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Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326845/the-use-of-biologics-in-pregnant-patients-with-rheumatic-disease
#1
Monika Østensen
An increasing number of female patients with autoimmune diseases are treated with biologic drugs. Concerns in regard to safety of biologics during pregnancy arise in patients who have not completed their families. Areas covered: A review of the literature dealing with child outcomes of pregnancies exposed to biologics shows that TNF inhibitors (TNFi) are the best studied in regard to human pregnancy. In studies comparing exposed pregnancies to disease-matched controls no increased risk of spontaneous abortion, low birth weight, prematurity or congenital malformations has been observed...
March 22, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293968/clinical-pharmacology-of-tocilizumab-for-the-treatment-of-polyarticular-course-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#2
Xiaoping Zhang, Ya-Chi Chen, Kimio Terao
The efficacy and safety of tocilizumab (TCZ), a humanized anti-interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R) monoclonal antibody, in patients with polyarticular-course juvenile idiopathic arthritis (pJIA) were demonstrated in clinical trials. Area covered: A literature search was undertaken in the public domain from 1995 to 2016. Data included in the regulatory submission leading to approval of TCZ for the treatment of pJIA in the European Union, United States, and Japan were also presented. TCZ 10 mg/kg in patients weighing <30 kg provided pharmacokinetic exposure comparable to that of TCZ 8 mg/kg for patients ≥30 kg...
March 15, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293964/dosing-strategies-to-optimize-currently-available-anti-mrsa-treatment-options-part-1-iv-options
#3
Ronald G Hall, Michael Thatcher, Wei Wei, Shibin Varghese, Lincy Varughese, Michelle Ndiulor, Kenna D Payne
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be a predominant pathogen resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. Optimal dosing of anti-MRSA agents is needed to help prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance and to increase the likelihood of a favorable clinical outcome. Areas covered: This review summarizes the available data for antimicrobials routinely used for MRSA infections that are not administered orally or topically. We make recommendations and highlight the current gaps in the literature...
March 15, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288535/antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infected-adolescents-clinical-and-pharmacologic-challenges
#4
Joanna Dobroszycki, Philip Lee, Dina L Romo, Michael G Rosenberg, Andrew Wiznia, Jacobo Abadi
With the currently available combined antiretroviral therapy regimens, durable suppression of viral replication, preservation of immune function and normalizing life expectancy, are all becoming achievable goals. Teenagers and young adults living with HIV present unique clinical and pharmacologic challenges to optimizing antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Areas covered: In this expert review of the topic, we examine recent clinical trial data and draw on our program's 25 year experience working with both perinatally and behaviorally HIV infected adolescents...
March 14, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286977/comparison-of-treatment-patterns-resource-utilization-and-cost-of-care-in-patients-with-metastatic-pancreatic-cancer-treated-with-first-line-nab-paclitaxel-plus-gemcitabine-or-folfirinox
#5
George P Kim, Monika F Parisi, Manish B Patel, Corey L Pelletier, Kathy W Belk
BACKGROUND: We compared real-world treatment patterns, resource utilization, and cost of care for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer treated with first-line nab-paclitaxel + gemcitabine or FOLFIRINOX (5-fluorouracil, leucovorin, irinotecan, oxaliplatin). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of inpatient and hospital-based outpatient data in the United States. Primary endpoints included median time to treatment discontinuation (TTD) and total cost of care per patient per month...
March 13, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277807/magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-transient-elastography-in-the-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld
#6
Ma Ai Thanda Han, Rola Saouaf, Walid Ayoub, Tsuyoshi Todo, Edward Mena, Mazen Noureddin
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease and cirrhosis worldwide and the second most common cause of liver transplantation in major medical centers. Because liver steatosis and fibrosis severity are related to disease morbidity and mortality, the extent of disease, and disease progression, they need to be assessed and monitored. In addition, innovation with new drug developments requires disease staging and monitoring in both phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. Currently, disease assessment in both clinical practice and research is mostly performed by liver biopsy, an invasive, procedure with risks...
March 9, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277800/emerging-therapies-for-nash-the-future-is-now
#7
Andreas Geier, Monika Rau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266906/pirfenidone-for-the-treatment-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
Peter M George, Athol U Wells
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a diffuse parenchymal lung disease with no cure. Up until recently, no treatment had been proven to alter its natural history as judged by rate of lung function decline. In 2014 however, the emergence of two novel anti-fibrotic agents, Pirfenidone and Nintedanib revolutionized the management of this condition. Both have demonstrated the ability to deliver a major reduction in the rate of chronic IPF progression. Areas Covered: This review article focuses on Pirfenidone - a pyridone derivative initially designed as an analgesic and anti-pyretic agent...
March 7, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276774/pharmacological-management-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-type-2-diabetes
#9
Simona Cernea, Avivit Cahn, Itamar Raz
The prevalence of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is high and it is associated with poor prognosis. Hepatic steatosis results as a consequence of excessive hepatic lipid accumulation which correlates with insulin resistance and lipotoxicity, with subsequent oxidative stress, inflammation, apoptosis and fibrosis. Areas covered: This article presents the main pathophysiologic mechanisms and currently available drugs evaluated for their therapeutic effects on NAFLD/nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and drugs under development that target relevant pathogenetic pathways...
March 6, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276775/cannabinoids-therapeutic-use-what-is-our-current-understanding-following-the-introduction-of-thc-thc-cbd-oromucosal-spray-and-others
#10
Mauro Maccarrone, Rafael Maldonado, Miguel Casas, Thomas Henze, Diego Centonze
The complexity of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system is becoming better understood and new drivers of eCB signaling are emerging. Modulation of the activities of the eCB system can be therapeutic in a number of diseases. Research into the eCB system has been paralleled by the development of agents that interact with cannabinoid receptors. In this regard it should be remembered that herbal cannabis contains a myriad of active ingredients, and the individual cannabinoids have quite distinct biological activities requiring independent studies...
February 28, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276776/brain-injury-with-diabetes-mellitus-evidence-mechanisms-and-treatment-implications
#11
Sherifa A Hamed
Diabetes mellitus is a risk for brain injury. Brain injury is associated with acute and chronic hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hypoglycaemic events in diabetic patients. Hyperglycemia is a cause of cognitive deterioration, low intelligent quotient, neurodegeneration, brain aging, brain atrophy and dementia. Areas covered: The current review highlights the experimental, clinical, neuroimaging and neuropathological evidence of brain injury induced by diabetes and its associated metabolic derangements...
February 22, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276777/apremilast-for-the-management-of-moderate-to-severe-plaque-psoriasis
#12
Ramya Vangipuram, Ali Alikhan
Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by erythematous plaques on extensor surfaces, scalp, and back. Current therapies for psoriasis are limited by route of administration, side effects, and cost. Apremilast is the first oral phosphodiesterase inhibitor approved for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. It is a small molecule inhibitor of phosphodiesterase-4, and decreases the inflammatory activity associated with psoriasis. Areas covered: This review will discuss the pharmacology of apremilast, mechanism of action, results from key clinical trials, and its use in managing psoriasis...
February 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276778/glp-1-receptor-agonists-in-the-treatment-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#13
Elizabeth Mary Lamos, Rana Malek, Stephen N Davis
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) affects many women of child-bearing age and is characterized by hyperandrogenism, ovulatory and metabolic dysfunction. A primary treatment goal is weight reduction. The weight loss effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA), previously demonstrated in diabetic and obese non-diabetic patients, offer a unique opportunity to expand the medical options available to PCOS patients. Areas covered: Available clinical trials of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy in PCOS were reviewed...
February 13, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135854/pharmacological-therapies-for-liposarcoma
#14
Maristella Saponara, Silvia Stacchiotti, Alessandro Gronchi
Liposarcoma (LS) is one of the most common adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS). For metastatic disease, systemic treatment options were historically represented by standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. More recently, innovative therapies have been introduced and they are currently part of the therapeutic armamentarium, positively impacting disease control and patients' quality of life. Moreover, in the last decade, a better understanding of the molecular characteristics of each STS subtype allowed to detect new potential targets and develop novel, biology-driven compounds at different stages of testing...
February 13, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121469/savor-timi-to-sustain-6-a-critical-comparison-of-cardiovascular-outcome-trials-of-antidiabetic-drugs
#15
Awadhesh Kumar Singh, Ritu Singh
Since the inception of mandatory cardiovascular (CV) safety outcome trial (CVOT) promulgated by US FDA in 2008, seven trials have so far been published with three different classes of antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This mini-review aims to critically analyse these CVOTs in terms of different outcomes achieved. Areas covered: An electronic search pertaining to the subject was conducted till September 2016. The three CVOT conducted with saxagliptin, alogliptin and sitagliptin respectively, found them to be CV-neutral...
February 6, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162021/guanylate-cyclase-c-as-a-target-for-prevention-detection-and-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Allison A Aka, Jeff A Rappaport, Amanda M Pattison, Takami Sato, Adam E Snook, Scott A Waldman
Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and new strategies to prevent, detect, and treat the disease are needed. The receptor, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C), a tumor suppressor expressed by the intestinal epithelium, has emerged as a promising target. Areas Covered: This review outlines the role of GUCY2C in tumorigenesis, and steps to translate GUCY2C-targeting schemes to the clinic. Endogenous GUCY2C-activating ligands disappear early in tumorigenesis, silencing its signaling axis and enabling transformation...
February 4, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067058/antimicrobial-dosing-in-neonates
#17
Aggeliki Kontou, Kosmas Sarafidis, Emmanuel Roilides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 27, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997812/why-ema-should-provide-clearer-guidance-on-the-authorization-of-nbcds-in-generic-and-hybrid-applications
#18
Livio Garattini, Anna Padula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322081/erratum
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271722/assessing-medication-burden-and-polypharmacy-finding-the-perfect-measure
#20
Danijela Gnjidic, Mary Tinetti, Heather G Allore
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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