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Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431476/a-consensus-statement-for-the-clinical-use-of-the-renal-sodium-glucose-co-transporter-2-inhibitor-dapagliflozin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
A Avogaro, A Giaccari, P Fioretto, S Genovese, F Purrello, F Giorgino, S Del Prato
The present review developed a clinical consensus based on a Delphi method on Dapagliflozin, a selective inhibitor of the renal sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2-I) in the treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Areas covered: Panel members, using a 5-point scale, were asked to rate 9 statements on pharmakodinamic, mode of action on glycaemic and extra-glycaemic effects, and safety of dapaglifozin, Members also aimed to identify the patient most susceptible to the treatment with dapagliflozin ...
April 21, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393583/spotlight-on-canagliflozin-300-review-of-its-efficacy-and-an-indirect-comparison-to-other-sglt-2-inhibitors-and-long-acting-glp-1-receptor-agonists
#2
Awadhesh Kumar Singh, Ritu Singh
Both sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2Is) and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) have been consistently found to lower blood glucose, body weight and systolic blood pressure (SBP) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). While all the SGLT-2Is inhibit glucose reabsorption by blocking SGLT-2 receptor in kidney, dose-dependently, the highest licensed dose of canagliflozin 300-mg has an additional ability to inhibit SGLT-1 receptor in intestine transiently, that may lead to additional inhibition of prandial glucose absorption, unlike other approved highly selective SGLT-2Is...
April 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375040/evolution-of-diagnostic-approaches-in-betalactam-hypersensitivity
#3
Tahia D Fernandez, Cristobalina Mayorga, Maria Salas, Esther Barrionuevo, Teresa Posadas, Adriana Ariza, Jose J Laguna, Esther Moreno, Maria J Torres, Inmaculada Doña, Maria I Montañez
Betalactams are the most widely used drugs against infections and the primary cause of antibiotic hypersensitivity reactions. Reaction patterns for different betalactams have been changing in accordance with consumption trends, and vary among countries. As a consequence, in vivo and in vitro tests have had to change with to keep up with new tendencies. Areas covered: This review is focused on advances in betalactam hypersensitivity diagnosis. Changes in in vivo methods have been limited to the inclusion of new haptens...
April 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395555/alirocumab-for-the-treatment-of-hypercholesterolaemia
#4
Giuseppe Della Pepa, Lutgarda Bozzetto, Giovanni Annuzzi, Angela Albarosa Rivellese
Prescription of statins for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) reduction is the standard of care in primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease; nevertheless, a large number of patients treated with statins are unable to reach the recommended LDL-C targets. Therefore, there is need for safe and effective novel therapies for the pharmacological management of hypercholesterolaemia, in addition or as alternative to lipid-lowering therapies (LLT) currently in use. Areas covered: In 2015, the Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency approved alirocumab (Praluent®; Sanofi), a fully human monoclonal antibody against proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), for the treatment of hypercholesterolaemic patients unable to meet LDL-C targets, as an adjunct to diet in addition/alternative to LLT...
April 11, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374641/why-highly-effective-drugs-are-not-enough-the-need-for-an-affordable-solution-to-eliminating-hcv
#5
C Nelson Hayes, Kazuaki Chayama
Because of the rapid pace of development of new direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is now increasingly considered curable. However, the emphasis on DAA therapies disregards key issues related to cost, availability, and antiviral resistance. Areas covered: This perspective provides an overview of current HCV therapies and the development of DAAs, followed by a discussion of the limitations of DAA therapy. A literature search was used to select relevant studies, and a web search for relevant news articles and press releases was conducted...
April 4, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349740/immunotherapy-for-gastric-cancers-emerging-role-and-future-perspectives
#6
Marta Bonotto, Silvio Ken Garattini, Debora Basile, Elena Ongaro, Valentina Fanotto, Monica Cattaneo, Francesco Cortiula, Donatella Iacono, Giovanni Gerardo Cardellino, Nicoletta Pella, Gianpiero Fasola, Lorenzo Antonuzzo, Nicola Silvestris, Giuseppe Aprile
The broad use of immunotherapy is revolutionizing the treatment paradigms of many solid tumors. Although chemotherapy remains the treatment backbone for advanced gastric cancer, improvements in its molecular characterization and progresses in understanding its underpinning biology have supported clinical development of novel immunotherapies. However, the results of recent trials testing these new agents raise the question on how to identify the patients that could greatly benefit. Areas covered: This article summarizes the current understanding on the biology and the mechanisms underlying different clinical features of gastric cancers...
March 28, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349718/overview-of-different-available-chemotherapy-regimens-combined-with-radiotherapy-for-the-neoadjuvant-and-definitive-treatment-of-esophageal-cancer
#7
Gianluca Tomasello, Michele Ghidini, Sandro Barni, Rodolfo Passalacqua, Fausto Petrelli
Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CTRT) is the current standard of care for treatment of locally advanced cancer of the esophagus or gastroesophageal junction. Many efforts have been made over the last years to identify the best chemotherapy and radiotherapy combination regimen, but specific randomized trials addressing this issue are still lacking. Areas covered: A systematic review of the literature was performed searching in Pubmed all published studies of combinations CTRT regimens for operable or unresectable esophageal cancer to describe activity and toxicity...
March 28, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349716/fixed-ratio-combination-therapy-with-glp-1-receptor-agonist-liraglutide-and-insulin-degludec-in-people-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Lauge Østergaard, Christian Seerup Frandsen, Thomas Fremming Dejgaard, Sten Madsbad
A fixed combination of basal insulin degludec and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) liraglutide (IDegLira; 50 units degludec/1.8 mg liraglutide) has been developed as a once daily injection for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). In the phase 3a trial programme "Dual action of liraglutide and insulin degludec in type 2 diabetes" (DUAL™), five trials of 26 weeks duration and one trial of 32 weeks duration have evaluated the efficacy and safety of IDegLira compared with administration of insulin degludec, insulin glargine, liraglutide alone or placebo...
March 28, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326845/the-use-of-biologics-in-pregnant-patients-with-rheumatic-disease
#9
Monika Østensen
An increasing number of female patients with autoimmune diseases are treated with biologic drugs. Concerns in regard to safety of biologics during pregnancy arise in patients who have not completed their families. Areas covered: A review of the literature dealing with child outcomes of pregnancies exposed to biologics shows that TNF inhibitors (TNFi) are the best studied in regard to human pregnancy. In studies comparing exposed pregnancies to disease-matched controls no increased risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, prematurity or congenital malformations has been observed...
March 22, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067058/antimicrobial-dosing-in-neonates
#10
Aggeliki Kontou, Kosmas Sarafidis, Emmanuel Roilides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358228/current-and-emerging-pharmacologic-options-for-the-management-of-patients-with-chronic-and-acute-decompensated-heart-failure
#11
Justyna Krzysztofik, Piotr Ponikowski
For many years heart failure (HF) was known as a fatal disease with an ominous prognosis. In the last decades better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying HF has resulted in major breakthrough in the management and improvement in the natural history of this clinical syndrome. Areas covered: The review is focused on current and upcoming pharmacological therapies in patients with chronic and acute HF, starting with brief overview of drugs which improve the outcomes in patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction (EF) including neurohormonal antagonists, angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor and If- channel inhibitor, then presenting the summary of symptomatic treatment, the pharmacotherapy in chronic HF with preserved and mid-range EF and in acute HF...
May 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293968/clinical-pharmacology-of-tocilizumab-for-the-treatment-of-polyarticular-course-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#12
Xiaoping Zhang, Ya-Chi Chen, Kimio Terao
The efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) monoclonal antibody, in patients with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA) were demonstrated in clinical trials. Area covered: A literature search was undertaken in the public domain from 1995 to 2016. Data included in the regulatory submission leading to approval of TCZ for the treatment of pJIA in the European Union, United States, and Japan were also presented. TCZ 10 mg/kg in patients weighing <30 kg provided pharmacokinetic exposure comparable to that of TCZ 8 mg/kg for patients ≥30 kg...
May 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293964/dosing-strategies-to-optimize-currently-available-anti-mrsa-treatment-options-part-1-iv-options
#13
Ronald G Hall, Michael Thatcher, Wei Wei, Shibin Varghese, Lincy Varughese, Michelle Ndiulor, Kenna D Payne
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a predominant pathogen resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Optimal dosing of anti-MRSA agents is needed to help prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance and to increase the likelihood of a favorable clinical outcome. Areas covered: This review summarizes the available data for antimicrobials routinely used for MRSA infections that are not administered orally or topically. We make recommendations and highlight the current gaps in the literature...
May 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288535/antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-adolescents-clinical-and-pharmacologic-challenges
#14
Joanna Dobroszycki, Philip Lee, Dina L Romo, Michael G Rosenberg, Andrew Wiznia, Jacobo Abadi
With the currently available combined antiretroviral therapy regimens, durable suppression of viral replication, preservation of immune function and normalizing life expectancy, are all becoming achievable goals. Teenagers and young adults living with HIV present unique clinical and pharmacologic challenges to optimizing antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Areas covered: In this expert review of the topic, we examine recent clinical trial data and draw on our program's 25 year experience working with both perinatally and behaviorally HIV infected adolescents...
May 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286977/comparison-of-treatment-patterns-resource-utilization-and-cost-of-care-in-patients-with-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-treated-with-first-line-nab-paclitaxel-plus-gemcitabine-or-folfirinox
#15
George P Kim, Monika F Parisi, Manish B Patel, Corey L Pelletier, Kathy W Belk
BACKGROUND: We compared real-world treatment patterns, resource utilization, and cost of care for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer treated with first-line nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine or FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, oxaliplatin). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of inpatient and hospital-based outpatient data in the United States. Primary endpoints included median time to treatment discontinuation (TTD) and total cost of care per patient per month...
May 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277800/emerging-therapies-for-nash-the-future-is-now
#16
Andreas Geier, Monika Rau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276774/pharmacological-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Simona Cernea, Avivit Cahn, Itamar Raz
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is high and it is associated with poor prognosis. Hepatic steatosis results as a consequence of excessive hepatic lipid accumulation which correlates with insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, with subsequent oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis. Areas covered: This article presents the main pathophysiologic mechanisms and currently available drugs evaluated for their therapeutic effects on NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and drugs under development that target relevant pathogenetic pathways...
May 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266906/pirfenidone-for-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#18
Peter M George, Athol U Wells
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a diffuse parenchymal lung disease with no cure. Up until recently, no treatment had been proven to alter its natural history as judged by rate of lung function decline. In 2014 however, the emergence of two novel anti-fibrotic agents, Pirfenidone and Nintedanib revolutionized the management of this condition. Both have demonstrated the ability to deliver a major reduction in the rate of chronic IPF progression. Areas Covered: This review article focuses on Pirfenidone - a pyridone derivative initially designed as an analgesic and anti-pyretic agent...
May 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162021/guanylate-cyclase-c-as-a-target-for-prevention-detection-and-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer
#19
Allison A Aka, Jeff A Rappaport, Amanda M Pattison, Takami Sato, Adam E Snook, Scott A Waldman
Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and new strategies to prevent, detect, and treat the disease are needed. The receptor, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C), a tumor suppressor expressed by the intestinal epithelium, has emerged as a promising target. Areas covered: This review outlines the role of GUCY2C in tumorigenesis, and steps to translate GUCY2C-targeting schemes to the clinic. Endogenous GUCY2C-activating ligands disappear early in tumorigenesis, silencing its signaling axis and enabling transformation...
May 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322081/erratum
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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