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Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095262/biosimilars-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-accumulating-clinical-evidence
#1
Sean McConachie, Sheila M Wilhelm, Pramodini B Kale-Pradhan
Biologic antagonists to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- ╬▒) are effective medications and have become well established in the treatment of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Biosimilar medications, which are medications deemed to be equivalent to reference biologic products in terms of clinical effectiveness, safety, pharmacokinetic analysis, and immunogenicity, have now been approved in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) based on indication exploration from clinical data in alternate disease states...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094573/advanced-gastric-adenocarcinoma-optimizing-therapy-options
#2
Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Kazuto Harada, Yusuke Shimodaira, Fatemeh G Amlashi, Quan Lin, Jaffer A Ajani
Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is the fifth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. When localized, cure is achievable with surgery and adjunctive therapies in some patients, however, once advanced, GAC is not a curable condition. Only two targeted agents (trastuzumab and ramucirumab) have been approved and apatinib was approved only in China. Because of the heterogeneous nature of GAC, it is not possible to assess a standard therapeutic approach. Areas Covered: In this review, we aimed to describe the optimal systemic therapy regimens for advanced GAC...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067058/antimicrobial-dosing-in-neonates
#3
Aggeliki Kontou, Kosmas Sarafidis, Emmanuel Roilides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997812/why-ema-should-provide-clearer-guidance-on-the-authorization-of-nbcds-in-generic-and-hybrid-applications
#4
Livio Garattini, Anna Padula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927045/pharmacological-difficulties-in-the-treatment-of-asthma-in-pregnant-women
#5
Jennifer A Namazy, Michael Schatz
This is a review of the diagnosis and management of asthma in the pregnant patient. Asthma may adversely affect both maternal quality of life and, perinatal outcomes. Optimal management of asthma is thus important for both mother and baby. Areas covered: Special attention is paid to the challenges in diagnosis and management of asthma during pregnancy. Expert commentary: This article reviews the safety of asthma medications commonly used during pregnancy.
December 26, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937050/emerging-uricosurics-for-gout
#6
Robert Terkeltaub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998190/update-and-trends-on-pharmacokinetic-studies-in-patients-with-impaired-renal-function-practical-insight-into-application-of-the-fda-and-ema-guidelines
#7
Sabina Paglialunga, Elliot Offman, Nita Ichhpurani, Thomas C Marbury, Bruce H Morimoto
The incidence of kidney dysfunction increases with age and is highly prevalent among patients with hypertension. Since many therapeutic compounds are primarily eliminated through the kidneys, impaired renal function can have negative consequences on drug disposition, efficacy and safety. Therefore, regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have issued detailed guidelines for new drug applications to determine posology requirements for patients with renal impairment...
December 21, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936975/asthma-phenotypes-in-children-and-stratified-pharmacological-treatment-regimens
#8
Maria Iordanidou, Stelios Loukides, Emmanouil Paraskakis
Asthma is the most common inflammatory disease in childhood. The interaction of genetic, environmental and host factors may contribute to the development of childhood asthma and defines its progress, including persistence and severity. Until now, various classifications of childhood asthma phenotypes have been suggested based on patient's age during onset of symptoms, type of inflammatory cells, response to treatment and disease severity. Many efforts have been carried out to identify childhood asthma phenotypes and to clarify which are the risk factors that define asthma prediction and the response to therapy...
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927042/pharmacological-treatments-for-methamphetamine-addiction-current-status-and-future-directions
#9
Javier Ballester, Gerald Valentine, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Methamphetamine (MA) abuse remains a global health challenge despite intense research interest in the development of pharmacological treatments. This review provides a summary of clinical trials and human studies on the pharmacotherapy of methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). Areas covered: We summarize published clinical trials that tested candidate medications for MUD and also conducted PubMed and Google Scholar searches to identify recently completed clinical trials using the keywords 'methamphetamine' 'addiction' 'pharmacotherapy' and 'clinical trial...
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977304/pharmacodynamics-of-combined-estrogen-progestin-oral-contraceptives-effects-on-metabolism
#10
Carlo Bastianelli, Manuela Farris, Elena Rosato, Ivo Brosens, Giuseppe Benagiano
The risk-benefit profile of any pharmacologic agent must be evaluated against risks connected with the events to be avoided. This is especially true in the case of hormonal contraception, not intended to combat a disease. Over the six decades during which their use has progressively expanded, the risk-benefit profile of combined oral contraceptives (COC) has substantially changed, with new combinations, dosages and mode of administration appearing on the market. Area covered: In a series of articles, recent information on the complex issue of COC risks and benefits will be reviewed in the hope of providing an updated picture...
December 15, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923318/herbal-medicines-challenges-in-the-modern-world-part-5-status-and-current-directions-of-complementary-and-alternative-herbal-medicine-worldwide
#11
Elena Yu Enioutina, Emma R Salis, Kathleen M Job, Michael I Gubarev, Lubov V Krepkova, Catherine M T Sherwin
Herbal medicine (HM) use is growing worldwide. Single herb preparations, ethnic and modern HM formulations are widely used as adjunct therapies or to improve consumer wellbeing. Areas covered: This final part in the publication series summarizes common tendencies in HM use as adjunct or alternative medicine, education of healthcare professionals and consumers, current and proposed guidelines regulating of production. We discuss potential HM-HM and HM-drug interactions that could lead to severe adverse events in situations where HMs are taken without proper medical professional oversight...
December 15, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001447/mirabegron-for-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder-a-review-of-efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-with-a-focus-on-male-elderly-and-antimuscarinic-poor-responder-populations-and-patients-with-oab-in-asia
#12
Christopher R Chapple, Emad Siddiqui
Mirabegron is established as an alternative monotherapy to antimuscarinics for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Initial studies focused on Western populations, but over the past few years other populations and subpopulations have been evaluated. Areas covered: The authors' knowledge of the literature was used to develop the manuscript alongside a PubMed search ('mirabegron and clinical trial' and 'overactive bladder') to select independent studies of mirabegron. Up-to-date information is provided about the most recent mirabegron clinical trial and real-world efficacy, safety and tolerability data in a variety of patient populations with OAB, including those from different geographic areas, men, the elderly, and those with poor tolerability to antimuscarinics...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915484/new-techniques-for-studying-airway-drug-pharmacokinetics-for-asthma-therapeutics
#13
Staffan Edsb├Ącker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911103/tools-for-outcome-prediction-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#14
Faheem Khan, Mark B Owens, Marcos Restrepo, Pedro Povoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common causes of mortality world-wide. The mortality rate of patients with CAP is influenced by the severity of the disease, treatment failure and the requirement for hospitalization and/or intensive care unit (ICU) management, all of which may be predicted by biomarkers and clinical scoring systems. Areas covered: We review the recent literature examining the efficacy of established and newly-developed clinical scores, biological and inflammatory markers such as C-Reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6), whether used alone or in conjunction with clinical severity scores to assess the severity of CAP, predict treatment failure, guide acute in-hospital or ICU admission and predict mortality...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892772/administration-of-lidocaine-to-prevent-cognitive-deficit-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-and-valve-plasty-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Afshin Gholipour Baradari, Mohammad Reza Habibi, Valiollah Habibi, Seyed Mahmood Nouraei
The administration of lidocaine to maintain cognitive function following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valve plasty is a controversial concept in terms of its effectiveness. We performed a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of treatment with lidocaine in preventing the occurrence of cognitive deficit after cardiac surgery. Area covered: To review the current literature on the subject, we searched the PubMed database and the Cochrane Library database (up to May 2015) and compiled a list of retrieved articles...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868472/topical-and-systemic-antifungals-in-dermatology-practice
#16
Murat Durdu, Macit Ilkit, Yalda Tamadon, Ali Tolooe, Haleh Rafati, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
Dermatophytosis is generally defined as an infection of the hair, nails, or glabrous skin. These infections are caused by the keratinophilic fungi Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp., and Epidermophyton, which have been recovered from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Although dermatophytosis is generally not a life-threatening condition, these types of infections are among the most common infections worldwide, and their incidence has continued to increase consistently in recent years. Area covered: This article provides an overview of the general characteristics of dermatophytes, including their taxonomy and epidemiology, as well as the different clinical forms and laboratory diagnostics of dermatophytosis...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868450/pharmacological-management-of-diabetic-dyslipidemia
#17
T D Filippatos, M Florentin, M Georgoula, M S Elisaf
Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Areas covered: Main goal of hypolipidemic treatment in diabetic patients is low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering with the use of statins. Addition of ezetimibe is useful in diabetic patients who cannot achieve their LDL-C target. However, many diabetic patients have increased residual CVD risk, which is mainly attributed to high triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) values. The addition of fenofibrate targets these variables and possibly reduces residual CVD risk, but a possible beneficial effect has been shown only in a pre-specified subgroup analysis in patients with high triglycerides and low HDL-C values...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835034/novel-pharmacological-treatment-strategies-for-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#18
Eileen Thomas, Dan J Stein
A wide range of medications have been studied for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a number are registered for this indication. Nevertheless, current pharmacotherapies are only partially effective in some patients, and are minimally effective in others. Thus novel treatment avenues need to be explored. Areas covered: In considering novel pharmacological agents for the treatment of PTSD, this paper takes a translational approach. We outline how advances in our understanding of the underlying neurobiology of PTSD may inform the identification of potential new treatment targets, including glutamatergic, noradrenergic and opioid pathways...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828731/the-pharmacological-challenges-of-treating-tuberculosis-and-hiv-coinfections
#19
Eric F Egelund, Lori Dupree, Emily Huesgen, Charles A Peloquin
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most prevalent opportunistic infection among HIV patients, and the leading cause of death among HIV patients worldwide. Simultaneous treatment of both diseases is recommended by current guidelines, but can be challenging due to the potential for drug-drug interactions, overlapping toxicities, difficulty adhering to medications, and an increased risk for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Clinical manifestations of TB can also vary between HIV-infected patients and uninfected patients, which can increase the risk for delayed diagnosis...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781556/mood-therapeutics-novel-pharmacological-approaches-for-treating-depression
#20
Ioline D Henter, Rafael T de Sousa, Philip W Gold, Andre R Brunoni, Carlos A Zarate, Rodrigo Machado-Vieira
Real-world effectiveness trials suggest that antidepressant efficacy is limited in many patients with mood disorders, underscoring the urgent need for novel therapeutics to treat these disorders. Areas covered: Here, we review the clinical evidence supporting the use of novel modulators for the treatment of mood disorders, including specific glutamate modulators such as: 1) high-trapping glutamatergic modulators; 2) subunit (NR2B)-specific N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists; 3) NMDA receptor glycine-site partial agonists; and 4) metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) modulators...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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