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Social Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724332/common-and-distinct-neural-networks-involved-in-fmri-studies-investigating-morality-an-ale-meta-analysis
#1
Robert Eres, Winnifred R Louis, Pascal Molenberghs
Morality is an important social construct necessary for understanding what is right and wrong. Neuroimaging studies investigating morality have used a wide variety of paradigms and implicated many different brain areas. Yet, it remains unclear whether differences amongst morality tasks are the cause for such heterogeneous findings. Therefore, in the present study, a series of activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses were conducted on 123 datasets (inclusive of 1963 participants) to address this question...
July 20, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724323/evidence-that-disrupted-orienting-to-evaluative-social-feedback-undermines-error-correction-in-rejection-sensitive-women
#2
Jennifer A Mangels, Olta Hoxha, Sean P Lane, Shoshana N Jarvis, Geraldine Downey
For individuals high in Rejection Sensitivity (RS; Downey & Feldman, 1996), a learned orientation to anxiously expect rejection from valued others, negative feedback from social sources may disrupt engagement with learning opportunities, impeding recovery from mistakes. One context in which this disruption may be particularly pronounced is among women high in RS following evaluation by a male in authority. To investigate this prediction, 40 college students (50% female) answered general knowledge questions followed by immediate performance feedback and the correct answer while we recorded event-related potentials...
July 20, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712338/medial-prefrontal-cortex-stimulation-modulates-irony-processing-as-indexed-by-the-n400
#3
Nathalia Ishikawa Baptista, Mirella Manfredi, Paulo Sérgio Boggio
In this study, we investigated whether the ERP responses observed during a verbal irony comprehension task might represent the cortical manifestation of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex (MPFC) activity. We performed a tDCS-EEG study in which we analyzed the effects of tDCS polarities (anode, cathode, sham) over the MPFC during a verbal irony task. We presented visual short stories portraying everyday situations followed by written statements in either an ironic or literal condition, whose meaning was referred to in the previous context...
July 17, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712330/the-role-of-abnormalities-in-the-corpus-callosum-in-social-cognition-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
Skye McDonald, Jacqueline A Rushby, Katie I Dalton, Samantha K Allen, Nicklas Parks
The corpus callosum (CC) is vulnerable to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Social cognition requires integration of non-verbal and verbal information in order to understand social behaviour and may be compromised if the CC is damaged. 17 adults with severe, chronic TBI and 17 control participants underwent structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. A region of interest analysis examined fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) across regions of the CC. Performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): part 1 (emotion recognition) and parts 2 and 3 (social inference), was examined in relation to FA and MD...
July 17, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699831/motivated-malleability-frontal-cortical-asymmetry-predicts-the-susceptibility-to-social-influence
#5
Robert Schnuerch, Stefan Pfattheicher
Humans, just as many other animals, regulate their behavior in terms of approaching stimuli associated with pleasure and avoiding stimuli linked to harm. A person's current and chronic motivational direction-that is, approach versus avoidance orientation-is reliably reflected in the asymmetry of frontal cortical low-frequency oscillations. Using resting electroencephalography (EEG), we show that frontal asymmetry is predictive of the tendency to yield to social influence: Stronger right- than left-side frontolateral activation during a resting-state session prior to the experiment was robustly associated with a stronger inclination to adopt a peer group's judgments during perceptual decision-making (Study 1)...
July 12, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591521/changes-in-face-specific-neural-processing-explain-reduced-cuteness-and-approachability-of-infants-with-cleft-lip
#6
Renske Huffmeijer, Janna Eilander, Viara R Mileva-Seitz, Ralph C A Rippe
The current study investigated whether changes in the neural processing of faces of infants with a facial abnormality - a cleft lip - mediate effects of the cleft lip on judgments of infant cuteness and approachability. Event-related potentials (ERPs) in response to pictures of faces of healthy infants and infants with a cleft lip, and ratings of cuteness and approachability of these infant faces, were obtained from 30 females. Infants with a cleft lip were rated as less attractive (less cute and approachable) than healthy infants, and both the N170 and P2 components of the ERP were of reduced amplitude in response to pictures of infants with a cleft lip...
June 18, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592189/perceiving-rejection-by-others-relationship-between-rejection-sensitivity-and-the-spontaneous-neuronal-activity-of-the-brain
#7
Jiangzhou Sun, Kaixiang Zhuang, Haijiang Li, Dongtao Wei, Qinglin Zhang, Jiang Qiu
Rejection sensitivity (RS) can be defined as the disposition of a person to anxiously expect, readily perceive, and intensely react to rejection. Individuals with high RS are likely to suffer from mental disorders. The association between individual differences in RS and spontaneous neuronal activity at resting state has not yet been investigated. In this study, resting state data were used to investigate the relationship between RS and spontaneous neuronal activity in a large sample of healthy men (137) and women (172)...
June 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586261/modulation-of-reward-in-a-live-social-context-as-revealed-through-interactive-social-neuroscience
#8
Max J Rolison, Adam J Naples, Helena J V Rutherford, James C McPartland
Social neuroscience research investigating autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has yielded inconsistent findings, despite ASD being well-characterized by difficulties in social interaction and communication through behavioral observation. In particular, specific etiologies and functional and structural assays of the brain in autism have not been consistently identified. To date, most social neuroscience research has focused on a single person viewing static images. Research utilizing interactive social neuroscience featuring dual-brain recording offers great promise for the study of neurodevelopmental disabilities...
June 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525960/the-behavioral-and-neural-signatures-of-distinct-conceptions-of-fairness
#9
Laura Niemi, Emily Wasserman, Liane Young
Adhering to standard procedures (impartiality), returning favors (reciprocity) or giving based on individuals' needs (charity) may all be considered moral and/or fair ways to allocate resources. However, these allocation behaviors may be perceived as differently motivated, and their moral evaluation may make different demands on theory of mind (ToM) - the capacity to process information about mental states, including motives. In Studies 1 and 2, we examined participants' moral judgments of allocations based on (1) impartiality, (2) reciprocity, (3) charity and (4) unspecified criteria as depicted in vignettes, as well as participants' perceptions of allocators' motivations...
June 6, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475471/one-look-is-worth-a-thousand-words-new-picture-stimuli-of-interpersonal-situations
#10
Simon Fuchs, Laura M Bohleber, Jutta Ernst, Jasmine Soguel-Dit-Piquard, Heinz Boeker, Andre Richter
This paper introduces a picture system that can be used in functional imaging experiments exploring interpersonal relations. This is important for psychotherapy research to understand the neural basis of psychological treatment effects. Pictures have many advantages for the design of functional imaging experiments, but no picture system illustrating interpersonal behavior patterns is, to date, available. We therefore developed, on the basis of a validated card-sorting test, the Interpersonal Relations Picture System...
May 18, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486837/distinct-effects-of-reminding-mortality-and-physical-pain-on-the-default-mode-activity-and-activity-underlying-self-reflection
#11
Zhenhao Shi, Shihui Han
Behavioral research suggests that reminding both mortality and negative affect influences self-related thoughts. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we tested the hypothesis that reminders of mortality and physical pain decrease brain activity underlying self-related thoughts. Three groups of adults underwent priming procedures during which they answered questions pertaining to mortality, physical pain, or leisure time, respectively. Before and after priming, participants performed personality trait judgments on oneself or a celebrity, identified the font of words, or passively viewed a fixation...
May 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472899/rejection-sensitivity-and-multiple-group-memberships-the-moderating-role-of-an-oxytocin-receptor-gene-polymorphism
#12
Robbie Woods, Marc Bedard, Robyn Jane McQuaid, Kim Matheson, Hymie Anisman
Rejection sensitivity is a cognitive-affective processing disposition that has been linked to interpersonal difficulties. In this regard, the neuropeptide hormone, oxytocin, is thought to underlie social cognitions and behaviors that promote social affiliation. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), in which guanine (G) is substituted for adenine (A), has been associated with less support-seeking behaviors. In the current study, among 376 undergraduate students, it was shown that the relationship between rejection sensitivity and depressive symptoms was mediated by multiple group memberships...
May 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464709/social-status-level-and-dimension-interactively-influence-person-evaluations-indexed-by-p300s
#13
Ivo Gyurovski, Jennifer Kubota, Carlos Cardenas-Iniguez, Jasmin Cloutier
Functional neuroimaging research suggests that status-based evaluations may not solely depend on the level of social status but also on the conferred status dimension. However, no reports to date have studied how status level and dimension shape early person evaluations. To explore early status-based person evaluations, event-related brain potential data were collected from 29 participants while they indicated the status level and dimension of faces that had been previously trained to be associated with one of four status types: high moral, low moral, high financial, or low financial...
May 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446105/evaluating-methods-of-correcting-for-multiple-comparisons-implemented-in-spm12-in-social-neuroscience-fmri-studies-an-example-from-moral-psychology
#14
Hyemin Han, Andrea L Glenn
In fMRI research, the goal of correcting for multiple comparisons is to identify areas of activity that reflect true effects, and thus would be expected to replicate in future studies. Finding an appropriate balance between trying to minimize false positives (Type I error) while not being too stringent and omitting true effects (Type II error) can be challenging. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of these types of errors may differ for different areas of study. In many areas of social neuroscience that involve complex processes and considerable individual differences, such as the study of moral judgment, effects are typically smaller and statistical power weaker, leading to the suggestion that less stringent corrections that allow for more sensitivity may be beneficial and also result in more false positives...
May 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463058/generating-facial-expressions-of-disgust-activates-neurons-in-the-thoracic-spinal-cord-a-spinal-fmri-study
#15
Stephen D Smith, Jennifer Kornelsen, Theresa A McIver
Facial expressions of disgust, which involve movement of the levator labii muscles on the nose, allow an organism to restrict the intake of potentially aversive stimuli by constricting the air cavities in the nostrils and reducing the speed of air intake. In the current research, we used fMRI of the thoracic spinal cord to measure neural activity related to (1) the contraction of the intercostal muscles that modulate the velocity of air intake and (2) the sensory feedback associated with this contraction. Thirteen participants completed two spinal fMRI runs in which the thoracic segments of the spinal cord were measured...
May 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696950/the-beat-of-social-cognition-exploring-the-role-of-heart-rate-variability-as-marker-of-mentalizing-abilities
#16
Łukasz Okruszek, Kirsty Dolan, Megan Lawrence, Matteo Cella
There is a long-standing debate on the influence of physiological signals on social behavior. Recent studies suggested that heart rate variability (HRV) may be a marker of social cognitive processes. However, this evidence is preliminary and limited to laboratory studies. In this study, 25 participants were assessed with a social cognition battery and asked to wear a wearable device measuring HRV for 6 consecutive days. The results showed that reduced HRV correlated with higher hostility attribution bias. However, no relationship was found between HRV and other social cognitive measures including facial emotion recognition, theory of mind or emotional intelligence...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557430/why-won-t-they-sit-with-me-an-exploratory-investigation-of-stereotyped-cues-social-exclusion-and-the-p3b
#17
John E Kiat, Elizabeth Straley, Jacob E Cheadle
The importance of understanding how we anticipate and prepare for being socially excluded is underscored by the numerous adverse mental and physical consequences of social rejection. In this study, we adapted a social exclusion paradigm, the Lunchroom task, to investigate the use of social context cues in the formation of social outcome expectations as indexed by the P3b, an ERP component associated with attention orientation and context updating. In this task, Black and White participants were presented with either neutral or stereotyped cues prior to being exposed to simulated inclusion versus exclusion outcome scenarios...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421662/functional-characterization-of-an-oxytocin-receptor-gene-variant-rs2268498-previously-associated-with-social-cognition-by-expression-analysis-in-vitro-and-in-human-brain-biopsy
#18
Martin Reuter, Christian Montag, Steffen Altmann, Fabian Bendlow, Christian Elger, Peter Kirsch, Albert Becker, Susanne Schoch-McGovern, Matthias Simon, Bernd Weber, Andrea Felten
The oxytocin system plays a prominent role in social behavior across species, and numerous genetic studies in humans have reported associations between polymorphisms on the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and phenotypes related to social cognition, affiliation, perspective taking, and sociability in healthy subjects and in patients with atypical social behavior, such as in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, the first study demonstrating altered agonist-induced OXTR internalization and recycling for the exonic variant rs35062132 emerged...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420406/cultures-differ-in-the-ability-to-enhance-affective-neural-responses
#19
Michael E W Varnum, Ryan S Hampton
The present study (N = 55) used an event-related potential paradigm to investigate whether cultures differ in the ability to upregulate affective responses. Using stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System, we found that European-Americans (N = 29) enhanced central-parietal late positive potential (LPP) (400-800 ms post-stimulus) responses to affective stimuli when instructed to do so, whereas East Asians (N = 26) did not. We observed cultural differences in the ability to enhance central-parietal LPP responses for both positively and negativelyvalenced stimuli, and the ability to enhance these two types of responses was positively correlated for Americans but negatively for East Asians...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409387/an-fmri-and-effective-connectivity-study-investigating-miss-errors-during-advice-utilization-from-human-and-machine-agents
#20
Kimberly Goodyear, Raja Parasuraman, Sergey Chernyak, Ewart de Visser, Poornima Madhavan, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Frank Krueger
As society becomes more reliant on machines and automation, understanding how people utilize advice is a necessary endeavor. Our objective was to reveal the underlying neural associations during advice utilization from expert human and machine agents with fMRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis. During an X-ray luggage-screening task, participants accepted or rejected good or bad advice from either the human or machine agent framed as experts with manipulated reliability (high miss rate). We showed that the machine-agent group decreased their advice utilization compared to the human-agent group and these differences in behaviors during advice utilization could be accounted for by high expectations of reliable advice and changes in attention allocation due to miss errors...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
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