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Brain Structure & Function

Amira A H Ali, Beryl Schwarz-Herzke, Shakila Mir, Benita Sahlender, Marion Victor, Boris Görg, Martin Schmuck, Katharina Dach, Ellen Fritsche, Andreas Kremer, Charlotte von Gall
We demonstrate the impact of a disrupted molecular clock in Bmal1-deficient (Bmal1-/- ) mice on migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Proliferation of NPCs in rostral migratory stream (RMS) was reduced in Bmal1-/- mice, consistent with our earlier studies on adult neurogenesis in hippocampus. However, a significantly higher number of NPCs from Bmal1-/- mice reached the olfactory bulb as compared to wild-type littermates (Bmal1+/+ mice), indicating a higher migration velocity in Bmal1-/- mice. In isolated NPCs from Bmal1-/- mice, not only migration velocity and expression pattern of genes involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species were affected, but also RNA oxidation of catalase was increased and catalase protein levels were decreased...
October 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Aurelie Leplus, Inger Lauritzen, Christophe Melon, Lydia Kerkerian-Le Goff, Denys Fontaine, Frederic Checler
Recent studies have suggested deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a promising therapy in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Particularly, the stimulation of the forniceal area was found to slow down the cognitive decline of some AD patients, but the biochemical and anatomical modifications underlying these effects remain poorly understood. We evaluated the effects of chronic forniceal stimulation on amyloid burden, inflammation, and neuronal loss in a transgenic Alzheimer rat model TgF344-AD, as well as in age-matched control rats...
October 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Caroline Magnain, Jean C Augustinack, Lee Tirrell, Morgan Fogarty, Matthew P Frosch, David Boas, Bruce Fischl, Kathleen S Rockland
Optical coherence tomography is an optical technique that uses backscattered light to highlight intrinsic structure, and when applied to brain tissue, it can resolve cortical layers and fiber bundles. Optical coherence microscopy (OCM) is higher resolution (i.e., 1.25 µm) and is capable of detecting neurons. In a previous report, we compared the correspondence of OCM acquired imaging of neurons with traditional Nissl stained histology in entorhinal cortex layer II. In the current method-oriented study, we aimed to determine the colocalization success rate between OCM and Nissl in other brain cortical areas with different laminar arrangements and cell packing density...
October 17, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Brecht Polspoel, Maaike Vandermosten, Bert De Smedt
Connectivity between brain regions is integral to efficient complex cognitive processing, making the study of white matter pathways in clarifying the neural mechanisms of individual differences in arithmetic abilities critical. This white matter connectivity underlying arithmetic has only been investigated through classic diffusion tensor imaging, which, due to methodological limitations, might lead to an oversimplification of the underlying anatomy. More complex non-tensor models, such as spherical deconvolution, however, allow a much more fine-grained delineation of the underlying brain anatomy...
October 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Dolly Al Koborssy, Brigitte Palouzier-Paulignan, Vincent Canova, Marc Thevenet, Debra Ann Fadool, Andrée Karyn Julliard
Olfaction is one of the major sensory modalities that regulates food consumption and is in turn regulated by the feeding state. Given that the olfactory bulb has been shown to be a metabolic sensor, we explored whether the anterior piriform cortex (aPCtx)-a higher olfactory cortical processing area-had the same capacity. Using immunocytochemical approaches, we report the localization of Kv1.3 channel, glucose transporter type 4, and the insulin receptor in the lateral olfactory tract and Layers II and III of the aPCtx...
October 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Alexandre Babalian, Simone Eichenberger, Alessandro Bilella, Franck Girard, Viktoria Szabolcsi, Diana Roccaro, Gonzalo Alvarez-Bolado, Chun Xu, Marco R Celio
Although connections between the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)-the seat of high cognitive functions-the lateral hypothalamus and the periaqueductal grey (PAG) have been recognized in the past, the precise targets of the descending fibres have not been identified. In the present study, viral tracer-transport experiments revealed neurons of the lateral (LO) and the ventrolateral (VLO) OFC (homologous to part of Area 13 in primates) to project to a circumscribed region in the ventrolateral hypothalamus, namely, the horizontally oriented, cylindrical parvalbumin- and Foxb1-expressing (parvafox) nucleus...
October 12, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Fani Memi, Abigail C Killen, Melissa Barber, John G Parnavelas, William D Andrews
Cortical interneurons are born in the ventral forebrain and migrate tangentially in two streams at the levels of the intermediate zone (IZ) and the pre-plate/marginal zone to the developing cortex where they switch to radial migration before settling in their final positions in the cortical plate. In a previous attempt to identify the molecules that regulate stream specification, we performed transcriptomic analysis of GFP-labelled interneurons taken from the two migratory streams during corticogenesis. A number of cadherins were found to be expressed differentially, with Cadherin-8 (Cdh8) selectively present in the IZ stream...
October 12, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Han Zhang, Chong-Yaw Wee, Joann S Poh, Qiang Wang, Lynette P Shek, Yap-Seng Chong, Marielle V Fortier, Michael J Meaney, Birit F P Broekman, Anqi Qiu
Early numeracy provides the foundation of acquiring mathematical skills that is essential for future academic success. This study examined numerical functional networks in relation to counting and number relational skills in preschoolers at 4 and 6 years of age. The counting and number relational skills were assessed using school readiness test (SRT). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) was acquired in 123 4-year-olds and 146 6-year-olds. Among them, 61 were scanned twice over the course of 2 years. Meta-analysis on existing task-based numeracy fMRI studies identified the left parietal-dominant network for both counting and number relational skills and the right parietal-dominant network only for number relational skills in adults...
October 12, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Francisco Victor Costa Marinho, Giovanny R Pinto, Thomaz Oliveira, Anderson Gomes, Valéria Lima, Hygor Ferreira-Fernandes, Kaline Rocha, Francisco Magalhães, Bruna Velasques, Pedro Ribeiro, Maurício Cagy, Daya Gupta, Victor Hugo Bastos, Silmar Teixeira
OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the association of 3'-UTR VNTR and intron 8 VNTR polymorphisms with a time estimation task performance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and eight men in a Brazilian Northeast population (18-32 years old) participated in the experiment. The 3'-UTR VNTR and intron 8 VNTR polymorphisms were associated alone and combined to absolute error (AE) and relative error (RE) in a time estimation task (target duration: 1 s, 4 s, 7 s and 9 s)...
October 11, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Habon A Issa, Nicky Staes, Sophia Diggs-Galligan, Cheryl D Stimpson, Annette Gendron-Fitzpatrick, Jared P Taglialatela, Patrick R Hof, William D Hopkins, Chet C Sherwood
Despite being closely related, bonobos and chimpanzees exhibit several behavioral differences. For instance, studies indicate that chimpanzees are more aggressive, territorial, and risk-taking, while bonobos exhibit greater social tolerance and higher rates of socio-sexual interactions. To elucidate the potential neuroanatomical variation that accompanies these differences, we examined the microstructure of selected brain areas by quantifying the neuropil fraction, a measure of the relative tissue area occupied by structural elements of connectivity (e...
October 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Rachel J Smith, Peter J Vento, Ying S Chao, Cameron H Good, Thomas C Jhou
The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), also known as the tail of the ventral tegmental area (tVTA), is a GABAergic structure identified in 2009 that receives strong inputs from the lateral habenula and other sources, sends dense inhibitory projections to midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons, and plays increasingly recognized roles in aversive learning, addiction, and other motivated behaviors. In general, little is known about the genetic identity of these neurons. However, recent work has identified the transcription factor FoxP1 as enhanced in the mouse RMTg (Lahti et al...
October 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Arseny A Sokolov, Peter Zeidman, Michael Erb, Philippe Ryvlin, Marina A Pavlova, Karl J Friston
Despite the potential for better understanding functional neuroanatomy, the complex relationship between neuroimaging measures of brain structure and function has confounded integrative, multimodal analyses of brain connectivity. This is particularly true for task-related effective connectivity, which describes the causal influences between neuronal populations. Here, we assess whether measures of structural connectivity may usefully inform estimates of effective connectivity in larger scale brain networks...
October 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Katia Cristina de Oliveira, Lea Tenenholz Grinberg, Marcelo Queiroz Hoexter, Helena Brentani, Claudia Kimie Suemoto, Fabiano Gonçalves Nery, Luzia Carreira Lima, Ana Tereza Di Lorenzo Alho, José Marcelo Farfel, Renata Eloah de Lucena Ferretti-Rebustini, Renata Elaine Paraizo Leite, Ariane Cristine Moretto, Alexandre Valotta da Silva, Beny Lafer, Eurípedes Constantino Miguel, Ricardo Nitrini, Wilson Jacob-Filho, Helmut Heinsen, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci
Neurobiological models have provided consistent evidence of the involvement of cortical-subcortical circuitry in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), involved in motivation and emotional responses, is an important regulatory node within this circuitry. However, OFC abnormalities at the cellular level have so far not been studied. To address this question, we have recruited a total of seven senior individuals from the Sao Paulo Autopsy Services who were diagnosed with OCD after an extensive post-mortem clinical evaluation with their next of kin...
October 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Meagan L Auger, Juliet Meccia, Liisa A M Galea, Stan B Floresco
Deficient prefrontal cortex (PFC) GABA function is hypothesized to play a role in schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. In rodents, PFC GABAA receptor antagonism produces cognitive and behavioral changes relevant to these disorders, including impaired spatial memory assessed with the traditional working/reference memory radial maze task. This aspect of spatial memory does not depend on PFC, suggesting that deficient PFC GABAergic transmission may interfere with non-PFC-dependent cognitive functions via aberrant increases in PFC output...
October 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Dylan J H A Henssen, Jeroen Mollink, Erkan Kurt, Robert van Dongen, Ronald H M A Bartels, David Gräβel, Tamas Kozicz, Markus Axer, Anne-Marie Van Cappellen van Walsum
Classic anatomical atlases depict a contralateral hemispheral representation of each side of the face. Recently, however, a bilateral projection of each hemiface was hypothesized, based on animal studies that showed the coexistence of an additional trigeminothalamic tract sprouting from the trigeminal principal sensory nucleus that ascends ipsilaterally. This study aims to provide an anatomical substrate for the hypothesized bilateral projection. Three post-mortem human brainstems were scanned for anatomical and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging at 11...
October 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Géza Gergely Ambrus, Catarina Amado, Laura Krohn, Gyula Kovács
Accumulating evidence suggests that besides its function in early facial feature processing, the role of the right occipital face area (rOFA) extends to higher level, image-independent processing. Recent studies hint at the possibility that the activity of this region can be modulated by semantic information as well. To test whether the OFA is sensitive to semantic information in a functionally relevant way, we implemented a cross-domain, name-face priming paradigm combined with state-dependent transcranial magnetic stimulation, whereby stimulation preferentially facilitates the processing of attributes encoded by less active neural populations...
October 5, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ting Yat Wong, Azah Sid, Tobias Wensing, Simon B Eickhoff, Ute Habel, Ruben C Gur, Thomas Nickl-Jockschat
There is considerable evidence that emotion dysregulation and self-control impairments lead to escalated aggression in populations with psychiatric disorders. However, convergent quantitative evidence on the neural network explaining how aggression arises is still lacking. To address this gap, peak activations extracted from extant functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies were synthesized through coordinate-based meta-analyses. A systematic search in the PubMed database was conducted and 26 fMRI studies met the inclusion criteria...
October 5, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Piotr Majka, Marcello G P Rosa, Shi Bai, Jonathan M Chan, Bing-Xing Huo, Natalia Jermakow, Meng K Lin, Yeonsook S Takahashi, Ianina H Wolkowicz, Katrina H Worthy, Ramesh Rajan, David H Reser, Daniel K Wójcik, Hideyuki Okano, Partha P Mitra
Until the late twentieth century, it was believed that different sensory modalities were processed by largely independent pathways in the primate cortex, with cross-modal integration only occurring in specialized polysensory areas. This model was challenged by the finding that the peripheral representation of the primary visual cortex (V1) receives monosynaptic connections from areas of the auditory cortex in the macaque. However, auditory projections to V1 have not been reported in other primates. We investigated the existence of direct interconnections between V1 and auditory areas in the marmoset, a New World monkey...
October 4, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Fumito Naganuma, Sathyajit S Bandaru, Gianna Absi, Melissa J Chee, Ramalingam Vetrivelan
Neurons containing melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the posterior lateral hypothalamus play an integral role in rapid eye movement sleep (REMs) regulation. As MCH neurons also contain a variety of other neuropeptides [e.g., cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) and nesfatin-1] and neurotransmitters (e.g., glutamate), the specific neurotransmitter responsible for REMs regulation is not known. We hypothesized that glutamate, the primary fast-acting neurotransmitter in MCH neurons, is necessary for REMs regulation...
October 3, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Miranda Wood, Othman Adil, Tyler Wallace, Sarah Fourman, Steven P Wilson, James P Herman, Brent Myers
The medial prefrontal cortex is critical for contextual appraisal, executive function, and goal-directed behavior. Additionally, the infralimbic (IL) subregion of the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in stress responding, mood, and fear memory. However, the specific circuit mechanisms that mediate these effects are largely unknown. To date, IL output to the limbic forebrain has been examined largely qualitatively or within a restricted number of sites. To quantify IL presynaptic input to structures throughout the forebrain, we utilized a lentiviral construct expressing synaptophysin-mCherry...
September 29, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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