Read by QxMD icon Read

Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology

Divya Samineni, Sandhya Girish, Chunze Li
Suboptimal treatment for monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) directed against endogenous circulating soluble targets and the shed extracellular domains (ECD) of the membrane-bound targets is an important clinical concern due to the potential impact of mAbs on the in vivo efficacy and safety. Consequently, there are considerable challenges in the determination of an optimal dose and/or dosing regimen. Areas covered: This review outlines the impact of shed antigen targets from membrane-bound proteins and soluble targets on the PK and/or PD of therapeutic mAbs that have been approved in the last decade...
October 21, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Bella Devaleenal D, Geetha Ramachandran, Soumya Swaminathan
Inter-individual variations in the pharmacokinetics (PK) of anti-TB drugs are known to occur, which could have important therapeutic implications in patient management. Areas covered: We compiled factors responsible for PK variability of anti-TB drugs reported from different settings that would give a better understanding about the challenges of PK variability of anti-TB medications. We searched PubMed data base and Google scholar from 1976 to the present using the key words "Pharmacokinetics", "pharmacokinetic variability", "first-line anti-TB therapy", "Rifampicin", "Isoniazid", "Ethambutol", "Pyrazinamide", "food", "nutritional status", "HIV", "diabetes", "genetic polymorphisms" and "pharmacokinetic interactions"...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Wilbert S Aronow
Heart failure is the commonest cause of hospitalization and of rehospitalization This review paper is a comprehensive review of current treatment of heart failure in 2016. The target of this review is all health care professionals who treat patients with heart failure. Areas covered: This article discusses stages of heart failure, treatment of heart failure with general measures, and drug therapy with diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, beta blockers, aldosterone antagonists, isosorbide dinitrate plus hydralazine, digoxin, other neurohormonal antagonists, sacubitril/valsartan, calcium channel blockers, and ivabradine...
October 11, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Robert M Lester, Joy Olbertz
hERG assays and thorough ECG trials have been mandated since 2005 to evaluate the QT interval and potential proarrhythmic risk of new chemical entities. The high cost of these studies and the shortcomings inherent in these binary and limited approaches to drug evaluation have prompted regulators to search for more cost effective and mechanistic paradigms to assess drug liability as exemplified by the CiPA initiative and the exposure response ICH E14(R3) guidance document. Areas Covered: This review profiles the changing regulatory landscape as it pertains to early drug development and outlines the analyses that can be performed to characterize preclinical and early clinical cardiovascular risk...
October 10, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Kristina M Brooks, Jomy M George, Parag Kumar
Use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) and over-the-counter (OTC) medications are very common among HIV-infected patients. These products can cause clinically significant drug-drug interactions (DDIs) with antiretroviral (ARV) medications, thereby increasing risk for negative outcomes such as toxicity or loss of virologic control. Areas Covered: This article provides an updated review of the different mechanisms by which CAM and OTC products are implicated in DDIs with ARV medications. Expert Commentary: Much of the literature published to date involves studies of CAMs interacting with older ARV agents via the cytochrome P450 (CYP450) system...
October 7, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Harold S Nelson
The majority of allergic subjects are polysensitized. In Europe, allergy immunotherapy (AIT) in these patients is usually limited to their single clinically most troublesome allergy while in the U.S. the immunotherapy prescription usually includes all allergen extracts to which the patient has evidence of clinical sensitivity. Areas covered: This article will review the evidence supporting the U.S. practice. It will also review the major new development in the management of polysensitized patients, the introduction of component-resolved diagnosis (CRD)...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Jordi Rello, Eleonora Bunsow, Antonio Perez
Bacterial resistance to antibiotics is increasing worldwide, due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains. With this panorama, there is a serious danger that we may be entering the 'post-antibiotic era'. Areas covered: We assess why so few new classes of antibiotics have been developed in the past years and discuss a variety of treatments that may be able to replace antimicrobials: monoclonal antibodies, bacteriophages, stem cells and anti-virulence agents such as liposomes. Expert commentary: There are a series of economic, scientific-research and regulatory reasons for the scarcity of new antimicrobials...
October 6, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Trang T Vu H, Melinda Gooderham, Kim Papp
The interleukin (IL)-17 family of cytokines has emerged as an important pro-inflammatory mediator of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis (PsA). Ixekizumab is an IL17A inhibitor that has been approved for the treatment of chronic plaque psoriasis. Phase III studies of ixekizumab in treating of PsA demonstrated promise by minimizing disease severity and progression. Areas covered: This review focuses on the biologic properties, pharmacokinetics and key clinical trial results that demonstrated the safety and efficacy of ixekizumab in treating psoriatic disease...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Kathleen M Job, Tony K L Kiang, Jonathan E Constance, Catherine M T Sherwin, Elena Yu Enioutina
Similar to other nations North American people used herbs for thousands of years to treat diseases and purify their spirits. By the middle of the 1900s, evidence-based conventional medicine received wide acceptance in Canada and the United States (US). Nowadays, people are going back to their roots and actively using herbal medicines (HMs) and natural health products (NHPs). Areas covered: This article is focusing on use and regulation of the HMs and NHPs in Canada and the US, raises concerns regarding HM and NHP safety and efficacy, offers suggestions on how to overcome these problems...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Ian Gilron
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Baralee Punyawudho, Noppaket Singkham, Narukjaporn Thammajaruk, Theera Dalodom, Stephen J Kerr, David M Burger, Kiat Ruxrungtham
INTRODUCTION: Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) may be beneficial when applied to antiretroviral (ARV). Even though TDM can be a valuable strategy in HIV management, its role remains controversial. AREAS COVERED: This review provides a comprehensive update on important issues relating to TDM of ARV drugs in HIV-infected patients. Articles from PubMed with keywords relevant to each topic section were reviewed. Search strategies limited to articles published in English...
September 23, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Anne-Els van de Logt, Julia M Hofstra, Jack F Wetzels
INTRODUCTION: Therapy in patients with primary membranous nephropathy is debated. The discovery of anti-PLA2R antibodies provides opportunities for new treatment strategies. AREAS COVERED: The PubMed database and Cochrane library were searched for full-text articles published in English before March 2016. The search terms included 'Glomerulonephritis, Membranous' [MESH], 'membranous glomerulonephritis' [tiab] and, 'idiopathic membranous nephropathy' [tiab] and 'membranous nephropathy' [tiab], in combination with 'Therapeutics' [MESH], 'therapeutic*'[tiab], 'immunosuppression' [MESH] and 'immunosuppression' [tiab]...
September 16, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Fabiola Atzeni, Maurizio Benucci, Rossella Talotta, Ignazio Francesco Masala, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Marcello Govoni
INTRODUCTION: Treatment with biological DMARDs (bDMARDs) has meant that remission or low disease activity (LDA) is now a realistic goal for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, as in the case of all long-term therapies, potential side-effects give rise to concern. The main reasons for withdrawing or tapering bDMARDs are safety and the sustainability of national healthcare systems. Given these data our review has been focused on important question is whether conventional, including steroids, or bDMARDs can be reduced or even stopped in patients with stable established RA or early RA...
September 15, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Antonio Passaro, Alessia Pochesci, Spitaleri Gianluca, Chiara Catania, Cristina Noberasco, Ester Del Signore, Filippo de Marinis
INTRODUCTION: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations are detected in about 10-15% of Caucasian and 30-40% of Asian patients with advanced or metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In patients harbouring EGFR mutations, the treatment with different available EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) showed to be more effective and safe than platinum-based chemotherapy regimens. AREAS COVERED: The current evidences about the role of afatinib for patients with EGFR-positive NSCLC are reviewed and discussed...
September 14, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
G Santabarbara, P Maione, A Rossi, G Palazzolo, C Gridelli
INTRODUCTION: Lung cancers remain the principal cause of death cancer-related worldwide with a poor survival rate at five years from diagnosis. In patients with NSCLC harboring specific genetic alterations the anti EGFR TKIs and the ALK TKIs have improved the response rate and the quality of life compared to standard platinum-based chemotherapy. New approaches possibly applicable at the major of patients are needed. AREAS COVERED: The discovery that the immune system plays a fundamental role in the fight against cancer...
September 14, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Juliet D Gotthardt, Nicholas T Bello
INTRODUCTION: Obesity is a major health concern for several countries. The United States (U.S.) has arguably led the world in the percentage of overweight and/or obese per capita for several decades. As a result, numerous FDA-approved pharmacotherapeutic options are available for the long-term treatment of obesity. Although most of these medications have been on the U.S. market for a few years and have demonstrated efficacy for long-term weight loss in clinical trials, the impact of these medications on obesity in the U...
September 13, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Stewart B Harris
INTRODUCTION: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are unlikely to maintain glycemic control with monotherapy, and will eventually require therapy with multiple antihyperglycemic agents (AHAs). Combination therapy regimens with multiple AHAs may be complex and negatively impact patient adherence. Fixed-dose combinations (FDCs) are used successfully for management of numerous chronic diseases. AREAS COVERED: This article includes a brief overview of the add-on approach of current treatment guidelines for T2DM and reviews the evidence supporting the utility of oral FDCs in the treatment of T2DM, including recently developed oral FDCs (2010-2016)...
September 12, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Mohamed El Kassas, Tamer Elbaz, Yasmeen Abd El Latif, Gamal Esmat
INTRODUCTION: During the last few years, treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) revolutionized with the appearance of direct antiviral agents especially for patients with HCV genotypes 1 and 4 infections. Elbasvir (NS5A inhibitor) and grazoprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) are newly developed drugs that are presented in fixed dose combination tablets. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the mechanism of action, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics properties, clinical uses, safety and efficacy of elbasvir/grazoprevir in managing a wide variety of easy and difficult to treat populations (such as presence of cirrhosis, treatment experienced, co-infection with HIV and patients with inherited blood disorders)...
September 7, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Kazeem Adeola Oshikoya, Ibrahim Adekunle Oreagba, Brian Godman, Fisayo Solomon Oguntayo, Joseph Fadare, Samuel Orubu, Amos Massele, Idowu Odunayo Senbanjo
BACKGROUND: Information regarding incidence of drug-drug interactions (DDIs) and adverse drug events (ADEs) among paediatric patients in Nigeria is limited. METHODS: Prospective clinical audit among paediatric outpatients in four general hospitals in Nigeria over a 3-month period. ADEs documented in case files extracted. RESULTS: Among 1233 eligible patients, 208 (16.9%) received prescriptions with at least one potential DDI. Seven drug classes were implicated with antimalarial combination therapies predominating...
September 3, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Nicoletta Provinciali, Chen Suen, Barbara K Dunn, Andrea DeCensi
INTRODUCTION: Raloxifene is an estrogen receptor modulator which competes with estrogens for binding to the estrogen receptor . Based on the results of the STAR (Study of Tamoxifen And Raloxifene) trial, raloxifene has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the reduction of breast cancer (BC) risk in postmenopausal women at increased risk. AREAS COVERED: This analysis reviews the activity of raloxifene and the clinical trials for non-BC indications which led to investigate its use as BC preventive agent...
September 1, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"