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Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439601/a-new-class-of-agents-for-estrogen-receptor-positive-breast-cancer
#1
Dede N Ekoue, Nisha Unni, Ganesh V Raj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431524/what-is-the-role-of-statins-in-the-elderly-population
#2
Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Michael Doumas, Vasilios G Athyros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421929/drug-evaluation-studies-in-neonates-how-to-overcome-the-current-limitations
#3
Karel Allegaert, Anne Smits, John van den Anker
Introduction Regulatory initiatives have stimulated drug research in infants, but the potential impact of drugs to improve health outcome in neonates remains underexplored. Areas covered In this review, we focus on current limitations in drug evaluation studies and how to overcome these. The low volume of studies has additional weaknesses such as single center studies, non-commercial sponsorship, overrepresentation of high postulated risk reductions, and underrepresentation of therapeutic exploratory studies...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355041/solving-the-problem-of-dose-optimisation-of-children-s-medicines
#4
Stephen J McWilliam, Daniel B Hawcutt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355037/neoadjuvant-and-adjuvant-treatment-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#5
Marco Bandini, Nicola Fossati, Giorgio Gandaglia, Felix Preisser, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Emanuele Zaffuto, Armando Stabile, Andrea Gallina, Nazareno Suardi, Shahrokh F Shariat, Francesco Montorsi, Pierre I Karakiewicz, Alberto Briganti
High-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) represents a heterogeneous disease with potential risk for local and distant progression. In these patients, a multi-modal approach consisting of neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant systemic therapies has been proposed. The aim of this review is to summarize the emerging roles of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies in HRPCa patients. Areas covered: This review collects the most relevant phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effect of neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic therapies in combination with radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT) for HRPCa patients...
January 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345505/the-pharmacological-management-of-metabolic-syndrome
#6
Julie Rask Larsen, Lorena Dima, Christoph U Correll, Peter Manu
Introduction The metabolic syndrome includes a constellation of several well-established risk factors, which need to be aggressively treated in order to prevent overt type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. While recent guidelines for the treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome focus on cardiovascular benefits as resulted from clinical trials, specific recent recommendations on the pharmacological management of metabolic syndrome are lacking. The objective of present paper was to review the therapeutic options for metabolic syndrome and its components, the available evidence related to their cardiovascular benefits, and to evaluate the extent to which they should influence the guidelines for clinical practice...
January 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338466/valbenazine-as-the-first-and-only-approved-treatment-for-adults-with-tardive-dyskinesia
#7
Harini Sarva, Claire Henchcliffe
Valbenazine is a selective VMAT2 inhibitor that the FDA approved in April 2017 for the specific treatment of tardive dyskinesia (TD), a movement disorder commonly caused by dopamine blocking agents. Valbenazine acts to decrease dopamine release, reducing excessive movement found in TD. Areas covered: This drug profile reviews the development of valbenazine and the clinical trials that led to its approval as the first treatment specific to TD. The literature search was performed with the PubMed online database...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307240/the-role-of-the-placenta-in-drug-transport-and-fetal-drug-exposure
#8
Gideon Koren, Asher Ornoy
It was assumed for decades that the human placenta serves as a barrier, protecting the fetus from exposure to xenobiotics circulating in the mother. The thalidomide disaster completely reversed this concept. The study of the human placenta is therefore critical to understanding the mechanisms by which xenobiotics reach the fetus and exert their effects. Areas covered: This review describes mechanisms by which drugs interact with the human placenta, and experimental methods to study these interactions in humans...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334287/efficacy-and-safety-of-alpha-blockers-in-medical-expulsive-therapy-for-ureteral-stones-a-mixed-treatment-network-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#9
Kannan Sridharan, Gowri Sivaramakrishnan
Alpha blockers (AB) are the main group of drugs used for medical expulsive therapy (MET) in patients with ureteral stones. However, there is no consensus on the relative efficacy and safety of individual AB in MET. Areas covered: The present work is a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing AB with either placebo or standard of care in patients with ureteral stones. Electronic databases of Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL and Google Scholar were searched for eligible clinical studies. Inverse variance heterogeneity model was used for mixed treatment comparisons...
January 15, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310468/lidocaine-dose-response-effect-on-postoperative-cognitive-deficit-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression
#10
Mohammad Reza Habibi, Valiollah Habibi, Ali Habibi, Aria Soleimani
The true influence of the perioperative intravenous lidocaine on the development of postoperative cognitive deficit (POCD) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains controversial. The principal aim is to undertake a meta-regression to determine whether moderator variables mediate the relationship between lidocaine and POCD. Areas covered: We searched the Web of Science, PubMed database, Scopus and the Cochrane Library database (up to June 2017) and systematically reviewed a list of retrieved articles...
January 9, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303009/dyslipidaemia-in-the-elderly-to-treat-or-not-to-treat
#11
Niki Katsiki, Genovefa Kolovou, Pablo Perez-Martinez, Dimitri P Mikhailidis
The elderly population (i.e. aged ≥ 65 years) is increasing worldwide. Ageing is associated with a higher incidence and prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Areas covered: The prevalence of CVD risk factors including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidaemia also increases with advancing age, contributing to the higher absolute CVD risk observed in the elderly. The present narrative review comments on the associations of dyslipidaemia with CVD as well as the effects of lifestyle measures and lipid-lowering drugs on lipids and CVD risk with a special focus on the elderly population...
January 5, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301447/defibrotide-sodium-for-the-treatment-of-hepatic-veno-occlusive-disease-sinusoidal-obstruction-syndrome
#12
Paul G Richardson, Brandon M Triplett, Vincent T Ho, Nelson Chao, Fiona L Dignan, Michelle Maglio, Mohamad Mohty
Hepatic veno-occlusive disease/sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (VOD/SOS) is an unpredictable condition associated with endothelial-cell damage due to conditioning for hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) or chemotherapy without HSCT. Mortality in patients with VOD/SOS and multi-organ dysfunction (MOD) may be >80%. Areas covered: Defibrotide is the only approved drug for the treatment of severe hepatic VOD/SOS after HSCT in the European Union and hepatic VOD/SOS with renal or pulmonary dysfunction in the United States...
January 5, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29272974/home-oxygen-therapy-re-thinking-the-role-of-devices
#13
Andrea S Melani, Piersante Sestini, Paola Rottoli
A range of devices are available for delivering and monitoring home oxygen therapy (HOT). Guidelines do not give indications for the choice of the delivery device but recommend the use of an ambulatory system in subjects on HOT whilst walking. Areas covered: We provide a clinical overview of HOT and review traditional and newer delivery and monitoring devices for HOT. Despite relevant technology advancements, clinicians, faced with many challenges when they prescribe oxygen therapy, often remain familiar to traditional devices and continuous flow delivery of oxygen...
January 4, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285947/eslicarbazepine-acetate-in-epilepsies-with-focal-and-secondary-generalised-seizures-systematic-review-of-current-evidence
#14
Laurent M Willems, Johann Philipp Zöllner, Esther Paule, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Felix Rosenow, Adam Strzelczyk
Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a third-generation antiepileptic drug (AED) approved for adjunctive treatment in adults, children, and adolescents with focal-onset seizures. Recently ESL was approved for initial monotherapy in adults. The intention of this article is to review current evidence for ESL and to summarise its pharmacological profile in comparison to other AEDs of the dibenzazepine group. Areas covered: We performed a systematic literature search in electronic databases (MEDLINE database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Excerpta Medica dataBASE) using a combined search strategy including the following keywords: eslicarbazepine, epilepsy and seizure...
December 29, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280409/challenges-of-using-new-and-repurposed-drugs-for-the-treatment-of-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-in-children
#15
H Simon Schaaf, Anthony J Garcia-Prats, Lindsay McKenna, James A Seddon
New and repurposed antituberculosis drugs are urgently needed to more safely and effectively treat multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) in children. Multiple challenges limit timely access to new MDR-TB treatments in children. Areas covered: Diagnosis of MDR-TB in children remains a barrier, with few children with MDR-TB diagnosed and treated. Other barriers to timely access to new and repurposed drugs are discussed, and include delayed initiation of paediatric trials, limited funding for paediatric drug development, fragmented regulatory systems and operational challenges...
December 27, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251525/the-importance-of-the-initial-response-to-cancer-treatment-in-predicting-longer-overall-survival
#16
Caroline E McCoach, Robert C Doebele
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224406/novel-psychotherapeutics-a-cautiously-optimistic-focus-on-hallucinogens
#17
Alexander M Sherwood, Thomas E Prisinzano
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186999/dosing-strategies-to-optimize-currently-available-anti-mrsa-treatment-options-part-2-po-options
#18
Kenna D Payne, Amrita Das, Michelle Ndiulor, Ronald G Hall
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a problematic pathogen in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Research to optimize the dosing of these agents is needed to slow the development of antimicrobial resistance and to decrease the likelihood of clinical failure. Areas covered: This review summarizes the available data for orally administered antimicrobials routinely used as monotherapy for MRSA infections. We make recommendations and highlight the current gaps in the literature. A PubMed (1966 - Present) search was performed to identify relevant literature for this review...
December 8, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210311/the-role-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-modulation-of-drug-action-a-focus-on-some-clinically-significant-issues
#19
Diego Currò
A healthy gut microbiota is necessary for the normal operation of several body functions, including gastrointestinal sensitivity and motility, lipid and glucid metabolism, immune surveillance, and host behavior. In addition, intestinal bacteria contribute to determining the pharmacological properties of several drugs by producing different drug metabolizing enzymes. Areas covered: Four enzymatic processes are discussed: prodrug activation; drug inactivation; drug deconjugation; and hydrolysis of natural glycosides with further metabolism of released aglycones...
December 6, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192802/adhering-to-the-principles-of-clinical-pharmacology-the-correct-fixed-combinations-of-antihypertensive-drugs
#20
Paulina Lopatowska, Elzbieta Mlodawska, Anna Tomaszuk-Kazberuk, Maciej Banach, Jolanta Malyszko
Hypertension is one of the primary modifiable risk factor for cardiac and renal diseases with the prevalence around 30-45% of the general population, with a steep increase with ageing. The administration of blood pressure-lowering drugs is to reduce the risk of major clinical cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertension guidelines recommend combination therapy in patients with high cardiovascular risk and with subclinical organ damage as well as when monotherapy fails. Areas covered: As the etiology of essential hypertension is multifactorial, combination therapy using different classes of antihypertensive agents have greater effect than each on its own (synergistic effect), may have better tolerability (two components minimizing each other's side effects) and lead to improved patient compliance...
December 6, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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