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Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438520/urinary-long-noncoding-rnas-in-nonmuscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-new-architects-in-cancer-prognostic-biomarkers
#1
REVIEW
Daniela Terracciano, Matteo Ferro, Sara Terreri, Giuseppe Lucarelli, Carolina D'Elia, Gennaro Musi, Ottavio de Cobelli, Vincenzo Mirone, Amelia Cimmino
Several reports over the last 10 years provided evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in bladder cancers. lncRNAs are longer than 200 nucleotides and function as important regulators of gene expression, interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. A large number of lncRNAs has oncogenic function and is more expressed in tumor compared with normal tissues. Their overexpression may be associated with tumor formation, progression, and metastasis in a variety of tumors including bladder cancer...
April 7, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427903/atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-in-human-left-atrium-and-treatment-with-decitabine-reduces-atrial-tachyarrhythmias-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#2
R Doñate Puertas, E Meugnier, C Romestaing, C Rey, E Morel, J Lachuer, N Gadot, A Scridon, C Julien, F Tronc, B Chapuis, C Valla, A Janin, L Pirola, A Méjat, S Rome, P Chevalier
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. As the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology are largely unknown, this cardiac arrhythmia remains difficult to treat. To identify specific molecular actors involved in AF, we have performed a transcriptomic analysis on left atrium (LA) from patients with valvular heart disease with or without AF. We showed that 1627 genes had altered basal expression level in LA tissue of AF patients compared with the control group. The significantly enriched gene ontology biological process "anatomical structure morphogenesis" contained the highest number of genes in line with changes in structure that occur when the human heart remodels following AF development (ie, LA dilatation and interstitial fibrosis)...
March 30, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390799/skin-microbiome-and-mast-cells
#3
REVIEW
Satomi Igawa, Anna Di Nardo
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March 23, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363084/the-metabolic-syndrome-induces-early-changes-in%C3%A2-the-swine-renal-medullary-mitochondria
#4
Alfonso Eirin, John R Woollard, Christopher M Ferguson, Kyra L Jordan, Hui Tang, Stephen C Textor, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with nutrient surplus and kidney hyperfiltration, accelerating chronic renal failure. Mitochondria can be overwhelmed by substrate excess, leading to inefficient energy production and thereby tissue hypoxia. Mitochondrial dysfunction is emerging as an important determinant of renal damage, but whether it contributes to MetS-induced renal injury remains unknown. We hypothesized that early MetS induces kidney mitochondrial abnormalities and dysfunction, which would be notable in the vulnerable renal medulla...
March 11, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347650/angiopoietin-like-protein-8-betatrophin-as-a-new-determinant-of-type-2-diabetes-remission-after-bariatric-surgery
#5
Miriam Ejarque, Marianne Borlaug, Nuria Vilarrasa, Bruno Martinez-Perez, Gemma Llauradó, Ana Megía, Thomas Helland, Cristina Gutierrez, Carolina Serena, Oddry Folkestad, Catalina Nuñez-Roa, Kelly Roche, Ana Casajoana, Rosa Fradera, José Miguel González-Clemente, Miguel López, Arne C Mohn, Bjørn G Nedrebø, Ruben Nogueiras, Gunnar Mellgren, Johan Fernø, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Joan Vendrell
This work aimed to explore the link between angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) and weight loss after metabolic surgery. In the cross-sectional study (n = 100), circulating ANGPTL8 concentrations were significantly lower in morbidly obese than in lean subjects, and strikingly lower in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Conversely, ANGPTL8 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was higher in morbidly obese patients, particularly in those with T2DM, whereas its expression in visceral adipose tissue was unchanged...
March 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336465/smoking-and-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Judith Maddatu, Emily Anderson-Baucum, Carmella Evans-Molina
Despite accumulating evidence demonstrating strong epidemiologic and mechanistic associations between cigarette smoking, hyperglycemia, and the development of type 2 diabetes, tobacco abuse has not been uniformly recognized as a modifiable risk factor in diabetes prevention or screening strategies. In this review, we highlight population-based studies that have linked cigarette smoking with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and summarize clinical and preclinical studies offering insight into mechanisms through which cigarette smoking and nicotine exposure impact body composition, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β cell function...
March 6, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284670/vascular-precursor-cells-in-tissue-injury-repair
#7
REVIEW
Xin Shi, Weihong Zhang, Liya Yin, William M Chilian, Jessica Krieger, Ping Zhang
Vascular precursor cells include stem cells and progenitor cells giving rise to all mature cell types in the wall of blood vessels. When tissue injury occurs, local hypoxia and inflammation result in the generation of vasculogenic mediators which orchestrate migration of vascular precursor cells from their niche environment to the site of tissue injury. The intricate crosstalk among signaling pathways coordinates vascular precursor cell proliferation and differentiation during neovascularization. Establishment of normal blood perfusion plays an essential role in the effective repair of the injured tissue...
February 21, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259616/observational-retrospective-study-of-vascular-modulator-changes-during-treatment-in-essential-thrombocythemia
#8
Andrea Piccin, Michael Steurer, Clemens Feistritzer, Ciaran Murphy, Elva Eakins, Muriel Van Schilfgaarde, Daisy Corvetta, Angela Maria Di Pierro, Irene Pusceddu, Luigi Marcheselli, Roberto Gambato, Martin Langes, Dino Veneri, Omar Perbellini, Enrica Pacquola, Michele Gottardi, Filippo Gherlinzoni, Andrea Mega, Martina Tauber, Guido Mazzoleni, Elisa Piva, Mario Plebani, Mauro Krampera, Günther Gastl
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients are at risk of developing thrombotic events. Qualitative platelet (PLT) abnormalities and activation of endothelial cells (ECs) and PLTs are thought to be involved. Microparticles (MPs) can originate from PLTs (PMPs), ECs (EMPs), or red cells (RMPs). Previous studies have indicated that MPs contribute to ET pathophysiology. Endothelial modulators (eg, nitric oxide [NO], adrenomedullin [ADM], and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are also involved in the pathophysiology of this condition...
February 14, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236427/procoagulant-extracellular-vesicles-in-amniotic-fluid
#9
Lena Hell, Lukas Wisgrill, Cihan Ay, Andreas Spittler, Michael Schwameis, Bernd Jilma, Ingrid Pabinger, Peter Altevogt, Johannes Thaler
Embolization of amniotic fluid (AF) into the blood circulation leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Procoagulant phosphatidylserine (PS)- and tissue factor (TF)-exposing extracellular vesicles (EVs) might play an important role in AF embolism-induced DIC. It was the aim of the present study to perform analyses of the procoagulant properties of AF with a panel of functional coagulation assays and flow cytometry. We applied a prothrombinase assay (that quantifies PS exposure on EVs), an EV-associated TF activity assay, a fibrin generation assay, a thrombin generation assay, a whole blood clotting model, and flow cytometry in AF and control plasma...
February 4, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219716/genetic-regulation-of-differentially-methylated-genes-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-severely-obese-men-discordant-for-the-metabolic-syndrome
#10
Frédéric Guénard, André Tchernof, Yves Deshaies, Simon Biron, Odette Lescelleur, Laurent Biertho, Simon Marceau, Louis Pérusse, Marie-Claude Vohl
A genetic influence on methylation levels has been reported and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) have been identified in various tissues. The contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has also been noted. To pinpoint candidate genes for testing the association of SNPs with MetS and its components, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of genetic variations to differentially methylated CpG sites in severely obese men discordant for MetS. A genome-wide differential methylation analysis was conducted in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 31 severely obese men discordant for MetS (16 with and 15 without MetS) and identified ∼17,800 variable CpG sites...
February 2, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130064/cardiovascular-consequences-of-metabolic-syndrome
#11
REVIEW
Johnathan D Tune, Adam G Goodwill, Daniel J Sassoon, Kieren J Mather
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087261/dna-aptamer-probes-for-detection-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-positive-carcinomas
#12
Arghya Sett, Bibhuti Bhusan Borthakur, Jagannath Dev Sharma, Amal Chandra Kataki, Utpal Bora
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1) is a ligand-activated transcription factor. It is an important biomarker for breast cancer metastasis. In the present study, we report a novel DNA aptamer candidate against estrogen receptor (ER) alpha structure. The enriched aptamer candidate was obtained after 14 iterative cycles of in vitro protein-SELEX process. Isothermal calorimetry study suggests the nanomolar sensitivity of the candidate ER_Apt1 to its target protein...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081931/neurogenin-2-transduced-human-neural-progenitor-cells-attenuate-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#13
Il-Shin Lee, Kyo Yeon Koo, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Il-Sun Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Seokhwan Yun, Haejin Lee, Jeong Eun Shin, Kook In Park
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury leads to high mortality and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) with self-renewing capacity have the potential to reduce neuronal loss and improve the compromised environment in the HI brain injury. However, the therapeutic efficacy of neuronal-committed progenitor cells and the underlying mechanisms of recovery are not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the regenerative ability and action mechanisms of neuronally committed human NPCs (hNPCs) transduced with neurogenin-2 (NEUROG2) in neonatal HI brain injury...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068521/hiv-and-its-relationship-to-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-abnormalities
#14
REVIEW
Lemuel R Non, Gerome V Escota, William G Powderly
Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the care of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by reducing morbidity and mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related conditions. Despite longer life expectancy, however, HIV-infected individuals continue to have a higher risk of death compared with the general population. This has been attributed to the increasing incidence of noncommunicable diseases, in particular, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. This is driven, in part, by the emergence of metabolic disorders, particularly dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, in those on antiretroviral therapy...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056336/the-clinical-role-of-circulating-free-tumor-dna-in-gastrointestinal-malignancy
#15
REVIEW
Jessica A Howell, Shahid A Khan, Susanne Knapp, Mark R Thursz, Rohini Sharma
Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is DNA released from necrotic or apoptotic cells into the bloodstream. While both healthy cells and cancer cells release cfDNA, tumors are associated with higher levels of tumor-derived circulating cell-free DNA (ctDNA) detectable in blood. Absolute levels of ctDNA and its genetic mutations and epigenetic changes show promise as potentially useful biomarkers of tumor biology, progression, and response to therapy. Moreover, studies have demonstrated the discriminative accuracy of ctDNA levels for diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer compared with benign inflammatory diseases...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034760/insulin-resistance-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
REVIEW
Thomas Diehl, Roger Mullins, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
The links between systemic insulin resistance (IR), brain-specific IR, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been an extremely productive area of current research. This review will cover the fundamentals and pathways leading to IR, its connection to AD via cellular mechanisms, the most prominent methods and models used to examine it, an introduction to the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a source of biomarkers for IR and AD, and an overview of modern clinical studies on the subject. To provide additional context, we also present a novel analysis of the spatial correlation of gene expression in the brain with the aid of Allen Human Brain Atlas data...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034759/targeting-p-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1-p-selectin-interactions-as-a-novel-therapy-for-metabolic-syndrome
#17
REVIEW
Madhukar S Patel, David Miranda-Nieves, Jiaxuan Chen, Carolyn A Haller, Elliot L Chaikof
Obesity-induced insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome continue to pose an important public health challenge worldwide as they significantly increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Advances in the pathophysiologic understanding of this process has identified that chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role. In this regard, given that both animal models and human studies have demonstrated that the interaction of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) with P-selectin is not only critical for normal immune response but also is upregulated in the setting of metabolic syndrome, PSGL-1/P-selectin interactions provide a novel target for preventing and treating resultant disease...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027930/tocilizumab-improves-the-proatherothrombotic-profile-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-modulating-endothelial-dysfunction-netosis-and-inflammation
#18
Patricia Ruiz-Limón, Rafaela Ortega, Ivan Arias de la Rosa, Maria Del Carmen Abalos-Aguilera, Carlos Perez-Sanchez, Yolanda Jimenez-Gomez, Esther Peralbo-Santaella, Pilar Font, Desiree Ruiz-Vilches, Gustavo Ferrin, Eduardo Collantes-Estevez, Alejandro Escudero-Contreras, Chary López-Pedrera, Nuria Barbarroja
Tocilizumab (TCZ) is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the changes that occurred after TCZ therapy on endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activity, NETosis, and oxidative stress, the principal effectors of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, have not been analyzed yet. A total of 20 RA patients received 162 mg per week subcutaneous TCZ for 6 months. Endothelial function was measured through postocclusive hyperemia using Laser Doppler. Oxidative stress markers in monocytes and neutrophils were analyzed by flow cytometry...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027929/nrf2-exerts-cell-autonomous-antifibrotic-effects-compromised-function-in-systemic-sclerosis-and-therapeutic-rescue-with-a-novel-heterocyclic-chalcone-derivative
#19
Jun Wei, Hongyan Zhu, Gabriel Lord, Mitra Bhattachayya, Brielle M Jones, Graham Allaway, Shyam S Biswal, Benjamin Korman, Roberta G Marangoni, Warren G Tourtellotte, John Varga
The transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) governs antioxidant, innate immune and cytoprotective responses and its deregulation is prominent in chronic inflammatory conditions. To examine the hypothesis that Nrf2 might be implicated in systemic sclerosis (SSc), we investigated its expression, activity, and mechanism of action in SSc patient samples and mouse models of fibrosis and evaluated the effects of a novel pharmacologic Nrf2 agonist. We found that both expression and activity of Nrf2 were significantly reduced in SSc patient skin biopsies and showed negative correlation with inflammatory gene expression...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025032/the-metabolic-syndrome-and-chronic-kidney-disease
#20
REVIEW
Xin Zhang, Lilach O Lerman
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors including insulin resistance (IR), dyslipidemia, and hypertension, which may also foster development of chronic kidney disease. The mechanisms of MetS-induced kidney disease are not fully understood. The purpose of this review is to summarize recent discoveries regarding the impact of MetS on the kidney, particularly on the renal microvasculature and cellular mitochondria. Fundamental manifestations of MetS include IR and adipose tissue expansion, the latter promoting chronic inflammation and oxidative stress that exacerbate IR...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
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