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Social Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901403/hearing-emotional-sounds-category-representation-in-the-human-amygdala
#1
Yanbing Zhao, Qing Sun, Gang Chen, Jiongjiong Yang
Previous studies have shown that the amygdala is more involved in processing animate categories, such as humans and animals, than inanimate objects, but little is known regarding whether this animate advantage applies to auditory stimuli. To address this issue, we performed an fMRI study with emotion and category as factors, in which subjects heard sounds from different categories (i.e., humans, animals and objects) in negative and neutral dimensions. Emotional levels and semantic familiarity were matched across categories...
November 30, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819190/parental-corporal-punishment-in-relation-to-children-s-executive-function-and-externalizing-behavior-problems-in-china
#2
Xiaopei Xing, Meifang Wang, Zhengyan Wang
The current study examined the relationship among paternal and maternal corporal punishment (CP), children's executive function (EF), and children's externalizing behavior problems. In total, 328 Chinese preschool-aged children and their parents and teachers participated. Paternal and maternal CP was assessed by father-reports and by mother-reports, respectively. Children's EF was assessed by the Executive Function Touch program. Children's externalizing behavior problems were assessed by mother-reports and by teacher-reports...
November 21, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27785975/are-eyewitness-accounts-biased-evaluating-false-memories-for-crimes-involving-in-group-or-out-group-conflict
#3
Alexis C Carpenter, Anne C Krendl
Eyewitness testimony has been shown to be unreliable and susceptible to false memories. Whether eyewitness memory errors are influenced by the victim's group membership (relative to both the eyewitness and perpetrator) is underexplored. The current study used complementary behavioral and neuroimaging approaches to test the hypothesis that intragroup conflict heightens participants' susceptibility to subsequent false memories. Healthy young adults witnessed and later answered questions about events in which the perpetrator and victim were either 1) identified as in-group members relative to each other and the eyewitness, 2) out-group members relative to the eyewitness, but not each other, or 3) out-group members relative to each other (Experiments 1a and 1b)...
November 17, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834117/reward-salience-and-attentional-networks-are-activated-by-religious-experience-in-devout-mormons
#4
Michael A Ferguson, Jared A Nielsen, Jace B King, Li Dai, Danielle M Giangrasso, Rachel Holman, Julie R Korenberg, Jeffrey S Anderson
High-level cognitive and emotional experience arises from brain activity, but the specific brain substrates for religious and spiritual euphoria remain unclear. We demonstrate using fMRI scans in 19 devout Mormons that a recognizable feeling central to their devotional practice was reproducibly associated with activation in nucleus accumbens, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and frontal attentional regions. Nucleus accumbens activation preceded peak spiritual feelings by 1-3 seconds and was replicated in 4 separate tasks...
November 11, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820680/a-developmental-social-neuroscience-model-for-understanding-loneliness-in-adolescence
#5
Nichol M L Wong, Patcy Yeung, Tatia M C Lee
Loneliness is prevalent in adolescents. Although it can be a normative experience, children and adolescents who experience loneliness are often at risk for anxiety, depression, and suicide. Research efforts have been made to identify the neurobiological basis of such distressful feelings in our social brain. In adolescents, the social brain is still undergoing significant development, which may contribute to their increased and differential sensitivity to the social environment. Many behavioral studies have shown the significance of attachment security and social skills in adolescents' interactions with the social world...
November 7, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813717/accepting-unfairness-by-a-significant-other-is-associated-with-reduced-connectivity-between-medial-prefrontal-and-dorsal-anterior-cingulate-cortex
#6
Ramzi Fatfouta, Dar Meshi, Angela Merkl, Hauke R Heekeren
Conflict is a ubiquitous feature of interpersonal relationships, yet many of these relationships preserve their value following conflict. Our ability to refrain from punishment despite the occurrence of conflict is a characteristic of human beings. Using a combination of behavioral and neuroimaging techniques, we show that prosocial decision making is modulated by relationship closeness. In an iterated social exchange, participants were more likely to cooperate with their partner compared to an unknown person by accepting unfair exchanges...
November 4, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778758/the-time-course-from-gender-categorization-to-gender-stereotype-activation
#7
Xiaobin Zhang, Qiong Li, Shan Sun, Bin Zuo
Social categorization is the foundation of stereotype activation, and the process from social categorization to stereotype activation is rapid. However, the time from social categorization to stereotype activation is unknown. This study involves a real-time measurement of the time course of gender-stereotype activation beginning with gender categorization using event-related potential technology with a face as the priming stimulus. We found that 195 ms after a face stimulus was presented, brain waves stimulated by male or female gender categorization showed a clear separation, with male faces stimulating larger N200 waves...
October 25, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767385/distinction-between-fear-and-surprise-an-interpretation-independent-test-of-the-perceptual-attentional-limitation-hypothesis
#8
Justin Chamberland, Annie Roy-Charland, Melanie Perron, Joël Dickinson
The perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis posits that the confusion between emotional facial expressions of fear and surprise may be due to their visual similarity, with shared muscle movements. In Experiment 1 full face images of fear and surprise varying as a function of distinctiveness (mouth index, brow index or both indices) were displayed in a gender oddball task. Experiment 2, in a similar task, directed attention towards the eye or mouth region with a blurring technique. The current two studies used response time and event-related potentials (ERP) to test the perceptual-attentional limitation hypothesis...
October 21, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759496/does-empathy-predict-altruism-in-the-wild
#9
Richard A I Bethlehem, Carrie Allison, Emma M van Andel, Alexander I Coles, Kym Neil, Simon Baron-Cohen
Why do people act altruistically? One theory is that empathy is a driver of morality. Experimental studies of this are often confined to laboratory settings, which often lack ecological validity. In the present study we investigated whether empathy traits predict if people will act altruistically in a real-world setting, 'in the wild'. We staged a situation in public that was designed to elicit helping, and subsequently measured empathic traits in those who either stopped to help or walked past and did not help...
October 19, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750521/autistic-traits-modulate-conscious-and-nonconscious-face-perception
#10
Katherine K M Stavropoulos, Michaela Viktorinova, Adam Naples, Jennifer Foss-Feig, James C McPartland
BACKGROUND: Difficulty with emotion perception is a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) that is also associated with the broader autism phenotype. OBJECTIVES: The current study explored the neural underpinnings of conscious and non-conscious perceptions of affect in typically developing individuals with varying levels of autistic-like traits, as measured by the Autism Quotient (AQ). We investigated the relationship between autistic traits and face processing efficiency using event-related potentials (ERPs)...
October 18, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745112/what-makes-moral-dilemma-judgments-utilitarian-or-deontological
#11
Bertram Gawronski, Jennifer S Beer
The distinction between utilitarianism and deontology has become a prevailing framework for conceptualizing moral judgment. According to the principle of utilitarianism, the morality of an action depends on its outcomes. In contrast, the principle of deontology states that the morality of an action depends on its consistency with moral norms. To identify the processes underlying utilitarian and deontological judgments, research in psychology and neuroscience has investigated responses to moral dilemmas that pit one principle against the other (e...
October 15, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27728997/as-tears-go-by-baby-tears-trigger-more-brain-activity-than-adult-tears-in-nulliparous-women
#12
Madelon M E Riem, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Pietro De Carli, Ad J J M Vingerhoets, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg
The current fMRI study examines brain activity during the perception of infant and adult tears. Infant tears evoke stronger responses in the visual cortex than adult tears, indicating that infant tears are highly salient. In addition, our study shows that infant tears uniquely activate somatosensory pain regions, which could stimulate actions directed at the elimination of the source of pain. Shedding tears may be a strong means to elicit the parent's sharing of the infant's feelings,, thereby strengthening caregiver-infant bonding and securing infant survival...
October 11, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27673404/executive-functions-parental-punishment-and-aggression-direct-and-moderated-relations
#13
Shameem Fatima, Imran Sharif
The main focus of the current study was to assess whether executive functions (EFs) moderate the effect of parental punishment on adolescent aggression. The sample were 370 participants (53% girls, 47% boys) enrolled at secondary and higher secondary levels and ranged in age between 13-19 years (M = 15.5, SD = 1.3). Participants were assessed on a self-report measure of aggression and two punishment measures, in addition to a demographic sheet. Then, they were individually assessed on four tests taken from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Functions System (D-KEFS) namely Trial Making Test (TMT), Design Fluency Test (DFT), Color Word Interference Test (CWIT), and Card Sorting Test (CST) to assess cognitive flexibility, nonverbal fluency, inhibition, and problem-solving ability, respectively...
October 11, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27707008/social-neuroscience-undoing-the-schism-between-neurology-and-psychiatry
#14
Agustín Ibáñez, Adolfo M García, Sol Esteves, Adrián Yoris, Edinson Muñoz, Lucila Reynaldo, Marcos Luis Pietto, Federico Adolfi, Facundo Manes
Multiple disorders once jointly conceived as 'nervous diseases' became segregated by the distinct institutional traditions forged in neurology and psychiatry. As a result, each field specialized in the study and treatment of a subset of such conditions. Here we propose new avenues for interdisciplinary interaction through a triangulation of both fields with social neuroscience. To this end, we review evidence from five relevant domains (facial emotion recognition, empathy, theory of mind, moral cognition, social context assessment), highlighting their common disturbances across neurological and psychiatric conditions and discussing their multiple pathophysiological mechanisms...
October 6, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705092/an-fmri-study-on-the-comparison-of-different-types-of-false-belief-reasoning-false-belief-based-emotion-and-behaviour-attribution
#15
Katrin Döhnel, Tobias Schuwerk, Beate Sodian, Göran Hajak, Rainer Rupprecht, Monika Sommer
False belief reasoning is a key Theory of Mind (ToM) competence. By four years of age children understand that a person's behaviour can be based on a false belief about reality. Children cannot understand that a person's emotion can also be based on a false belief before the age of six. In order to generate hypothesis on basic processes distinguishing these two types of belief reasoning, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study in adults directly compares functional activity associated with these two false belief tasks...
October 5, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696950/the-beat-of-social-cognition-exploring-the-role-of-heart-rate-variability-as-marker-of-mentalizing-abilities
#16
Łukasz Okruszek, Kirsty Dolan, Megan Lawrence, Matteo Cella
There is a long standing debate on the influence of physiological signals on social behavior. Recent studies suggested that heart rate variability (HRV) may be a marker of social cognitive processes. However, this evidence is preliminary and limited to laboratory studies. In this study 25 participants were assessed with a social cognition battery and asked to wear a wearable device measuring HRV for 6 consecutive days. The results showed that reduced HRV correlated with higher hostility attribution bias. However, no relationship was found between HRV and other social cognitive measures including facial emotion recognition, theory of mind or emotional intelligence...
October 4, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643572/empathy-for-pain-influences-perceptual-and-motor-processing-evidence-from-response-force-erps-and-eeg-oscillations
#17
Sarah Fabi, Hartmut Leuthold
In the present study we investigated the nature and chronometry of empathy for pain influences on perceptual and motor processes. Thus, event-related brain potentials (ERPs), response force (RF) and oscillatory electroencephalography (EEG) activity were measured while participants were presented with pictures of body parts in painful or neutral situations. Their task consisted in either judging the painfulness of the stimuli or counting the body parts displayed. ERP results supported the assumption of an early automatic component of empathy for pain, as reflected by the early posterior negativity (EPN), and of a late controlled component, as reflected by the late posterior positivity (P3)...
September 28, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635795/nonlinear-associations-between-human-values-and-neuroanatomy
#18
George Zacharopoulos, Paul H P Hanel, Thomas M Lancaster, Niklas Ihssen, Mark Drakesmith, Sonya Foley, Gregory R Maio, David E J Linden
Human values guide behavior and the smooth functioning of societies. Schwartz's circumplex model of values predicts a sinusoidal waveform in relations between ratings of the importance of diverse human value types (e.g., achievement, benevolence) and any variables psychologically relevant to them. In this neuroimaging study, we examined these nonlinear associations between values types and brain structure. In 85 participants, we found the predicted sinusoidal relationship between ratings of values types and two measures of white matter (WM), volume and myelin volume fraction, as well as for grey matter (GM) parameters in several frontal regions...
September 21, 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661190/editorial-board
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26787515/task-influences-pattern-discriminability-for-faces-and-bodies-in-ventral-occipitotemporal-cortex
#20
Na Yeon Kim, Gregory McCarthy
Our prior research showed that faces and bodies activate overlapping regions of the ventral occipitotemporal cortex (VOTC). However, faces and bodies were nonetheless discriminable in these same overlapping regions when their spatial patterns of activity were classified using multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA). Here we investigated whether these spatial patterns and their time courses were influenced by different categorization tasks. Participants viewed pictures of faces or headless bodies depicting a happy or fearful emotion...
December 2016: Social Neuroscience
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