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Brain Structure & Function

Francesca M Filbey, Suril Gohel, Shikha Prashad, Bharat B Biswal
Concomitant cannabis and nicotine use is more prevalent than cannabis use alone; however, to date, most of the literature has focused on associations of isolated cannabis and nicotine use limiting the generalizability of existing research. To determine differential associations of concomitant use of cannabis and nicotine, isolated cannabis use and isolated nicotine use on brain network connectivity, we examined systems-level neural functioning via independent components analysis (ICA) on resting state networks (RSNs) in cannabis users (CAN, n = 53), nicotine users (NIC, n = 28), concomitant nicotine and cannabis users (NIC + CAN, n = 26), and non-users (CTRL, n = 30)...
June 7, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ophélie Menant, Marie-Caroline Prima, Mélody Morisse, Fabien Cornilleau, Christian Moussu, Adeline Gautier, Hélène Blanchon, Maryse Meurisse, Philippe Delagrange, Yves Tillet, Elodie Chaillou
The periaqueductal gray (PAG) is a mesencephalic brain structure organised in subdivisions with specific anatomical connections with the rest of the brain. These connections support the different PAG functions and especially its role in emotion. Mainly described in territorial and predatory mammals, examination of the PAG connections suggests an opposite role of the ventral and the dorsal/lateral PAG in passive and active coping style, respectively. In mammals, the organisation of PAG connections may reflect the coping style of each species...
June 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Nuria Ruiz-Reig, Belen Andres, Thomas Lamonerie, Thomas Theil, Alfonso Fairén, Michèle Studer
In rodents, the medial nucleus of the amygdala receives direct inputs from the accessory olfactory bulbs and is mainly implicated in pheromone-mediated reproductive and defensive behaviors. The principal neurons of the medial amygdala are GABAergic neurons generated principally in the caudo-ventral medial ganglionic eminence and preoptic area. Beside GABAergic neurons, the medial amygdala also contains glutamatergic Otp-expressing neurons cells generated in the lateral hypothalamic neuroepithelium and a non-well characterized Pax6-positive population...
June 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Pilyoung Kim, Alexander J Dufford, Rebekah C Tribble
The postpartum period is associated with structural and functional plasticity in brain regions involved in parenting. While one study identified an increase in gray matter volume during the first 4 months among new mothers, little is known regarding the relationship between cortical thickness across postpartum months and perceived adjustment to parenthood. In this study of 39 socioeconomically diverse first-time new mothers, we examined the relations among postpartum months, cortical thickness, and parental self-efficacy...
May 31, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Volker Eulenburg, Gabriel Knop, Tina Sedmak, Stefanie Schuster, Katharina Hauf, Julia Schneider, Andreas Feigenspan, Anneka Joachimsthaler, Johann Helmut Brandstätter
The amino acid glycine acts as a neurotransmitter at both inhibitory glycinergic and excitatory glutamatergic synapses predominantly in caudal regions of the central nervous system but also in frontal brain regions and the retina. After its presynaptic release and binding to postsynaptic receptors at caudal glycinergic synapses, two high-affinity glycine transporters GlyT1 and GlyT2 remove glycine from the extracellular space. Glycinergic neurons express GlyT2, which is essential for the presynaptic replenishment of the transmitter, while glial-expressed GlyT1 was shown to control the extracellular glycine concentration...
May 28, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Szilvia Oláh, Melinda Cservenák, Dávid Keller, Emese A Fazekas, Éva Renner, Péter Lőw, Arpád Dobolyi
Nursing has important consequences on mothers. To separate the prolactin-mediated and the neuronally-mediated actions of nursing, neurons directly affected by prolactin were visualized using pSTAT5 immunohistochemistry in relation to Fos-expressing neurons in suckled mother mice. In response to pup exposure following 22-h pup deprivation, we found a markedly elevated number of pSTAT5-containing neurons in several brain regions, including the lateral septum, medial amygdaloid nucleus, subparafascicular area, caudal periaqueductal gray, dorsal raphe, lateral parabrachial nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and the periventricular, medial preoptic, paraventricular, arcuate and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus...
May 25, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
S M Ohline, K L Wake, M-V Hawkridge, M F Dinnunhan, R U Hegemann, A Wilson, L Schoderboeck, B J Logan, T Jungenitz, S W Schwarzacher, S M Hughes, W C Abraham
Early during their maturation, adult-born dentate granule cells (aDGCs) are particularly excitable, but eventually develop the electrophysiologically quiet properties of mature cells. However, the stability versus plasticity of this quiet state across time and experience remains unresolved. By birthdating two populations of aDGCs across different animal ages, we found for 10-month-old rats the expected reduction in excitability across cells aged 4-12 weeks, as determined by Egr1 immunoreactivity. Unexpectedly, cells 35 weeks old (after genesis at an animal age of 2 months) were as excitable as 4-week-old cells, in the dorsal hippocampus...
May 23, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ornella Valenti, Nace Mikus, Thomas Klausberger
The ability to recognize novel situations is among the most fascinating and vital of the brain functions. A hypothesis posits that encoding of novelty is prompted by failures in expectancy, according to computation matching incoming information with stored events. Thus, unexpected changes in context are detected within the hippocampus and transferred to downstream structures, eliciting the arousal of the dopamine system. Nevertheless, the precise locus of detection is a matter of debate. The dorsal CA1 hippocampus (dCA1) appears as an ideal candidate for operating a mismatch computation and discriminating the occurrence of diverse stimuli within the same environment...
May 22, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Megan L Fitzgerald, Virginia M Pickel
Adolescence is a transition period during which social interaction is necessary for normal brain and behavior development. Severely abnormal social interactions during adolescence can increase the incidence of lifelong psychiatric disease. Decreased prepulse inhibition (PPI) is a quantifiable hallmark of some psychiatric illnesses in humans and can be elicited in rodents by isolation rearing throughout the adolescent transition period. PPI is a measure of sensorimotor gating in which the nucleus accumbens (Acb) is crucially involved...
May 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Adam Hamed, Miron Bartosz Kursa
A growing body of research provides compelling evidence that in rats 50-kHz USVs are a form of expression of positive emotions. Context-induced 50-kHz USVs emission is variable among rats, indicating individual differences in contextual response bound up with pharmacological reward. The aims of this study were to: extract the most important neurotransmitters related to context-induced conditioned 50-kHz USVs response; find biological basis of existing inter-individual differences in context-induced conditioned 50-kHz USVs response; create a model of all-to-all neurotransmitters correlations...
May 17, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
María Paula Cornejo, Pablo Nicolás De Francesco, Guadalupe García Romero, Enrique L Portiansky, Jeffrey M Zigman, Mirta Reynaldo, Mario Perello
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived hormone that regulates a variety of biological functions such as food intake, gastrointestinal function and blood glucose metabolism, among others. Ghrelin acts via the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), a G-protein-coupled receptor located in key brain areas that mediate specific actions of the hormone. GHSR is highly expressed in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), which is located in the medulla oblongata and controls essential functions, including orofacial, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral responses...
May 14, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Lena S Geiger, Carolin Moessnang, Axel Schäfer, Zhenxiang Zang, Maria Zangl, Hengyi Cao, Tamar R van Raalten, Andreas Meyer-Lindenberg, Heike Tost
The functional role of the basal ganglia (BG) in the gating of suitable motor responses to the cortex is well established. Growing evidence supports an analogous role of the BG during working memory encoding, a task phase in which the "input-gating" of relevant materials (or filtering of irrelevant information) is an important mechanism supporting cognitive capacity and the updating of working memory buffers. One important aspect of stimulus relevance is the novelty of working memory items, a quality that is understudied with respect to its effects on corticostriatal function and connectivity...
May 11, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
P Barttfeld, S Abboud, H Lagercrantz, U Adén, N Padilla, A D Edwards, L Cohen, M Sigman, S Dehaene, G Dehaene-Lambertz
In human adults, ventral extra-striate visual cortex contains a mosaic of functionally specialized areas, some responding preferentially to natural visual categories such as faces (fusiform face area) or places (parahippocampal place area) and others to cultural inventions such as written words and numbers (visual word form and number form areas). It has been hypothesized that this mosaic arises from innate biases in cortico-cortical connectivity. We tested this hypothesis by examining functional resting-state correlation at birth using fMRI data from full-term human newborns...
May 11, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Eero Vuoksimaa, Matthew S Panizzon, Carol E Franz, Christine Fennema-Notestine, Donald J Hagler, Michael J Lyons, Anders M Dale, William S Kremen
Height and general cognitive ability are positively associated, but the underlying mechanisms of this relationship are not well understood. Both height and general cognitive ability are positively associated with brain size. Still, the neural substrate of the height-cognitive ability association is unclear. We used a sample of 515 middle-aged male twins with structural magnetic resonance imaging data to investigate whether the association between height and cognitive ability is mediated by cortical size. In addition to cortical volume, we used genetically, ontogenetically and phylogenetically distinct cortical metrics of total cortical surface area and mean cortical thickness...
May 11, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Clément Ricard, Erica D Arroyo, Cynthia X He, Carlos Portera-Cailliau, Gabriel Lepousez, Marco Canepari, Daniel Fiole
Imaging the brain of living laboratory animals at a microscopic scale can be achieved by two-photon microscopy thanks to the high penetrability and low phototoxicity of the excitation wavelengths used. However, knowledge of the two-photon spectral properties of the myriad fluorescent probes is generally scarce and, for many, non-existent. In addition, the use of different measurement units in published reports further hinders the design of a comprehensive imaging experiment. In this review, we compile and homogenize the two-photon spectral properties of 280 fluorescent probes...
May 11, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Manuela Cerina, Venu Narayanan, Anna Delank, Patrick Meuth, Stephanie Graebenitz, Kerstin Göbel, Alexander M Herrmann, Stefanie Albrecht, Thiemo Daldrup, Thomas Seidenbecher, Ali Gorji, Tanja Kuhlmann, Heinz Wiendl, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Erwin J Speckmann, Hans-Christian Pape, Sven G Meuth, Thomas Budde
Alterations in cortical cellular organization, network functionality, as well as cognitive and locomotor deficits were recently suggested to be pathological hallmarks in multiple sclerosis and corresponding animal models as they might occur following demyelination. To investigate functional changes following demyelination in a well-defined, topographically organized neuronal network, in vitro and in vivo, we focused on the primary auditory cortex (A1) of mice in the cuprizone model of general de- and remyelination...
May 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Yifei He, Miriam Steines, Jens Sommer, Helge Gebhardt, Arne Nagels, Gebhard Sammer, Tilo Kircher, Benjamin Straube
The semantic integration between gesture and speech (GSI) is mediated by the left posterior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus (pSTS/MTG) and the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Evidence from electroencephalography (EEG) suggests that oscillations in the alpha and beta bands may support processes at different stages of GSI. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between electrophysiological oscillations and blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) activity during GSI. In a simultaneous EEG-fMRI study, German participants (n = 19) were presented with videos of an actor either performing meaningful gestures in the context of a comprehensible German (GG) or incomprehensible Russian sentence (GR), or just speaking a German sentence (SG)...
May 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Vincent Planche, Fanny Munsch, Bruno Pereira, Emmanuel de Schlichting, Tiphaine Vidal, Jerome Coste, Dominique Morand, Ingrid de Chazeron, Philippe Derost, Bérangère Debilly, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Jean-Jacques Lemaire, Ana Marques, Franck Durif
We investigated whether pre-operative MRI measures of focal brain atrophy could predict cognitive decline occurring after deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). For that purpose, we prospectively collected data of 42 consecutive patients with PD who underwent bilateral STN-DBS. Normalized brain structure volumes and cortical thicknesses were measured on pre-operative T1-weighted MRI. Patients were tested for their cognitive performances before surgery and 1 year after...
May 7, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Hildegard Janouschek, Claudia R Eickhoff, Thomas W Mühleisen, Simon B Eickhoff, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat
Imaging genetics has become a highly popular approach in the field of schizophrenia research. A frequently reported finding is that effects from common genetic variation are associated with a schizophrenia-related structural endophenotype. Genetic contributions to a structural endophenotype may be easier to delineate, when referring to biological rather than diagnostic criteria. We used coordinate-based meta-analyses, namely the anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) algorithm on 30 schizophrenia-related imaging genetics studies, representing 44 single-nucleotide polymorphisms at 26 gene loci investigated in 4682 subjects...
May 5, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Benjamin Vidal, Sylvain Fieux, Matthieu Colom, Thierry Billard, Caroline Bouillot, Olivier Barret, Cristian Constantinescu, Gilles Tamagnan, Adrian Newman-Tancredi, Luc Zimmer
Serotonin 1A receptors are known to play an important role in many psychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. Currently, all available 5-HT1A receptor PET radiopharmaceuticals that are radiolabeled with fluorine-18 are antagonists. As agonists bind preferentially to the high-affinity state of receptors, it would be of great interest to develop agonist radioligands which could provide a measure of the functional 5-HT1A receptors in pathophysiological processes. The 5-HT1A receptor agonist candidates we recently proposed had promising in vitro properties but were not optimal in terms of PET imaging...
May 5, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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