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Social Neuroscience

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137530/neuroanatomical-substrates-involved-in-unrelated-false-facial-recognition
#1
Eliane Ronzon-Gonzalez, Carlos R Hernandez-Castillo, Erick H Pasaye, Israel Vaca-Palomares, Juan Fernandez-Ruiz
Identifying faces is a process central for social interaction and a relevant factor in eyewitness theory. False recognition is a critical mistake during an eyewitness's identification scenario because it can lead to a wrongful conviction. Previous studies have described neural areas related to false facial recognition using the standard Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm (morphed faces, looking similar to each other), triggering false memories (related false recognition). Nonetheless, misidentification of faces without trying to elicit false memories (unrelated false recognition) in a police lineup could involve different cognitive processes, and therefore, distinct neural areas...
November 15, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125397/oxytocin-receptor-genotype-and-low-economic-privilege-reverses-ventral-striatum-social-anxiety-association
#2
Marlen Z Gonzalez, Meghan H Puglia, James P Morris, Jessica J Connelly
Oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) polymorphisms, lower ventral striatum (VS) response to social stimuli, and lower economic privilege have been independently associated with depression and anxiety. However, the interactions between these risk factors are unknown. One hundred and fifty-seven healthy adult participants genotyped for OXTR rs237915 completed a common emotion-matching task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Past economic privilege and depression and anxiety symptoms were concurrently assessed through validated self-report measures...
November 10, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115193/personality-modulates-amygdala-and-insula-connectivity-during-humor-appreciation-an-event-related-fmri-study
#3
Philipp Berger, Florian Bitsch, Arne Nagels, Benjamin Straube, Irina Falkenberg
Previous research and theory implicate that personality traits, such as extraversion and neuroticism, influence the processing of humor, as indicated by alterations in the activation of fronto-temporal and mesocorticolimbic brain regions during humor processing. In the current study, we sought to complement these findings by testing whether inter-individual differences in functional connectivity of humor-related brain regions are modulated by stable personality characteristics during humor processing. Using fMRI techniques, we studied 19 healthy subjects during the processing of standardized humorous and neutral cartoons...
November 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115181/it-s-not-me-it-s-you-differential-neural-processing-of-social-and-non-social-nogo-cues-in-joint-action
#4
Jutta Peterburs, Roman Liepelt, Rolf Voegler, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Thomas Straube
This EEG study used a joint flanker task to investigate differences in processing of social and non-social nogo cues, i.e., between cues indicating that a co-actor should respond and cues signaling that neither actor nor co-actor should respond, using event-related potentials (ERPs) and trial-to-trial response time (RT) effects. It was hypothesized that a social co-actor's response should be reflected in stronger modulation (slower RTs on subsequent trials; augmented neural responses) for social compared to non-social nogo...
November 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110570/so-pretty-the-neural-correlates-of-self-other-vs-familiar-other-attractiveness-comparisons
#5
Gayannée Kedia, Thomas Mussweiler, Ruth Adam, Anja Ischebeck, Niklas Ihssen, David E J Linden
Previous research has demonstrated that comparing two persons activates a frontoparietal network associated with numbers and nonsocial magnitudes. However, it is unclear whether this network is also recruited by comparisons involving the self. Self-reflection engages self-serving motivations (e.g. the maintenance of a positive self-image) and is associated with specific brain structures, such as the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), the anterior insula (AI) and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Self-other comparisons may thus rely on distinct neural activity...
November 7, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091541/a-multilevel-social-neuroscience-perspective-on-radicalization-and-terrorism
#6
Jean Decety, Clifford I Workman
Why are some people capable of sympathizing with and/or committing acts of political violence, such as attacks aimed at innocent targets? Attempts to construct terrorist profiles based on individual and situational factors, such as clinical, psychological, ethnic, and socio-demographic variables, have largely failed. Although individual and situational factors must be at work, it is clear that they alone cannot explain how certain individuals are radicalized. In this paper, we propose that a comprehensive understanding of radicalization and of how it may lead to political violence requires the integration of information across multiple levels of analysis and interdisciplinary perspectives from evolutionary theory, social, personality and cognitive psychology, political science and neuroscience...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091537/why-do-we-fall-into-sync-with-others-interpersonal-synchronization-and-the-brain-s-optimization-principle
#7
Leonie Koban, Anand Ramamoorthy, Ivana Konvalinka
Spontaneous interpersonal synchronization of rhythmic behavior such as gait or clapping is a ubiquitous phenomenon in human interactions, and is potentially important for social relationships and action understanding. Although several authors have suggested a role of the mirror neuron system in interpersonal coupling, the underlying brain mechanisms are not well understood. Here we argue that more general theories of neural computations, namely predictive coding and the Free Energy Principle, could explain interpersonal coordination dynamics...
November 1, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048247/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-during-social-intentions
#8
Stephanie Cacioppo, Mylene Bolmont, George Monteleone
Previous research has shown that specific goals and intentions influence a person's allocation of social attention. From a neural viewpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests that the inferior fronto-parietal network, including the mirror neuron system, plays a role in the planning and the understanding of motor intentions. However, it is unclear whether and when the mirror neuron system plays a role in social intentions. Combining a behavioral task with electrical neuroimaging in 22 healthy male participants, the current study investigates whether the temporal brain dynamic of the mirror neuron system differs during two types of social intentions i...
October 27, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067880/modulating-affective-experience-and-emotional-intelligence-with-loving-kindness-meditation-and-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-a-pilot-study
#9
Charles Robinson, Mika Armenta, Angela Combs, Melanie L Lamphere, Gabrielle J Garza, James Neary, Janet H Wolfe, Edward Molina, Dominick E Semey, Christina M McKee, Stevi J Gallegos, Aaron P Jones, Michael C Trumbo, Hussein Al-Azzawi, Michael A Hunter, Gregory Lieberman, Brian A Coffman, Mohamed Aboseria, Marom Bikson, Vincent P Clark, Katie Witkiewitz
Positive emotional perceptions and healthy emotional intelligence (EI) are important for social functioning. In this study, we investigated whether loving kindness meditation (LKM) combined with anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) would facilitate improvements in EI and changes in affective experience of visual stimuli. LKM has been shown to increase positive emotional experiences and we hypothesized that tDCS could enhance these effects. Eighty-seven undergraduates were randomly assigned to 30 minutes of LKM or a relaxation control recording with anodal tDCS applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (left dlPFC) or right temporoparietal junction (right TPJ) at 0...
October 25, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067872/selective-neural-sensitivity-to-familial-threat-in-adolescents-with-weak-family-bonds
#10
Paul B Sharp, Wendy Heller, Eva H Telzer
Familial stressors, such as weak familial connectedness, are associated with the development of maladaptive threat processing, yet little is known regarding how weak familial bonds impinge on biological mechanisms of threat processing. The present study leveraged multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data to compare the neural encoding of familial and nonfamilial threatening and non-threatening stimuli in adolescents who endorsed varying levels of connectedness to their families. Adolescents (N=22, Mage= 14.38 years) reporting lower family connectedness one year earlier showed elevated sensitivity to familial threat, but not to nonfamilial threat in a neural network associated with threat processing, comprising left and right amygdala, and right inferior and middle temporal gyri...
October 25, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053930/social-dimension-and-complexity-differentially-influence-brain-responses-during-feedback-processing
#11
Daniela M Pfabigan, Marianne Gittenberger, Claus Lamm
Recent research emphasizes the importance of social factors during performance monitoring. Thus, the current study investigated the impact of social stimuli -such as communicative gestures- on feedback processing. Moreover, it addressed a shortcoming of previous studies, which failed to consider stimulus complexity as potential confounding factor. Twenty-four volunteers performed a time estimation task while their electroencephalogram was recorded. Either social complex, social non-complex, non-social complex, or non-social non-complex stimuli were used to provide performance feedback...
October 20, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022771/lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-activity-is-modulated-by-group-membership-in-situations-of-justified-and-unjustified-violence
#12
Juan F Domínguez D, Félice van Nunspeet, Ayushi Gupta, Robert Eres, Winnifred R Louis, Jean Decety, Pascal Molenberghs
The role of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in moral decision-making is well established. However, OFC activity is highly context dependent. It is affected by the extent to which choices are morally justified and whom they concern. In the current study, we specifically focus on contextual factors and investigate the differential role of the OFC during justified and unjustified violence towards ingroup versus outgroup members. Muslims were chosen as the outgroup, as they are currently stereotypically seen as an outgroup and a potential threat by some Non-Muslims...
October 12, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016239/early-distinction-between-shame-and-guilt-processing-in-an-interpersonal-context
#13
Ruida Zhu, Haiyan Wu, Zhenhua Xu, Honghong Tang, Xueyi Shen, Xiaoqin Mai, Chao Liu
Shame and guilt have been compared in many behavioral and functional magnetic resonance imaging studies. However, the time course of shame and guilt processing remains unknown. We conducted an event-related potential (ERP) study to investigate the temporal dynamics of shame and guilt in an interpersonal context. Behaviorally, participants reported "shame" when their wrong advice was correctly rejected by a confederate, whereas reported "guilt" when their wrong advice resulted in economic loss of a confederate...
October 10, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990866/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-emotion-processing-in-children-with-unilateral-brain-lesion-a-preliminary-study-of-limbic-system-organization
#14
Rowena Ng, Philip Lai, Timothy T Brown, Anna Järvinen, Eric Halgren, Ursula Bellugi, Doris Trauner
In this study, MRI and DTI were employed to examine subcortical volume and microstructural properties (FA, MD) of the limbic network, and their relationships with affect discrimination in 13 FL (6 right FL, M = 10.17 years; 7 left FL; M = 10.09) and 13 typically-developing children (TD; M = 10.16). Subcortical volume of the amygdala, hippocampus and thalamus and FA and MD of the fornix and anterior thalamic radiation (ATR) were examined. Results revealed no group differences across emotion-perception tasks or amygdalar volume...
October 9, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926290/social-networking-sites-use-and-the-morphology-of-a-social-semantic-brain-network
#15
Ofir Turel, Qinghua He, Damien Brevers, Antoine Bechara
Social lives have shifted, at least in part, for large portions of the population to social networking sites. How such lifestyle changes may be associated with brain structures is still largely unknown. In this manuscript, we describe two preliminary studies aimed at exploring this issue. The first study (n = 276) showed that Facebook users reported on increased social-semantic and mentalizing demands, and that such increases were positively associated with people's level of Facebook use. The second study (n = 33) theorized on and examined likely anatomical correlates of such changes in demands on the brain...
September 30, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820016/why-we-stay-with-our-social-partners-neural-mechanisms-of-stay-leave-decision-making
#16
Amber Heijne, Filippo Rossi, Alan G Sanfey
How do we decide to keep interacting (e.g., stay) with a social partner or to switch (e.g., leave) to another? This paper investigated the neural mechanisms of stay/leave decision-making. We hypothesized that these decisions fit within a framework of value-based decision-making, and explored four potential mechanisms underlying a hypothesized bias to stay. Twenty-six participants underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while completing social and nonsocial versions of a stay/leave decision-making task...
September 3, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826336/empathizers-and-systemizers-process-social-information-differently
#17
Tapani Riekki, Annika Svedholm-Häkkinen, Marjaana Lindeman
Using the empathizing-systemizing theory as our framework, we investigated how people with high self-reported empathizing (having good social skills and being interested in people) and systemizing (being interested in physical things and processes) differ in the social information processing of emotionally negative photographs of people during "spontaneous watching" and emotional and cognitive empathy tasks. Empathizers evaluated the pictures as more emotionally touching and the reactions in the photographs more understandable than the systemizers...
August 22, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759496/does-empathy-predict-altruism-in-the-wild
#18
Richard A I Bethlehem, Carrie Allison, Emma M van Andel, Alexander I Coles, Kimberley Neil, Simon Baron-Cohen
Why do people act altruistically? One theory is that empathy is a driver of morality. Experimental studies of this are often confined to laboratory settings, which often lack ecological validity. In the present study we investigated whether empathy traits predict if people will act altruistically in a real-world setting, "in the wild". We staged a situation in public that was designed to elicit helping, and subsequently measured empathic traits in those who either stopped to help or walked past and did not help...
December 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635795/nonlinear-associations-between-human-values-and-neuroanatomy
#19
George Zacharopoulos, Paul H P Hanel, Thomas M Lancaster, Niklas Ihssen, Mark Drakesmith, Sonya Foley, Gregory R Maio, David E J Linden
Human values guide behavior and the smooth functioning of societies. Schwartz's circumplex model of values predicts a sinusoidal waveform in relations between ratings of the importance of diverse human value types (e.g., achievement, benevolence) and any variables psychologically relevant to them. In this neuroimaging study, we examined these nonlinear associations between values types and brain structure. In 85 participants, we found the predicted sinusoidal relationship between ratings of values types and two measures of white matter (WM), volume and myelin volume fraction, as well as for grey matter (GM) parameters in several frontal regions...
December 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696950/the-beat-of-social-cognition-exploring-the-role-of-heart-rate-variability-as-marker-of-mentalizing-abilities
#20
Łukasz Okruszek, Kirsty Dolan, Megan Lawrence, Matteo Cella
There is a long-standing debate on the influence of physiological signals on social behavior. Recent studies suggested that heart rate variability (HRV) may be a marker of social cognitive processes. However, this evidence is preliminary and limited to laboratory studies. In this study, 25 participants were assessed with a social cognition battery and asked to wear a wearable device measuring HRV for 6 consecutive days. The results showed that reduced HRV correlated with higher hostility attribution bias. However, no relationship was found between HRV and other social cognitive measures including facial emotion recognition, theory of mind or emotional intelligence...
October 2017: Social Neuroscience
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