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Brain Structure & Function

Theodora Fuss, Vera Schluessel
Using the expression of the immediate early gene (IEG) egr-1 as a neuronal activity marker, brain regions potentially involved in learning and long-term memory functions in the grey bamboo shark were assessed with respect to selected visual discrimination abilities. Immunocytochemistry revealed a significant up-regulation of egr-1 expression levels in a small region of the telencephalon of all trained sharks (i.e., 'early' and 'late learners', 'recallers') when compared to three control groups (i.e., 'controls', 'undisturbed swimmers', 'constant movers')...
August 14, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Dymka Coudé, André Parent, Martin Parent
Individual axons that form the hyperdirect pathway in Macaca fascicularis were visualized following microiontophoretic injections of biotinylated dextran amine in layer V of the primary motor cortex (M1). Twenty-eight singly labeled axons were reconstructed in 3D from serial sections. The M1 innervation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) arises essentially from collaterals of long-ranged corticofugal axons en route to lower brainstem regions. Typically, after leaving M1, these large caliber axons (2-3 µm) enter the internal capsule and travel between caudate nucleus and putamen without providing any collateral to the striatum...
August 14, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Michael G White, Brian N Mathur
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) input to the claustrum is required for top-down cognitive control of action. By virtue of its widespread cortical connectivity, the claustrum is anatomically situated to process and broadcast top-down signals from ACC to downstream cortices. To gain a deeper understanding of claustrum processing mechanisms, it is first critical to identify the projection neuron subtypes within claustrum, the intrinsic and extrinsic components regulating their firing, and the differential innervation of cortex by projection neuron subtypes...
August 14, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Iris Žunić Išasegi, Milan Radoš, Željka Krsnik, Marko Radoš, Vesna Benjak, Ivica Kostović
Development of the cerebral wall is characterized by partially overlapping histogenetic events. However, little is known with regards to when, where, and how growing axonal pathways interact with progenitor cell lineages in the proliferative zones of the human fetal cerebrum. We analyzed the developmental continuity and spatial distribution of the axonal sagittal strata (SS) and their relationship with proliferative zones in a series of human brains (8-40 post-conceptional weeks; PCW) by comparing histological, histochemical, and immunocytochemical data with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
August 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Andreas F Mack, Heinz Künzle, Mario Lange, Bianca Mages, Andreas Reichenbach, Wolfgang Härtig
We investigated astroglial cells in several areas of the telencephalic cortex of the lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi). Compared to other mammals, the cortex of the tenrec has a relatively large paleocortex and a low encephalization index. We stained sections from tenrec forebrains with structural and functional glia markers focusing on selected cortical areas, the paleocortex, rhinal cortex, neocortex and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampal formation. We found that in all parts of the tenrec forebrain cortex, radial processes exist which are positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) although with differential localization: in the rhinal cortex and neocortical region radial glial fibers are located in the subventricular regions, whereas in the dentate gyrus and paleocortex they appear to arise from the cells in the respective granular layers...
August 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Catrona Anderson, Wanda M Gerding, Christoph Fraenz, Caroline Schlüter, Patrick Friedrich, Maximilian Raane, Larissa Arning, Jörg T Epplen, Onur Güntürkün, Christian Beste, Erhan Genç, Sebastian Ocklenburg
The corpus callosum is the brain's largest commissural fiber tract and is crucial for interhemispheric integration of neural information. Despite the high relevance of the corpus callosum for several cognitive systems, the molecular determinants of callosal microstructure are largely unknown. Recently, it was shown that genetic variations in the myelin-related proteolipid 1 gene PLP1 and the axon guidance related contactin 1 gene CNTN1 were associated with differences in interhemispheric integration at the behavioral level...
August 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Laura Ernst, Simon Darschnik, Johannes Roos, Miriam González-Gómez, Christa Beemelmans, Christoph Beemelmans, Maren Engelhardt, Gundela Meyer, Petra Wahle
Knowledge on cortical development is based mainly on small rodents besides primates and carnivores, all being altricial nestlings. Ungulates are precocial and born with nearly mature sensory and motor systems. Almost no information is available on ungulate brain development. Here, we analyzed European wild boar cortex development, focusing on the neuropeptide Y immunoreactive (NPY-ir) neuron system in dorsoparietal cortex from E35 to P30. Transient NPY-ir neuron types including archaic cells of the cortical plate and axonal loop cells of the subplate which appear by E60 concurrent with the establishment of the ungulate brain basic sulcal pattern...
August 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Carson Ingo, Wyger Brink, Ece Ercan, Andrew G Webb, Itamar Ronen
Cells in the central nervous system, neurons and glia, display a wide range of structural features. Molecular diffusion properties in the intracellular space of these cells reflect this structural diversity, deviating from standard Gaussian dynamics and resulting in anomalous subdiffusion. By tracking the displacement of intracellular metabolites, diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance spectroscopy allows for in vivo compartment-specific and cell-preferential morphological analysis of neurons and glia in the human brain...
August 7, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Taolin Chen, Benjamin Becker, Julia Camilleri, Li Wang, Shuqi Yu, Simon B Eickhoff, Chunliang Feng
The inability to control or inhibit emotional distractors characterizes a range of psychiatric disorders. Despite the use of a variety of task paradigms to determine the mechanisms underlying the control of emotional interference, a precise characterization of the brain regions and networks that support emotional interference processing remains elusive. Here, we performed coordinate-based and functional connectivity meta-analyses to determine the brain networks underlying emotional interference. Paradigms addressing interference processing in the cognitive or emotional domain were included in the meta-analyses, particularly the Stroop, Flanker, and Simon tasks...
August 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Eran Dayan, Virginia López-Alonso, Sook-Lei Liew, Leonardo G Cohen
The link between the local structure of the primary motor cortex and motor function has been well documented. However, motor function relies on a network of interconnected brain regions and the link between the structural properties characterizing these distributed brain networks and motor function remains poorly understood. Here, we examined whether distributed patterns of brain structure, extending beyond the primary motor cortex can help classify two forms of motor function: corticospinal excitability and intracortical inhibition...
August 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Emily G Lowery-Gionta, Jeffrey DiBerto, Christopher M Mazzone, Thomas Louis Kash
Emotional behavioral responses related to anxiety and fear comprise the negative valence systems domain as defined by the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) approach to categorizing related emotional behavioral constructs that are compromised in mental health disorders. Here, we evaluate the role of GABA neurons of the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) in emotional behavioral responses related to anxiety and fear using a chemogenetic approach in Vgat-ires-Cre mice. Functional inhibition of vPAG GABA neurons using selective expression of inhibitory Gi-coupled Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs (Gi-DREADDs) enhanced anxiety-like behavior in the light-dark exploration and open-field tests...
August 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Anna M Woollams, Ajay Halai, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The primary systems framework has been used to relate behavioural performance across many different language activities to the status of core underpinning domain-general cognitive systems. This study provided the first quantitative investigation of this account at both behavioural and neural levels in a group of patients with chronic post-stroke aphasia. Principal components analysis was used to distil orthogonal measures of phonological and semantic processing, which were then related to reading performance and the underlying lesion distributions using voxel-based correlational methodology...
August 2, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Anna-Lisa Schuler, Lisa Bartha-Doering, András Jakab, Ernst Schwartz, Rainer Seidl, Patric Kienast, Sonja Lackner, Georg Langs, Daniela Prayer, Gregor Kasprian
We investigated the predictive value of prenatal superior temporal sulcus (STS) depth asymmetry in a special case of a female dizygotic twin that showed inverted prenatal asymmetry of this structure. For this purpose, we performed a follow-up investigation in this former fetus at the age of seven, where we assessed the functional language lateralization using task-based and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). As control group we employed her twin brother, who showed a typical folding pattern prenatally, as well as a complementary set of four age-matched children that had fetal MRI of their brains and typical STS depth asymmetry...
July 30, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Giovanne B Diniz, Paulo L Candido, Marianne O Klein, Renato D Alvisi, Françoise Presse, Jean-Louis Nahon, Luciano F Felicio, Jackson C Bittencourt
The orexin-immunoreactive neurons are part of an important arousal-promoting hypothalamic population. Several groups have investigated these neurons during the lactation period, when numerous physiological alterations occur in the dam's body to cope with the newly acquired metabolic needs of the litter. Although those studies have probed this population during the early and intermediate stages of lactation, few works have examined its response to weaning, including the cessation of the tactile suckling stimulus as the litter stops nursing...
July 27, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Kevin S Weiner
Throughout history, researchers who examine the structure and function of the brain debate one another about how cortical areas are defined, as well as how these areas should be named. Different pieces of empirical evidence are used to define brain areas and it is important to preserve the accurate history of this evidence and the timeline of studies that lead to areal definitions that are either still used today or have been modified. As such, this paper traces the early history of a brain area located at the junction between the occipital and temporal lobes of the macaque known as TEO...
July 26, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Achille Pasqualotto, Michele Furlan, Michael J Proulx, Martin I Sereno
Topographically organised responses to visual and tactile stimulation are aligned in the ventral intraparietal cortex. The critical biological importance of this region, which is thought to mediate visually guided defensive movements of the head and upper body, suggests that these maps might be hardwired from birth. Here, we investigated whether visual experience is necessary for the creation and positioning of these maps by assessing the representation of tactile stimulation in congenitally and totally blind participants, who had no visual experience, and late and totally blind participants...
July 24, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Angela Guadagno, Min Su Kang, Gabriel A Devenyi, Axel P Mathieu, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Mallar Chakravarty, Claire-Dominique Walker
Early-life stress (ELS) exposure has long-term consequences for both brain structure and function and impacts cognitive and emotional behavior. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) plays an important role in anxiety and fear conditioning through its extensive anatomical and functional connections, in particular to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). However, how ELS affects amygdala function and connectivity in developing rats is unknown. We used the naturalistic limited bedding/nesting (LB) paradigm to induce chronic stress in the pups between postnatal day (PND) 1-10...
July 21, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Marta Zagrebelsky, N Gödecke, A Remus, Martin Korte
Brain-derived neurotrophin factor (BDNF) has been implicated in neuronal survival, differentiation and activity-dependent synaptic plasticity in the central nervous system. It was suggested that during postnatal development BDNF regulates neuronal architecture and spine morphology of neurons within certain brain areas but not others. Particularly striking are the differences between striatum, cortex and hippocampus. Whether this is due to region- or cell type-specific effects is so far not known. We address this question using conditional bdnf knock-out mice to analyze neuronal architecture and spine morphology of pyramidal cortical and hippocampal neurons as well as inhibitory neurons from these brain areas and excitatory granule neurons from the dentate gyrus...
July 18, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Thomas Decramer, Stijn Swinnen, Johannes van Loon, Peter Janssen, Tom Theys
Brain connectivity in non-human primates (NHPs) has been mainly investigated using tracer techniques and functional connectivity studies. Data on structural connections are scarce and come from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), since gross anatomical white matter dissection studies in the NHP are lacking. The current study aims to illustrate the course and topography of the major white matter tracts in the macaque using Klingler's fiber dissection. 10 hemispheres obtained from 5 primate brains (Macaca mulatta) were studied according to Klingler's fiber dissection technique...
July 18, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Elveda Gozdas, Nehal A Parikh, Stephanie L Merhar, Jean A Tkach, Lili He, Scott K Holland
Very preterm infants (≤ 31 weeks gestational age) are at high risk for brain injury and delayed development. Applying functional connectivity and graph theory methods to resting state MRI data (fcMRI), we tested the hypothesis that preterm infants would demonstrate alterations in connectivity measures both globally and in specific networks related to motor, language and cognitive function, even when there is no anatomical imaging evidence of injury. Fifty-one healthy full-term controls and 24 very preterm infants without significant neonatal brain injury, were evaluated at term-equivalent age with fcMRI...
July 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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