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Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528915/sphingosine-metabolism-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-cutaneous-melanoma
#1
REVIEW
Mohammed Dany
Melanoma is by far the most aggressive type of skin cancer with a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Understanding the mechanisms involved in melanoma pathogenesis, response, and resistance to treatment has gained a lot of attention worldwide. Recently, the role of sphingolipid metabolism has been studied in cutaneous melanoma. Sphingolipids are bioactive lipid effector molecules involved in the regulation of various cellular signaling pathways such as inflammation, cancer cell proliferation, death, senescence, and metastasis...
May 4, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506697/inflammation-and-hemostasis-in-older-octogenarians-implication-in-5-year-survival
#2
Judit Cubedo, Teresa Padró, Francesc Formiga, Assumpta Ferrer, Glòria Padrós, Esther Peña, Lina Badimon
Social changes and medical advances have increased longevity, but the conditions governing healthy vs unhealthy cardiovascular (CV) aging are not fully known. Factors beyond classical CV risk factors may have an important unrecognized value. We sought to identify proteins differentially expressed in healthy octogenarians (HOs) without a history of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and preserved functional and cognitive state compared with octogenarians with a history of CVD and cognitive decline (UHOs) using a systems biology approach, and investigated how these proteins relate to CV mortality at 5-year follow-up...
April 26, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506696/current-approaches-for-avoiding-the-limitations-of-circulating-tumor-cells-detection-methods-implications-for-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-patients-with-solid-tumors
#3
REVIEW
Artur Kowalik, Magdalena Kowalewska, Stanisław Góźdź
Eight million people die of cancer each year and 90% of deaths are caused by systemic disease. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) contribute to the formation of metastases and thus are the subject of extensive research and an abiding interest to biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies. Recent technological advances have resulted in greatly improved CTC detection, enumeration, expansion, and culture methods. However, despite the fact that nearly 150 years have passed since the first detection and description of CTCs in human blood and enormous technological progress that has taken place in this field, especially within the last decade, few CTC detection methods have been approved for routine clinical use...
April 26, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502785/car-t-cell-therapy-for-lung-cancer-and-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#4
REVIEW
Masha Zeltsman, Jordan Dozier, Erin McGee, Daniel Ngai, Prasad S Adusumilli
Immunotherapy is a promising field that harnesses the power of the immune system as a therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. Beneficial outcomes shown in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) with relatively higher tumor-infiltrating T cells, combined with impressive responses obtained in a cohort of patients with NSCLC following checkpoint blockade therapy, lays a strong foundation to promote effector immune responses in these patients. One such approach being investigated is administration of tumor antigen-targeted T cells with transduction of a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)...
April 26, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482173/evaluation-of-a-combination-tumor-treatment-using-thermo-triggered-liposomal-drug-delivery-and-carbon-ion-irradiation
#5
Daisuke Kokuryo, Ichio Aoki, Eiji Yuba, Kenji Kono, Sadahito Aoshima, Jeff Kershaw, Tsuneo Saga
The combination of radiotherapy with chemotherapy is one of the most promising strategies for cancer treatment. Here, a novel combination strategy utilizing carbon ion irradiation as a high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiotherapy and a thermo-triggered nanodevice is proposed, and drug accumulation in the tumor and treatment effects are evaluated using magnetic resonance imaging relaxometry and immunohistology (Ki-67, n = 15). The thermo-triggered liposomal anticancer nanodevice was administered into colon-26 tumor-grafted mice, and drug accumulation and efficacy was compared for 6 groups (n = 32) that received or did not receive the radiotherapy and thermo trigger...
April 21, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438520/urinary-long-noncoding-rnas-in-nonmuscle-invasive-bladder-cancer-new-architects-in-cancer-prognostic-biomarkers
#6
REVIEW
Daniela Terracciano, Matteo Ferro, Sara Terreri, Giuseppe Lucarelli, Carolina D'Elia, Gennaro Musi, Ottavio de Cobelli, Vincenzo Mirone, Amelia Cimmino
Several reports over the last 10 years provided evidence that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are often altered in bladder cancers. lncRNAs are longer than 200 nucleotides and function as important regulators of gene expression, interacting with the major pathways of cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and survival. A large number of lncRNAs has oncogenic function and is more expressed in tumor compared with normal tissues. Their overexpression may be associated with tumor formation, progression, and metastasis in a variety of tumors including bladder cancer...
April 7, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427903/atrial-fibrillation-is-associated-with-hypermethylation-in-human-left-atrium-and-treatment-with-decitabine-reduces-atrial-tachyarrhythmias-in-spontaneously-hypertensive-rats
#7
R Doñate Puertas, E Meugnier, C Romestaing, C Rey, E Morel, J Lachuer, N Gadot, A Scridon, C Julien, F Tronc, B Chapuis, C Valla, A Janin, L Pirola, A Méjat, S Rome, P Chevalier
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. As the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathology are largely unknown, this cardiac arrhythmia remains difficult to treat. To identify specific molecular actors involved in AF, we have performed a transcriptomic analysis on left atrium (LA) from patients with valvular heart disease with or without AF. We showed that 1627 genes had altered basal expression level in LA tissue of AF patients compared with the control group. The significantly enriched gene ontology biological process "anatomical structure morphogenesis" contained the highest number of genes in line with changes in structure that occur when the human heart remodels following AF development (ie, LA dilatation and interstitial fibrosis)...
March 30, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390799/skin-microbiome-and-mast-cells
#8
REVIEW
Satomi Igawa, Anna Di Nardo
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March 23, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347650/angiopoietin-like-protein-8-betatrophin-as-a-new-determinant-of-type-2-diabetes-remission-after-bariatric-surgery
#9
Miriam Ejarque, Marianne Borlaug, Nuria Vilarrasa, Bruno Martinez-Perez, Gemma Llauradó, Ana Megía, Thomas Helland, Cristina Gutierrez, Carolina Serena, Oddry Folkestad, Catalina Nuñez-Roa, Kelly Roche, Ana Casajoana, Rosa Fradera, José Miguel González-Clemente, Miguel López, Arne C Mohn, Bjørn G Nedrebø, Ruben Nogueiras, Gunnar Mellgren, Johan Fernø, Sonia Fernández-Veledo, Joan Vendrell
This work aimed to explore the link between angiopoietin-like protein 8 (ANGPTL8) and weight loss after metabolic surgery. In the cross-sectional study (n = 100), circulating ANGPTL8 concentrations were significantly lower in morbidly obese than in lean subjects, and strikingly lower in morbidly obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Conversely, ANGPTL8 expression in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) was higher in morbidly obese patients, particularly in those with T2DM, whereas its expression in visceral adipose tissue was unchanged...
March 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363084/the-metabolic-syndrome-induces-early-changes-in%C3%A2-the-swine-renal-medullary-mitochondria
#10
Alfonso Eirin, John R Woollard, Christopher M Ferguson, Kyra L Jordan, Hui Tang, Stephen C Textor, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with nutrient surplus and kidney hyperfiltration, accelerating chronic renal failure. Mitochondria can be overwhelmed by substrate excess, leading to inefficient energy production and thereby tissue hypoxia. Mitochondrial dysfunction is emerging as an important determinant of renal damage, but whether it contributes to MetS-induced renal injury remains unknown. We hypothesized that early MetS induces kidney mitochondrial abnormalities and dysfunction, which would be notable in the vulnerable renal medulla...
June 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336465/smoking-and-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#11
REVIEW
Judith Maddatu, Emily Anderson-Baucum, Carmella Evans-Molina
Despite accumulating evidence demonstrating strong epidemiologic and mechanistic associations between cigarette smoking, hyperglycemia, and the development of type 2 diabetes, tobacco abuse has not been uniformly recognized as a modifiable risk factor in diabetes prevention or screening strategies. In this review, we highlight population-based studies that have linked cigarette smoking with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and summarize clinical and preclinical studies offering insight into mechanisms through which cigarette smoking and nicotine exposure impact body composition, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β cell function...
June 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284670/vascular-precursor-cells-in-tissue-injury-repair
#12
REVIEW
Xin Shi, Weihong Zhang, Liya Yin, William M Chilian, Jessica Krieger, Ping Zhang
Vascular precursor cells include stem cells and progenitor cells giving rise to all mature cell types in the wall of blood vessels. When tissue injury occurs, local hypoxia and inflammation result in the generation of vasculogenic mediators which orchestrate migration of vascular precursor cells from their niche environment to the site of tissue injury. The intricate crosstalk among signaling pathways coordinates vascular precursor cell proliferation and differentiation during neovascularization. Establishment of normal blood perfusion plays an essential role in the effective repair of the injured tissue...
June 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130064/cardiovascular-consequences-of-metabolic-syndrome
#13
REVIEW
Johnathan D Tune, Adam G Goodwill, Daniel J Sassoon, Kieren J Mather
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087261/dna-aptamer-probes-for-detection-of-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-positive-carcinomas
#14
Arghya Sett, Bibhuti Bhusan Borthakur, Jagannath Dev Sharma, Amal Chandra Kataki, Utpal Bora
Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) also known as NR3A1 (nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group A, member 1) is a ligand-activated transcription factor. It is an important biomarker for breast cancer metastasis. In the present study, we report a novel DNA aptamer candidate against estrogen receptor (ER) alpha structure. The enriched aptamer candidate was obtained after 14 iterative cycles of in vitro protein-SELEX process. Isothermal calorimetry study suggests the nanomolar sensitivity of the candidate ER_Apt1 to its target protein...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081931/neurogenin-2-transduced-human-neural-progenitor-cells-attenuate-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#15
Il-Shin Lee, Kyo Yeon Koo, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Il-Sun Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Seokhwan Yun, Haejin Lee, Jeong Eun Shin, Kook In Park
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury leads to high mortality and neurodevelopmental disabilities. Multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs) with self-renewing capacity have the potential to reduce neuronal loss and improve the compromised environment in the HI brain injury. However, the therapeutic efficacy of neuronal-committed progenitor cells and the underlying mechanisms of recovery are not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study investigated the regenerative ability and action mechanisms of neuronally committed human NPCs (hNPCs) transduced with neurogenin-2 (NEUROG2) in neonatal HI brain injury...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068521/hiv-and-its-relationship-to-insulin-resistance-and-lipid-abnormalities
#16
REVIEW
Lemuel R Non, Gerome V Escota, William G Powderly
Antiretroviral therapy has revolutionized the care of people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by reducing morbidity and mortality from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related conditions. Despite longer life expectancy, however, HIV-infected individuals continue to have a higher risk of death compared with the general population. This has been attributed to the increasing incidence of noncommunicable diseases, in particular, atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. This is driven, in part, by the emergence of metabolic disorders, particularly dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and lipodystrophy, in those on antiretroviral therapy...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056336/the-clinical-role-of-circulating-free-tumor-dna-in-gastrointestinal-malignancy
#17
REVIEW
Jessica A Howell, Shahid A Khan, Susanne Knapp, Mark R Thursz, Rohini Sharma
Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is DNA released from necrotic or apoptotic cells into the bloodstream. While both healthy cells and cancer cells release cfDNA, tumors are associated with higher levels of tumor-derived circulating cell-free DNA (ctDNA) detectable in blood. Absolute levels of ctDNA and its genetic mutations and epigenetic changes show promise as potentially useful biomarkers of tumor biology, progression, and response to therapy. Moreover, studies have demonstrated the discriminative accuracy of ctDNA levels for diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancer compared with benign inflammatory diseases...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034760/insulin-resistance-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Diehl, Roger Mullins, Dimitrios Kapogiannis
The links between systemic insulin resistance (IR), brain-specific IR, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have been an extremely productive area of current research. This review will cover the fundamentals and pathways leading to IR, its connection to AD via cellular mechanisms, the most prominent methods and models used to examine it, an introduction to the role of extracellular vesicles (EVs) as a source of biomarkers for IR and AD, and an overview of modern clinical studies on the subject. To provide additional context, we also present a novel analysis of the spatial correlation of gene expression in the brain with the aid of Allen Human Brain Atlas data...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034759/targeting-p-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1-p-selectin-interactions-as-a-novel-therapy-for-metabolic-syndrome
#19
REVIEW
Madhukar S Patel, David Miranda-Nieves, Jiaxuan Chen, Carolyn A Haller, Elliot L Chaikof
Obesity-induced insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome continue to pose an important public health challenge worldwide as they significantly increase the risk of type 2 diabetes and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Advances in the pathophysiologic understanding of this process has identified that chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role. In this regard, given that both animal models and human studies have demonstrated that the interaction of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1) with P-selectin is not only critical for normal immune response but also is upregulated in the setting of metabolic syndrome, PSGL-1/P-selectin interactions provide a novel target for preventing and treating resultant disease...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027930/tocilizumab-improves-the-proatherothrombotic-profile-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients-modulating-endothelial-dysfunction-netosis-and-inflammation
#20
Patricia Ruiz-Limón, Rafaela Ortega, Ivan Arias de la Rosa, Maria Del Carmen Abalos-Aguilera, Carlos Perez-Sanchez, Yolanda Jimenez-Gomez, Esther Peralbo-Santaella, Pilar Font, Desiree Ruiz-Vilches, Gustavo Ferrin, Eduardo Collantes-Estevez, Alejandro Escudero-Contreras, Chary López-Pedrera, Nuria Barbarroja
Tocilizumab (TCZ) is an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, the changes that occurred after TCZ therapy on endothelial dysfunction, monocyte activity, NETosis, and oxidative stress, the principal effectors of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, have not been analyzed yet. A total of 20 RA patients received 162 mg per week subcutaneous TCZ for 6 months. Endothelial function was measured through postocclusive hyperemia using Laser Doppler. Oxidative stress markers in monocytes and neutrophils were analyzed by flow cytometry...
May 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
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