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Social Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926290/social-networking-sites-use-and-the-morphology-of-a-social-semantic-brain-network
#1
Ofir Turel, Qinghua He, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
Social lives have shifted, at least in part, for large portions of the population to social networking sites. How such lifestyle changes may be associated with brain structures is still largely unknown. In this manuscript, we describe two preliminary studies aimed at exploring this issue. The first study (n=276) showed that Facebook users reported on increased social-semantic and mentalizing demands, and that such increases were positively associated with people's level of Facebook use. The second study (n=33) theorized on and examined likely anatomical correlates of such changes in demands on the brain...
September 19, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820016/why-we-stay-with-our-social-partners-neural-mechanisms-of-stay-leave-decision-making
#2
Amber Heijne, Filippo Rossi, Alan G Sanfey
How do we decide to keep interacting (e.g., stay) with a social partner or to switch (e.g., leave) to another? This paper investigated the neural mechanisms of stay/leave decision-making. We hypothesized that these decisions fit within a framework of value-based decision-making, and explored four potential mechanisms underlying a hypothesized bias to stay. Twenty-six participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing social and nonsocial versions of a stay/leave decision-making task...
September 3, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826336/empathizers-and-systemizers-process-social-information-differently
#3
Tapani Riekki, Annika Svedholm-Häkkinen, Marjaana Lindeman
Using the empathizing-systemizing theory as our framework, we investigated how people with high self-reported empathizing (having good social skills and being interested in people) and systemizing (being interested in physical things and processes) differ in the social information processing of emotionally negative photographs of people during "spontaneous watching" and emotional and cognitive empathy tasks. Empathizers evaluated the pictures as more emotionally touching and the reactions in the photographs more understandable than the systemizers...
August 22, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805504/neural-basis-of-altered-earlier-attention-and-higher-order-biological-motion-processing-in-schizophrenia
#4
Yukiko Matsumoto, Hideyuki Takahashi, Jun Miyata, Genichi Sugihara, Toshiya Murai, Hidehiko Takahashi
Schizophrenia patients have impairments of biological motion (BM) perception, which provides critical information about social cognition. Because social cognition is underpinned by attention, the impairments of BM perception in schizophrenia could be partially attributable to altered attention. To elucidate the impairments in attention and social perception in schizophrenia, we investigated the neural basis of impaired BM processing using MRI in respect to attention deficits by eye tracker. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to evaluate the relationship between BM perception and gray matter (GM) volume...
August 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803529/the-role-of-the-amygdala-in-incongruity-resolution-the-case-of-humor-comprehension
#5
Tagiru Nakamura, Tomoko Matsui, Akira Utsumi, Mika Yamazaki, Kai Makita, Tokiko Harada, Hiroki C Tanabe, Norihiro Sadato
A dominant theory of humor comprehension suggests that people understand humor by first perceiving some incongruity in an expression and then resolving it. This is called "the incongruity-resolution theory." Experimental studies have investigated the neural basis of humor comprehension, and multiple neural substrates have been proposed; however, the specific substrate for incongruity resolution is still unknown. The reason may be that the resolution phase, despite its importance in humor comprehension, has not been successfully distinguished from the perception phase because both phases occur almost simultaneously...
August 14, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28786739/voluntary-physical-exercise-protects-against-behavioral-and-endocrine-reactivity-to-social-and-environmental-stressors-in-the-prairie-vole
#6
W Tang Watanasriyakul, Joshua Wardwell, Neal McNeal, Rachel Schultz, Matthew Woodbury, Ashley Dagner, Miranda Cox, Angela J Grippo
Physical activity has been shown to combat detrimental effects of stress. The current study examined the potential protective effects of exercise against a combination of social isolation and chronic mild stress (CMS) in a prairie vole model. Female voles were isolated for 4 weeks, with the addition of CMS during the final 2 weeks. Half of the voles were allowed access to a running wheel during this final 2 weeks, while the other half remained sedentary. Animals underwent behavioral tests to assess depressive- and anxiety-behaviors...
August 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768460/a-stranger-in-my-brain-neural-representation-for-unfamiliar-persons-using-fmri-repetition-suppression
#7
Elien Heleven, Siham Boukhlal, Frank Van Overwalle
Prior neuroimaging research demonstrated that the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) houses neural representations for traits and familiar persons that possess these traits. But do such neural representations also exist for people we do not know? We hypothesized that knowledge about unknown persons is encoded in "generic" mentalizing representations as opposed to "specific" representations for well-known individuals. Neural representations for unfamiliar persons were investigated by fMRI repetition suppression, which is a rapid suppression of fMRI responses upon repeated presentation of the same stimulus signaling the neural representation of this stimulus...
August 2, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756739/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-donating-behavior-in-middle-childhood
#8
Andrea Wildeboer, Sandra Thijssen, Ryan L Muetzel, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Henning Tiemeier, Tonya White, Marinus H Van IJzendoorn
The neurobiological correlates of prosocial behavior are largely unknown. We examined brain structure and functional connectivity correlates of donating to a charity, a specific, costly, form of prosocial behavior. In 163 children, donating was measured using a promotional clip for a charity including a call for donations. Children could decide privately whether and how much they wanted to donate from money they had received earlier. Whole brain structural MRI scans were obtained to study associations between cortical thickness and donating behavior...
July 31, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749312/do-cultures-vary-in-self-enhancement-erp-behavioral-and-self-report-evidence
#9
Ryan S Hampton, Michael E W Varnum
Psychologists have long debated whether self-enhancement is universal or varies across cultures. Extant studies using explicit and implicit measures have provided mixed results. In this study (N = 93; 35 European American, 58 Chinese: 28 tested in English, 30 tested in Mandarin), we measured self-enhancement covertly using an ERP paradigm. Self-enhancement was also assessed via self-report and reaction-time based measures. Americans showed strong evidence of self-enhancement across all measures, whereas this effect was absent or weaker among Chinese, who instead showed an other-enhancing bias across measures...
July 27, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724332/common-and-distinct-neural-networks-involved-in-fmri-studies-investigating-morality-an-ale-meta-analysis
#10
Robert Eres, Winnifred R Louis, Pascal Molenberghs
Morality is an important social construct necessary for understanding what is right and wrong. Neuroimaging studies investigating morality have used a wide variety of paradigms and implicated many different brain areas. Yet, it remains unclear whether differences amongst morality tasks are the cause for such heterogeneous findings. Therefore, in the present study, a series of activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analyses were conducted on 123 datasets (inclusive of 1963 participants) to address this question...
July 27, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743211/social-context-modulates-cognitive-markers-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#11
Hernando Santamaría-García, Carles Soriano-Mas, Miguel Burgaleta, Alba Ayneto, Pino Alonso, José M Menchón, Narcis Cardoner, Nuria Sebastián-Gallés
BACKGROUND: Error monitoring, cognitive control and motor inhibition control are proposed as cognitive alterations disrupted in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). OCD has also been associated with an increased sensitivity to social evaluations. The effect of a social simulation over electrophysiological indices of cognitive alterations in OCD was examined. METHODS: A case-control cross-sectional study measuring event-related potentials (ERP) for error monitoring (Error-Related Negativity), cognitive control (N2) and motor control (LRP) was conducted...
July 26, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724323/evidence-that-disrupted-orienting-to-evaluative-social-feedback-undermines-error-correction-in-rejection-sensitive-women
#12
Jennifer A Mangels, Olta Hoxha, Sean P Lane, Shoshana N Jarvis, Geraldine Downey
For individuals high in Rejection Sensitivity (RS; Downey & Feldman, 1996), a learned orientation to anxiously expect rejection from valued others, negative feedback from social sources may disrupt engagement with learning opportunities, impeding recovery from mistakes. One context in which this disruption may be particularly pronounced is among women high in RS following evaluation by a male in authority. To investigate this prediction, 40 college students (50% female) answered general knowledge questions followed by immediate performance feedback and the correct answer while we recorded event-related potentials...
July 20, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712338/medial-prefrontal-cortex-stimulation-modulates-irony-processing-as-indexed-by-the-n400
#13
Nathalia Ishikawa Baptista, Mirella Manfredi, Paulo Sérgio Boggio
In this study, we investigated whether the ERP responses observed during a verbal irony comprehension task might represent the cortical manifestation of the Medial Prefrontal Cortex (MPFC) activity. We performed a tDCS-EEG study in which we analyzed the effects of tDCS polarities (anode, cathode, sham) over the MPFC during a verbal irony task. We presented visual short stories portraying everyday situations followed by written statements in either an ironic or literal condition, whose meaning was referred to in the previous context...
July 17, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712330/the-role-of-abnormalities-in-the-corpus-callosum-in-social-cognition-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Skye McDonald, Jacqueline A Rushby, Katie I Dalton, Samantha K Allen, Nicklas Parks
The corpus callosum (CC) is vulnerable to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Social cognition requires integration of non-verbal and verbal information in order to understand social behaviour and may be compromised if the CC is damaged. 17 adults with severe, chronic TBI and 17 control participants underwent structural MRI and Diffusion Tensor Imaging. A region of interest analysis examined fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) across regions of the CC. Performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT): part 1 (emotion recognition) and parts 2 and 3 (social inference), was examined in relation to FA and MD...
July 17, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699831/motivated-malleability-frontal-cortical-asymmetry-predicts-the-susceptibility-to-social-influence
#15
Robert Schnuerch, Stefan Pfattheicher
Humans, just as many other animals, regulate their behavior in terms of approaching stimuli associated with pleasure and avoiding stimuli linked to harm. A person's current and chronic motivational direction-that is, approach versus avoidance orientation-is reliably reflected in the asymmetry of frontal cortical low-frequency oscillations. Using resting electroencephalography (EEG), we show that frontal asymmetry is predictive of the tendency to yield to social influence: Stronger right- than left-side frontolateral activation during a resting-state session prior to the experiment was robustly associated with a stronger inclination to adopt a peer group's judgments during perceptual decision-making (Study 1)...
July 12, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696950/the-beat-of-social-cognition-exploring-the-role-of-heart-rate-variability-as-marker-of-mentalizing-abilities
#16
Łukasz Okruszek, Kirsty Dolan, Megan Lawrence, Matteo Cella
There is a long-standing debate on the influence of physiological signals on social behavior. Recent studies suggested that heart rate variability (HRV) may be a marker of social cognitive processes. However, this evidence is preliminary and limited to laboratory studies. In this study, 25 participants were assessed with a social cognition battery and asked to wear a wearable device measuring HRV for 6 consecutive days. The results showed that reduced HRV correlated with higher hostility attribution bias. However, no relationship was found between HRV and other social cognitive measures including facial emotion recognition, theory of mind or emotional intelligence...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27557430/why-won-t-they-sit-with-me-an-exploratory-investigation-of-stereotyped-cues-social-exclusion-and-the-p3b
#17
John E Kiat, Elizabeth Straley, Jacob E Cheadle
The importance of understanding how we anticipate and prepare for being socially excluded is underscored by the numerous adverse mental and physical consequences of social rejection. In this study, we adapted a social exclusion paradigm, the Lunchroom task, to investigate the use of social context cues in the formation of social outcome expectations as indexed by the P3b, an ERP component associated with attention orientation and context updating. In this task, Black and White participants were presented with either neutral or stereotyped cues prior to being exposed to simulated inclusion versus exclusion outcome scenarios...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27421662/functional-characterization-of-an-oxytocin-receptor-gene-variant-rs2268498-previously-associated-with-social-cognition-by-expression-analysis-in-vitro-and-in-human-brain-biopsy
#18
Martin Reuter, Christian Montag, Steffen Altmann, Fabian Bendlow, Christian Elger, Peter Kirsch, Albert Becker, Susanne Schoch-McGovern, Matthias Simon, Bernd Weber, Andrea Felten
The oxytocin system plays a prominent role in social behavior across species, and numerous genetic studies in humans have reported associations between polymorphisms on the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene and phenotypes related to social cognition, affiliation, perspective taking, and sociability in healthy subjects and in patients with atypical social behavior, such as in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Recently, the first study demonstrating altered agonist-induced OXTR internalization and recycling for the exonic variant rs35062132 emerged...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27420406/cultures-differ-in-the-ability-to-enhance-affective-neural-responses
#19
Michael E W Varnum, Ryan S Hampton
The present study (N = 55) used an event-related potential paradigm to investigate whether cultures differ in the ability to upregulate affective responses. Using stimuli selected from the International Affective Picture System, we found that European-Americans (N = 29) enhanced central-parietal late positive potential (LPP) (400-800 ms post-stimulus) responses to affective stimuli when instructed to do so, whereas East Asians (N = 26) did not. We observed cultural differences in the ability to enhance central-parietal LPP responses for both positively and negativelyvalenced stimuli, and the ability to enhance these two types of responses was positively correlated for Americans but negatively for East Asians...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409387/an-fmri-and-effective-connectivity-study-investigating-miss-errors-during-advice-utilization-from-human-and-machine-agents
#20
Kimberly Goodyear, Raja Parasuraman, Sergey Chernyak, Ewart de Visser, Poornima Madhavan, Gopikrishna Deshpande, Frank Krueger
As society becomes more reliant on machines and automation, understanding how people utilize advice is a necessary endeavor. Our objective was to reveal the underlying neural associations during advice utilization from expert human and machine agents with fMRI and multivariate Granger causality analysis. During an X-ray luggage-screening task, participants accepted or rejected good or bad advice from either the human or machine agent framed as experts with manipulated reliability (high miss rate). We showed that the machine-agent group decreased their advice utilization compared to the human-agent group and these differences in behaviors during advice utilization could be accounted for by high expectations of reliable advice and changes in attention allocation due to miss errors...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
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