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Social Neuroscience

Hyemin Han, Andrea L Glenn
In fMRI research, the goal of correcting for multiple comparisons is to identify areas of activity that reflect true effects, and thus would be expected to replicate in future studies. Finding an appropriate balance between trying to minimize false positives (Type I error) while not being too stringent and omitting true effects (Type II error) can be challenging. Furthermore, the advantages and disadvantages of these types of errors may differ for different areas of study. In many areas of social neuroscience that involve complex processes and considerable individual differences, such as the study of moral judgment, effects are typically smaller and statistical power weaker, leading to the suggestion that less stringent corrections that allow for more sensitivity may be beneficial, but also result in more false positives...
April 27, 2017: Social Neuroscience
Richard Lamb, Leonard Annetta, Douglas Hoston, Marina Shapiro, Benjamin Matthews
Video games with violent content have raised considerable concern in popular media and within academia. Recently, there has been considerable attention regarding the claim of the relationship between aggression and video game play. The authors of this study propose the use of a new class of tools developed via computational models to allow examination of the question of whether there is a relationship between violent video games and aggression. The purpose of this study is to computationally model and compare the General Aggression Model with the Diathesis Mode of Aggression related to the play of violent content in video games...
April 24, 2017: Social Neuroscience
Farah H Wolfe, Christine Deruelle, Thierry Chaminade
Sibling and friend relationships have significant impact on individuals' socio-emotional development. Hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) and paraventricular nucleus (PVN) synthesize and secrete neuropeptides, including oxytocin, associated with attachment behaviors. Here, using fMRI, we investigate the implication of these two hypothalamic nuclei in the visual processing of personally known faces.  Faces of same-sex sibling, best friend, celebrity, and unknown person appear in the middle of the screen while participants perform a task requiring a button click each time a central white dot turns red...
April 23, 2017: Social Neuroscience
Johannes Klackl, Eva Jonas, Immo Fritsche
According to threat-general perspectives, existentially threatening prospects such as the inevitability of mortality or uncontrollability represent motivational discrepancies that activate the behavioral inhibition system (BIS). The aim of the present paper is to test this claim using neuroimaging and neurophysiological methods. In Study 1, we used neuroimaging to show that both mortality- and uncontrollability-related stimuli elicit activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, which is a key BIS region in humans...
April 10, 2017: Social Neuroscience
Mei-Kei Leung, Way K W Lau, Chetwyn C H Chan, Samuel S Y Wong, Annis L C Fung, Tatia M C Lee
Recent evidence suggests that the effects of meditation practice on affective processing and resilience have the potential to induce neuroplastic changes within the amygdala. Notably, literature speculates that meditation training may reduce amygdala activity during negative affective processing. Nonetheless, studies have thus far not verified this speculation. In this longitudinal study, participants (N = 21, 9 men) were trained in awareness-based compassion meditation (ABCM) or matched relaxation training...
April 10, 2017: Social Neuroscience
Daniela Schwab, Anne Schienle
The present event-related potential (ERP) study investigated for the first time whether children with early-onset social anxiety disorder (SAD) process affective facial expressions of varying intensities differently than non-anxious controls. Participants were 15 SAD patients and 15 non-anxious controls (mean age of 9 years). They were presented with schematic faces displaying anger and happiness at four intensity levels (25%, 50%, 75%, 100%), as well as with neutral faces. ERPs in early and later time windows (P100, N170, late positivity), as well as affective ratings (valence and arousal) for the faces, were recorded...
March 9, 2017: Social Neuroscience
Albert Wabnegger, Sonja Übel, Anne Schienle
BACKGROUND: Difficulties with the regulation of negative affect have been extensively studied in neuroimaging research. However, dysregulation of a specific emotion, disgust, has hardly been investigated. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to identify whether gray matter volume (GMV) of frontal regions is correlated with personality traits associated with general and disgust-specific emotion regulation difficulties. METHOD: We analyzed T1-weighted images of 49 females (mean age = 22...
February 6, 2017: Social Neuroscience
Sebastian Schindler, Johanna Kissler
Recently, several event-related potential (ERP) studies investigated the impact of sender attributions on language-based social feedback processing. Results showed very early responses to the social context, while interactions or effects of emotional content started later. However, in these studies, sender attribution was varied across blocks, possibly inducing unspecific, anticipatory effects. Here, who was giving feedback was disclosed simultaneously with the decision itself. Participants' ERPs differentiated between attributed senders starting with the early posterior negativity...
February 6, 2017: Social Neuroscience
Junyi Yang, Ping Yin, Dongtao Wei, Kangcheng Wang, Yongmei Li, Jiang Qiu
The depression-related personality trait is associated with the severity of patients' current depressive symptoms and with the vulnerability to depression within the nonclinical groups. However, little is known about the anatomical structure associated with the depression-related personality traits within the nonclinical sample. Parenting behavior is associated with the depression symptoms; however, whether or not parenting behavior influence the neural basis of the depression-related personality traits is unclear...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
Sarah Pillemer, Roee Holtzer, Helena M Blumen
Poor social networks and decreased levels of social support are associated with worse mood, health, and cognition in younger and older adults. Yet, we know very little about the brain substrates associated with social networks and social support, particularly in older adults. This study examined functional brain substrates associated with social networks using the Social Network Index (SNI) and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Resting-state fMRI data from 28 non-demented older adults were analyzed with independent components analyses...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
Derek A Pisner, Ryan Smith, Anna Alkozei, Aleksandra Klimova, William D S Killgore
Individuals differ in their ability to understand emotional information and apply that understanding to make decisions and solve problems effectively - a construct known as Emotional Intelligence (EI). While considerable evidence supports the importance of EI in social and occupational functioning, the neural underpinnings of this capacity are relatively unexplored. We used Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) to determine the white matter correlates of EI as measured by the ability-based Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT)...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
Indrajeet Patil, Liane Young, Vladimiro Sinay, Ezequiel Gleichgerrcht
Recent research has demonstrated impairments in social cognition associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). The present work asks whether these impairments are associated with atypical moral judgment. Specifically, we assessed whether MS patients are able to integrate information about intentions and outcomes for moral judgment (i.e., appropriateness and punishment judgments) in the case of third-party acts. We found a complex pattern of moral judgments in MS patients: although their moral judgments were comparable to controls' for specific types of acts (e...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
Helen M Genova, Andrew Genualdi, Yael Goverover, Nancy D Chiaravalloti, Cherylynn Marino, Jeannie Lengenfelder
Individuals with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) have been shown to experience significant problems in facial affect recognition (FAR). However, it is not known how these impairments relate to overall functioning and quality of life (QoL) following TBI. The aim of the current study was to test the hypothesis that worse performance on an FAR task would be associated with reduced QoL (related to social and emotional functioning), worse mood, and increased fatigue. Forty-seven individuals with TBI and 27 healthy controls (HCs) completed the facial emotion identification task (FEIT), as well as questionnaires assessing social and emotional QoL, mood, and fatigue...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
Saliha Ozsoy, Ozlem Olguner Eker, Ummuhan Abdulrezzak, Ertugrul Esel
Childhood maltreatment leads to neuroendocrine changes, which may be associated with an increased vulnerability for psychopathology, such as depression and anxiety in later life. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and orexin A levels in patients with depression and anxiety. The study consisted of 27 female outpatients who presented with depressive and/or anxiety symptoms, and 27 healthy female controls. Childhood trauma history was assessed using the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ-28) in patients and controls...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
Bernadette Mary Fitzgibbon, Melissa Kirkovski, Neil Wayne Bailey, Richard Hilton Thomson, Naomi Eisenberger, Peter Gregory Enticott, Paul Bernard Fitzgerald
The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is thought to play a key role in the cognitive control of emotion and has therefore, unsurprisingly, been implicated in the regulation of physical pain perception. This brain region may also influence the experience of social pain, which has been shown to activate similar neural networks as seen in response to physical pain. Here, we applied sham or active low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC, previously shown to exert bilateral effects in pain perception, in healthy participants...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
X T Wang, Li-Lin Rao, Hongming Zheng
We hypothesize that framing effects (risk-averse in the positive frame and risk-seeking in the negative frame) are likely to occur when ambiguous social contexts result in ambiguous or ambivalent risk preferences, leading the decision-maker to search for more subtle cues, such as verbal framing. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we examined framing effects in both unambiguous homogeneous group and more ambiguous heterogeneous group contexts. We began by conducting a meta-analysis and identified three regions of interest: the right inferior frontal gyrus, the left anterior cingulate (ACC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and the left amygdala...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
Alexandre Bejanin, Gaël Chételat, Mickael Laisney, Alice Pélerin, Brigitte Landeau, Catherine Merck, Serge Belliard, Vincent de La Sayette, Francis Eustache, Béatrice Desgranges
Using structural MRI, we investigated the brain substrates of both affective and cognitive theory of mind (ToM) in 19 patients with semantic dementia. We also ran intrinsic connectivity analyses to identify the networks to which the substrates belong and whether they are functionally disturbed in semantic dementia. In line with previous studies, we observed a ToM impairment in patients with semantic dementia even when semantic memory was regressed out. Our results also highlighted different neural bases according to the nature (affective or cognitive) of the representations being inferred...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
Anne C Krendl, Halle R Zucker, Elizabeth A Kensinger
In order to determine if highly negative stigma is a more salient cue than other negative emotional, non-stigmatized cues, participants underwent electroencephalography while passively viewing or actively regulating their emotional response to images of highly negative stigmatized (e.g., homeless individuals, substance abusers) or highly negative non-stigmatized (e.g., a man holding a gun, an injured person) individuals. Event-related potential (ERP) analyses focused on the N2 (associated with detecting novelty), the early positive potential (associated with processing emotion), and a sustained late positive potential (associated with modulating regulatory goals)...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
Robert S Chavez, Todd F Heatherton
Diverse neurological and psychiatric conditions are marked by a diminished sense of positive self-regard, and reductions in self-esteem are associated with risk for these disorders. Recent evidence has shown that the connectivity of frontostriatal circuitry reflects individual differences in self-esteem. However, it remains an open question as to whether the integrity of these connections can predict self-esteem changes over larger timescales. Using diffusion magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic tractography, we demonstrate that the integrity of white matter pathways linking the medial prefrontal cortex to the ventral striatum predicts changes in self-esteem 8 months after initial scanning in a sample of 30 young adults...
June 2017: Social Neuroscience
Fernando Caravaggio, Jun Ku Chung, Philip Gerretsen, Gagan Fervaha, Shinichiro Nakajima, Eric Plitman, Yusuke Iwata, Alan Wilson, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Differences in striatal dopamine (DA) function may be related to differences in the degree of social attachment to others. Using positron emission tomography (PET), socially detached persons demonstrate reduced DA D2/3 receptor (D2/3R) availability in the striatum. However, previous PET studies have only used antagonist radiotracers for D2/3R and have not specifically examined regions of interest (ROIs) such as the ventral striatum (VS). In 32 healthy persons, we investigated the relationship between self-reported attachment and DA D2/3R availability in striatal and extrastriatal ROIs as measured using the agonist radiotracer [(11)C]-(+)-PHNO...
April 2017: Social Neuroscience
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