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Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology

Nikoleta Printza, Ireni Georeli, Stella Stabouli, John Dotis, Christina Sidira, Papachristou Fotios
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Antonello Santini, Ettore Novellino
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 18, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Pedro Isaacsson Velho, Emmanuel S Antonarakis
Pharmacological inhibition of immune checkpoint receptors or their ligands represents a transformative breakthrough in the management of multiple cancers. However, immune checkpoint inhibitors have yet to be FDA-approved for the management of metastatic prostate cancer (PCa), the commonest non-cutaneous malignancy in men. Areas covered: We review our current understanding of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway in cancer, the use of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapeutics in PCa, and potential subgroups of PCa patients who may derive the greatest benefit from these agents (such as men with tumors that have expression of PD-L1 and/or high mutational load)...
April 11, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
John J Knoedler, Jay D Raman
While radical nephroureterectomy remains the gold-standard for upper tract urothelial carcinoma (UTUC), there is a growing push for organ-sparing therapy in low-risk disease. Herein we review the use of intracavitary topical therapy for treatment of UTUC. Areas covered:. A PubMed search was performed for studies pertaining to upper tract urothelial carcinoma, with 236 articles reviewed, and distilled for content pertinent to intracavitary therapy for UTUC. Topics discussed include agents used for management of UTUC, most commonly BCG, as well as techniques for administration...
April 10, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Teruyuki Ogawa, Osamu Ishizuka, Tomohiro Ueda, Pradeep Tyagi, Michael B Chancellor, Naoki Yoshimura
Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) is a symptomatic disorder characterized by pelvic pain and urinary frequency. Immunological responses are considered as one of the possible etiologies of IC/BPS. In this review, we focused on emerging targets, especially on those modulating immunological mechanisms for the treatments of IC/BPS. Area covered: This review was based on the literature search of PubMed/MEDLINE, for which key words following bladder pain syndrome, interstitial cystitis, and/or cyclosporine A (CyA) were used...
April 9, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Laura Benítez-Gutiérrez, Vicente Soriano, Silvia Requena, Ana Arias, Pablo Barreiro, Carmen de Mendoza
Current antiretroviral therapy allows to achieve and sustain maximal suppression of HIV replication in most treated patients. As result, the life expectancy of HIV-infected persons has improved dramatically and is nowadays similar to that of the HIV-negative population. However, oral antiretrovirals have to be taken daily and indefinitely to avoid resumption of HIV replication and selection of drug resistance. Unfortunately, drug adherence is often suboptimal and tends to decline over time. Areas covered: New drugs, formulations and delivery systems are being developed for extended-release of antiretrovirals...
March 29, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Marlene Seegräber, Jerome Srour, Alexandra Walter, Macarena Knop, Andreas Wollenberg
Dupilumab is a new treatment option for patients with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis. It blocks IL-4/IL13-signaling and thereby inhibits receptor signaling downstream the JAK-STAT-pathway. Three of the main disease mechanisms of atopic dermatitis are affected by blocking this pathway; the decrease of skin barrier function, the class switch to IgE and the TH2-differentiation. Areas Covered: Dupilumab showed promising results in clinical trials of phase I-III. Clinical outcome parameters such as SCORAD, EASI, IGA and BSA improved with dupilumab...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Simin Dashti-Khavidaki, Hossein Khalili, Mohsen Nasiri-Toosi
There was no report of nephrotoxicity during clinical trials assessed sofosbuvir for treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. This may be due to excluding patients with severe kidney dysfunction, as a main population at risk for drug-induced nephrotoxicity from these studies. There are some reports of acute kidney injury (AKI) possibly related to sofosbuvir-containing treatments from real-life experiences. Areas covered: Available data on epidemiology, type, and possible risk factors for nephrotoxicity of sofosbuvir-containing treatment are reviewed...
March 14, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
E D'Amico, F Patti, A Zanghì, S Lo Fermo, C G Chisari, M Zappia
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of lateral and escalation switch is a challenge in MS. We compared in a real-world setting the efficacy of switching to IFN beta-1a 44 mcg or to fingolimod in persons with relapsing remitting MS (pwRRMS) who failed with others injectable IFNs or glatiramer acetate. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: retrospective analysis of 24 months prospectively-collected data at the MS center of the University of Catania, Italy was performed. Patients who were switched to IFN-beta 1a 44 mcg or fingolimod were analyzed using propensity-score covariate adjustment model within demographic (e...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Luca Miele, Annalisa Tortora, Manuele Furnari, Giorgia Bodini, Maurizio Pompili, Antonio Gasbarrini, Edoardo Giovanni Giannini
Treatment of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) with direct acting antivirals (DAAs) is able to achieve the cure of infection in almost the totality of patients, independently of the characteristics of the individual and the virus, using short treatment schedules, and without the need of ribavirin. The high cost of DAAs is the main limiting factor for universal treatment of HCV. However, there is a strong evidence that treatment of infection at the early stage of disease may be the most rewarding approach. Areas covered: This review evaluates the aspects underlying the benefit of treating chronic HCV infection at the early stage of disease...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Shaoming Wang, Fenghui Lin, Junshan Ruan, Hong Ye, Ling Wang
BACKGROUND: The dose-effect relationship of teicoplanin has been a hot topic of clinical concern, but there was lack of the evidence of Chinese patients to optimize dosage, especially in elderly critical patients, whose plasma protein, liver and kidney function are greatly different from ordinary patients. METHODS: Elderly critical patients were divided into high-dose(800mg), medium-dose (600mg) and low-dose (400mg) groups, which consisted of 6 cases of each group...
March 6, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Eric J Yang, Isabelle M Sanchez, Kristen Beck, Sahil Sekhon, Jashin J Wu, Tina Bhutani
Guselkumab is a human monoclonal antibody targeting the p19 subunit of IL-23 that has been approved for the treatment of adult patients with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy. This medication blocks the IL-23/IL-17 axis, which has been implicated in playing a key role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Areas covered: This review outlines the pharmacologic properties, safety, and efficacy of guselkumab for the treatment of plaque psoriasis. Expert commentary: Guselkumab is the first IL-23 specific inhibitor to be approved for the treatment of plaque psoriasis...
March 6, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Giulia Rastrelli, Mario Maggi, Giovanni Corona
The frequency of late-onset hypogonadism (LOH) ranges between 2 and 15%. Up to 85% of LOH is due to a functional impairment of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis, mostly secondary to metabolic conditions. Areas covered: This paper provides a comprehensive review of all the available medications for treating LOH, including antiestrogens, gonadotropins and testosterone therapy (TTh). In addition, the evidence on clinical outcomes of these treatments is provided by meta-analyzing the results from the available randomized clinical trials...
March 5, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Fedor Simko, Michaela Adamcova
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
John Lally, Aonghus O' Loughlin, Brendon Stubbs, Allys Guerandel, Donal O'Shea, Fiona Gaughran
The increased prevalence of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in severe mental illness (SMI) contributes to increased cardiovascular morbidity and reduced life expectancy for people with SMI. Areas covered: In the present clinical review, we summarize the efficacy, safety and tolerability of selected diabetic pharmacotherapy options in SMI and discuss the quality and strength of evidence. Expert commentary: General principles for treating T2DM in SMI involve identifying treatments which promote weight loss and which have low or no risk of hypoglycemia...
February 26, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Maria Rita Gaiser, Michelle Bongiorno, Isaac Brownell
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer that lacks durable responses to traditional chemotherapy. Areas covered: After MCC was shown to be an immunogenic tumor, small trials revealed high objective response rates to PD-1/PD-L1 checkpoint inhibitors. The JAVELIN Merkel 200 (NCT02155647) trial tested the use of avelumab, a human IgG1 monoclonal antibody against PD-L1, in metastatic MCC. Avelumab recently became the first approved drug for metastatic MCC. Expert commentary: By conducting broad phase I studies assessing the safety of avelumab and a small phase II study demonstrating efficacy in this rare orphan tumor type, avelumab gained accelerated approval for the treatment of metastatic MCC...
February 26, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Konstantinos Imprialos, Michael Doumas, Vasilios G Athyros
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Karel Allegaert, Anne Smits, John van den Anker
Introduction Regulatory initiatives have stimulated drug research in infants, but the potential impact of drugs to improve health outcome in neonates remains underexplored. Areas covered In this review, we focus on current limitations in drug evaluation studies and how to overcome these. The low volume of studies has additional weaknesses such as single center studies, non-commercial sponsorship, overrepresentation of high postulated risk reductions, and underrepresentation of therapeutic exploratory studies...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Dede N Ekoue, Nisha Unni, Ganesh V Raj
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
Marco Bandini, Nicola Fossati, Giorgio Gandaglia, Felix Preisser, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Emanuele Zaffuto, Armando Stabile, Andrea Gallina, Nazareno Suardi, Shahrokh F Shariat, Francesco Montorsi, Pierre I Karakiewicz, Alberto Briganti
High-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) represents a heterogeneous disease with potential risk for local and distant progression. In these patients, a multi-modal approach consisting of neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant systemic therapies has been proposed. The aim of this review is to summarize the emerging roles of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies in HRPCa patients. Areas covered: This review collects the most relevant phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effect of neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic therapies in combination with radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT) for HRPCa patients...
April 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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