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Brain Structure & Function

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343248/uncovering-specific-changes-in-network-wiring-underlying-the-primate-cerebrotype
#1
Salah Hamodeh, Ayse Bozkurt, Haian Mao, Fahad Sultan
Regular scaling of brain networks during evolution has been proposed to be the major process leading to enlarged brains. Alternative views, however, suggest that deviations from regular scaling were crucial to the evolution of the primate brain and the emergence of different cerebrotypes. Here, we examined the scaling within the major link between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex by studying the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN). We compared the major axonal and dendritic wiring in the DCN of rodents and monkeys in search of regular scaling...
March 25, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337597/the-functional-role-of-post-movement-beta-oscillations-in-motor-termination
#2
Elizabeth Heinrichs-Graham, Max J Kurz, James E Gehringer, Tony W Wilson
Shortly after movement termination, there is a strong increase or resynchronization of the beta rhythm (15-30 Hz) across the sensorimotor network of humans, known as the post-movement beta rebound (PMBR). This response has been associated with active inhibition of the motor network following the completion of a movement, sensory afferentation of the sensorimotor cortices, and other functions. However, studies that have directly probed the role of the PMBR in movement execution have reported mixed results, possibly due to differences in the amount of total motor output and/or movement complexity...
March 24, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337596/prolactin-regulation-of-the-hpa-axis-is-not-mediated-by-a-direct-action-upon-crh-neurons-evidence-from-the-rat-and-mouse
#3
Papillon Gustafson, Ilona Kokay, Tony Sapsford, Stephen Bunn, David Grattan
Centrally acting prolactin has been shown to have anti-stress effects by modulating the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. We tested the hypothesis that prolactin directly targets hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons. In situ hybridisation confirmed expression of mRNA encoding the long, but not the short, isoform of the prolactin receptor (PRLR) within the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the virgin rat; however, only 6% of CRH neurons expressed long-form Prlr mRNA. Examination of the functional response of CRH neurons to intracerebroventricular prolactin (500 ng) showed that these neurons did not respond with activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (pSTAT5), a marker of long-form PRLR activation...
March 23, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331974/neuronal-degeneration-in-the-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-following-lesions-of-primary-visual-cortex-comparison-of-young-adult-and-geriatric-marmoset-monkeys
#4
Nafiseh Atapour, Katrina H Worthy, Leo L Lui, Hsin-Hao Yu, Marcello G P Rosa
Neuronal loss in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) is a consequence of lesions of the primary visual cortex (V1). Despite the importance of this phenomenon in understanding the residual capacities of the primate visual system following V1 damage, few quantitative studies are available, and the effect of age at the time of lesion remains unknown. We compared the volume, neuronal number, and neuronal density in the LGN, 6-21 months after unilateral V1 lesions in marmoset monkeys. Stereological sampling techniques and neuronal nuclei (NeuN) staining were used to assess the effects of similar-sized lesions in adult (2-4 years) and geriatric (10-14 years) animals...
March 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326439/a-distinct-functional-distribution-of-%C3%AE-and-%C3%AE-motoneurons-in-the-rat-trigeminal-motor-nucleus
#5
Yukako Morita-Isogai, Hajime Sato, Mitsuru Saito, Eriko Kuramoto, Dong Xu Yin, Takeshi Kaneko, Takashi Yamashiro, Kenji Takada, Seog Bae Oh, Hiroki Toyoda, Youngnam Kang
Gamma-motoneurons (γMNs) play a crucial role in regulating isometric muscle contraction. The slow jaw-closing during mastication is one of the most functional isometric contractions, which is developed by the rank-order recruitment of alpha-motoneurons (αMNs) in a manner that reflects the size distribution of αMNs. In a mouse spinal motor nucleus, there are two populations of small and large MNs; the former was identified as a population of γMNs based on the positive expression of the transcription factor estrogen-related receptor 3 (Err3) and negative expression of the neuronal DNA-binding protein NeuN, and the latter as that of αMNs based on the opposite pattern of immunoreactivity...
March 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324222/bdnf-mrna-splice-variants-differentially-impact-ca1-and-ca3-dendrite-complexity-and-spine-morphology-in-the-hippocampus
#6
Kristen R Maynard, John W Hobbs, Mahima Sukumar, Alisha S Kardian, Dennisse V Jimenez, Robert J Schloesser, Keri Martinowich
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is an activity-dependent neurotrophin critical for neuronal plasticity in the hippocampus. BDNF is encoded by multiple transcripts with alternative 5' untranslated regions (5'UTRS) that display activity-induced targeting to distinct subcellular compartments. While individual Bdnf 5'UTR transcripts influence dendrite morphology in cultured hippocampal neurons, it is unknown whether Bdnf splice variants impact dendrite arborization in functional classes of neurons in the intact hippocampus...
March 21, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321551/top-down-cortical-interactions-in-visuospatial-attention
#7
Timothy P Meehan, Steven L Bressler, Wei Tang, Serguei V Astafiev, Chad M Sylvester, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
The voluntary allocation of visuospatial attention depends upon top-down influences from the frontal eye field (FEF) and intraparietal sulcus (IPS)-the core regions of the dorsal attention network (DAN)-to visual occipital cortex (VOC), and has been further associated with within-DAN influences, particularly from the FEF to IPS. However, the degree to which these influences manifest at rest and are then modulated during anticipatory visuospatial attention tasks remains poorly understood. Here, we measured both undirected and directed functional connectivity (UFC, DFC) between the FEF, IPS, and VOC at rest and during an anticipatory visuospatial attention task, using a slow event-related design...
March 20, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317062/interhemispheric-gene-expression-differences-in-the-cerebral-cortex-of-humans-and-macaque-monkeys
#8
Gerard Muntané, Gabriel Santpere, Andrey Verendeev, William W Seeley, Bob Jacobs, William D Hopkins, Arcadi Navarro, Chet C Sherwood
Handedness and language are two well-studied examples of asymmetrical brain function in humans. Approximately 90% of humans exhibit a right-hand preference, and the vast majority shows left-hemisphere dominance for language function. Although genetic models of human handedness and language have been proposed, the actual gene expression differences between cerebral hemispheres in humans remain to be fully defined. In the present study, gene expression profiles were examined in both hemispheres of three cortical regions involved in handedness and language in humans and their homologues in rhesus macaques: ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior superior temporal cortex (STC), and primary motor cortex...
March 19, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314928/hilar-granule-cells-of-the-mouse-dentate-gyrus-effects-of-age-septotemporal-location-strain-and-selective-deletion-of-the-proapoptotic-gene-bax
#9
Keria Bermudez-Hernandez, Yi-Ling Lu, Jillian Moretto, Swati Jain, John J LaFrancois, Aine M Duffy, Helen E Scharfman
The dentate gyrus (DG) principal cells are glutamatergic granule cells (GCs), and they are located in a compact cell layer. However, GCs are also present in the adjacent hilar region, but have been described in only a few studies. Therefore, we used the transcription factor prospero homeobox 1 (Prox1) to quantify GCs at postnatal day (PND) 16, 30, and 60 in a common mouse strain, C57BL/6J mice. At PND16, there was a large population of Prox1-immunoreactive (ir) hilar cells, with more in the septal than temporal hippocampus...
March 17, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299422/homeostatic-regulation-through-gaba-and-acetylcholine-muscarinic-receptors-of-motor-trigeminal-neurons-following-sleep-deprivation
#10
Hanieh Toossi, Esther Del Cid-Pellitero, Barbara E Jones
Muscle tone is regulated across sleep-wake states, being maximal in waking, reduced in slow wave sleep (SWS) and absent in paradoxical or REM sleep (PS or REMS). Such changes in tone have been recorded in the masseter muscles and shown to correspond to changes in activity and polarization of the trigeminal motor 5 (Mo5) neurons. The muscle hypotonia and atonia during sleep depend in part on GABA acting upon both GABAA and GABAB receptors (Rs) and acetylcholine (ACh) acting upon muscarinic 2 (AChM2) Rs. Here, we examined whether Mo5 neurons undergo homeostatic regulation through changes in these inhibitory receptors following prolonged activity with enforced waking...
March 15, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293729/altered-cortico-striatal-crosstalk-underlies-object-recognition-memory-deficits-in-the-sub-chronic-phencyclidine-model-of-schizophrenia
#11
Aman Asif-Malik, Daniel Dautan, Andrew M J Young, Todor V Gerdjikov
The neural mechanisms underlying cognitive deficits in schizophrenia are poorly understood. Sub-chronic treatment with the NMDA antagonist phencyclidine (PCP) produces cognitive abnormalities in rodents that reliably model aspects of the neurocognitive alterations observed in schizophrenia. Given that network activity across regions encompassing medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a significant role in motivational and cognitive tasks, we measured activity across cortico-striatal pathways in PCP-treated rats to characterize neural enabling and encoding of task performance in a novel object recognition task...
March 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293728/oligodendrocyte-precursor-cells-in-the-mouse-optic-nerve-originate-in-the-preoptic-area
#12
Katsuhiko Ono, Kengo Yoshii, Hiroyuki Tominaga, Hitoshi Gotoh, Tadashi Nomura, Hirohide Takebayashi, Kazuhiro Ikenaka
The present study aims to examine the origin of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) in the mouse optic nerve (ON) by labeling OPCs in the fetal forebrain. The labeling of OPCs in the ON was performed by injection of a retrovirus vector carrying the lacZ gene into the lateral ventricle, or by inducible Cre/loxP of Olig2-positive cells. The retrovirus labeling revealed that ventricular zone-derived cells of the fetal forebrain relocated to the ON and differentiated into oligodendrocytes. In addition, lineage tracing of Olig2-positive cells and whole-mount staining of PDGFRα-positive cells demonstrated that OPCs appeared by E12...
March 14, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289883/global-reduction-of-information-exchange-during-anesthetic-induced-unconsciousness
#13
Christina Hamilton, Yuncong Ma, Nanyin Zhang
During anesthetic-induced unconsciousness (AIU), the brain undergoes a dramatic change in its capacity to exchange information between regions. However, the spatial distribution of information exchange loss/gain across the entire brain remains elusive. In the present study, we acquired and analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data in rats during wakefulness and graded levels of consciousness induced by incrementally increasing the concentration of isoflurane. We found that, regardless of spatial scale, the functional connectivity (FC) change (i...
March 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285370/metabolomics-and-neuroanatomical-evaluation-of-post-mortem-changes-in-the-hippocampus
#14
Carolina Gonzalez-Riano, Silvia Tapia-González, Antonia García, Alberto Muñoz, Javier DeFelipe, Coral Barbas
Understanding the human brain is the ultimate goal in neuroscience, but this is extremely challenging in part due to the fact that brain tissue obtained from autopsy is practically the only source of normal brain tissue and also since changes at different levels of biological organization (genetic, molecular, biochemical, anatomical) occur after death due to multiple mechanisms. Here we used metabolomic and anatomical techniques to study the possible relationship between post-mortem time (PT)-induced changes that may occur at both the metabolomics and anatomical levels in the same brains...
March 11, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283747/magnetic-resonance-diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-the-pedunculopontine-nucleus-proof-of-concept-and-histological-correlation
#15
A T D L Alho, C Hamani, E J L Alho, R E da Silva, G A B Santos, R C Neves, L L Carreira, C M M Araújo, G Magalhães, D B Coelho, M C Alegro, M G M Martin, L T Grinberg, C A Pasqualucci, H Heinsen, E T Fonoff, E Amaro
The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) has been proposed as target for deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with postural instability and gait disorders due to its involvement in muscle tonus adjustments and control of locomotion. However, it is a deep-seated brainstem nucleus without clear imaging or electrophysiological markers. Some studies suggested that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) may help guiding electrode placement in the PPN by showing the surrounding fiber bundles, but none have provided a direct histological correlation...
March 10, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280935/crypt-cell-markers-in-the-olfactory-organ-of-poecilia-reticulata-analysis-and-comparison-with-the-fish-model-danio-rerio
#16
Simone Bettini, Liliana Milani, Maurizio Lazzari, Maria Gabriella Maurizii, Valeria Franceschini
Olfactory crypt neurons have been observed in several bony fishes and chondrichtyans. Although their morphology is uniform in all fish, very few is known about their antigenic properties, usually studied in zebrafish, but quite overlooked in other species. We tested in Poecilia reticulata (guppy) the two antibodies recognized to mark zebrafish crypt cells: while anti-S100 showed an immunohistochemical pattern comparable to what reported in zebrafish, anti-TrkA gave no signal. Western blot analysis revealed that S100-antiserum bound an antigen of expected weight, probably belonging to the S100 family...
March 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280934/human-astrocytes-structure-and-functions-in-the-healthy-brain
#17
REVIEW
Flora Vasile, Elena Dossi, Nathalie Rouach
Data collected on astrocytes' physiology in the rodent have placed them as key regulators of synaptic, neuronal, network, and cognitive functions. While these findings proved highly valuable for our awareness and appreciation of non-neuronal cell significance in brain physiology, early structural and phylogenic investigations of human astrocytes hinted at potentially different astrocytic properties. This idea sparked interest to replicate rodent-based studies on human samples, which have revealed an analogous but enhanced involvement of astrocytes in neuronal function of the human brain...
March 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260163/micrornas-contribute-to-postnatal-development-of-laminar-differences-and-neuronal-subtypes-in-the-rat-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#18
Lene C Olsen, Kally C O'Reilly, Nina B Liabakk, Menno P Witter, Pål Sætrom
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) is important in spatial navigation and memory formation and its layers have distinct neuronal subtypes, connectivity, spatial properties, and disease susceptibility. As little is known about the molecular basis for the development of these laminar differences, we analyzed microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression differences between rat MEC layer II and layers III-VI during postnatal development. We identified layer and age-specific regulation of gene expression by miRNAs, which included processes related to neuron specialization and locomotor behavior...
March 4, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258483/parasubthalamic-and-calbindin-nuclei-in-the-posterior-lateral-hypothalamus-are-the-major-hypothalamic-targets-for-projections-from-the-central-and-anterior-basomedial-nuclei-of-the-amygdala
#19
Marie Barbier, Sandrine Chometton, Yvan Peterschmitt, Dominique Fellmann, Pierre-Yves Risold
The parasubthalamic nucleus (PSTN) and the ventrally adjacent calbindin nucleus (CbN) form a nuclear complex in the posterior lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), recently characterized as connected with the central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA). The aim of the present work is to analyze in detail the projections from the amygdala into the PSTN/CbN, also focusing on pathways into the LHA. After fluorogold injections into the PSTN/CbN, the medial part of the CEA (CEAm) appears to be the main supplier of projections from the CEA...
March 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255676/human-orbital-and-anterior-medial-prefrontal-cortex-intrinsic-connectivity-parcellation-and-functional-organization
#20
Zoe Samara, Elisabeth A T Evers, Alexandros Goulas, Harry B M Uylings, Grazyna Rajkowska, Johannes G Ramaekers, Peter Stiers
The orbital and medial prefrontal cortex (OMPFC) has been implicated in decision-making, reward and emotion processing, and psychopathology, such as depression and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Human and monkey anatomical studies indicate the presence of various cortical subdivisions and suggest that these are organized in two extended networks, a medial and an orbital one. Attempts have been made to replicate these neuroanatomical findings in vivo using MRI techniques for imaging connectivity. These revealed several consistencies, but also many inconsistencies between reported results...
March 2, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
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