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Social Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591521/changes-in-face-specific-neural-processing-explain-reduced-cuteness-and-approachability-of-infants-with-cleft-lip
#1
Renske Huffmeijer, Janna Eilander, Viara R Mileva-Seitz, Ralph C A Rippe
The current study investigated whether changes in the neural processing of faces of infants with a facial abnormality - a cleft lip - mediate effects of the cleft lip on judgments of infant cuteness and approachability. Event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to pictures of faces of healthy infants and infants with a cleft lip, and ratings of cuteness and approachability of these infant faces, were obtained from 30 females. Infants with a cleft lip were rated as less attractive (less cute and approachable) than healthy infants, and both the N170 and P2 components of the ERP were of reduced amplitude in response to pictures of infants with a cleft lip...
June 18, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592189/perceiving-rejection-by-others-relationship-between-rejection-sensitivity-and-the-spontaneous-neuronal-activity-of-the-brain
#2
Jiangzhou Sun, Kaixiang Zhuang, Haijiang Li, Dongtao Wei, Qinglin Zhang, Jiang Qiu
Rejection sensitivity (RS) can be defined as the disposition of a person to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to rejection. Individuals with high RS are likely to suffer from mental disorders. The association between individual differences in RS and spontaneous neuronal activity at resting state has not yet been investigated. In this study, resting state data were used to investigate the relationship between RS and spontaneous neuronal activity in a large sample of healthy men (137) and women (172)...
June 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586261/modulation-of-reward-in-a-live-social-context-as-revealed-through-interactive-social-neuroscience
#3
Max J Rolison, Adam J Naples, Helena J V Rutherford, James C McPartland
Social neuroscience research investigating autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has yielded inconsistent findings, despite ASD being well-characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication through behavioral observation. In particular, specific etiologies and functional and structural assays of the brain in autism have not been consistently identified. To date, most social neuroscience research has focused on a single person viewing static images. Research utilizing interactive social neuroscience featuring dual-brain recording offers great promise for the study of neurodevelopmental disabilities...
June 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525960/the-behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-distinct-conceptions-of-fairness
#4
Laura Niemi, Emily Wasserman, Liane Young
Adhering to standard procedures (impartiality), returning favors (reciprocity) or giving based on individuals' needs (charity) may all be considered moral and/or fair ways to allocate resources. However, these allocation behaviors may be perceived as differently motivated, and their moral evaluation may make different demands on theory of mind (ToM) - the capacity to process information about mental states, including motives. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined participants' moral judgments of allocations based on (1) impartiality, (2) reciprocity, (3) charity and (4) unspecified criteria as depicted in vignettes, as well as participants' perceptions of allocators' motivations...
June 6, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475471/one-look-is-worth-a-thousand-words-new-picture-stimuli-of-interpersonal-situations
#5
Simon Fuchs, Laura M Bohleber, Jutta Ernst, Jasmine Soguel-Dit-Piquard, Heinz Boeker, Andre Richter
This paper introduces a picture system that can be used in functional imaging experiments exploring interpersonal relations. This is important for psychotherapy research to understand the neural basis of psychological treatment effects. Pictures have many advantages for the design of functional imaging experiments, but no picture system illustrating interpersonal behavior patterns is, to date, available. We therefore developed, on the basis of a validated card-sorting test, the Interpersonal Relations Picture System...
May 18, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486837/distinct-effects-of-reminding-mortality-and-physical-pain-on-the-default-mode-activity-and-activity-underlying-self-reflection
#6
Zhenhao Shi, Shihui Han
Behavioral research suggests that reminding both mortality and negative affect influences self-related thoughts. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we tested the hypothesis that reminders of mortality and physical pain decrease brain activity underlying self-related thoughts. Three groups of adults underwent priming procedures during which they answered questions pertaining to mortality, physical pain, or leisure time, respectively. Before and after priming, participants performed personality trait judgments on oneself or a celebrity, identified the font of words, or passively viewed a fixation...
May 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472899/rejection-sensitivity-and-multiple-group-memberships-the-moderating-role-of-an-oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism
#7
Robbie Woods, Marc Bedard, Robyn Jane McQuaid, Kim Matheson, Hymie Anisman
Rejection sensitivity is a cognitive-affective processing disposition that has been linked to interpersonal difficulties. In this regard, the neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin, is thought to underlie social cognitions and behaviors that promote social affiliation. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), in which guanine (G) is substituted for adenine (A), has been associated with less support-seeking behaviors. In the current study, among 376 undergraduate students, it was shown that the relationship between rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms was mediated by multiple group memberships...
May 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464709/social-status-level-and-dimension-interactively-influence-person-evaluations-indexed-by-p300s
#8
Ivo Gyurovski, Jennifer Kubota, Carlos Cardenas-Iniguez, Jasmin Cloutier
Functional neuroimaging research suggests that status-based evaluations may not solely depend on the level of social status but also on the conferred status dimension. However, no reports to date have studied how status level and dimension shape early person evaluations. To explore early status-based person evaluations, event-related brain potential data were collected from 29 participants while they indicated the status level and dimension of faces that had been previously trained to be associated with one of four status types: high moral, low moral, high financial, or low financial...
May 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446105/evaluating-methods-of-correcting-for-multiple-comparisons-implemented-in-spm12-in-social-neuroscience-fmri-studies-an-example-from-moral-psychology
#9
Hyemin Han, Andrea L Glenn
In fMRI research, the goal of correcting for multiple comparisons is to identify areas of activity that reflect true effects, and thus would be expected to replicate in future studies. Finding an appropriate balance between trying to minimize false positives (Type I error) while not being too stringent and omitting true effects (Type II error) can be challenging. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of these types of errors may differ for different areas of study. In many areas of social neuroscience that involve complex processes and considerable individual differences, such as the study of moral judgment, effects are typically smaller and statistical power weaker, leading to the suggestion that less stringent corrections that allow for more sensitivity may be beneficial and also result in more false positives...
May 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463058/generating-facial-expressions-of-disgust-activates-neurons-in-the-thoracic-spinal-cord-a-spinal-fmri-study
#10
Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen, Theresa A McIver
Facial expressions of disgust, which involve movement of the levator labii muscles on the nose, allow an organism to restrict the intake of potentially aversive stimuli by constricting the air cavities in the nostrils and reducing the speed of air intake. In the current research, we used fMRI of the thoracic spinal cord to measure neural activity related to (1) the contraction of the intercostal muscles that modulate the velocity of air intake and (2) the sensory feedback associated with this contraction. Thirteen participants completed two spinal fMRI runs in which the thoracic segments of the spinal cord were measured...
May 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398138/examining-human-behavior-in-video-games-the-development-of-a-computational-model-to-measure-aggression
#11
Richard Lamb, Leonard Annetta, Douglas Hoston, Marina Shapiro, Benjamin Matthews
Video games with violent content have raised considerable concern in popular media and within academia. Recently, there has been considerable attention regarding the claim of the relationship between aggression and video game play. The authors of this study propose the use of a new class of tools developed via computational models to allow examination of the question of whether there is a relationship between violent video games and aggression. The purpose of this study is to computationally model and compare the General Aggression Model with the Diathesis Mode of Aggression related to the play of violent content in video games...
April 24, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388867/are-friends-really-the-family-we-choose-local-variations-of-hypothalamus-activity-when-viewing-personally-known-faces
#12
Farah H Wolfe, Christine Deruelle, Thierry Chaminade
Sibling and friend relationships have significant impact on individuals' socio-emotional development. Hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) synthesize and secrete neuropeptides, including oxytocin, associated with attachment behaviors. Here, using fMRI, we investigate the implication of these two hypothalamic nuclei in the visual processing of personally known faces.  Faces of same-sex sibling, best friend, celebrity, and unknown person appear in the middle of the screen while participants perform a task requiring a button click each time a central white dot turns red...
April 23, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394199/neural-evidence-that-the-behavioral-inhibition-system-is-involved-in-existential-threat-processing
#13
Johannes Klackl, Eva Jonas, Immo Fritsche
According to threat-general perspectives, existentially threatening prospects such as the inevitability of mortality or uncontrollability represent motivational discrepancies that activate the behavioral inhibition system (BIS). The aim of the present paper is to test this claim using neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods. In Study 1, we used neuroimaging to show that both mortality- and uncontrollability-related stimuli elicit activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, which is a key BIS region in humans...
April 10, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393652/meditation-induced-neuroplastic-changes-in-amygdala-activity-during-negative-affective-processing
#14
Mei-Kei Leung, Way K W Lau, Chetwyn C H Chan, Samuel S Y Wong, Annis L C Fung, Tatia M C Lee
Recent evidence suggests that the effects of meditation practice on affective processing and resilience have the potential to induce neuroplastic changes within the amygdala. Notably, literature speculates that meditation training may reduce amygdala activity during negative affective processing. Nonetheless, studies have thus far not verified this speculation. In this longitudinal study, participants (N = 21, 9 men) were trained in awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) or matched relaxation training...
April 10, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079866/effects-of-parental-emotional-warmth-on-the-relationship-between-regional-gray-matter-volume-and-depression-related-personality-traits
#15
Junyi Yang, Ping Yin, Dongtao Wei, Kangcheng Wang, Yongmei Li, Jiang Qiu
The depression-related personality trait is associated with the severity of patients' current depressive symptoms and with the vulnerability to depression within the nonclinical groups. However, little is known about the anatomical structure associated with the depression-related personality traits within the nonclinical sample. Parenting behavior is associated with the depression symptoms; however, whether or not parenting behavior influence the neural basis of the depression-related personality traits is unclear...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27072369/functional-connectivity-associated-with-social-networks-in-older-adults-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#16
Sarah Pillemer, Roee Holtzer, Helena M Blumen
Poor social networks and decreased levels of social support are associated with worse mood, health, and cognition in younger and older adults. Yet, we know very little about the brain substrates associated with social networks and social support, particularly in older adults. This study examined functional brain substrates associated with social networks using the Social Network Index (SNI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting-state fMRI data from 28 non-demented older adults were analyzed with independent components analyses...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27072165/highways-of-the-emotional-intellect-white-matter-microstructural-correlates-of-an-ability-based-measure-of-emotional-intelligence
#17
Derek A Pisner, Ryan Smith, Anna Alkozei, Aleksandra Klimova, William D S Killgore
Individuals differ in their ability to understand emotional information and apply that understanding to make decisions and solve problems effectively - a construct known as Emotional Intelligence (EI). While considerable evidence supports the importance of EI in social and occupational functioning, the neural underpinnings of this capacity are relatively unexplored. We used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to determine the white matter correlates of EI as measured by the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27053464/elevated-moral-condemnation-of-third-party-violations-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#18
Indrajeet Patil, Liane Young, Vladimiro Sinay, Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht
Recent research has demonstrated impairments in social cognition associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). The present work asks whether these impairments are associated with atypical moral judgment. Specifically, we assessed whether MS patients are able to integrate information about intentions and outcomes for moral judgment (i.e., appropriateness and punishment judgments) in the case of third-party acts. We found a complex pattern of moral judgments in MS patients: although their moral judgments were comparable to controls' for specific types of acts (e...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27052026/an-investigation-of-the-impact-of-facial-affect-recognition-impairments-in-moderate-to-severe-tbi-on-fatigue-depression-and-quality-of-life
#19
Helen M Genova, Andrew Genualdi, Yael Goverover, Nancy D Chiaravalloti, Cherylynn Marino, Jeannie Lengenfelder
Individuals with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been shown to experience significant problems in facial affect recognition (FAR). However, it is not known how these impairments relate to overall functioning and quality of life (QoL) following TBI. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that worse performance on an FAR task would be associated with reduced QoL (related to social and emotional functioning), worse mood, and increased fatigue. Forty-seven individuals with TBI and 27 healthy controls (HCs) completed the facial emotion identification task (FEIT), as well as questionnaires assessing social and emotional QoL, mood, and fatigue...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27043067/relationship-between-orexin-a-and-childhood-maltreatment-in-female-patients-with-depression-and-anxiety
#20
Saliha Ozsoy, Ozlem Olguner Eker, Ummuhan Abdulrezzak, Ertugrul Esel
Childhood maltreatment leads to neuroendocrine changes, which may be associated with an increased vulnerability for psychopathology, such as depression and anxiety in later life. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and orexin A levels in patients with depression and anxiety. The study consisted of 27 female outpatients who presented with depressive and/or anxiety symptoms, and 27 healthy female controls. Childhood trauma history was assessed using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ-28) in patients and controls...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
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