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Brain Structure & Function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224175/thalamic-interactions-of-cerebellum-and-basal-ganglia
#1
REVIEW
Andreas Hintzen, Esther Annegret Pelzer, Marc Tittgemeyer
Cerebellum and basal ganglia are reciprocally interconnected with the neocortex via oligosynaptic loops. The signal pathways of these loops predominantly converge in motor areas of the frontal cortex and are mainly segregated on subcortical level. Recent evidence, however, indicates subcortical interaction of these systems. We have reviewed literature that addresses the question whether, and to what extent, projections of main output nuclei of basal ganglia (reticular part of the substantia nigra, internal segment of the globus pallidus) and cerebellum (deep cerebellar nuclei) interact with each other in the thalamus...
December 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222725/taming-the-oscillatory-zoo-in-the-hippocampus-and-neo-cortex-a-review-of-the-commentary-of-lockmann-and-tort-on-roy-et-al
#2
LETTER
Sophie Bagur, Karim Benchenane
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222724/nasal-respiration-entrains-delta-frequency-oscillations-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-hippocampus-of-rodents
#3
LETTER
Andre L V Lockmann, Adriano B L Tort
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222723/respiration-coupled-rhythms-in-prefrontal-cortex-beyond-if-to-when-how-and-why
#4
LETTER
Bernat Kocsis, Benjamin R Pittman-Polletta, Alexis Roy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214509/a-three-dimensional-stereotaxic-atlas-of-the-gray-short-tailed-opossum-monodelphis-domestica-brain
#5
Piotr Majka, Natalia Chlodzinska, Krzysztof Turlejski, Tomasz Banasik, Ruzanna L Djavadian, Władysław P Węglarz, Daniel K Wójcik
The gray short-tailed opossum (Monodelphis domestica) is a small marsupial gaining recognition as a laboratory animal in biomedical research. Despite numerous studies on opossum neuroanatomy, a consistent and comprehensive neuroanatomical reference for this species is still missing. Here we present the first three-dimensional, multimodal atlas of the Monodelphis opossum brain. It is based on four complementary imaging modalities: high resolution ex vivo magnetic resonance images, micro-computed tomography scans of the cranium, images of the face of the cutting block, and series of sections stained with the Nissl method and for myelinated fibers...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209804/efferents-of-anterior-cingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-and-midcingulate-areas-24a-and-24b-in-the-mouse
#6
Clémentine Fillinger, Ipek Yalcin, Michel Barrot, Pierre Veinante
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), constituted by areas 25, 32, 24a and 24b in rodents, plays a major role in cognition, emotion and pain. In a previous study, we described the afferents of areas 24a and 24b and those of areas 24a' and 24b' of midcingulate cortex (MCC) in mice and highlighted some density differences among cingulate inputs (Fillinger et al., Brain Struct Funct 222:1509-1532, 2017). To complete this connectome, we analyzed here the efferents of ACC and MCC by injecting anterograde tracers in areas 24a/24b of ACC and 24a'/24b' of MCC...
December 6, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204911/repeated-shock-stress-facilitates-basolateral-amygdala-synaptic-plasticity-through-decreased-camp-specific-phosphodiesterase-type-iv-pde4-expression
#7
Steve Ryan, Chenchen Li, Aurélie Menigoz, Rimi Hazra, Joanna Dabrowska, David Ehrlich, Katelyn Gordon, Donald G Rainnie
Previous studies have shown that exposure to stressful events can enhance fear memory and anxiety-like behavior as well as increase synaptic plasticity in the rat basolateral amygdala (BLA). We have evidence that repeated unpredictable shock stress (USS) elicits a long-lasting increase in anxiety-like behavior in rats, but the cellular mechanisms mediating this response remain unclear. Evidence from recent morphological studies suggests that alterations in the dendritic arbor or spine density of BLA principal neurons may underlie stress-induced anxiety behavior...
December 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196811/cortical-and-subcortical-connections-of-parietal-and-premotor-nodes-of-the-monkey-hand-mirror-neuron-network
#8
Stefania Bruni, Marzio Gerbella, Luca Bonini, Elena Borra, Gino Coudé, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Leonardo Fogassi, Monica Maranesi, Francesca Rodà, Luciano Simone, Francesca Ugolotti Serventi, Stefano Rozzi
Mirror neurons (MNs) are a class of cells originally discovered in the monkey ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL). They discharge during both action execution and action observation and appear to play a crucial role in understanding others' actions. It has been proposed that the mirror mechanism is based on a match between the visual description of actions, encoded in temporal cortical regions, and their motor representation, provided by PMv and IPL. However, neurons responding to action observation have been recently found in other cortical regions, suggesting that the mirror mechanism relies on a wider network...
December 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189908/diffusion-tractography-reveals-pervasive-asymmetry-of-cerebral-white-matter-tracts-in-the-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#9
Alexandra K Wright, Rebecca J Theilmann, Sam H Ridgway, Miriam Scadeng
Brain enlargement is associated with concomitant growth of interneuronal distance, increased conduction time, and reduced neuronal interconnectivity. Recognition of these functional constraints led to the hypothesis that large-brained mammals should exhibit greater structural and functional brain lateralization. As a taxon with the largest brains in the animal kingdom, Cetacea provides a unique opportunity to examine asymmetries of brain structure and function. In the present study, diffusion tensor imaging and tractography were used to investigate cerebral white matter asymmetry in the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189907/neural-circuits-underlying-jaw-movements-for-the-prey-catching-behavior-in-frog-distribution-of-vestibular-afferent-terminals-on-motoneurons-supplying-the-jaw
#10
András Birinyi, Nóra Rácz, Szilvia Kecskes, Clara Matesz, Gabriella Kovalecz
Coordinated movement of the jaw is essential for catching and swallowing the prey. The majority of the jaw muscles in frogs are supplied by the trigeminal motoneurons. We have previously described that the primary vestibular afferent fibers, conveying information about the movements of the head, established close appositions on the motoneurons of trigeminal nerve providing one of the morphological substrates of monosynaptic sensory modulation of prey-catching behavior in the frog. The aim of our study was to reveal the spatial distribution of vestibular close appositions on the somatodendritic compartments of the functionally different trigeminal motoneurons...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189906/individual-variability-in-the-structural-properties-of-neurons-in-the-human-inferior-olive
#11
Joan S Baizer, Keit Men Wong, Chet C Sherwood, Patrick R Hof, Sandra F Witelson
The inferior olive (IO) is the sole source of the climbing fibers innervating the cerebellar cortex. We have previously shown both individual differences in the size and folding pattern of the principal nucleus (IOpr) in humans as well as in the expression of different proteins in IOpr neurons. This high degree of variability was not present in chimpanzee samples. The neurochemical differences might reflect static differences among individuals, but might also reflect age-related processes resulting in alterations of protein synthesis...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189905/complementary-research-models-and-methods-to-study-axonal-regeneration-in-the-vertebrate-retinofugal-system
#12
REVIEW
Ilse Bollaerts, Lien Veys, Emiel Geeraerts, Lien Andries, Lies De Groef, Tom Buyens, Manuel Salinas-Navarro, Lieve Moons, Inge Van Hove
Due to the lack of axonal regeneration, age-related deterioration in the central nervous system (CNS) poses a significant burden on the wellbeing of a growing number of elderly. To overcome this regenerative failure and to improve the patient's life quality, the search for novel regenerative treatment strategies requires valuable (animal) models and techniques. As an extension of the CNS, the retinofugal system, consisting of retinal ganglion cells that send their axons along the optic nerve to the visual brain areas, has importantly contributed to the current knowledge on mechanisms underlying the restricted regenerative capacities and to the development of novel strategies to enhance axonal regeneration...
November 30, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188378/receptor-driven-multimodal-mapping-of-the-human-amygdala
#13
Olga Kedo, Karl Zilles, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Axel Schleicher, Hartmut Mohlberg, Sebastian Bludau, Katrin Amunts
The human amygdala consists of subdivisions contributing to various functions. However, principles of structural organization at the cellular and molecular level are not well understood. Thus, we re-analyzed the cytoarchitecture of the amygdala and generated cytoarchitectonic probabilistic maps of ten subdivisions in stereotaxic space based on novel workflows and mapping tools. This parcellation was then used as a basis for analyzing the receptor expression for 15 receptor types. Receptor fingerprints, i.e...
November 29, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185109/higher-similarity-in-beta-topography-between-tasks-than-subjects
#14
Luis F H Basile, João R Sato, Henrique A Pasquini, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Renato Anghinah
We have recently provided evidence for highly idiosyncratic topographic distributions of beta oscillations (as well as slow potentials) across individuals. More recently, by emphasizing the analysis of similarity instead of differences across tasks, we concluded that differences between an attention task and quiet resting may be negligible or at least unsystematic across subjects. Due to the possibility that individual differences could be due to noise in a wide sense or some inherent instability of beta activity, we designed a replication study to explicitly test whether pairs of individuals matched for head size and shape would still present less similar beta topography than each individual between sessions or tasks...
November 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185108/neuronal-density-and-proportion-of-interneurons-in-the-associative-sensorimotor-and-limbic-human-striatum
#15
A Lecumberri, A Lopez-Janeiro, C Corral-Domenge, Javier Bernacer
The striatum (caudate nucleus, putamen and nucleus accumbens) is the main input structure of the basal ganglia. It receives cortical projections from the vast majority of the cortex, as well as from other subcortical structures such as the thalamus and amygdala. Its role in planning, preparation and execution of voluntary movements is known to be fine-tuned by the interaction between projection neurons and interneurons. Since the 1990s, it has been accepted that the proportion of interneurons increases phylogenetically, being about 5% in rodents and 26% in humans...
November 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185107/organization-of-auditory-areas-in-the-superior-temporal-gyrus-of-marmoset-monkeys-revealed-by-real-time-optical-imaging
#16
Masataka Nishimura, Makoto Takemoto, Wen-Jie Song
The prevailing model of the primate auditory cortex proposes a core-belt-parabelt structure. The model proposes three auditory areas in the lateral belt region; however, it may contain more, as this region has been mapped only at a limited spatial resolution. To explore this possibility, we examined the auditory areas in the lateral belt region of the marmoset using a high-resolution optical imaging technique. Based on responses to pure tones, we identified multiple areas in the superior temporal gyrus. The three areas in the core region, the primary area (A1), the rostral area (R), and the rostrotemporal area, were readily identified from their frequency gradients and positions immediately ventral to the lateral sulcus...
November 28, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181589/disentangling-brain-activity-related-to-the-processing-of-emotional-visual-information-and-emotional-arousal
#17
Michał Kuniecki, Kinga Wołoszyn, Aleksandra Domagalik, Joanna Pilarczyk
Processing of emotional visual information engages cognitive functions and induces arousal. We aimed to examine the modulatory role of emotional valence on brain activations linked to the processing of visual information and those linked to arousal. Participants were scanned and their pupil size was measured while viewing negative and neutral images. The visual noise was added to the images in various proportions to parametrically manipulate the amount of visual information. Pupil size was used as an index of physiological arousal...
November 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177691/differential-association-of-gabab-receptors-with-their-effector-ion-channels-in-purkinje-cells
#18
Rafael Luján, Carolina Aguado, Francisco Ciruela, Javier Cózar, David Kleindienst, Luis de la Ossa, Bernhard Bettler, Kevin Wickman, Masahiko Watanabe, Ryuichi Shigemoto, Yugo Fukazawa
Metabotropic GABAB receptors mediate slow inhibitory effects presynaptically and postsynaptically through the modulation of different effector signalling pathways. Here, we analysed the distribution of GABAB receptors using highly sensitive SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labelling in mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells. Immunoreactivity for GABAB1 was observed on presynaptic and, more abundantly, on postsynaptic compartments, showing both scattered and clustered distribution patterns. Quantitative analysis of immunoparticles revealed a somato-dendritic gradient, with the density of immunoparticles increasing 26-fold from somata to dendritic spines...
November 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168010/modulation-of-thalamocortical-oscillations-by-trip8b-an-auxiliary-subunit-for-hcn-channels
#19
Mehrnoush Zobeiri, Rahul Chaudhary, Maia Datunashvili, Robert J Heuermann, Annika Lüttjohann, Venu Narayanan, Sabine Balfanz, Patrick Meuth, Dane M Chetkovich, Hans-Christian Pape, Arnd Baumann, Gilles van Luijtelaar, Thomas Budde
Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated cation (HCN) channels have important functions in controlling neuronal excitability and generating rhythmic oscillatory activity. The role of tetratricopeptide repeat-containing Rab8b-interacting protein (TRIP8b) in regulation of hyperpolarization-activated inward current, I h, in the thalamocortical system and its functional relevance for the physiological thalamocortical oscillations were investigated. A significant decrease in I h current density, in both thalamocortical relay (TC) and cortical pyramidal neurons was found in TRIP8b-deficient mice (TRIP8b(-/-))...
November 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168009/dietary-lipophilic-iron-accelerates-regional-brain-iron-load-in-c57bl6-mice
#20
Douglas G Peters, Carson J Purnell, Michael P Haaf, Qing X Yang, James R Connor, Mark D Meadowcroft
Impaired brain iron homeostatic mechanisms, independent of pathological hallmarks, are harmful to the brain because excess free iron can cause DNA, protein, and lipid damage via oxidative stress. The goal of this study was to evaluate the longitudinal effect of chronic iron overload and deficiency in the vertebrate brain. Ten-week-old C57BL6 male mice were randomly assigned to one of four unique dietary regiments for 1 year: iron-deficient, normal iron, and two different concentrations of lipophilic iron diet containing 3,5,5-trimethylhexanoyl ferrocene (TMHF)...
November 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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