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Social Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350571/intimate-partner-violence-perpetration-corresponds-to-a-dorsal-ventral-gradient-in-medial-pfc-reactivity-to-interpersonal-provocation
#1
David S Chester, C Nathan DeWall
Intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration is often preceded by perceived interpersonal provocations such as slights, insults, and rejections. Yet the neural mechanisms that link provocation to IPV remain unclear. In the context of interactions with strangers, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) has been repeatedly shown to respond to provocation, with more dorsal activation associated with more aggressive reactions and more ventral activation associated with less aggressive reactions. We used functional brain imaging to test whether this dorsal-ventral MPFC reactivity gradient would also correlate with greater aggression towards an unexamined target: intimate partners...
January 19, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347878/the-effect-of-aging-on-the-mis-perception-of-intentionality-an-erp-study
#2
R Pasion, C Fernandes, A R Gonçalves, F Ferreira-Santos, R Páscoa, F Barbosa, J Marques-Teixeira
Despite the accumulated knowledge on moral decision-making in the early stages of development, empirical evidence is still limited in the old-aged adults. The current study contributes to unveil the neural correlates of judgments of moral transgressions as a function of aging, by examining the temporal dynamics of neural activation elicited by intentional and accidental harmful actions in three groups of healthy participants: young adults (18-35), adults (40-55), and older adults (60-75). Older adults were slower and less accurate in rating intentionality, compared to the younger groups...
January 18, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291661/investigating-the-association-between-parity-and-the-maternal-neural-response-to-infant-cues
#3
Angela N Maupin, Helena J V Rutherford, Nicole Landi, Marc N Potenza, Linda C Mayes
Understanding the maternal neural response to infant affective cues has important implications for parent-child relationships. The current study employed event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine patterns in mothers' responses to infant affective cues, and evaluated the influence of maternal experience, defined by parity (i.e., the number of children a mother has) on ERP responses. Eighty-three mothers, three months postpartum, viewed photographs of displays of infant emotional faces (sad or happy) and listened to infant cries of different distress levels and a control tone...
January 2, 2018: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29271284/amygdala-reactivity-to-fearful-faces-correlates-positively-with-impulsive-aggression
#4
Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Patrick M Fisher, Liv V Hjordt, Klaus Holst, Gitte M Knudsen
Facial expressions robustly activate the amygdala, a brain structure playing a critical role in aggression. Whereas previous studies suggest that amygdala reactivity is related to various measures of impulsive aggression, we here estimate a composite measure of impulsive aggression and evaluate whether it is associated with amygdala reactivity to angry and fearful faces. We estimated amygdala reactivity with functional magnetic resonance imaging in 47 men with varying degree of aggressive traits (19 incarcerated violent offenders and 28 healthy controls)...
December 22, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241395/oxytocin-regulates-social-approach
#5
Daniela Cohen, Simone G Shamay-Tsoory
The physical space individuals share is known as interpersonal space. As social creatures, people tend to approach others actively and explore the environment around them, opting for different space preferences with different people. In the current study, we sought to examine the role of oxytocin (OT) in regulating active social interpersonal space preferences. Contrary to previous studies that reported a preference for increased space following intranasal OT, we predicted that following OT administration individuals would exhibit increased active approach towards a protagonist...
December 17, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227757/the-second-agent-effect-interpersonal-predictive-coding-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#6
Łukasz Okruszek, Aleksandra Piejka, Adam Wysokiński, Ewa Szczepocka, Valeria Manera
Interpersonal predictive coding (IPC) enables one to use the information conveyed by the communicative action of one agent to predict the response of another agent. IPC relies both on explicit reflective processes (processing of communicative intentions) and automatic reflexive processes (motor resonance). Predictive coding deficits may underlie positive symptoms in people with schizophrenia (SCZ), yet IPC has not been analyzed in SCZ. Thirty-nine SCZ and 22 controls (HC) completed a simultaneous masking detection task, during which they observed either communicative (Com) or individual (Ind) actions of agent A and had to report the presence of the agent B, who was shown in half of the trials...
December 11, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210327/5-httlpr-polymorphism-is-associated-with-nostalgia-proneness-the-role-of-neuroticism
#7
Yu L L Luo, Baldwin Way, Keith Welker, C Nathan DeWall, Brad J Bushman, Tim Wildschut, Constantine Sedikides
Nostalgia, a sentimental longing for the past, is a self-relevant and social emotion. Nostalgia proneness is associated with alleviation of distress or instability (e.g., neuroticism). Although nostalgia proneness is heritable, the specific molecular contributors to this heritability are unknown. We focused on a polymorphism in the promoter of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTTLPR) as a possible biological basis of nostalgia proneness, because the serotonin system has been associated with sensitivity to negative experience...
December 6, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185870/retaliation-or-selfishness-an-rtms-investigation-of-the-role-of-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-prosocial-motives
#8
Jan-Martin Müller-Leinß, Björn Enzi, Vera Flasbeck, Martin Brüne
Equity, fairness and cooperative behavior are crucial for everyday social interactions. Recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is involved in the evaluation of violations of fairness rules, though difficulties remain to determine its role in implementing retaliating or forgiving responses to unfairness. Accordingly, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left and right DLPFC and investigated the impact of the DLPFC on retaliation and selfishness using a sequential neuroeconomic task establishing a role reversal...
November 29, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157163/taking-risks-for-personal-gain-an-investigation-of-self-construal-and-testosterone-responses-to-competition
#9
Keith M Welker, Ashlin R K Roy, Shawn Geniole, Shinobu Kitayama, Justin M Carré
Recent research on testosterone and risk-taking behavior is beginning to focus on the role of context-dependent changes in testosterone. Extending this research, our study investigated the association between testosterone reactivity to competitive outcomes and risk-taking in the context of a video game based competition. The study also examined whether self-construal moderated this relationship. Results indicated that a rise in testosterone during competition did not predict subsequent risk-taking behavior...
November 20, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137530/neuroanatomical-substrates-involved-in-unrelated-false-facial-recognition
#10
Eliane Ronzon-Gonzalez, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Erick H Pasaye, Israel Vaca-Palomares, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
Identifying faces is a process central for social interaction and a relevant factor in eyewitness theory. False recognition is a critical mistake during an eyewitness's identification scenario because it can lead to a wrongful conviction. Previous studies have described neural areas related to false facial recognition using the standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (morphed faces, looking similar to each other), triggering false memories (related false recognition). Nonetheless, misidentification of faces without trying to elicit false memories (unrelated false recognition) in a police lineup could involve different cognitive processes, and therefore, distinct neural areas...
November 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125397/oxytocin-receptor-genotype-and-low-economic-privilege-reverses-ventral-striatum-social-anxiety-association
#11
Marlen Z Gonzalez, Meghan H Puglia, James P Morris, Jessica J Connelly
Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms, lower ventral striatum (VS) response to social stimuli, and lower economic privilege have been independently associated with depression and anxiety. However, the interactions between these risk factors are unknown. One hundred and fifty-seven healthy adult participants genotyped for OXTR rs237915 completed a common emotion-matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Past economic privilege and depression and anxiety symptoms were concurrently assessed through validated self-report measures...
November 10, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115193/personality-modulates-amygdala-and-insula-connectivity-during-humor-appreciation-an-event-related-fmri-study
#12
Philipp Berger, Florian Bitsch, Arne Nagels, Benjamin Straube, Irina Falkenberg
Previous research and theory implicate that personality traits, such as extraversion and neuroticism, influence the processing of humor, as indicated by alterations in the activation of fronto-temporal and mesocorticolimbic brain regions during humor processing. In the current study, we sought to complement these findings by testing whether inter-individual differences in functional connectivity of humor-related brain regions are modulated by stable personality characteristics during humor processing. Using fMRI techniques, we studied 19 healthy subjects during the processing of standardized humorous and neutral cartoons...
November 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115181/it-s-not-me-it-s-you-differential-neural-processing-of-social-and-non-social-nogo-cues-in-joint-action
#13
Jutta Peterburs, Roman Liepelt, Rolf Voegler, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Thomas Straube
This EEG study used a joint flanker task to investigate differences in processing of social and non-social nogo cues, i.e., between cues indicating that a co-actor should respond and cues signaling that neither actor nor co-actor should respond, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and trial-to-trial response time (RT) effects. It was hypothesized that a social co-actor's response should be reflected in stronger modulation (slower RTs on subsequent trials; augmented neural responses) for social compared to non-social nogo...
November 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110570/so-pretty-the-neural-correlates-of-self-other-vs-familiar-other-attractiveness-comparisons
#14
Gayannée Kedia, Thomas Mussweiler, Ruth Adam, Anja Ischebeck, Niklas Ihssen, David E J Linden
Previous research has demonstrated that comparing two persons activates a frontoparietal network associated with numbers and nonsocial magnitudes. However, it is unclear whether this network is also recruited by comparisons involving the self. Self-reflection engages self-serving motivations (e.g. the maintenance of a positive self-image) and is associated with specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), the anterior insula (AI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Self-other comparisons may thus rely on distinct neural activity...
November 7, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091541/a-multilevel-social-neuroscience-perspective-on-radicalization-and-terrorism
#15
Jean Decety, Clifford I Workman
Why are some people capable of sympathizing with and/or committing acts of political violence, such as attacks aimed at innocent targets? Attempts to construct terrorist profiles based on individual and situational factors, such as clinical, psychological, ethnic, and socio-demographic variables, have largely failed. Although individual and situational factors must be at work, it is clear that they alone cannot explain how certain individuals are radicalized. In this paper, we propose that a comprehensive understanding of radicalization and of how it may lead to political violence requires the integration of information across multiple levels of analysis and interdisciplinary perspectives from evolutionary theory, social, personality and cognitive psychology, political science and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091537/why-do-we-fall-into-sync-with-others-interpersonal-synchronization-and-the-brain-s-optimization-principle
#16
Leonie Koban, Anand Ramamoorthy, Ivana Konvalinka
Spontaneous interpersonal synchronization of rhythmic behavior such as gait or clapping is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human interactions, and is potentially important for social relationships and action understanding. Although several authors have suggested a role of the mirror neuron system in interpersonal coupling, the underlying brain mechanisms are not well understood. Here we argue that more general theories of neural computations, namely predictive coding and the Free Energy Principle, could explain interpersonal coordination dynamics...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048247/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-during-social-intentions
#17
Stephanie Cacioppo, Mylene Bolmont, George Monteleone
Previous research has shown that specific goals and intentions influence a person's allocation of social attention. From a neural viewpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests that the inferior fronto-parietal network, including the mirror neuron system, plays a role in the planning and the understanding of motor intentions. However, it is unclear whether and when the mirror neuron system plays a role in social intentions. Combining a behavioral task with electrical neuroimaging in 22 healthy male participants, the current study investigates whether the temporal brain dynamic of the mirror neuron system differs during two types of social intentions i...
October 27, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067880/modulating-affective-experience-and-emotional-intelligence-with-loving-kindness-meditation-and-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-pilot-study
#18
Charles Robinson, Mika Armenta, Angela Combs, Melanie L Lamphere, Gabrielle J Garza, James Neary, Janet H Wolfe, Edward Molina, Dominick E Semey, Christina M McKee, Stevi J Gallegos, Aaron P Jones, Michael C Trumbo, Hussein Al-Azzawi, Michael A Hunter, Gregory Lieberman, Brian A Coffman, Mohamed Aboseria, Marom Bikson, Vincent P Clark, Katie Witkiewitz
Positive emotional perceptions and healthy emotional intelligence (EI) are important for social functioning. In this study, we investigated whether loving kindness meditation (LKM) combined with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would facilitate improvements in EI and changes in affective experience of visual stimuli. LKM has been shown to increase positive emotional experiences and we hypothesized that tDCS could enhance these effects. Eighty-seven undergraduates were randomly assigned to 30 minutes of LKM or a relaxation control recording with anodal tDCS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (left dlPFC) or right temporoparietal junction (right TPJ) at 0...
October 25, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067872/selective-neural-sensitivity-to-familial-threat-in-adolescents-with-weak-family-bonds
#19
Paul B Sharp, Wendy Heller, Eva H Telzer
Familial stressors, such as weak familial connectedness, are associated with the development of maladaptive threat processing, yet little is known regarding how weak familial bonds impinge on biological mechanisms of threat processing. The present study leveraged multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data to compare the neural encoding of familial and nonfamilial threatening and non-threatening stimuli in adolescents who endorsed varying levels of connectedness to their families. Adolescents (N=22, Mage= 14.38 years) reporting lower family connectedness one year earlier showed elevated sensitivity to familial threat, but not to nonfamilial threat in a neural network associated with threat processing, comprising left and right amygdala, and right inferior and middle temporal gyri...
October 25, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759496/does-empathy-predict-altruism-in-the-wild
#20
Richard A I Bethlehem, Carrie Allison, Emma M van Andel, Alexander I Coles, Kimberley Neil, Simon Baron-Cohen
Why do people act altruistically? One theory is that empathy is a driver of morality. Experimental studies of this are often confined to laboratory settings, which often lack ecological validity. In the present study we investigated whether empathy traits predict if people will act altruistically in a real-world setting, "in the wild". We staged a situation in public that was designed to elicit helping, and subsequently measured empathic traits in those who either stopped to help or walked past and did not help...
December 2017: Social Neuroscience
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