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Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121469/savor-timi-to-sustain-6-a-critical-comparison-of-cardiovascular-outcome-trials-of-antidiabetic-drugs
#1
Awadhesh Kumar Singh, Ritu Singh
Since the inception of mandatory cardiovascular (CV) safety outcome trial (CVOT) promulgated by US FDA in 2008, seven trials have so far been published with three different classes of antidiabetic drugs in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This mini-review aims to critically analyse these CVOTs in terms of different outcomes achieved. Areas covered: An electronic search pertaining to the subject was conducted till September 2016. The three CVOT conducted with saxagliptin, alogliptin and sitagliptin respectively, found them to be CV-neutral...
February 6, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162021/guanylate-cyclase-c-as-a-target-for-prevention-detection-and-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer
#2
Allison A Aka, Jeff A Rappaport, Amanda M Pattison, Takami Sato, Adam E Snook, Scott A Waldman
Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and new strategies to prevent, detect, and treat the disease are needed. The receptor, guanylate cyclase C (GUCY2C), a tumor suppressor expressed by the intestinal epithelium, has emerged as a promising target. Areas Covered: This review outlines the role of GUCY2C in tumorigenesis, and steps to translate GUCY2C-targeting schemes to the clinic. Endogenous GUCY2C-activating ligands disappear early in tumorigenesis, silencing its signaling axis and enabling transformation...
February 4, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135854/pharmacological-therapies-for-liposarcoma
#3
Maristella Saponara, Silvia Stacchiotti, Alessandro Gronchi
Liposarcoma (LS) is one of the most common adult soft tissue sarcomas (STS). For metastatic disease, systemic treatment options were historically represented by standard cytotoxic chemotherapy. More recently, innovative therapies have been introduced and they are currently part of the therapeutic armamentarium, positively impacting disease control and patients' quality of life. Moreover, in the last decade, a better understanding of the molecular characteristics of each STS subtype allowed to detect new potential targets and develop novel, biology-driven compounds at different stages of testing...
January 30, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095262/biosimilars-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-accumulating-clinical-evidence
#4
Sean McConachie, Sheila M Wilhelm, Pramodini B Kale-Pradhan
Biologic antagonists to tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α) are effective medications and have become well established in the treatment of both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Biosimilar medications, which are medications deemed to be equivalent to reference biologic products in terms of clinical effectiveness, safety, pharmacokinetic analysis, and immunogenicity, have now been approved in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) based on indication exploration from clinical data in alternate disease states...
January 29, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129714/time-of-onset-of-vardenafil-orodispersible-tablet-in-a-real-life-setting-looking-beyond-randomized-clinical-trials
#5
Paolo Capogrosso, Eugenio Ventimiglia, Luca Boeri, Alessandro Serino, Andrea Russo, Giovanni La Croce, Umberto Capitanio, Federico Dehò, Francesco Montorsi, Andrea Salonia
BACKGROUND: A rapid onset of action for phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5is) emerged to be of clinical importance in men treated for erectile dysfunction (ED). Data from randomized clinical trials (RCTs) showed a rapid onset of action for vardenafil 10mg orodispersible tablet (ODT). However, the effectiveness of vardenafil ODT has never been tested in a real-life setting. We assessed the efficacy and time to onset of action of vardenafil ODT in men seeking medical help for ED in the everyday real-life clinical practice...
January 27, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094573/advanced-gastric-adenocarcinoma-optimizing-therapy-options
#6
Dilsa Mizrak Kaya, Kazuto Harada, Yusuke Shimodaira, Fatemeh G Amlashi, Quan Lin, Jaffer A Ajani
Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is the fifth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. When localized, cure is achievable with surgery and adjunctive therapies in some patients, however, once advanced, GAC is not a curable condition. Only two targeted agents (trastuzumab and ramucirumab) have been approved and apatinib was approved only in China. Because of the heterogeneous nature of GAC, it is not possible to assess a standard therapeutic approach. Areas Covered: In this review, we aimed to describe the optimal systemic therapy regimens for advanced GAC...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067058/antimicrobial-dosing-in-neonates
#7
Aggeliki Kontou, Kosmas Sarafidis, Emmanuel Roilides
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 8, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997812/why-ema-should-provide-clearer-guidance-on-the-authorization-of-nbcds-in-generic-and-hybrid-applications
#8
Livio Garattini, Anna Padula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927045/pharmacological-difficulties-in-the-treatment-of-asthma-in-pregnant-women
#9
Jennifer A Namazy, Michael Schatz
This is a review of the diagnosis and management of asthma in the pregnant patient. Asthma may adversely affect both maternal quality of life and, perinatal outcomes. Optimal management of asthma is thus important for both mother and baby. Areas covered: Special attention is paid to the challenges in diagnosis and management of asthma during pregnancy. Expert commentary: This article reviews the safety of asthma medications commonly used during pregnancy.
December 26, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937050/emerging-uricosurics-for-gout
#10
Robert Terkeltaub
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 22, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998190/update-and-trends-on-pharmacokinetic-studies-in-patients-with-impaired-renal-function-practical-insight-into-application-of-the-fda-and-ema-guidelines
#11
Sabina Paglialunga, Elliot Offman, Nita Ichhpurani, Thomas C Marbury, Bruce H Morimoto
The incidence of kidney dysfunction increases with age and is highly prevalent among patients with hypertension. Since many therapeutic compounds are primarily eliminated through the kidneys, impaired renal function can have negative consequences on drug disposition, efficacy and safety. Therefore, regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Medicines Agency (EMA) have issued detailed guidelines for new drug applications to determine posology requirements for patients with renal impairment...
December 21, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936975/asthma-phenotypes-in-children-and-stratified-pharmacological-treatment-regimens
#12
Maria Iordanidou, Stelios Loukides, Emmanouil Paraskakis
Asthma is the most common inflammatory disease in childhood. The interaction of genetic, environmental and host factors may contribute to the development of childhood asthma and defines its progress, including persistence and severity. Until now, various classifications of childhood asthma phenotypes have been suggested based on patient's age during onset of symptoms, type of inflammatory cells, response to treatment and disease severity. Many efforts have been carried out to identify childhood asthma phenotypes and to clarify which are the risk factors that define asthma prediction and the response to therapy...
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927042/pharmacological-treatments-for-methamphetamine-addiction-current-status-and-future-directions
#13
Javier Ballester, Gerald Valentine, Mehmet Sofuoglu
Methamphetamine (MA) abuse remains a global health challenge despite intense research interest in the development of pharmacological treatments. This review provides a summary of clinical trials and human studies on the pharmacotherapy of methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). Areas covered: We summarize published clinical trials that tested candidate medications for MUD and also conducted PubMed and Google Scholar searches to identify recently completed clinical trials using the keywords 'methamphetamine' 'addiction' 'pharmacotherapy' and 'clinical trial...
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977304/pharmacodynamics-of-combined-estrogen-progestin-oral-contraceptives-effects-on-metabolism
#14
Carlo Bastianelli, Manuela Farris, Elena Rosato, Ivo Brosens, Giuseppe Benagiano
The risk-benefit profile of any pharmacologic agent must be evaluated against risks connected with the events to be avoided. This is especially true in the case of hormonal contraception, not intended to combat a disease. Over the six decades during which their use has progressively expanded, the risk-benefit profile of combined oral contraceptives (COC) has substantially changed, with new combinations, dosages and mode of administration appearing on the market. Area covered: In a series of articles, recent information on the complex issue of COC risks and benefits will be reviewed in the hope of providing an updated picture...
December 15, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923318/herbal-medicines-challenges-in-the-modern-world-part-5-status-and-current-directions-of-complementary-and-alternative-herbal-medicine-worldwide
#15
Elena Yu Enioutina, Emma R Salis, Kathleen M Job, Michael I Gubarev, Lubov V Krepkova, Catherine M T Sherwin
Herbal medicine (HM) use is growing worldwide. Single herb preparations, ethnic and modern HM formulations are widely used as adjunct therapies or to improve consumer wellbeing. Areas covered: This final part in the publication series summarizes common tendencies in HM use as adjunct or alternative medicine, education of healthcare professionals and consumers, current and proposed guidelines regulating of production. We discuss potential HM-HM and HM-drug interactions that could lead to severe adverse events in situations where HMs are taken without proper medical professional oversight...
December 15, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001447/mirabegron-for-the-treatment-of-overactive-bladder-a-review-of-efficacy-safety-and-tolerability-with-a-focus-on-male-elderly-and-antimuscarinic-poor-responder-populations-and-patients-with-oab-in-asia
#16
Christopher R Chapple, Emad Siddiqui
Mirabegron is established as an alternative monotherapy to antimuscarinics for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Initial studies focused on Western populations, but over the past few years other populations and subpopulations have been evaluated. Areas covered: The authors' knowledge of the literature was used to develop the manuscript alongside a PubMed search ('mirabegron and clinical trial' and 'overactive bladder') to select independent studies of mirabegron. Up-to-date information is provided about the most recent mirabegron clinical trial and real-world efficacy, safety and tolerability data in a variety of patient populations with OAB, including those from different geographic areas, men, the elderly, and those with poor tolerability to antimuscarinics...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915484/new-techniques-for-studying-airway-drug-pharmacokinetics-for-asthma-therapeutics
#17
Staffan Edsbäcker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911103/tools-for-outcome-prediction-in-patients-with-community-acquired-pneumonia
#18
Faheem Khan, Mark B Owens, Marcos Restrepo, Pedro Povoa, Ignacio Martin-Loeches
Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common causes of mortality world-wide. The mortality rate of patients with CAP is influenced by the severity of the disease, treatment failure and the requirement for hospitalization and/or intensive care unit (ICU) management, all of which may be predicted by biomarkers and clinical scoring systems. Areas covered: We review the recent literature examining the efficacy of established and newly-developed clinical scores, biological and inflammatory markers such as C-Reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6), whether used alone or in conjunction with clinical severity scores to assess the severity of CAP, predict treatment failure, guide acute in-hospital or ICU admission and predict mortality...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892772/administration-of-lidocaine-to-prevent-cognitive-deficit-in-patients-undergoing-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-and-valve-plasty-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Afshin Gholipour Baradari, Mohammad Reza Habibi, Valiollah Habibi, Seyed Mahmood Nouraei
The administration of lidocaine to maintain cognitive function following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and valve plasty is a controversial concept in terms of its effectiveness. We performed a systematic review to determine the effectiveness of treatment with lidocaine in preventing the occurrence of cognitive deficit after cardiac surgery. Area covered: To review the current literature on the subject, we searched the PubMed database and the Cochrane Library database (up to May 2015) and compiled a list of retrieved articles...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868472/topical-and-systemic-antifungals-in-dermatology-practice
#20
Murat Durdu, Macit Ilkit, Yalda Tamadon, Ali Tolooe, Haleh Rafati, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi
Dermatophytosis is generally defined as an infection of the hair, nails, or glabrous skin. These infections are caused by the keratinophilic fungi Trichophyton spp., Microsporum spp., and Epidermophyton, which have been recovered from both symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Although dermatophytosis is generally not a life-threatening condition, these types of infections are among the most common infections worldwide, and their incidence has continued to increase consistently in recent years. Area covered: This article provides an overview of the general characteristics of dermatophytes, including their taxonomy and epidemiology, as well as the different clinical forms and laboratory diagnostics of dermatophytosis...
February 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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