds, and varying qualifications. After obtaining ethical approvals to conduct the study, the target population were asked to complete an anonymous online survey, that included sociodemographic data followed by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) generic Job Stress questionnaire...
November 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30431394/pops-effect-on-cardiometabolic-and-inflammatory-profile-in-a-sample-of-women-with-obesity-and-hypertension
#7
Ana Ferro, Diana Teixeira, Diogo Pestana, Rosário Monteiro, Cristina C Santos, Valentina F Domingues, Jorge Polónia, Conceição Calhau
Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are man-made compounds with metabolic disruption impact. We investigated the effect of POP exposure in the cardiometabolic and inflammatory profile in a population of women with obesity and hypertension. In 43 premenopausal women (22 treated vs. 21 nontreated) undergoing bariatric surgery, blood and adipose tissue samples (visceral (vAT) and abdominal subcutaneous (scAT)) were collected. Median concentrations of ∑HCH and ∑POPs in vAT were significantly higher in treated women...
November 15, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30372372/physical-ergonomic-risk-factors-of-carpal-tunnel-syndrome-among-rubber-tappers
#8
Walaiporn Pramchoo, Alan F Geater, Boonsin Tangtrakulwanich
This study evaluated physical ergonomic risk factors associated with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among rubber tappers in Thailand. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Questionnaire and Phalen's test and Tinel's sign were used to identify 133 cases with CTS and 401 non-CTS controls. Video recordings and Rapid Upper Limb Assessment used to evaluate the level of ergonomic risk in right and left hand postures. Significant physical ergonomic risk factors of CTS were higher number of trees tapped at or below knee level and collecting latex...
October 29, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30222090/occupational-safety-and-health-regulations-and-implementation-challenges-in-uganda
#9
Edwinah Atusingwize, Geofrey Musinguzi, Rawlance Ndejjo, Esther Buregyeya, Barbara Kayongo, Ruth Mubeezi, Richard K Mugambe, Abdullah Ali Halage, Deogratious K Sekimpi, William Bazeyo, Jia-Sheng Wang, John C Ssempebwa
The burden of occupational diseases and injuries is high in developing countries due to several challenges including poor regulatory frameworks. To explore the status of occupational safety and health (OSH) policies and related implementation challenges in Uganda, we reviewed OSH regulations and conducted key informant interviews with stakeholders. We found that the existing OSH laws were largely outdated compared to the current needs of workplaces. Challenges affecting implementation are related to: gaps in the legal framework, low public awareness about OSH, poor planning, and limited human capacity, transparency, and accountability...
September 17, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989495/how-to-be-a-great-occupational-physician-lessons-from-tar-ching-aw
#10
David Koh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877782/environmental-health-sciences-and-empowering-people-to-use-science
#11
Tee L Guidotti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901838/investigation-of-associations-between-exposures-to-pesticides-and-testosterone-levels-in-thai-farmers
#12
Parinya Panuwet, Chandresh Ladva, Dana Boyd Barr, Tippawan Prapamontol, John D Meeker, Priya Esilda D'Souza, Héctor Maldonado, P Barry Ryan, Mark G Robson
We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess the relationship between pesticide exposures and testosterone levels in 133 male Thai farmers. Urine and serum samples were collected concurrently from participants. Urine was analyzed for levels of specific and nonspecific metabolites of organophosphates (OPs), pyrethroids, select herbicides, and fungicides. Serum was analyzed for total and free testosterone. Linear regression analyses revealed significant negative relationships between total testosterone and the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) after controlling for covariates (eg, age, BMI, smoking status)...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622109/farmworker-and-nonfarmworker-latino-immigrant-men-in-north-carolina-have-high-levels-of-specific-pesticide-urinary-metabolites
#13
Thomas A Arcury, Haiying Chen, Paul J Laurienti, Timothy D Howard, Dana Boyd Barr, Dana C Mora, Sara A Quandt
This article compares detections and concentrations of specific organophosphate (OP), bis-dithiocarbamate, and pyrethroid pesticide urinary metabolites among Latino male farmworkers and nonfarmworkers in North Carolina. Data are from interviews and urine samples collected in 2012 and 2013. Farmworkers and nonfarmworkers frequently had detections for OP and pyrethroid pesticide urinary metabolites. Detection of bis-dithiocarbamate urinary metabolites was less frequent, but substantial among the nonfarmworkers...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622105/physically-strenuous-work-during-pregnancy-and-risk-of-preterm-birth
#14
Iben Risager Knudsen, Jens Peter Bonde, Sesilje Bondo Petersen
The aim of the study was to examine the risk of preterm birth following physically strenuous work during pregnancy. We included 343 pregnant women referred to an occupational medical clinic. Data on preterm birth and covariates were retrieved from the Danish Birth Registry. Risk estimates were computed by logistic regression using a population sample of gainfully employed women as reference (n = 345,915). The risk of preterm birth was increased in women lifting heavy loads during pregnancy (OR 1.40, 95% CI [0...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605270/characteristics-of-acute-occupational-pesticide-exposures-reported-to-poison-control-centers-in-texas-2000-2015
#15
Amber B Trueblood, Eva M Shipp
In the United States, there is limited literature on occupational pesticide exposures despite being associated with adverse health outcomes, including in large states such as Texas. The purpose of this article is to characterize occupational pesticide poison center exposures in Texas. Descriptive statistics were used to describe exposures (eg, exposure routes, type of pesticide, medical outcome, clinical effects, and temporal/seasonal patterns). From 2000 to 2015, there were 2,303 occupational pesticide poison center exposures...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489519/validity-and-reliability-of-the-disabilities-of-arm-shoulder-and-hand-scale-in-dental-students-a-transnational-study
#16
Danielle Wajngarten, Juliana Alvares Duarte Bonini Campos, Ana Carolina Botta, Patrícia Petromilli Nordi Sasso Garcia
This study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Disabilities of Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) scale in Brazilian and American dental students and assess the influence of demographic variables on disability in them. A cross-sectional observational study was conducted with a nonprobabilistic sample. The sample was composed of students of both genders from the School of Dentistry of Araraquara, State University of São Paulo (UNESP) (n = 288), and students from Stony Brook University, New York, NY, USA (n = 149)...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379067/mercury-omega-3-fatty-acids-and-seafood-intake-are-not-associated-with-heart-rate-variability-or-qt-interval
#17
Charles Miller, Roxanne Karimi, Susan Silbernagel, Danielle Kostrubiak, Frederick Schiavone, Qiao Zhang, Jie Yang, Eric Rashba, Jaymie R Meliker
Mercury (Hg), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentrations differ across seafood types. Our aim was to investigate the association of Hg, EPA, and DHA, as well as avid consumption of diverse seafood types, with cardiovascular variables heart rate variability (HRV) and QT interval duration (QTc) in a contemporary population. We measured HRV and QTc by Holter monitor, EPA and DHA in plasma, total Hg in whole blood, and possible confounders in 94 avid seafood consumers from Long Island, NY...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318430/factors-contributing-to-intercity-commercial-bus-drivers-crash-involvement-risk
#18
Mohammad Mehdi Besharati, Ali Tavakoli Kashani
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of demographic, environmental, and occupational factors as well as behavioral characteristics of intercity bus drivers on their crash involvement risk. A total of 107 intercity bus drivers from Tehran, Iran, participated in the study. Logistic regression model suggested that smokers, those who drive during night to morning, less experienced drivers, and those who operate older buses are more likely to be involved in crashes. In addition, a 1-unit increase in the weekly driving hours might significantly increase the drivers' crash involvement risk...
July 4, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920170/effect-of-nano-sized-sio2-particles-in-rats-cognitive-function-and-biochemical-response
#19
Amara Salem, Amal Oudhabechi, Mohsen Sakly
Several in vitro studies have convincingly demonstrated that SiO2 NPs mediated cytotoxicity, which was dose-, time- and size-dependent. The data on in vivo toxicity of SiO2 NPs are even more contradictory. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sub-acute exposure to SiO2-NPs on spatial learning and memory, the biochemical parameters and the histology of organs. Rats were injected intravenously with a single dose of SiO2- NPs (20mg/kg) during five consecutive days. The analysis of spatial memory in the Morris water maze showed that SiO2-NPs disrupt the cognitive abilities of rats...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29920162/the-relation-of-blood-lead-and-qrs-t-angle-in-american-adults
#20
Jin Jing, Susan Thapa, Leanna Delhey, Saly Abouelenein, Wesam Morad, Robert Delongchamp, Mohammed F Faramawi
The QRS-T angle is a key ECG predictor for ventricular arrhythmia. Lead has a strong relation with cardiovascular diseases; however, no study has been conducted to investigate the association between lead exposure and QRS-T angle. Thus, we explored this association in a population-based representative sample: NHANES III. We used the standard 12-lead ECGs to calculate Spatial QRS-T angles. Blood lead concentrations were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry method. We conducted multivariate weighted logistic regression to adjust for impaired fasting glucose, hypertension, poverty index, age, race, and smoking status...
June 19, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
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