journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336465/smoking-and-the-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Judith Maddatu, Emily Anderson-Baucum, Carmella Evans-Molina
Despite accumulating evidence demonstrating strong epidemiologic and mechanistic associations between cigarette smoking, hyperglycemia, and the development of type 2 diabetes, tobacco abuse has not been uniformly recognized as a modifiable risk factor in diabetes prevention or screening strategies. In this review, we highlight population-based studies that have linked cigarette smoking with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and summarize clinical and preclinical studies offering insight into mechanisms through which cigarette smoking and nicotine exposure impact body composition, insulin sensitivity, and pancreatic β cell function...
March 6, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284670/vascular-precursor-cells-in-tissue-injury-repair
#2
REVIEW
Xin Shi, Weihong Zhang, Liya Yin, William M Chilian, Jessica Krieger, Ping Zhang
Vascular precursor cells include stem cells and progenitor cells giving rise to all mature cell types in the wall of blood vessels. On tissue injury, local hypoxia and inflammation result in the generation of vasculogenic mediators which orchestrate migration of vascular precursor cells from their niche environment to the site of tissue injury. The intricate crosstalk among signaling pathways coordinates vascular precursor cell proliferation and differentiation during neovascularization. Establishment of normal blood perfusion plays an essential role in the effective repair of the injured tissue...
February 21, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259616/observational-retrospective-study-of-vascular-modulator-changes-during-treatment-in-essential-thrombocythemia
#3
Andrea Piccin, Michael Steurer, Clemens Feistritzer, Ciaran Murphy, Elva Eakins, Muriel Van Schilfgaarde, Daisy Corvetta, Angela Maria Di Pierro, Irene Pusceddu, Luigi Marcheselli, Roberto Gambato, Martin Langes, Dino Veneri, Omar Perbellini, Enrica Pacquola, Michele Gottardi, Filippo Gherlinzoni, Andrea Mega, Martina Tauber, Guido Mazzoleni, Elisa Piva, Mario Plebani, Mauro Krampera, Günther Gastl
Essential thrombocythemia (ET) patients are at risk of developing thrombotic events. Qualitative platelet (PLT) abnormalities and activation of endothelial cells (ECs) and PLTs are thought to be involved. Microparticles (MPs) can originate from PLTs (PMPs), ECs (EMPs), or red cells (RMPs). Previous studies have indicated that MPs contribute to ET pathophysiology. Endothelial modulators (eg, nitric oxide [NO], adrenomedullin [ADM], and endothelin-1 [ET-1]) are also involved in the pathophysiology of this condition...
February 14, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236427/procoagulant-extracellular-vesicles-in-amniotic-fluid
#4
Lena Hell, Lukas Wisgrill, Cihan Ay, Andreas Spittler, Michael Schwameis, Bernd Jilma, Ingrid Pabinger, Peter Altevogt, Johannes Thaler
Embolization of amniotic fluid (AF) into the blood circulation leads to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). Procoagulant phosphatidylserine (PS)- and tissue factor (TF)-exposing extracellular vesicles (EVs) might play an important role in AF embolism-induced DIC. It was the aim of the present study to perform analyses of the procoagulant properties of AF with a panel of functional coagulation assays and flow cytometry. We applied a prothrombinase assay (that quantifies PS exposure on EVs), an EV-associated TF activity assay, a fibrin generation assay, a thrombin generation assay, a whole blood clotting model, and flow cytometry in AF and control plasma...
February 4, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219716/genetic-regulation-of-differentially-methylated-genes-in-visceral-adipose-tissue-of-severely-obese-men-discordant-for-the-metabolic-syndrome
#5
Frédéric Guénard, André Tchernof, Yves Deshaies, Simon Biron, Odette Lescelleur, Laurent Biertho, Simon Marceau, Louis Pérusse, Marie-Claude Vohl
A genetic influence on methylation levels has been reported and methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTL) have been identified in various tissues. The contribution of genetic and epigenetic factors in the development of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) has also been noted. To pinpoint candidate genes for testing the association of SNPs with MetS and its components, we aimed to evaluate the contribution of genetic variations to differentially methylated CpG sites in severely obese men discordant for MetS. A genome-wide differential methylation analysis was conducted in visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of 31 severely obese men discordant for MetS (16 with and 15 without MetS) and identified ∼17,800 variable CpG sites...
February 2, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130064/cardiovascular-consequences-of-metabolic-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Johnathan D Tune, Adam G Goodwill, Daniel J Sassoon, Kieren J Mather
The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure...
January 9, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893987/transdisciplinary-approaches-enhance-the-production-of-translational-knowledge
#7
REVIEW
Timothy H Ciesielski, Melinda C Aldrich, Carmen J Marsit, Robert A Hiatt, Scott M Williams
The primary goal of translational research is to generate and apply knowledge that can improve human health. Although research conducted within the confines of a single discipline has helped us to achieve this goal in many settings, this unidisciplinary approach may not be optimal when disease causation is complex and health decisions are pressing. To address these issues, we suggest that transdisciplinary approaches can facilitate the progress of translational research, and we review publications that demonstrate what these approaches can look like...
April 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842222/molecular-imaging-of-the-kidney-in-lupus-nephritis-to-characterize-response-to-treatment
#8
Samir V Parikh, Ana Malvar, Huijuan Song, Valeria Alberton, Bruno Lococo, Jay Vance, Jianying Zhang, Lianbo Yu, Dan Birmingham, Brad H Rovin
The consequences of treatment for the kidney at the molecular level have not been explored in human lupus nephritis (LN). In this investigation, changes in intrarenal transcript expression were measured and correlated with response in a LN cohort that underwent serial kidney biopsies. The intrarenal transcript expression of 19 patients with proliferative LN (Class III or IV) was measured at diagnostic biopsy (Bx1) and after induction therapy was completed (Bx2) using Nanostring technology. Patients were segregated by clinical response into complete responders (n = 5, CR) or nonresponders (n = 4, NR)...
April 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837649/using-gwas-to-identify-novel-therapeutic-targets-for-osteoporosis
#9
REVIEW
Olivia L Sabik, Charles R Farber
Osteoporosis is a common, increasingly prevalent, global health burden characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fracture. Despite its significant impact on human health, there is currently a lack of highly effective treatments free of side effects for osteoporosis. Therefore, a major goal in the field is to identify new drug targets. Genetic discovery has been shown to be effective in the unbiased identification of novel drug targets and genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have begun to provide insight into genetic basis of osteoporosis...
March 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816505/advances-in-imaging-approaches-to-fracture-risk-evaluation
#10
REVIEW
Mary Kate Manhard, Jeffry S Nyman, Mark D Does
Fragility fractures are a growing problem worldwide, and current methods for diagnosing osteoporosis do not always identify individuals who require treatment to prevent a fracture and may misidentify those not a risk. Traditionally, fracture risk is assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, which provides measurements of areal bone mineral density at sites prone to fracture. Recent advances in imaging show promise in adding new information that could improve the prediction of fracture risk in the clinic...
March 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27669488/urinary-microbiome-of-kidney-transplant-patients-reveals-dysbiosis-with-potential-for-antibiotic-resistance
#11
Asha Rani, Ravi Ranjan, Halvor S McGee, Kalista E Andropolis, Dipti V Panchal, Zahraa Hajjiri, Daniel C Brennan, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins
Recent studies have established that a complex community of microbes colonize the human urinary tract; however, their role in kidney transplant patients treated with prophylactic antibiotics remains poorly investigated. Our aim was to investigate the urinary microbiome of kidney transplant recipients. Urine samples from 21 patients after kidney transplantation and 8 healthy controls were collected. All patients received prophylactic treatment with the antibiotic combination trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Metagenomic DNA was isolated from urine samples, sequenced using shotgun sequencing approach on Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform, and analyzed for microbial taxonomic and functional annotations...
March 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27593097/optimizing-hemoglobin-thresholds-for-detection-of-iron-deficiency-among-reproductive-age-women-in-the-united-states
#12
Deepa L Sekhar, Allen R Kunselman, Cynthia H Chuang, Ian M Paul
Iron deficiency (ID) affects 9%-16% of US women with well-documented morbidity in academic performance, mood, and concentration. Current ID screening depends on the detection of low hemoglobin (ie, anemia, <12.0 g/dL). However, anemia is a late-stage indicator of ID. The study hypothesis was that using higher hemoglobin thresholds would optimize ID screening. The objective was to assess the sensitivity and specificity of hemoglobin to detect ID among nonpregnant, reproductive-age women of 12-49 years and to determine if psychometric characteristics varied by age and race...
February 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567430/potentiation-and-tolerance-of-toll-like-receptor-priming-in-human-endothelial-cells
#13
Stephen R Koch, Fred S Lamb, Judith Hellman, Edward R Sherwood, Ryan J Stark
Repeated challenge of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters the response to subsequent LPS exposures via modulation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Whether activation of other TLRs can modulate TLR4 responses, and vice versa, remains unclear. Specifically with regards to endothelial cells, a key component of innate immunity, the impact of TLR cross-modulation is unknown. We postulated that TLR2 priming (via Pam3Csk4) would inhibit TLR4-mediated responses while TLR3 priming (via Poly I:C) would enhance subsequent TLR4-inflammatory signaling...
February 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27543902/epigenetic-contribution-of-the-myosin-light-chain-kinase-gene-to-the-risk-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#14
Keely L Szilágyi, Cong Liu, Xu Zhang, Ting Wang, Jeffrey D Fortman, Wei Zhang, Joe G N Garcia
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a devastating clinical syndrome with a considerable case fatality rate (∼30%-40%). Health disparities exist with African descent (AD) subjects exhibiting greater mortality than European descent (ED) individuals. Myosin light chain kinase is encoded by MYLK, whose genetic variants are implicated in ARDS pathogenesis and may influence ARDS mortality. As baseline population-specific epigenetic changes, that is, cytosine modifications, have been observed between AD and ED individuals, epigenetic variations in MYLK may provide insights into ARDS disparities...
February 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832936/feeding-the-microbiota-gut-brain-axis-diet-microbiome-and-neuropsychiatry
#15
REVIEW
Kiran V Sandhu, Eoin Sherwin, Harriët Schellekens, Catherine Stanton, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The microbial population residing within the human gut represents one of the most densely populated microbial niche in the human body with growing evidence showing it playing a key role in the regulation of behavior and brain function. The bidirectional communication between the gut microbiota and the brain, the microbiota-gut-brain axis, occurs through various pathways including the vagus nerve, the immune system, neuroendocrine pathways, and bacteria-derived metabolites. This axis has been shown to influence neurotransmission and the behavior that are often associated with neuropsychiatric conditions...
January 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832935/the-microbiome-and-human-disease-pathogenesis-how-do-you-do-what-you-do-to-me-%C3%A2
#16
Edward N Janoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686718/microbiome-and-food-allergy
#17
REVIEW
Ana B Blázquez, M Cecilia Berin
Food allergy is a common disease affecting approximately 8% of children and 5% of adults. The prevalence has increased over the last two decades, suggesting an important environmental contribution to susceptibility. Studies have identified mode of birth, pet exposure, and having older siblings as being significant risk modifying factors in the development of food allergy. With the discovery that these factors significantly impact the composition of the intestinal microbiome, which is known to play a critical role in shaping the immune system, recent studies have begun to address the role of the intestinal microbiota in the development of food allergy...
January 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677687/where-genes-meet-environment-integrating-the-role-of-gut-luminal-contents-immunity-and-pancreas-in-type-1-diabetes
#18
REVIEW
Fraser W Scott, Lynley D Pound, Christopher Patrick, Chandra E Eberhard, Jennifer A Crookshank
The rise in new cases of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in genetically susceptible individuals over the past half century has been attributed to numerous environmental "triggers" or promoters such as enteroviruses, diet, and most recently, gut bacteria. No single cause has been identified in humans, likely because there are several pathways by which one can develop T1D. There is renewed attention to the role of the gut and its immune system in T1D pathogenesis based largely on recent animal studies demonstrating that altering the gut microbiota affects diabetes incidence...
January 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591027/gut-microbiome-interactions-with-drug-metabolism-efficacy-and-toxicity
#19
REVIEW
Ian D Wilson, Jeremy K Nicholson
The gut microbiota has both direct and indirect effects on drug and xenobiotic metabolisms, and this can have consequences for both efficacy and toxicity. Indeed, microbiome-driven drug metabolism is essential for the activation of certain prodrugs, for example, azo drugs such as prontosil and neoprontosil resulting in the release of sulfanilamide. In addition to providing a major source of reductive metabolizing capability, the gut microbiota provides a suite of additional reactions including acetylation, deacylation, decarboxylation, dehydroxylation, demethylation, dehalogenation, and importantly, in the context of certain types of drug-related toxicity, conjugates hydrolysis reactions...
January 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27559681/microbiome-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cystic-fibrosis-and-lung-transplant-related-disease
#20
REVIEW
Sushma K Cribbs, James M Beck
Significant advances in culture-independent methods have expanded our knowledge about the diversity of the lung microbial environment. Complex microorganisms and microbial communities can now be identified in the distal airways in a variety of respiratory diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF) and the posttransplantation lung. Although there are significant methodologic concerns about sampling the lung microbiome, several studies have now shown that the microbiome of the lower respiratory tract is distinct from the upper airway...
January 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
journal
journal
41423
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"