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Genes & Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339975/genetic-polymorphisms-of-antioxidant-enzymes-cat-and-sod-affect-the-outcome-of-clinical-biochemical-and-anthropometric-variables-in-people-with-obesity-under-a-dietary-intervention
#1
César Hernández-Guerrero, Alicia Parra-Carriedo, Diana Ruiz-de-Santiago, Oscar Galicia-Castillo, Mario Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Carmen Díaz-Gutiérrez
Background: Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT, GPX, and SOD are involved in the etiology of obesity and its principal comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of aforementioned SNPs over the output of several variables in people with obesity after a nutritional intervention. The study included 92 Mexican women, which received a dietary intervention by 3 months. Participants were genotyped and stratified into two groups: (1) carriers; mutated homozygous plus heterozygous (CR) and (2) homozygous wild type (WT)...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308096/formidable-challenges-to-the-notion-of-biologically-important-roles-for-dietary-small-rnas-in-ingesting-mammals
#2
REVIEW
Stephen Y Chan, Jonathan W Snow
The notion of uptake of active diet-derived small RNAs (sRNAs) in recipient organisms could have significant implications for our understanding of oral therapeutics and nutrition, for the safe use of RNA interference (RNAi) in agricultural biotechnology, and for ecological relationships. Yet, the transfer and subsequent regulation of gene activity by diet-derived sRNAs in ingesting mammals are still heavily debated. Here, we synthesize current information based on multiple independent studies of mammals, invertebrates, and plants...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270237/proposed-guidelines-to-evaluate-scientific-validity-and-evidence-for-genotype-based-dietary-advice
#3
REVIEW
Keith A Grimaldi, Ben van Ommen, Jose M Ordovas, Laurence D Parnell, John C Mathers, Igor Bendik, Lorraine Brennan, Carlos Celis-Morales, Elisa Cirillo, Hannelore Daniel, Brenda de Kok, Ahmed El-Sohemy, Susan J Fairweather-Tait, Rosalind Fallaize, Michael Fenech, Lynnette R Ferguson, Eileen R Gibney, Mike Gibney, Ingrid M F Gjelstad, Jim Kaput, Anette S Karlsen, Silvia Kolossa, Julie Lovegrove, Anna L Macready, Cyril F M Marsaux, J Alfredo Martinez, Fermin Milagro, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Helen M Roche, Wim H M Saris, Iwona Traczyk, Henk van Kranen, Lars Verschuren, Fabio Virgili, Peter Weber, Jildau Bouwman
Nutrigenetic research examines the effects of inter-individual differences in genotype on responses to nutrients and other food components, in the context of health and of nutrient requirements. A practical application of nutrigenetics is the use of personal genetic information to guide recommendations for dietary choices that are more efficacious at the individual or genetic subgroup level relative to generic dietary advice. Nutrigenetics is unregulated, with no defined standards, beyond some commercially adopted codes of practice...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255495/a-scheme-for-a-flexible-classification-of-dietary-and-health-biomarkers
#4
REVIEW
Qian Gao, Giulia Praticò, Augustin Scalbert, Guy Vergères, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Claudine Manach, Lorraine Brennan, Lydia A Afman, David S Wishart, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Hans Verhagen, Edith J M Feskens, Lars O Dragsted
Biomarkers are an efficient means to examine intakes or exposures and their biological effects and to assess system susceptibility. Aided by novel profiling technologies, the biomarker research field is undergoing rapid development and new putative biomarkers are continuously emerging in the scientific literature. However, the existing concepts for classification of biomarkers in the dietary and health area may be ambiguous, leading to uncertainty about their application. In order to better understand the potential of biomarkers and to communicate their use and application, it is imperative to have a solid scheme for biomarker classification that will provide a well-defined ontology for the field...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234478/fructose-ingestion-impairs-expression-of-genes-involved-in-skeletal-muscle-s-adaptive-response-to-aerobic-exercise
#5
Natalia Gomes Gonçalves, Stephanie Heffer Cavaletti, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Milton Arruda Martins, Chin Jia Lin
Background: The inverse relationship between exercise capacity and its variation over time and both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality suggests the existence of an etiological nexus between cardiometabolic diseases and the molecular regulators of exercise capacity. Coordinated adaptive responses elicited by physical training enhance exercise performance and metabolic efficiency and possibly mediate the health benefits of physical exercise. In contrast, impaired expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or protein turnover in skeletal muscle-key biological processes involved in adaptation to physical training-leads to insulin resistance and obesity...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225708/ranges-of-phenotypic-flexibility-in-healthy-subjects
#6
T J van den Broek, G C M Bakker, C M Rubingh, S Bijlsma, J H M Stroeve, B van Ommen, M J van Erk, S Wopereis
Background: A key feature of metabolic health is the ability to adapt upon dietary perturbations. A systemic review defined an optimal nutritional challenge test, the "PhenFlex test" (PFT). Recently, it has been shown that the PFT enables the quantification of all relevant metabolic processes involved in maintaining or regaining homeostasis of metabolic health. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that quantification of PFT response was more sensitive as compared to fasting markers in demonstrating reduced phenotypic flexibility in metabolically impaired type 2 diabetes subjects...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151980/synbiotic-effects-of-%C3%AE-glucans-from-cauliflower-mushroom-and-lactobacillus-fermentum-on-metabolic-changes-and-gut-microbiome-in-estrogen-deficient-rats
#7
Seong-Yeop Jeong, Suna Kang, Cao Shi Hua, Zhang Ting, Sunmin Park
Background: We investigated whether the long-term consumption of a symbiotic formulation with Lactobacillus fermentum (probiotic) and β-glucan from cauliflower mushroom (prebiotic) would delay the progression of post-menopausal symptoms in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and explored their mechanisms of action, including changes in gut microbiota. Methods: OVX rats were fed with high-fat diets containing 1% dextrin (control), 1% lyophilized cauliflower mushroom extract (CFM), 0...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093761/a-prospective-study-of-dietary-and-supplemental-zinc-intake-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-depending-on-genetic-variation-in-slc30a8
#8
Isabel Drake, George Hindy, Ulrika Ericson, Marju Orho-Melander
Background: The solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene (SLC30A8) encodes a zinc transporter in the pancreatic beta cells and the major C-allele of a missense variant (rs13266634; C/T; R325W) in SLC30A8 is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that the association between zinc intake and T2D may be modified by the SLC30A8 genotype. Results: We carried out a prospective study among subjects with no history cardio-metabolic diseases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort (N = 26,132, 38% men; 86% with genotype data)...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093760/gene-nutrient-interactions-and-susceptibility-to-human-obesity
#9
REVIEW
Joseph J Castillo, Robert A Orlando, William S Garver
A large number of genome-wide association studies, transferability studies, and candidate gene studies performed in diverse populations around the world have identified gene variants that are associated with common human obesity. The mounting evidence suggests that these obesity gene variants interact with multiple environmental factors and increase susceptibility to this complex metabolic disease. The objective of this review article is to provide concise and updated information on energy balance, heritability of body weight, origins of gene variants, and gene-nutrient interactions in relation to human obesity...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043008/ancestors-dietary-patterns-and-environments-could-drive-positive-selection-in-genes-involved-in-micronutrient-metabolism-the-case-of-cofactor-transporters
#10
Silvia Parolo, Sébastien Lacroix, Jim Kaput, Marie-Pier Scott-Boyer
BACKGROUND: During evolution, humans colonized different ecological niches and adopted a variety of subsistence strategies that gave rise to diverse selective pressures acting across the genome. Environmentally induced selection of vitamin, mineral, or other cofactor transporters could influence micronutrient-requiring molecular reactions and contribute to inter-individual variability in response to foods and nutritional interventions. METHODS: A comprehensive list of genes coding for transporters of cofactors or their precursors was built using data mining procedures from the HGDP dataset and then explored to detect evidence of positive genetic selection...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043007/amino-acid-supplements-and-metabolic-health-a-potential-interplay-between-intestinal-microbiota-and-systems-control
#11
REVIEW
Francesco Bifari, Chiara Ruocco, Ilaria Decimo, Guido Fumagalli, Alessandra Valerio, Enzo Nisoli
Dietary supplementation of essential amino acids (EAAs) has been shown to promote healthspan. EAAs regulate, in fact, glucose and lipid metabolism and energy balance, increase mitochondrial biogenesis, and maintain immune homeostasis. Basic science and epidemiological results indicate that dietary macronutrient composition affects healthspan through multiple and integrated mechanisms, and their effects are closely related to the metabolic status to which they act. In particular, EAA supplementation can trigger different and even opposite effects depending on the catabolic and anabolic states of the organisms...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043006/does-dietary-fat-affect-inflammatory-markers-in-overweight-and-obese-individuals-a-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials-from-2010-to-2016
#12
REVIEW
Vibeke H Telle-Hansen, Jacob J Christensen, Stine M Ulven, Kirsten B Holven
BACKGROUND: Obesity, a major cause of death and disability, is increasing worldwide. Obesity is characterized by a chronic, low-grade inflammatory state which is suggested to play a critical role in the development of obesity-related diseases like cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In fact, in the hours following consumption of a meal, a transient increase in inflammatory markers occurs, a response that is exaggerated in obese subjects. Dietary composition, including content of dietary fatty acids, may affect this inflammatory response both acutely and chronically, and thereby be predictive of progression of disease...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043005/impact-of-supplementation-with-a-food-derived-microbial-community-on-obesity-associated-inflammation-and-gut-microbiota-composition
#13
Marianna Roselli, Chiara Devirgiliis, Paola Zinno, Barbara Guantario, Alberto Finamore, Rita Rami, Giuditta Perozzi
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex pathology associated with dysbiosis, metabolic alterations, and low-grade chronic inflammation promoted by immune cells, infiltrating and populating the adipose tissue. Probiotic supplementation was suggested to be capable of counteracting obesity-associated immune and microbial alterations, based on its proven immunomodulatory activity and positive effect on gut microbial balance. Traditional fermented foods represent a natural source of live microbes, including environmental strains with probiotic features, which could transiently colonise the gut...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974991/dietary-and-health-biomarkers-time-for-an-update
#14
EDITORIAL
Lars O Dragsted, Qian Gao, Giulia Praticò, Claudine Manach, David S Wishart, Augustin Scalbert, Edith J M Feskens
In the dietary and health research area, biomarkers are extensively used for multiple purposes. These include biomarkers of dietary intake and nutrient status, biomarkers used to measure the biological effects of specific dietary components, and biomarkers to assess the effects of diet on health. The implementation of biomarkers in nutritional research will be important to improve measurements of dietary intake, exposure to specific dietary components, and of compliance to dietary interventions. Biomarkers could also help with improved characterization of nutritional status in study volunteers and to provide much mechanistic insight into the effects of food components and diets...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974990/role-of-micrornas-in-obesity-and-obesity-related-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Giuseppe Iacomino, Alfonso Siani
In recent years, the link between regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) and diseases has been the object of intensive research. miRNAs have emerged as key mediators of metabolic processes, playing crucial roles in maintaining/altering physiological processes, including energy balance and metabolic homeostasis. Altered miRNAs expression has been reported in association with obesity, both in animal and human studies. Dysregulation of miRNAs may affect the status and functions of different tissues and organs, including the adipose tissue, pancreas, liver, and muscle, possibly contributing to metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity and obesity-related diseases...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904640/short-term-dietary-methionine-supplementation-affects-one-carbon-metabolism-and-dna-methylation-in-the-mouse-gut-and-leads-to-altered-microbiome-profiles-barrier-function-gene-expression-and-histomorphology
#16
Isabelle R Miousse, Rupak Pathak, Sarita Garg, Charles M Skinner, Stepan Melnyk, Oleksandra Pavliv, Howard Hendrickson, Reid D Landes, Annie Lumen, Alan J Tackett, Nicolaas E P Deutz, Martin Hauer-Jensen, Igor Koturbash
BACKGROUND: Methionine, a central molecule in one-carbon metabolism, is an essential amino acid required for normal growth and development. Despite its importance to biological systems, methionine is toxic when administered at supra-physiological levels. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of short-term methionine dietary modulation on the proximal jejunum, the section of the gut specifically responsible for amino acid absorption, in a mouse model. Eight-week-old CBA/J male mice were fed methionine-adequate (MAD; 6...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861127/multi-parameter-comparison-of-a-standardized-mixed-meal-tolerance-test-in-healthy-and-type-2-diabetic-subjects-the-phenflex-challenge
#17
Suzan Wopereis, Johanna H M Stroeve, Annette Stafleu, Gertruud C M Bakker, Jacobus Burggraaf, Marjan J van Erk, Linette Pellis, Ruud Boessen, Alwine A F Kardinaal, Ben van Ommen
BACKGROUND: A key feature of metabolic health is the ability to adapt upon dietary perturbations. Recently, it was shown that metabolic challenge tests in combination with the new generation biomarkers allow the simultaneous quantification of major metabolic health processes. Currently, applied challenge tests are largely non-standardized. A systematic review defined an optimal nutritional challenge test, the "PhenFlex test" (PFT). This study aimed to prove that PFT modulates all relevant processes governing metabolic health thereby allowing to distinguish subjects with different metabolic health status...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855970/lactase-persistence-in-tunisia-as-a-result-of-admixture-with-other-mediterranean-populations
#18
Yosra Ben Halima, Rym Kefi, Marco Sazzini, Cristina Giuliani, Sara De Fanti, Chokri Nouali, Majdi Nagara, Giacomo Mengozzi, Sahar Elouej, Abdelmajid Abid, Henda Jamoussi, Lotfi Chouchane, Giovanni Romeo, Sonia Abdelhak, Donata Luiselli
BACKGROUND: The ability to digest lactose after weaning, namely, lactase persistence (LP), is encoded by polymorphisms in the MCM6 gene and varies widely in frequency among different human populations. Although, evolution of LP-related genetic variants was investigated in many groups of Sub-Saharan African, Middle Eastern, and European ancestry, only few studies have focused on populations from North Africa and no data are especially available from the Tunisian one. For this reason, there is an urgent need to investigate the frequency patterns at these loci in Tunisia since this adaptive trait is implicated in health...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690685/examining-for-an-association-between-candidate-gene-polymorphisms-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-components-on-excess-weight-and-adiposity-measures-in-youth-a-cross-sectional-study
#19
Angélica María Muñoz, Claudia María Velásquez, Gloria María Agudelo, Rosa Magdalena Uscátegui, Alejandro Estrada, Fredy Alonso Patiño, Beatriz Elena Parra, María Victoria Parra, Gabriel Bedoya
BACKGROUND: A polymorphism in a gene may exert its effects on multiple phenotypes. The aim of this study is to explore the association of 10 metabolic syndrome candidate genes with excess weight and adiposity and evaluate the effect of perinatal and socioeconomic factors on these associations. METHODS: The anthropometry, socioeconomic and perinatal conditions and 10 polymorphisms were evaluated in 1081 young people between 10 and 18 years old. Genotypic associations were calculated using logistic and linear models adjusted by age, gender, and pubertal maturation, and a genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the number of effect alleles...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638490/obesity-and-microbiota-an-example-of-an-intricate-relationship
#20
REVIEW
Sabrina Duranti, Chiara Ferrario, Douwe van Sinderen, Marco Ventura, Francesca Turroni
It is widely accepted that metabolic disorders, such as obesity, are closely linked to lifestyle and diet. Recently, the central role played by the intestinal microbiota in human metabolism and in progression of metabolic disorders has become evident. In this context, animal studies and human trials have demonstrated that alterations of the intestinal microbiota towards enhanced energy harvest is a characteristic of the obese phenotype. Many publications, involving both animal studies and clinical trials, have reported on the successful exploitation of probiotics and prebiotics to treat obesity...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
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