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Genes & Nutrition

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736190/ons-an-ontology-for-a-standardized-description-of-interventions-and-observational-studies-in-nutrition
#1
Francesco Vitali, Rosario Lombardo, Damariz Rivero, Fulvio Mattivi, Pietro Franceschi, Alessandra Bordoni, Alessia Trimigno, Francesco Capozzi, Giovanni Felici, Francesco Taglino, Franco Miglietta, Nathalie De Cock, Carl Lachat, Bernard De Baets, Guy De Tré, Mariona Pinart, Katharina Nimptsch, Tobias Pischon, Jildau Bouwman, Duccio Cavalieri
Background: The multidisciplinary nature of nutrition research is one of its main strengths. At the same time, however, it presents a major obstacle to integrate data analysis, especially for the terminological and semantic interpretations that specific research fields or communities are used to. To date, a proper ontology to structure and formalize the concepts used for the description of nutritional studies is still lacking. Results: We have developed the Ontology for Nutritional Studies (ONS) by harmonizing selected pre-existing de facto ontologies with novel health and nutritional terminology classifications...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29736189/investigation-of-the-influence-of-high-glucose-on-molecular-and-genetic-responses-an-in-vitro-study-using-a-human-intestine-model
#2
Tugce Boztepe, Sukru Gulec
Background: Dietary glucose consumption has increased worldwide. Long-term high glucose intake contributes to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Obese people tend to eat glucose-containing foods, which can lead to an addiction to glucose, increased glucose levels in the blood and intestine lumen, and exposure of intestinal enterocytes to high dietary glucose. Recent studies have documented a role for enterocytes in glucose sensing. However, the molecular and genetic relationship between high glucose levels and intestinal enterocytes has not been determined...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662554/effect-of-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-methylbutyrate-on-mirna-expression-in-differentiating-equine-satellite-cells-exposed-to-hydrogen-peroxide
#3
Karolina A Chodkowska, Anna Ciecierska, Kinga Majchrzak, Piotr Ostaszewski, Tomasz Sadkowski
Background: Skeletal muscle injury activates satellite cells to initiate processes of proliferation, differentiation, and hypertrophy in order to regenerate muscle fibers. The number of microRNAs and their target genes are engaged in satellite cell activation. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is known to prevent exercise-induced muscle damage. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of HMB on miRNA and relevant target gene expression in differentiating equine satellite cells exposed to H2 O2 ...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662553/plasma-fatty-acid-levels-and-gene-expression-related-to-lipid-metabolism-in-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-a-cross-sectional-study-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Sunniva V Larsen, Kirsten B Holven, Inger Ottestad, Kine N Dagsland, Mari C W Myhrstad, Stine M Ulven
Background: Solid evidence indicates that intake of marine n-3 fatty acids lowers serum triglycerides and that replacing saturated fatty acids (SFA) with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) reduces plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. The molecular mechanisms underlying these health beneficial effects are however not completely elucidated. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the expression of genes related to lipid metabolism in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) depending on the plasma levels of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids and the SFA to PUFA ratio...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619114/omega-3-fatty-acid-dha-modulates-p53-survivin-and-microrna-16-1-expression-in-kras-mutant-colorectal-cancer-stem-like-cells
#5
Mohammad Reza Sam, Mohammad Tavakoli-Mehr, Reza Safaralizadeh
Background: The presence of chemotherapy-resistant colorectal cancer stem cells (CCSCs) with KRAS mutation is thought to be one of the primary causes for treatment failure in colorectal cancer (CRC). P53, survivin, and microRNA-16-1 are challenging targets for anticancer drugs which are associated with chemoresistance in CRC. Yet, no p53-, survivin-, and microRNA-16-1-modulating drug with low toxicity but high efficacy against KRAS-mutant CCSCs have been approved for clinical application in CRC...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619113/analysis-of-circulating-angiopoietin-like-protein-3-and-genetic-variants-in-lipid-metabolism-and-liver-health-the-diogenes-study
#6
Anne Lundby Hess, Jérôme Carayol, Trine Blædel, Jörg Hager, Alessandro Di Cara, Arne Astrup, Wim H M Saris, Lesli Hingstrup Larsen, Armand Valsesia
Background: Angiopoietin-like protein 3 (ANGPTL3), a liver-derived protein, plays an important role in the lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. Using data available from the DiOGenes study, we assessed the link with clinical improvements (weight, plasma lipid, and insulin levels) and changes in liver markers, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), adiponectin, fetuin A and B, and cytokeratin 18 (CK-18), upon low-calorie diet (LCD) intervention. We also examined the role of genetic variation in determining the level of circulating ANGPTL3 and the relation between the identified genetic markers and markers of hepatic steatosis...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564021/high-fat-diet-modifies-expression-of-hepatic-cellular-senescence-gene-p16-ink4a-through-chromatin-modifications-in-adult-male-rats
#7
Xiyuan Zhang, Guanying Bianca Xu, Dan Zhou, Yuan-Xiang Pan
Background: Liver is the crucial organ as a hub for metabolic reactions. p16(INK4a) is a well-established cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that plays important role in the molecular pathways of senescence, which lead to irreversible cell cycle arrest with secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and mitochondrial dysfunction. This study tested the hypothesis that cellular senescence regulated by p16(INK4a) is associated with high-fat diet in adult male rats. Methods: Sprague Dawley rats were fed a high-fat (HF) diet or a control (C) diet for 9 weeks after weaning...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556373/studying-microbial-functionality-within-the-gut-ecosystem-by-systems-biology
#8
REVIEW
Bastian Hornung, Vitor A P Martins Dos Santos, Hauke Smidt, Peter J Schaap
Humans are not autonomous entities. We are all living in a complex environment, interacting not only with our peers, but as true holobionts; we are also very much in interaction with our coexisting microbial ecosystems living on and especially within us, in the intestine. Intestinal microorganisms, often collectively referred to as intestinal microbiota, contribute significantly to our daily energy uptake by breaking down complex carbohydrates into simple sugars, which are fermented to short-chain fatty acids and subsequently absorbed by human cells...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484031/-fto-genotype-dietary-protein-intake-and-body-weight-in-a-multiethnic-population-of-young-adults-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
David C Merritt, Joseph Jamnik, Ahmed El-Sohemy
Background: Variation in the fat mass and obesity-associated gene ( FTO ) has been associated with susceptibility to obesity, but the association appears to be modified by diet. We investigated whether dietary protein intake modifies the association between FTO variant rs1558902 and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference in young adults ( n  = 1491) from the cross-sectional Toronto Nutrigenomics and Health Study. Results: Lifestyle, genetic, anthropometric, and biochemical data were collected and diet was assessed using a Toronto-modified Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484030/guidelines-for-biomarker-of-food-intake-reviews-bfirev-how-to-conduct-an-extensive-literature-search-for-biomarker-of-food-intake-discovery
#10
REVIEW
Giulia Praticò, Qian Gao, Augustin Scalbert, Guy Vergères, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Claudine Manach, Lorraine Brennan, Sri Harsha Pedapati, Lydia A Afman, David S Wishart, Rosa Vázquez-Fresno, Cristina Andres Lacueva, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Hans Verhagen, Edith J M Feskens, Lars O Dragsted
Identification of new biomarkers of food and nutrient intake has developed fast over the past two decades and could potentially provide important new tools for compliance monitoring and dietary intake assessment in nutrition and health science. In recent years, metabolomics has played an important role in identifying a large number of putative biomarkers of food intake (BFIs). However, the large body of scientific literature on potential BFIs outside the metabolomics area should also be taken into account. In particular, we believe that extensive literature reviews should be conducted and that the quality of all suggested biomarkers should be systematically evaluated...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445423/an-update-on-vitamin-b12-related-gene-polymorphisms-and-b12-status
#11
REVIEW
S Surendran, A Adaikalakoteswari, P Saravanan, I A Shatwaan, J A Lovegrove, K S Vimaleswaran
Background: Vitamin B12 is an essential micronutrient in humans needed for health maintenance. Deficiency of vitamin B12 has been linked to dietary, environmental and genetic factors. Evidence for the genetic basis of vitamin B12 status is poorly understood. However, advancements in genomic techniques have increased the knowledge-base of the genetics of vitamin B12 status. Based on the candidate gene and genome-wide association (GWA) studies, associations between genetic loci in several genes involved in vitamin B12 metabolism have been identified...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339975/genetic-polymorphisms-of-antioxidant-enzymes-cat-and-sod-affect-the-outcome-of-clinical-biochemical-and-anthropometric-variables-in-people-with-obesity-under-a-dietary-intervention
#12
César Hernández-Guerrero, Alicia Parra-Carriedo, Diana Ruiz-de-Santiago, Oscar Galicia-Castillo, Mario Buenrostro-Jáuregui, Carmen Díaz-Gutiérrez
Background: Genetic polymorphisms of antioxidant enzymes CAT, GPX, and SOD are involved in the etiology of obesity and its principal comorbidities. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of aforementioned SNPs over the output of several variables in people with obesity after a nutritional intervention. The study included 92 Mexican women, which received a dietary intervention by 3 months. Participants were genotyped and stratified into two groups: (1) carriers; mutated homozygous plus heterozygous (CR) and (2) homozygous wild type (WT)...
2018: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29507644/bioavailability-of-transgenic-micrornas-in-genetically-modified-plants
#13
Jian Yang, Cecilia Primo, Ismail Elbaz-Younes, Kendal D Hirschi
Background: Transgenic expression of small RNAs is a prevalent approach in agrobiotechnology for the global enhancement of plant foods. Meanwhile, emerging studies have, on the one hand, emphasized the potential of transgenic microRNAs (miRNAs) as novel dietary therapeutics and, on the other, suggested potential food safety issues if harmful miRNAs are absorbed and bioactive. For these reasons, it is necessary to evaluate the bioavailability of transgenic miRNAs in genetically modified crops...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308096/formidable-challenges-to-the-notion-of-biologically-important-roles-for-dietary-small-rnas-in-ingesting-mammals
#14
REVIEW
Stephen Y Chan, Jonathan W Snow
The notion of uptake of active diet-derived small RNAs (sRNAs) in recipient organisms could have significant implications for our understanding of oral therapeutics and nutrition, for the safe use of RNA interference (RNAi) in agricultural biotechnology, and for ecological relationships. Yet, the transfer and subsequent regulation of gene activity by diet-derived sRNAs in ingesting mammals are still heavily debated. Here, we synthesize current information based on multiple independent studies of mammals, invertebrates, and plants...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29270237/proposed-guidelines-to-evaluate-scientific-validity-and-evidence-for-genotype-based-dietary-advice
#15
REVIEW
Keith A Grimaldi, Ben van Ommen, Jose M Ordovas, Laurence D Parnell, John C Mathers, Igor Bendik, Lorraine Brennan, Carlos Celis-Morales, Elisa Cirillo, Hannelore Daniel, Brenda de Kok, Ahmed El-Sohemy, Susan J Fairweather-Tait, Rosalind Fallaize, Michael Fenech, Lynnette R Ferguson, Eileen R Gibney, Mike Gibney, Ingrid M F Gjelstad, Jim Kaput, Anette S Karlsen, Silvia Kolossa, Julie Lovegrove, Anna L Macready, Cyril F M Marsaux, J Alfredo Martinez, Fermin Milagro, Santiago Navas-Carretero, Helen M Roche, Wim H M Saris, Iwona Traczyk, Henk van Kranen, Lars Verschuren, Fabio Virgili, Peter Weber, Jildau Bouwman
Nutrigenetic research examines the effects of inter-individual differences in genotype on responses to nutrients and other food components, in the context of health and of nutrient requirements. A practical application of nutrigenetics is the use of personal genetic information to guide recommendations for dietary choices that are more efficacious at the individual or genetic subgroup level relative to generic dietary advice. Nutrigenetics is unregulated, with no defined standards, beyond some commercially adopted codes of practice...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29255495/a-scheme-for-a-flexible-classification-of-dietary-and-health-biomarkers
#16
REVIEW
Qian Gao, Giulia Praticò, Augustin Scalbert, Guy Vergères, Marjukka Kolehmainen, Claudine Manach, Lorraine Brennan, Lydia A Afman, David S Wishart, Cristina Andres-Lacueva, Mar Garcia-Aloy, Hans Verhagen, Edith J M Feskens, Lars O Dragsted
Biomarkers are an efficient means to examine intakes or exposures and their biological effects and to assess system susceptibility. Aided by novel profiling technologies, the biomarker research field is undergoing rapid development and new putative biomarkers are continuously emerging in the scientific literature. However, the existing concepts for classification of biomarkers in the dietary and health area may be ambiguous, leading to uncertainty about their application. In order to better understand the potential of biomarkers and to communicate their use and application, it is imperative to have a solid scheme for biomarker classification that will provide a well-defined ontology for the field...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234478/fructose-ingestion-impairs-expression-of-genes-involved-in-skeletal-muscle-s-adaptive-response-to-aerobic-exercise
#17
Natalia Gomes Gonçalves, Stephanie Heffer Cavaletti, Carlos Augusto Pasqualucci, Milton Arruda Martins, Chin Jia Lin
Background: The inverse relationship between exercise capacity and its variation over time and both cardiovascular and all-cause mortality suggests the existence of an etiological nexus between cardiometabolic diseases and the molecular regulators of exercise capacity. Coordinated adaptive responses elicited by physical training enhance exercise performance and metabolic efficiency and possibly mediate the health benefits of physical exercise. In contrast, impaired expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis or protein turnover in skeletal muscle-key biological processes involved in adaptation to physical training-leads to insulin resistance and obesity...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225708/ranges-of-phenotypic-flexibility-in-healthy-subjects
#18
T J van den Broek, G C M Bakker, C M Rubingh, S Bijlsma, J H M Stroeve, B van Ommen, M J van Erk, S Wopereis
Background: A key feature of metabolic health is the ability to adapt upon dietary perturbations. A systemic review defined an optimal nutritional challenge test, the "PhenFlex test" (PFT). Recently, it has been shown that the PFT enables the quantification of all relevant metabolic processes involved in maintaining or regaining homeostasis of metabolic health. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that quantification of PFT response was more sensitive as compared to fasting markers in demonstrating reduced phenotypic flexibility in metabolically impaired type 2 diabetes subjects...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151980/synbiotic-effects-of-%C3%AE-glucans-from-cauliflower-mushroom-and-lactobacillus-fermentum-on-metabolic-changes-and-gut-microbiome-in-estrogen-deficient-rats
#19
Seong-Yeop Jeong, Suna Kang, Cao Shi Hua, Zhang Ting, Sunmin Park
Background: We investigated whether the long-term consumption of a symbiotic formulation with Lactobacillus fermentum (probiotic) and β-glucan from cauliflower mushroom (prebiotic) would delay the progression of post-menopausal symptoms in ovariectomized (OVX) rats and explored their mechanisms of action, including changes in gut microbiota. Methods: OVX rats were fed with high-fat diets containing 1% dextrin (control), 1% lyophilized cauliflower mushroom extract (CFM), 0...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093761/a-prospective-study-of-dietary-and-supplemental-zinc-intake-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-depending-on-genetic-variation-in-slc30a8
#20
Isabel Drake, George Hindy, Ulrika Ericson, Marju Orho-Melander
Background: The solute carrier family 30 member 8 gene ( SLC30A8 ) encodes a zinc transporter in the pancreatic beta cells and the major C-allele of a missense variant (rs13266634; C/T; R325W) in SLC30A8 is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that the association between zinc intake and T2D may be modified by the SLC30A8 genotype. Results: We carried out a prospective study among subjects with no history cardio-metabolic diseases in the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study cohort ( N  = 26,132, 38% men; 86% with genotype data)...
2017: Genes & Nutrition
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