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Brain Structure & Function

Michel R T Sinke, Willem M Otte, Daan Christiaens, Oliver Schmitt, Alexander Leemans, Annette van der Toorn, R Angela Sarabdjitsingh, Marian Joëls, Rick M Dijkhuizen
Diffusion MRI (dMRI)-based tractography offers unique abilities to map whole-brain structural connections in human and animal brains. However, dMRI-based tractography indirectly measures white matter tracts, with suboptimal accuracy and reliability. Recently, sophisticated methods including constrained spherical deconvolution (CSD) and global tractography have been developed to improve tract reconstructions through modeling of more complex fiber orientations. Our study aimed to determine the accuracy of connectome reconstruction for three dMRI-based tractography approaches: diffusion tensor (DT)-based, CSD-based and global tractography...
February 20, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Jin Young Bae, Jae Sik Lee, Sang Jin Ko, Yi Sul Cho, Jong-Cheol Rah, Hee Jung Cho, Mae Ja Park, Yong Chul Bae
The neurons in the trigeminal mesencephalic nucleus (Vmes) innervate jaw-closing muscle spindles and periodontal ligaments, and play a crucial role in the regulation of jaw movements. Recently, it was shown that many boutons that form synapses on them are immunopositive for glycine (Gly+), suggesting that these neurons receive glycinergic input. Information about the glycine receptors that mediate this input is needed to help understand the role of glycine in controlling Vmes neuron excitability. For this, we investigated the expression of glycine receptor subunit alpha 3 (GlyRα3) and gephyrin in neurons in Vmes and the trigeminal motor nucleus (Vmo), and the Gly+ boutons that contact them by light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry and quantitative ultrastructural analysis...
February 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Hai Zhang, Kuan Li, Hong-Sheng Chen, Shuang-Qi Gao, Zhi-Xuan Xia, Jie-Ting Zhang, Fang Wang, Jian-Guo Chen
Hypofunction of the serotonergic (5-HT) system has close relationship with the symptoms in major depressive disorders (MDD), however, the underlying neural circuitry mechanisms are not fully understood. Lateral habenula (LHb) plays a crucial role in aversive behaviors and is activated in conditions of depression. It has been reported that 5-HT inhibits the excitability of LHb neurons, leading to the hypothesis that decreased transmission of 5-HT would elevate the activity of LHb and therefore mediates depressive symptoms...
February 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Isadora C Furigo, Helen M Melo, Natalia M Lyra E Silva, Angela M Ramos-Lobo, Pryscila D S Teixeira, Daniella C Buonfiglio, Frederick Wasinski, Eliana R Lima, Eliza Higuti, Cibele N Peroni, Paolo Bartolini, Carlos R J Soares, Martin Metzger, Fernanda G de Felice, Jose Donato
The signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) is a transcription factor recruited by numerous cytokines. STAT5 is important for several physiological functions, including body and tissue growth, mammary gland development, immune system and lipid metabolism. However, the role of STAT5 signaling for brain functions is still poorly investigated, especially regarding cognitive aspects. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate whether brain STAT5 signaling modulates learning and memory formation...
February 19, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Kevin R Patel, Sean Tobyne, Daria Porter, John Daniel Bireley, Victoria Smith, Eric Klawiter
Increased synchrony within neuroanatomical networks is often observed in neurophysiologic studies of human brain disease. Most often, this phenomenon is ascribed to a compensatory process in the face of injury, though evidence supporting such accounts is limited. Given the known dependence of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) on underlying structural connectivity (SC), we examine an alternative hypothesis: that topographical changes in SC, specifically particular patterns of disconnection, contribute to increased network rsFC...
February 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Jesús Úbeda-Contreras, Ignacio Marín-Blasco, Roser Nadal, Antonio Armario
Regardless of its particular nature, emotional stressors appear to elicit a widespread and roughly similar brain activation pattern as evaluated by c-fos expression. However, their behavioral and physiological consequences may strongly differ. Here we addressed in adult male rats the contribution of the intensity and the particular nature of stressors by comparing, in a set of brain areas, the number of c-fos expressing neurons in response to open-field, cat odor or immobilization on boards (IMO). These are qualitatively different stressors that are known to differ in terms of intensity, as evaluated by biological markers...
February 15, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Yoshio Takashima, McKenzie J Fannon, Melissa H Galinato, Noah L Steiner, Michelle An, Alice E Zemljic-Harpf, Sucharita S Somkuwar, Brian P Head, Chitra D Mandyam
Abstinence from unregulated methamphetamine self-administration increases hippocampal dependent, context-driven reinstatement of methamphetamine seeking. The current study tested the hypothesis that alterations in the functional properties of granule cell neurons (GCNs) in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus in concert with altered expression of synaptic plasticity-related proteins and ultrastructural changes in the DG are associated with enhanced context-driven methamphetamine-seeking behavior. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in acute brain slices from methamphetamine naïve (controls) and methamphetamine experienced animals (during acute withdrawal, during abstinence, after extinction and after reinstatement)...
February 13, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Eva M Berg, Maria Bertuzzi, Konstantinos Ampatzis
Neuronal networks in the spinal cord generate and execute all locomotor-related movements by transforming descending signals from supraspinal areas into appropriate rhythmic activity patterns. In these spinal networks, neurons that arise from the same progenitor domain share similar distribution patterns, neurotransmitter phenotypes, morphological and electrophysiological features. However, subgroups of them participate in different functionally distinct microcircuits to produce locomotion at different speeds and of different modalities...
February 8, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Justine Beaujoin, Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Fawzi Boumezbeur, Markus Axer, Jeremy Bernard, Fabrice Poupon, Daniel Schmitz, Jean-François Mangin, Cyril Poupon
The human hippocampus plays a key role in memory management and is one of the first structures affected by Alzheimer's disease. Ultra-high magnetic resonance imaging provides access to its inner structure in vivo. However, gradient limitations on clinical systems hinder access to its inner connectivity and microstructure. A major target of this paper is the demonstration of diffusion MRI potential, using ultra-high field (11.7 T) and strong gradients (750 mT/m), to reveal the extra- and intra-hippocampal connectivity in addition to its microstructure...
January 31, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Szabolcs Takács, Zsuzsanna Bardóczi, Katalin Skrapits, Balázs Göcz, Viktória Váczi, Zsófia Maglóczky, Iván Szűcs, Gergely Rácz, András Matolcsy, Waljit S Dhillo, Masahiko Watanabe, Andrea Kádár, Csaba Fekete, Imre Kalló, Erik Hrabovszky
Kisspeptin (KP) synthesizing neurons of the hypothalamic infundibular region are critically involved in the central regulation of fertility; these cells regulate pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion and mediate sex steroid feedback signals to GnRH neurons. Fine structural analysis of the human KP system is complicated by the use of post mortem tissues. To gain better insight into the neuroanatomy of the somato-dendritic cellular compartment, we introduced the diolistic labeling of immunohistochemically identified KP neurons using a gene gun loaded with the lipophilic dye, DiI...
January 29, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Julia M Young, Marlee M Vandewouw, Benjamin R Morgan, Mary Lou Smith, John G Sled, Margot J Taylor
Children born very preterm (VPT) at less than 32 weeks' gestational age (GA) are prone to disrupted white matter maturation and impaired cognitive development. The aims of the present study were to identify differences in white matter microstructure and connectivity of children born VPT compared to term-born children, as well as relations between white matter measures with cognitive outcomes and early brain injury. Diffusion images and T1-weighted anatomical MR images were acquired along with developmental assessments in 31 VPT children (mean GA: 28...
January 29, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Suvi Häkkinen, Teemu Rinne
A hierarchical and modular organization is a central hypothesis in the current primate model of auditory cortex (AC) but lacks validation in humans. Here we investigated whether fMRI connectivity at rest and during active tasks is informative of the functional organization of human AC. Identical pitch-varying sounds were presented during a visual discrimination (i.e. no directed auditory attention), pitch discrimination, and two versions of pitch n-back memory tasks. Analysis based on fMRI connectivity at rest revealed a network structure consisting of six modules in supratemporal plane (STP), temporal lobe, and inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in both hemispheres...
January 29, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ima Trempler, Ellen Binder, Nadiya El-Sourani, Patrick Schiffler, Jan-Gerd Tenberge, Anne-Marike Schiffer, Gereon R Fink, Ricarda I Schubotz
Parkinson's disease (PD), which is caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, results in a heterogeneous clinical picture including cognitive decline. Since the phasic signal of dopamine neurons is proposed to guide learning by signifying mismatches between subjects' expectations and external events, we here investigated whether akinetic-rigid PD patients without mild cognitive impairment exhibit difficulties in dealing with either relevant (requiring flexibility) or irrelevant (requiring stability) prediction errors...
January 27, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Isabelle Scheyltjens, Samme Vreysen, Chris Van den Haute, Victor Sabanov, Detlef Balschun, Veerle Baekelandt, Lutgarde Arckens
Unilateral vision loss through monocular enucleation (ME) results in partial reallocation of visual cortical territory to another sense in adult mice. The functional recovery of the visual cortex occurs through a combination of spared-eye potentiation and cross-modal reactivation driven by whisker-related, somatosensory inputs. Brain region-specific intracortical inhibition was recently recognized as a crucial regulator of the cross-modal component, yet the contribution of specific inhibitory neuron subpopulations remains poorly understood...
January 25, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Kenta Matsue, Shiori Minakawa, Taichi Kashiwagi, Keiko Toda, Toru Sato, Seiji Shioda, Tatsunori Seki
In the original publication figure parts 8c, 8f, and 8i were mixed up and thus incorrectly labeled. Here is a corrected version with the parts properly labeled.
January 25, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Jorge A Colombo
The subcortical white matter (SWM) has been traditionally considered as a site for passive-neutral-information transfer through cerebral cortex association and projection fibers. Yet, the presence of subcortical neuronal and glial "interstitial" cells expressing immunolabelled neurotransmitters/neuromodulators and synaptic vesicular proteins, and recent immunohistochemical and electrophysiological observations on the rat visual cortex as well as interactive regulation of myelinating processes support the possibility that SWM nests subcortical, regionally variable, distributed neuronal-glial circuits, that could influence information transfer...
January 24, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Sharissa H A Corporaal, Sjoerd M Bruijn, Wouter Hoogkamer, Sima Chalavi, Matthieu P Boisgontier, Jacques Duysens, Stephan P Swinnen, Jolien Gooijers
Humans can navigate through challenging environments (e.g., cluttered or uneven terrains) by modifying their preferred gait pattern (e.g., step length, step width, or speed). Growing behavioral and neuroimaging evidence suggests that the ability to modify preferred step patterns requires the recruitment of cognitive resources. In children, it is argued that prolonged development of complex gait is related to the ongoing development of involved brain regions, but this has not been directly investigated yet. Here, we aimed to elucidate the relationship between structural brain properties and complex gait in youth aged 9-18 years...
January 24, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
A Mannewitz, J Bock, S Kreitz, A Hess, J Goldschmidt, H Scheich, Katharina Braun
Learning can be categorized into cue-instructed and spontaneous learning types; however, so far, there is no detailed comparative analysis of specific brain pathways involved in these learning types. The aim of this study was to compare brain activity patterns during these learning tasks using the in vivo imaging technique of single photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). During spontaneous exploratory learning, higher levels of rCBF compared to cue-instructed learning were observed in motor control regions, including specific subregions of the motor cortex and the striatum, as well as in regions of sensory pathways including olfactory, somatosensory, and visual modalities...
January 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Xizhuo Chen, Yanxin Zhao, Suyu Zhong, Zaixu Cui, Jiaqi Li, Gaolang Gong, Qi Dong, Yun Nan
The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Mari A Virtanen, Claudia Marvine Lacoh, Hubert Fiumelli, Markus Kosel, Shiva Tyagarajan, Mathias de Roo, Laszlo Vutskits
Inhibitory control of pyramidal neurons plays a major role in governing the excitability in the brain. While spatial mapping of inhibitory inputs onto pyramidal neurons would provide important structural data on neuronal signaling, studying their distribution at the single cell level is difficult due to the lack of easily identifiable anatomical proxies. Here, we describe an approach where in utero electroporation of a plasmid encoding for fluorescently tagged gephyrin into the precursors of pyramidal cells along with ionotophoretic injection of Lucifer Yellow can reliably and specifically detect GABAergic synapses on the dendritic arbour of single pyramidal neurons...
January 10, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
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