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Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Kristina Tzartzeva, Amit G Singal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 17, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Grace Hatton, Tommaso Alterio, Valerio Nobili, Jake P Mann
Paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is common disorder that has complex pathophysiology and unquantified clinical significance. Though there have been major advances in the field there is much yet to be understood. Areas covered: PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase were searched for articles related to paediatric NAFLD and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis between January 1998 and January 2018. The areas considered to be "unmet needs" were: The relationship between the intestinal microbiome and perinatal events; clinical event risk stratification; and mechanisms underlying portal inflammation...
August 17, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Hannah Smith, Ruth Forman, Iris Mair, Kathryn J Else
Macrophages represent a highly heterogeneous and plastic cell type found in most tissues of the body; the intestine is home to enormous numbers of these cells. Considerable interest surrounds the 'M2 macrophage,' as it is able to control and regulate inflammation, while promoting tissue repair. Areas covered: As potent inducers of M2 macrophages, intestinal helminths and helminth-derived products are ideal candidates for small molecule drug design to drive M2 macrophage polarization. Several gastrointestinal helminths have been found to cause M2 macrophage-inducing infections...
August 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Michele S Barnhill, Mark Real, James H Lewis
Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) remains an increasingly recognized cause of hepatotoxicity and liver failure worldwide. In 2017, we continued to learn about predicting, diagnosing, and prognosticating drug hepatotoxicity. Areas covered: In this review, we selected from over 1200 articles from 2017 to synopsize updates in DILI. There were new HLA haplotypes associated with medications including HLA-C0401 and HLA-B*14. There has been continued work with quantitative systems pharmacology, particularly with the DILIsym® initiative, which employs mathematical representations of DILI mechanisms to predict hepatotoxicity in simulated populations...
August 15, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Conghua Song, Jinpu Yang, Wen Ye, Yuting Zhang, Chunyan Tang, Xiaomei Li, Xiaojiang Zhou, Yong Xie
BACKGROUND: The relationship between living conditions in urban and rural areas during childhood and subsequent inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains controversial. AIM: To explore the association between environmental exposures early in life and the subsequent risk of IBD. METHODS: Literature searchs were conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Embase and Conference Proceedings Citation Index. Studies were analysed separately using rate ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs)...
August 13, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Hani Oweira, Omar Abdel-Rahman, Anwar Giryes, Meinrad Mannhart, Michael Decker
BACKGROUND: Time to start adjuvant therapy has been shown to be an important determinant of survival following curative resection of colorectal cancer. Time to start systemic therapy following diagnosis of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) needs to be additionally studied and assessed. METHODS: This is a pooled analysis of the raw data of the comparator arms of two randomized studies (NCT00272051; NCT00305188). Univariate and Multivariate analysis of predictors of overall and progression-free survival was conducted through Cox regression analysis...
August 11, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ala I Sharara, Samir Al Awadhi, Othman Alharbi, Hisham Al Dhahab, Mohamed Mounir, Leonardo Salese, Ena Singh, Nancy Sunna, Nadine Tarcha, Mahmoud Mosli
Ulcerative colitis is an idiopathic, chronic, inflammatory bowel disorder characterized by an unpredictable course of alternating cycles of relapse and remission. Traditionally viewed as a disease of Western countries, the prevalence of ulcerative colitis is reported to be increasing in the developing world. In these regions, there is the potential to further explore the etiology of the disease, mainly through genetic studies. With this in mind, we consider available data relating to the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and disease course of ulcerative colitis in Africa and the Middle East...
August 10, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Loris R Lopetuso, Marco Napoli, Gianenrico Rizzatti, Franco Scaldaferri, Francesco Franceschi, Antonio Gasbarrini
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection produces drastic changes in the gastric microenvironment, which, in turn, influence the gastric microbiota composition and might be correlated with large intestinal microbiota changes. This excellent perturbing actor could trigger important modifications in the homeostatic functions exerted by gut commensals leading to a new gastrointestinal balance. At the same time, the therapeutic strategies used to eradicate Hp can modulate this physiological symbiosis, but can be also conversely affected by its properties...
August 7, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Grainne Holleran, Deirdre McNamara
Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias (GIADs) have a wide variety of presentations, which can be significant and debilitating in a subset of patients. Endoscopic ablation is currently the most effective treatment for GIADs, however re-bleeding rates are high. Several medical have been used for GIADs and reported in the literature, however these medications have significant side effect profiles and randomized controlled trials are lacking. A relatively poor understanding of the pathophysiology of GIAD formation has limited the development of more effective treatments and improved diagnostic and prognostic markers for GIAD...
August 3, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Thomas L Ratchford, Jeffrey H Teckman, Dhiren R Patel
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a severe, progressive, multisystemic disease that is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene. Optimizing nutrition is critical, as higher growth parameters are associated with better pulmonary function and outcomes, but unfortunately patients with this disease are prone to malnutrition, growth failure, and vitamin deficiencies. The purpose of this review is to provide a timely highlight of the physiologic processes and outcome data to support today's management strategies, as well as review these principles themselves...
August 3, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Bobbi Laing, Matthew P G Barnett, Gareth Marlow, Noha Ahmed Nasef, Lynnette R Ferguson
The human microbiome plays a critical role in human health, having metabolic, protective, and trophic functions, depending upon its' exact composition. This composition is affected by a number of factors, including the genetic background of the individual, early life factors (including method of birth, length of breastfeeding) and nature of the diet and other environmental exposures (including cigarette smoking) and general life habits. It plays a key role in the control of inflammation, and in turn, its' composition is significantly influenced by inflammation...
August 1, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Ludovico Abenavoli, Laura Di Renzo, Luigi Boccuto, Nuha Alwardat, Santo Gratteri, Antonino De Lorenzo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disease worldwide. Insulin resistance and obesity-related inflammatory status, associated with genetic, dietary, and lifestyle factors, are involved in its pathogenesis. There is no consensus concerning the pharmacological treatment of NAFLD. However, the international guidelines agree to define a dietetic nutritional management to achieve weight loss, as an essential component of any therapeutic strategy. Areas covered: An overview on the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD...
August 1, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kumar Jayant, Isabella Reccia, A M James Shapiro
Nowadays liver transplantation is considered as the treatment of choice for patients presenting with the end-stage liver disease. However, the scarcity of suitable donor organs limits the delivery of care in a timely manner leading to the deaths of patients while on the waiting list. Recently, the concept of ex-situ normothermic machine perfusion (NMP) has emerged as an alternative to the standard organ preservation technique, static cold storage (SCS) and promises to not only restore the normal metabolic activity but attempts to recondition the marginal livers back to the pristine state which are otherwise more susceptible to ischemic injury and foster poor post-transplant outcomes...
July 31, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Gerolamo Bevivino, Giovanni Monteleone
Cytokines represent the key pathophysiologic elements that govern the initiation, progression, and, in some circumstances, the resolution of the inflammation occurring in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Areas covered: In this review, we will focus on the main effector and anti-inflammatory cytokines produced in IBD and discuss the results of recent trials in which cytokine-based therapy has been used for treating IBD patients. Expert commentary: The possibility to sample mucosal biopsies from IBD patients and analyze which molecular pathways are prominent during the active phases of the disease and the easy access to various models of experimental colitis has largely advanced our understanding about the role of cytokines in IBD...
July 30, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Fufang Liu, Chuan Li, Jia Zhu, Linan Ren, Xingshun Qi
BACKGROUND: ABO blood type is an invariant factor. There is a link between ABO blood type and some malignancies, such as gastric, pancreatic, and skin cancer. The role of ABO blood type in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to explore the relationship between ABO blood type and risk of HCC. METHODS: Literature search was conducted among the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated...
July 26, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Gui-Qi Zhu, Min Sun, Wei-Ting Liao, Wei-Hua Yu, Shao-Lai Zhou, Zheng-Jun Zhou, Ying-Hong Shi, Jia Fan, Jian Zhou, Li-Xin Qiu, Zhi Dai
BACKGROUND: Major treatments for small hepatocellular carcinoma (SHCC) include percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), percutaneous acetic acid injection (PAI), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), or surgical resection (SR). We aimed to compare these therapies concerning with effectiveness and safety. METHODS: Cochrane Library, PubMed, and Embase were searched for randomized controlled studies (RCTs) from inception to 30 April 2017. Odds ratios (OR) for proportion dead (PD), local recurrence (LR) and adverse events (AEs)...
July 25, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Takayuki Yamamoto, Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Antonino Spinelli, Remo Panaccione
Fistula-associated anal carcinoma in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) is a rare condition. More recently, this entity has been increasingly reported likely due to increased recognition, and the incidence may be greater than once appreciated. There remains a paucity of data regarding the incidence, diagnosis, treatment, and outcome of fistula-associated anal carcinoma. Area covered: This review evaluates the clinical features, pathology, treatment, and prognosis of fistula-associated anal carcinoma in patients with CD...
July 24, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Matthew S Alexander, Joseph J Cullen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 5, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mohamed El Kassas, Mohamed Alboraie, Dalia Omran, Mohamed Salaheldin, Mohamed Naguib Wifi, Mohamed ElBadry, Adel El Tahan, Sameera Ezzat, Enass Moaz, Amir M Farid, Heba Omar, Mahmoud Abouelkhair, Shimaa Afify, Kadry Elsaeed, Yehia Shazly, Wahid Doss, Gamal Esmat
BACKGROUND: A large Egyptian treatment program for HCV was launched in2014 after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This program depended mainly on establishing specialized independent centres for HCV treatment. These centres represent the major strengths in the Egyptian model of care, as they provide integrated care for HCV patients and have enabled Egypt to treat more than one million patients in 3 years. The New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center (NCVHTC) is an example of these specialized centres...
May 24, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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August 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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