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Brain Structure & Function

Xintao Hu, Lei Guo, Junwei Han, Christine Cong Guo
Neural discrimination of auditory intensity is one of the fundamental questions in human auditory perception. Human neuroimaging studies have demonstrated specific neural activations during intensity discrimination tasks. The detailed functional anatomy, however, remains elusive. Most of the existing studies examined the entire auditory cortex as a whole, neglecting the potential functional differentiation within the auditory cortex. Moreover, these previous results based on controlled auditory stimuli might not necessarily extend to the neural mechanism of natural auditory processing...
October 21, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Karen Oprych, Daniel Cotfas, David Choi
The in situ immunocytochemical properties of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) have been well studied in several small to medium sized animal models including rats, mice, guinea pigs, cats and canines. However, we know very little about the antigenic characteristics of OECs in situ within the adult and developing human olfactory bulb and nerve roots. To address this gap in knowledge we undertook an immunocytochemical analysis of the 11-19 pcw human foetal olfactory system. Human foetal OECs in situ possessed important differences compared to rodents in the expression of key surface markers...
October 7, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Jared B Smith, Zhifeng Liang, Glenn D R Watson, Kevin D Alloway, Nanyin Zhang
The claustrum is a brain region whose function remains unknown, though many investigators suggest it plays a role in conscious attention. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) has revealed how anesthesia alters many functional connections in the brain, but the functional role of the claustrum with respect to the awake versus anesthetized states remains unknown. Therefore, we employed a combination of seed-based RS-fMRI and neuroanatomical tracing to reveal how the anatomical connections of the claustrum are related to its functional connectivity during quiet wakefulness and the isoflurane-induced anesthetic state...
October 6, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Devesh Mishra, Jose Ignacio Pena-Bravo, Kah-Chung Leong, Antonieta Lavin, Carmela M Reichel
World-wide methamphetamine (meth) use is increasing at a rapid rate; therefore, it has become increasingly important to understand the synaptic changes and neural mechanisms affected by drug exposure. In rodents, 6-h access to contingent meth results in an escalation of drug intake and impaired cognitive sequelae typically associated with changes within the corticostriatal circuitry. There is a dearth of knowledge regarding the underlying physiological changes within this circuit following meth self-administration...
October 5, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Christophe Destrieux, Louis Marie Terrier, Frédéric Andersson, Scott A Love, Jean-Philippe Cottier, Henri Duvernoy, Stéphane Velut, Kevin Janot, Ilyess Zemmoura
The precise sulcogyral localization of cortical lesions is mandatory to improve communication between practitioners and to predict and prevent post-operative deficits. This process, which assumes a good knowledge of the cortex anatomy and a systematic analysis of images, is, nevertheless, sometimes neglected in the neurological and neurosurgical training. This didactic paper proposes a brief overview of the sulcogyral anatomy, using conventional MR-slices, and also reconstructions of the cortical surface after a more or less extended inflation process...
October 5, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Rhett A Reichard, Suriya Subramanian, Mikiyas T Desta, Tej Sura, Mary L Becker, Comeron W Ghobadi, Kenneth P Parsley, Daniel S Zahm
Behavioral flexibility is subserved in part by outputs from the cerebral cortex to telencephalic subcortical structures. In our earlier evaluation of the organization of the cortical-subcortical output system (Reynolds and Zahm, J Neurosci 25:11757-11767, 2005), retrograde double-labeling was evaluated in the prefrontal cortex following tracer injections into pairs of the following subcortical telencephalic structures: caudate-putamen, core and shell of the accumbens (Acb), bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BST) and central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA)...
October 4, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Maddalena Boccia, Valentina Sulpizio, Federico Nemmi, Cecilia Guariglia, Gaspare Galati
Anatomical and functional findings in primates suggest the existence of a dedicated parieto-medial temporal pathway for spatial navigation, consisting of both direct and indirect projections from the caudal inferior parietal lobe (cIPL) to the hippocampus and the parahippocampal cortex, with indirect projections relaying through the posterior cingulate and retrosplenial cortex. This neural network is largely unexplored in humans. This study aimed at testing the existence of a parieto-medial temporal pathway for spatial navigation in humans...
October 4, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Vincent Koppelmans, Yoo Young Hoogendam, Sarah Hirsiger, Susan Mérillat, Lutz Jäncke, Rachael D Seidler
Cerebellar volume declines with aging. Few studies have investigated age differences in regional cerebellar volume (RCV) and their association with motor and cognitive function. In 213 healthy older adults, we investigated the association of age with motor skills, cognition and RCV. Subsequently, we studied the association of RCV with motor skills and cognition. RCVs were derived from T1-weighted MRI scans using the automated SUIT segmentation method and clustered using principal component analysis (PCA). Motor skill (manual dexterity, tapping speed, bimanual visuomotor coordination, grip force) and cognition (mental rotation, verbal memory, inhibition, mental flexibility) were assessed...
October 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Kostas Hadjidimitrakis, Federica Bertozzi, Rossella Breveglieri, Claudio Galletti, Patrizia Fattori
Neurons in the posterior parietal cortex of macaques show spatial tuning during several phases of an instructed delay reaching task, but their reference frames have been studied mostly during fixed periods without addressing how they evolve across task phases. In parietal area V6A, we reported recently that during the late delay and hand movement periods, most neurons represent target location either in body-centered frame of reference, or in mixed body/hand-centered coordinates, with no evidence of hand-centered representations...
October 1, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Pablo Fernandez-Gonzalez, Ruth Benavides-Piccione, Ignacio Leguey, Concha Bielza, Pedro Larrañaga, Javier DeFelipe
In this article, we analyze branching angles of the basal dendrites of pyramidal neurons of layers III and V of the human temporal cortex. For this, we use a novel probability directional statistical distribution called truncated von Mises distribution that is able to describe more accurately the dendritic-branching angles than the previous proposals. Then, we perform comparative studies using this statistical method to determine similarities and/or differences between branches and branching angles that belong to different cortical layers and regions...
September 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Gabriela Tavares, Manuella Martins, Joana Sofia Correia, Vanessa Morais Sardinha, Sónia Guerra-Gomes, Sofia Pereira das Neves, Fernanda Marques, Nuno Sousa, João Filipe Oliveira
Astrocytes display important features that allow them to maintain a close dialog with neurons, ultimately impacting brain function. The complex morphological structure of astrocytes is crucial to the role of astrocytes in brain networks. Therefore, assessing morphologic features of astrocytes will help provide insights into their physiological relevance in healthy and pathological conditions. Currently available tools that allow the tridimensional reconstruction of astrocytes present a number of disadvantages, including the need for advanced computational skills and powerful hardware, and are either time-consuming or costly...
September 30, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Atoossa Fahimi, Mehmet Akif Baktir, Sarah Moghadam, Fatemeh S Mojabi, Krithika Sumanth, M Windy McNerney, Ravikumar Ponnusamy, Ahmad Salehi
While it has been known that physical activity can improve cognitive function and protect against neurodegeneration, the underlying mechanisms for these protective effects are yet to be fully elucidated. There is a large body of evidence indicating that physical exercise improves neurogenesis and maintenance of neurons. Yet, its possible effects on glial cells remain poorly understood. Here, we tested whether physical exercise in mice alters the expression of trophic factor-related genes and the status of astrocytes in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus...
September 29, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
G L Poirier, W Huang, K Tam, J R DiFranza, Jean A King
Brain mechanisms underpinning attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are incompletely understood. The adolescent spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) is a widely studied preclinical model that expresses several of the key behavioral features associated with ADHD. Yet, little is known about large-scale functional connectivity patterns in the SHR, and their potential similarity to those of humans with ADHD. Using an approach comparable to human studies, magnetic resonance imaging in the awake animal was performed to identify whole-brain intrinsic neural connectivity patterns...
September 28, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Emma Puighermanal, Laura Cutando, Jihane Boubaker-Vitre, Eve Honoré, Sophie Longueville, Denis Hervé, Emmanuel Valjent
In the hippocampus, a functional role of dopamine D1 receptors (D1R) in synaptic plasticity and memory processes has been suggested by electrophysiological and pharmacological studies. However, comprehension of their function remains elusive due to the lack of knowledge on the precise localization of D1R expression among the diversity of interneuron populations. Using BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein under the control of D1R promoter, we examined the molecular identity of D1R-containing neurons within the CA1 subfield of the dorsal hippocampus...
September 27, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Christos Pliatsikas, Vincent DeLuca, Elisavet Moschopoulou, James Douglas Saddy
Bilingualism has been shown to affect the structure of the brain, including cortical regions related to language. Less is known about subcortical structures, such as the basal ganglia, which underlie speech monitoring and language selection, processes that are crucial for bilinguals, as well as other linguistic functions, such as grammatical and phonological acquisition and processing. Simultaneous bilinguals have demonstrated significant reshaping of the basal ganglia and the thalamus compared to monolinguals...
September 27, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Laszlo Biro, Mate Toth, Eszter Sipos, Biborka Bruzsik, Aron Tulogdi, Samuel Bendahan, Carmen Sandi, Jozsef Haller
Although the inhibitory control of aggression by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cornerstone of current theories of aggression control, a number of human and laboratory studies showed that the execution of aggression increases PFC activity; moreover, enhanced activation was observed in aggression-related psychopathologies and laboratory models of abnormal aggression. Here, we investigated these apparently contradictory findings in the post-weaning social isolation paradigm (PWSI), an established laboratory model of abnormal aggression...
September 23, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Paul J Gasser, Matthew M Hurley, June Chan, Virginia M Pickel
Organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3) is a high-capacity, low-affinity transporter that mediates corticosterone-sensitive uptake of monoamines including norepinephrine, epinephrine, dopamine, histamine and serotonin. OCT3 is expressed widely throughout the amygdaloid complex and other brain regions where monoamines are key regulators of emotional behaviors affected by stress. However, assessing the contribution of OCT3 to the regulation of monoaminergic neurotransmission and monoamine-dependent regulation of behavior requires fundamental information about the subcellular distribution of OCT3 expression...
September 22, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
D Hinova-Palova, B Landzhov, E Dzhambazova, L Edelstein, M Minkov, K Fakih, R Minkov, A Paloff, W Ovtscharoff
Using the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) reaction with nitroblue tetrazolium, we provided a detailed investigation of the distribution, dimensional characteristics and morphology of NADPH-d-positive neurons in the three main subdivisions of the human inferior colliculus (IC): central nucleus, pericentral nucleus, and external nucleus. In accordance with their perikaryal diameter, dendritic and axonal morphology, these neurons were categorized as large (averaging up to 45 μm in diameter), medium (20-30 µm), small (13-16 µm) and very small (7-10 µm)...
September 19, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Junko Kono, Kohtarou Konno, Ashraf Hossain Talukder, Toshimitsu Fuse, Manabu Abe, Katsuya Uchida, Shuhei Horio, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Keiichi Itoi
We examined the morphological features of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in a mouse line in which modified yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) was expressed under the CRF promoter. We previously generated the CRF-Venus knock-in mouse, in which Venus is inserted into the CRF gene locus by homologous recombination. In the present study, the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (Neo), driven by the pgk-1 promoter, was deleted from the CRF-Venus mouse genome, and a CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse was generated. Venus expression is much more prominent in the CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse when compared to the CRF-Venus mouse...
September 16, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Katherine E Travis, Jenna N Adams, Vanessa N Kovachy, Michal Ben-Shachar, Heidi M Feldman
Reading, an essential life skill in modern society, is typically learned during childhood. Adults who can read show white matter differences compared to adults who never learned to read. Studies have not established whether children who can read show similar white matter differences compared to children who cannot read. We compared 6-year old children who could decode written English words and pseudowords (n = 31; Readers) and 6-year old children who could not decode pseudowords and had a standard score <100 on a task for reading single words (n = 11; Pre-readers)...
September 15, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
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