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Brain Structure & Function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424895/risk-and-protective-factors-for-structural-brain-ageing-in-the-eighth-decade-of-life
#1
Stuart J Ritchie, Elliot M Tucker-Drob, Simon R Cox, David Alexander Dickie, Maria Del C Valdés Hernández, Janie Corley, Natalie A Royle, Paul Redmond, Susana Muñoz Maniega, Alison Pattie, Benjamin S Aribisala, Adele M Taylor, Toni-Kim Clarke, Alan J Gow, John M Starr, Mark E Bastin, Joanna M Wardlaw, Ian J Deary
Individuals differ markedly in brain structure, and in how this structure degenerates during ageing. In a large sample of human participants (baseline n = 731 at age 73 years; follow-up n = 488 at age 76 years), we estimated the magnitude of mean change and variability in changes in MRI measures of brain macrostructure (grey matter, white matter, and white matter hyperintensity volumes) and microstructure (fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity from diffusion tensor MRI). All indices showed significant average change with age, with considerable heterogeneity in those changes...
April 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424894/the-integrity-of-the-nucleus-of-the-lateral-olfactory-tract-is-essential-for-the-normal-functioning-of-the-olfactory-system
#2
Ricardo P Vaz, Armando Cardoso, Susana I Sá, Pedro A Pereira, M Dulce Madeira
The nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract (nLOT) is a relatively small component of the cortical pallial amygdala, with peculiar neurogenic, neurochemical and connectivity patterns. Although it has been suggested that it might be involved in non-pheromonal olfactory-guided behaviors, particularly feeding, the functional implications of the nLOT have never been investigated. In view of this fact, we have tackled this subject by performing a series of behavioral tests and by quantifying biological and biochemical parameters in sexually naïve adult male rats that were submitted to bilateral excitotoxic lesions of the nLOT...
April 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421276/erratum-to-the-laminar-organization-of-the-motor-cortex-in-monodactylous-mammals-a-comparative-assessment-based-on-horse-chimpanzee-and-macaque
#3
Bruno Cozzi, Andrea De Giorgio, A Peruffo, S Montelli, M Panin, C Bombardi, A Grandis, A Pirone, P Zambenedetti, L Corain, Alberto Granato
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417233/a-posterior-to-anterior-shift-of-brain-functional-dynamics-in-aging
#4
Han Zhang, Annie Lee, Anqi Qiu
Convergent evidence from task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggests a posterior-to-anterior shift as an adaptive compensatory scaffolding mechanism for aging. This study aimed to investigate whether brain functional dynamics at rest follow the same scaffolding mechanism for aging using a large Chinese sample aged from 22 to 79 years (n = 277). We defined a probability of brain regions being hubs over a period of time to characterize functional hub dynamic, and defined variability of the functional connectivity to characterize dynamic functional connectivity using resting-state fMRI...
April 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417232/healthy-cortical-development-through-adolescence-and-early-adulthood
#5
Natalie J Forde, Lisa Ronan, Marcel P Zwiers, Lizanne J S Schweren, Aaron F Alexander-Bloch, Barbara Franke, Stephen V Faraone, Jaap Oosterlaan, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Catharina A Hartman, Jan K Buitelaar, Pieter J Hoekstra
Adolescence is a period of significant brain changes; however, the effects of age and sex on cortical development are yet to be fully characterized. Here, we utilized innovative intrinsic curvature (IC) analysis, along with the traditional cortical measures [cortical thickness (CT), local gyrification index (LGI), and surface area (SA)], to investigate how these indices (1) relate to each other and (2) depend on age and sex in adolescent cortical development. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images from 218 healthy volunteers (age range 8...
April 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397108/prevalence-and-function-of-heschl-s-gyrus-morphotypes-in-musicians
#6
Jan Benner, Martina Wengenroth, Julia Reinhardt, Christoph Stippich, Peter Schneider, Maria Blatow
Morphological variations of the first transverse Heschl's gyrus (HG) in the human auditory cortex (AC) are common, yet little is known about their functional implication. We investigated individual morphology and function of HG variations in the AC of 41 musicians, using structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as well as magnetoencephalography (MEG). Four main morphotypes of HG were (i) single HG, (ii) common stem duplication (CSD), (iii) complete posterior duplication (CPD), and (iv) multiple duplications (MD)...
April 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397107/the-number-and-distribution-of-ampa-receptor-channels-containing-fast-kinetic-glua3-and-glua4-subunits-at-auditory-nerve-synapses-depend-on-the-target-cells
#7
María E Rubio, Ko Matsui, Yugo Fukazawa, Naomi Kamasawa, Harumi Harada, Makoto Itakura, Elek Molnár, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Ryuichi Shigemoto
The neurotransmitter receptor subtype, number, density, and distribution relative to the location of transmitter release sites are key determinants of signal transmission. AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) containing GluA3 and GluA4 subunits are prominently expressed in subsets of neurons capable of firing action potentials at high frequencies, such as auditory relay neurons. The auditory nerve (AN) forms glutamatergic synapses on two types of relay neurons, bushy cells (BCs) and fusiform cells (FCs) of the cochlear nucleus...
April 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393262/a-neuronal-activation-correlate-in-striatum-and-prefrontal-cortex-of-prolonged-cocaine-intake
#8
Ping Gao, Jan C de Munck, Jules H W Limpens, Louk J M J Vanderschuren, Pieter Voorn
Maladaptive changes in the involvement of striatal and frontal cortical regions in drug use are thought to underlie the progression to habitual drug use and loss of cognitive control over drug intake that occur with accumulating drug experience. The present experiments focus on changes in neuronal activity in these regions associated with short-term (10 days) and long-term (60 days) self-administration of cocaine. Quantitative in situ hybridization for the immediate early gene Mkp1 was combined with statistical parametric mapping to assess the distribution of neuronal activity...
April 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393261/addressing-sufficiency-of-the-cb1-receptor-for-endocannabinoid-mediated-functions-through-conditional-genetic-rescue-in-forebrain-gabaergic-neurons
#9
Floortje Remmers, Maren D Lange, Martina Hamann, Sabine Ruehle, Hans-Christian Pape, Beat Lutz
Genetic inactivation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor gene in different cell types in the brain has previously revealed necessary functions for distinct synaptic plasticity processes and behaviors. Here, we sought to identify CB1 receptor expression sites that are minimally required to reconstruct normal phenotypes. In a CB1-null background, we re-expressed endogenous CB1 receptors in forebrain GABAergic neurons, thereby assessing the sufficiency of CB1 receptors. Depolarization-induced suppression of inhibitory, but not excitatory, transmission was restored in hippocampal and amygdalar circuits...
April 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391402/distinct-gamma-oscillations-in-the-distal-dendritic-fields-of-the-dentate-gyrus-and-the-ca1-area-of-mouse-hippocampus
#10
Bálint Lasztóczi, Thomas Klausberger
The molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and the anatomically adjacent stratum lacunosum-moleculare of CA1 area, represent afferent areas at distinct levels of the hippocampal trisynaptic loop. Afferents to the dentate gyrus and CA1 area originate from different cell populations, including projection cells in entorhinal cortex layers two and three, respectively. To determine the organization of oscillatory activities along these terminal fields, we recorded local field potentials from multiple sites in the dentate gyrus and CA1 area of the awake mice, and localized gamma frequency (30-150 Hz) oscillations in different layers by means of current source density analysis...
April 8, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391401/morphological-and-physiological-properties-of-cck-cb1r-expressing-interneurons-in-the-basal-amygdala
#11
Laura Rovira-Esteban, Zoltán Péterfi, Attila Vikór, Zoltán Máté, Gábor Szabó, Norbert Hájos
Principal neurons in cortical regions including the basal nucleus of the amygdala (BA) are innervated by several types of inhibitory cells, one of which expresses the neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) and the type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1R). CCK/CB1R-expressing interneurons may have a profound impact on amygdalar function by controlling its output. However, very little is known about their properties, and therefore their role in circuit operation cannot be predicted. To characterize the CCK/CB1R-expressing interneurons in the BA, we combined in vitro electrophysiological recordings and neuroanatomical techniques in a transgenic mouse that expresses DsRed fluorescent protein under the control of the CCK promoter...
April 8, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391400/altered-cerebral-blood-flow-and-cerebrovascular-function-after-voluntary-exercise-in-adult-mice
#12
Lindsay S Cahill, Jonathan Bishop, Lisa M Gazdzinski, Adrienne Dorr, Bojana Stefanovic, John G Sled
The beneficial effects of physical exercise on brain health are well documented, yet how exercise modulates cerebrovascular function is not well understood. This study used continuous arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging with a hypercapnic challenge to examine changes in cerebral blood flow and vascular function after voluntary exercise in healthy, adult mice. Thirty exercise mice and twenty-one control mice were imaged prior to the start of the exercise regime (at 12 weeks of age) and after 4 weeks of voluntary exercise...
April 8, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391399/infant-avoidance-training-alters-cellular-activation-patterns-in-prefronto-limbic-circuits-during-adult-avoidance-learning-i-cellular-imaging-of-neurons-expressing-the-synaptic-plasticity-early-growth-response-protein-1-egr1
#13
Nicole Gröger, Anja Mannewitz, Jörg Bock, Tony Fernando de Schultz, Katja Guttmann, Gerd Poeggel, Katharina Braun
Both positive feedback learning and negative feedback learning are essential for adapting and optimizing behavioral performance. There is increasing evidence in humans and animals that the ability of negative feedback learning emerges postnatally. Our work in rats, using a two-way active avoidance task (TWA) as an experimental paradigm for negative feedback learning, revealed that medial and lateral prefrontal regions of infant rats undergo dramatic synaptic reorganization during avoidance training, resulting in improved avoidance learning in adulthood...
April 8, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389743/a-biological-blueprint-for-the-axons-of-superficial-layer-pyramidal-cells-in-cat-primary-visual-cortex
#14
Kevan A C Martin, Stephan Roth, Elisha S Rusch
Pyramidal cells in the superficial layers of neocortex of higher mammals form a lateral network of axon clusters known as the 'daisy' network. The role of these axon clusters remains speculative and we still lack a comprehensive quantitative description of the single neurons forming the daisy or their heterogeneity. We filled intracellularly 50 superficial layer pyramidal neurons in the cat primary visual cortex and reconstructed the axonal tree and their synaptic boutons in 3D. Individual bouton clusters were identified using an objective mean-shift algorithm...
April 7, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386779/protective-role-of-cadherin-13-in-interneuron-development
#15
Abigail C Killen, Melissa Barber, Joshua J W Paulin, Barbara Ranscht, John G Parnavelas, William D Andrews
Cortical interneurons are generated in the ganglionic eminences and migrate through the ventral and dorsal telencephalon before finding their final positions within the cortical plate. During early stages of migration, these cells are present in two well-defined streams within the developing cortex. In an attempt to identify candidate genes which may play a role in interneuron stream specification, we previously carried out a microarray analysis which identified a number of cadherin receptors that were differentially expressed in these streams, including Cadherin-13 (Cdh13)...
April 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386778/gaba-content-within-medial-prefrontal-cortex-predicts-the-variability-of-fronto-limbic-effective-connectivity
#16
Stefano Delli Pizzi, Piero Chiacchieretta, Dante Mantini, Giovanna Bubbico, Richard A Edden, Marco Onofrj, Antonio Ferretti, Laura Bonanni
The amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) circuit plays a key role in social behavior. The amygdala and mPFC are bidirectionally connected, functionally and anatomically, via the uncinate fasciculus. Recent evidence suggests that GABA-ergic neurotransmission within the mPFC could be central to the regulation of amygdala activity related to emotions and anxiety processing. However, the functional and neurochemical interactions within amygdala-mPFC circuits are unclear. In the current study, multimodal magnetic resonance imaging techniques were combined to investigate effective connectivity within the amygdala-mPFC network and its relationship with mPFC neurotransmission in 22 healthy subjects aged between 41 and 88 years...
April 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382579/a-neuroanatomical-model-of-space-based-and-object-centered-processing-in-spatial-neglect
#17
Elena Pedrazzini, Armin Schnider, Radek Ptak
Visual attention can be deployed in space-based or object-centered reference frames. Right-hemisphere damage may lead to distinct deficits of space- or object-based processing, and such dissociations are thought to underlie the heterogeneous nature of spatial neglect. Previous studies have suggested that object-centered processing deficits (such as in copying, reading or line bisection) result from damage to retro-rolandic regions while impaired spatial exploration reflects damage to more anterior regions. However, this evidence is based on small samples and heterogeneous tasks...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382578/orofacial-proprioceptive-thalamus-of-the-rat
#18
Atsushi Yoshida, Takashi Fujio, Fumihiko Sato, Md Sams Sazzad Ali, Tahsinul Haque, Haruka Ohara, Masayuki Moritani, Takafumi Kato, Jonathan O Dostrovsky, Yoshihisa Tachibana
The ascending pathway mediating proprioception from the orofacial region is still not fully known. The present study elucidated the relay of jaw-closing muscle spindle (JCMS) inputs from brainstem to thalamus in rats. We injected an anterograde tracer into the electrophysiologically identified supratrigeminal nucleus (Su5), known to receive JCMS input. Many thalamic axon terminals were labeled and were found mainly contralaterally in a small, unpredicted area of the caudo-ventromedial edge (VPMcvm) of ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus (VPM)...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382577/morphological-correlates-of-sex-differences-in-acoustic-startle-response-and-prepulse-inhibition-through-projections-from-locus-coeruleus-to-cochlear-root-neurons
#19
Sebastian Hormigo, Ricardo Gómez-Nieto, Consuelo Sancho, Javier Herrero-Turrión, Juan Carro, Dolores E López, José de Anchieta de Castro E Horta-Júnior
The noradrenergic locus coeruleus (LC) plays an important role in the promotion and maintenance of arousal and alertness. Our group recently described coerulean projections to cochlear root neurons (CRNs), the first relay of the primary acoustic startle reflex (ASR) circuit. However, the role of the LC in the ASR and its modulation, prepulse inhibition (PPI), is not clear. In this study, we damaged LC neurons and fibers using a highly selective neurotoxin, DSP-4, and then assessed ASR and PPI in male and female rats...
April 5, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378224/erratum-to-age-differences-in-arterial-and-venous-extra-cerebral-blood-flow-in-healthy-adults-contributions-of-vascular-risk-factors-and-genetic-variants
#20
Naftali Raz, Ana M Daugherty, Sean K Sethi, Muzamil Arshad, E Mark Haacke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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