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Genes & Nutrition

Linda H Münger, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Rosa Vázquez-Fresno, Doreen Gille, Albert Remus R Rosana, Anna Passerini, María-Trinidad Soria-Florido, Grégory Pimentel, Tanvir Sajed, David S Wishart, Cristina Andres Lacueva, Guy Vergères, Giulia Praticò
Dairy and egg products constitute an important part of Western diets as they represent an excellent source of high-quality proteins, vitamins, minerals and fats. Dairy and egg products are highly diverse and their associations with a range of nutritional and health outcomes are therefore heterogeneous. Such associations are also often weak or debated due to the difficulty in establishing correct assessments of dietary intake. Therefore, in order to better characterize associations between the consumption of these foods and health outcomes, it is important to identify reliable biomarkers of their intake...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Pedapati S C Sri Harsha, Roshaida Abdul Wahab, Mar Garcia Aloy, Francisco Madrid-Gambin, Sheila Estruel-Amades, Bernhard Watzl, Cristina Andrés-Lacueva, Lorraine Brennan
There is a growing interest in assessing dietary intake more accurately across different population groups, and biomarkers have emerged as a complementary tool to replace traditional dietary assessment methods. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature available and evaluate the applicability and validity of biomarkers of legume intake reported across various observational and intervention studies. A systematic search in PubMed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge identified 44 studies which met the inclusion criteria for the review...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Richard J Munthali, Venesa Sahibdeen, Juliana Kagura, Liesl M Hendry, Shane A Norris, Ken K Ong, Felix R Day, Zané Lombard
Background: Ninety-seven independent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are robustly associated with adult body mass index (BMI kg/m2 ) in Caucasian populations. The relevance of such variants in African populations at different stages of the life course (such as childhood) is unclear. We tested whether a genetic risk score composed of the aforementioned SNPs was associated with BMI from infancy to early adulthood. We further tested whether this genetic effect was mediated by conditional weight gain at different growth periods...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Liang Hu, Fei Han, Lin Chen, Xie Peng, Daiwen Chen, De Wu, Lianqiang Che, Keying Zhang
Background: Intrauterine growth-restricted (IUGR) neonates impair postnatal skeletal muscle growth. The aim of this study was to investigate whether high nutrient intake (HNI) during the suckling period could improve muscle growth and metabolic status of IUGR pigs. Methods: Twelve pairs of IUGR and normal birth weight (NBW) pigs (7 days old) were randomly assigned to adequate nutrient intake and HNI formula milk groups. Psoas major (PM) muscle sample was obtained after 21 days of rearing...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Charlotte C J R Michielsen, Enrique Almanza-Aguilera, Elske M Brouwer-Brolsma, Mireia Urpi-Sarda, Lydia A Afman
Background: To unravel true links between diet and health, it is important that dietary exposure is accurately measured. Currently, mainly self-reporting methods (e.g. food frequency questionnaires and 24-h recalls) are used to assess food intake in epidemiological studies. However, these traditional instruments are subjective measures and contain well-known biases. Especially, estimating the intake of the group of confectionary products, such as products containing cocoa and liquorice, remains a challenge...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Anne Leiteritz, Benjamin Dilberger, Uwe Wenzel, Elena Fitzenberger
Background: The neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease is caused by the accumulation of toxic aggregates of β-amyloid in the human brain. On the one hand, hyperhomocysteinemia has been shown to be a risk factor for cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. On the other hand, betaine has been demonstrated to attenuate Alzheimer-like pathological changes induced by homocysteine. It is reasonable to conclude that this is due to triggering the remethylation pathway mediated by betaine-homocysteine-methyltransferase...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Tine Iskov Kopp, Malene Outzen, Anja Olsen, Ulla Vogel, Gitte Ravn-Haren
Background: Selenium is an essential trace element and is suggested to play a role in the etiology of a number of chronic diseases. Genetic variation in genes encoding selenoproteins, such as selenoprotein P and the glutathione peroxidases, may affect selenium status and, thus, individual susceptibility to some chronic diseases. In the present study, we aimed to (1) investigate the effect of mussel and fish intake on glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity and (2) examine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in the GPX1 , GPX4 , and SELENOP genes modify the effect of mussel and fish intake for 26 weeks on whole blood selenium, plasma selenoprotein P concentrations, and erythrocyte GPX enzyme activity in a randomized intervention trial in Denmark...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Marya S Sabir, Mark R Haussler, Sanchita Mallick, Ichiro Kaneko, Daniel A Lucas, Carol A Haussler, G Kerr Whitfield, Peter W Jurutka
Background: Diminished brain levels of two neurohormones, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D; active vitamin D metabolite), are proposed to play a role in the atypical social behaviors associated with psychological conditions including autism spectrum disorders and depression. We reported previously that 1,25D induces expression of tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2), the initial and rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway to 5-HT, in cultured rat serotonergic neuronal cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Yantao Lv, Shihai Zhang, Wutai Guan, Fang Chen, Yinzhi Zhang, Jun Chen, Yang Liu
Background: Milk in mammals is a key source of lipids for offspring, providing both critical energy and essential fatty acids. For lactating sows, palmitic acid is one of the most abundant fatty acids in milk, providing 10~12% of the suckling pig total dietary energy supply. However, the effects of exogenous palmitic acid on milk fat synthesis in sow mammary glands are not well-known. In this study, we investigated the effects of palmitic acid on lipogenic genes in porcine mammary epithelial cells (pMECs) to explore the role of exogenous palmitic acid in mediating milk triacylglycerols (TAG) synthesis...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Samar H K Tareen, Martina Kutmon, Michiel E Adriaens, Edwin C M Mariman, Theo M de Kok, Ilja C W Arts, Chris T Evelo
Background: Metabolic flexibility is the ability of cells to change substrates for energy production based on the nutrient availability and energy requirement. It has been shown that metabolic flexibility is impaired in obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and metabolic syndrome, although, whether it is a cause or an effect of these conditions remains to be elucidated. Main body: In this paper, we have reviewed the literature on metabolic flexibility and curated pathways and processes resulting in a network resource to investigate the interplay between these processes in the subcutaneous adipose tissue...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Sunniva V Larsen, Kirsten B Holven, Inger Ottestad, Kine N Dagsland, Mari C W Myhrstad, Stine M Ulven
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s12263-018-0600-z.].
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Joseph A Rothwell, Francisco Madrid-Gambin, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Caomhan Logue, Alison M Gallagher, Carina Mack, Sabine E Kulling, Qian Gao, Giulia Praticò, Lars O Dragsted, Augustin Scalbert
Non-alcoholic beverages are important sources of nutrients and bioactive compounds that may influence human health and increase or decrease the risk of chronic diseases. A wide variety of beverage constituents are absorbed in the gut, found in the systemic circulation and excreted in urine. They may be used as compliance markers in intervention studies or as biomarkers of intake to improve measurements of beverage consumption in cohort studies and reveal new associations with disease outcomes that may have been overlooked when using dietary questionnaires...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
L O Dragsted, Q Gao, A Scalbert, G Vergères, M Kolehmainen, C Manach, L Brennan, L A Afman, D S Wishart, C Andres Lacueva, M Garcia-Aloy, H Verhagen, E J M Feskens, G Praticò
Biomarkers of food intake (BFIs) are a promising tool for limiting misclassification in nutrition research where more subjective dietary assessment instruments are used. They may also be used to assess compliance to dietary guidelines or to a dietary intervention. Biomarkers therefore hold promise for direct and objective measurement of food intake. However, the number of comprehensively validated biomarkers of food intake is limited to just a few. Many new candidate biomarkers emerge from metabolic profiling studies and from advances in food chemistry...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Ulrika Ericson, George Hindy, Isabel Drake, Christina-Alexandra Schulz, Louise Brunkwall, Sophie Hellstrand, Peter Almgren, Marju Orho-Melander
Background: Both lifestyle and genetic predisposition determine the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and studies have indicated interactions between specific dietary components and individual genetic variants. However, it is unclear whether the importance of overall dietary habits, including T2D-related food intakes, differs depending on genetic predisposition to T2D. We examined interaction between a genetic risk score for T2D, constructed from 48 single nucleotide polymorphisms identified in genome-wide association studies, and a diet risk score of four foods consistently associated with T2D in epidemiological studies (processed meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, whole grain and coffee)...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Francesco Vitali, Rosario Lombardo, Damariz Rivero, Fulvio Mattivi, Pietro Franceschi, Alessandra Bordoni, Alessia Trimigno, Francesco Capozzi, Giovanni Felici, Francesco Taglino, Franco Miglietta, Nathalie De Cock, Carl Lachat, Bernard De Baets, Guy De Tré, Mariona Pinart, Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon, Jildau Bouwman, Duccio Cavalieri
Background: The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research is one of its main strengths. At the same time, however, it presents a major obstacle to integrate data analysis, especially for the terminological and semantic interpretations that specific research fields or communities are used to. To date, a proper ontology to structure and formalize the concepts used for the description of nutritional studies is still lacking. Results: We have developed the Ontology for Nutritional Studies (ONS) by harmonizing selected pre-existing de facto ontologies with novel health and nutritional terminology classifications...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Tugce Boztepe, Sukru Gulec
Background: Dietary glucose consumption has increased worldwide. Long-term high glucose intake contributes to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obese people tend to eat glucose-containing foods, which can lead to an addiction to glucose, increased glucose levels in the blood and intestine lumen, and exposure of intestinal enterocytes to high dietary glucose. Recent studies have documented a role for enterocytes in glucose sensing. However, the molecular and genetic relationship between high glucose levels and intestinal enterocytes has not been determined...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Karolina A Chodkowska, Anna Ciecierska, Kinga Majchrzak, Piotr Ostaszewski, Tomasz Sadkowski
Background: Skeletal muscle injury activates satellite cells to initiate processes of proliferation, differentiation, and hypertrophy in order to regenerate muscle fibers. The number of microRNAs and their target genes are engaged in satellite cell activation. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is known to prevent exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HMB on miRNA and relevant target gene expression in differentiating equine satellite cells exposed to H2 O2 ...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Sunniva V Larsen, Kirsten B Holven, Inger Ottestad, Kine N Dagsland, Mari C W Myhrstad, Stine M Ulven
Background: Solid evidence indicates that intake of marine n-3 fatty acids lowers serum triglycerides and that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. The molecular mechanisms underlying these health beneficial effects are however not completely elucidated. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) depending on the plasma levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and the SFA to PUFA ratio...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Mohammad Reza Sam, Mohammad Tavakoli-Mehr, Reza Safaralizadeh
Background: The presence of chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) with KRAS mutation is thought to be one of the primary causes for treatment failure in colorectal cancer (CRC). P53, survivin, and microRNA-16-1 are challenging targets for anticancer drugs which are associated with chemoresistance in CRC. Yet, no p53-, survivin-, and microRNA-16-1-modulating drug with low toxicity but high efficacy against KRAS-mutant CCSCs have been approved for clinical application in CRC...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
Anne Lundby Hess, Jérôme Carayol, Trine Blædel, Jörg Hager, Alessandro Di Cara, Arne Astrup, Wim H M Saris, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Armand Valsesia
Background: Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), a liver-derived protein, plays an important role in the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Using data available from the DiOGenes study, we assessed the link with clinical improvements (weight, plasma lipid, and insulin levels) and changes in liver markers, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), adiponectin, fetuin A and B, and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18), upon low-calorie diet (LCD) intervention. We also examined the role of genetic variation in determining the level of circulating ANGPTL3 and the relation between the identified genetic markers and markers of hepatic steatosis...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
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