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Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099821/medication-non-adherence-in-adult-patients-affected-by-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-critical-review-and-update-of-the-determining-factors-consequences-and-possible-interventions
#1
Marco Vincenzo Lenti, Christian P Selinger
Achieving adherence to medications can be a serious challenge for patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medical treatment is fundamental for inducing and maintaining remission, preventing flares and reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Non-adherence may affect patients' quality of life resulting in unfavourable treatment outcomes, more hospitalizations and higher healthcare-related costs. Recognising and improving adherence is therefore a primary aim for the treatment of IBD. Areas covered: We critically discuss the current knowledge on medication non-adherence in adult patients affected by IBD, also mentioning a few issues concerning the paediatric and adolescent populations...
January 18, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099818/intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-and-cytoreductive-surgery-for-peritoneal-metastases-coupled-with-curative-treatment-of-colorectal-liver-metastases-an-updated-systematic-review
#2
Sarah El-Nakeep, Noha Rashad, Hani Oweira, Jan S Schmidt, Daniel Helpling, Anwar Giyres, Ulf Petrausch, Arianeb Mehrabi, Michael Decker, Omar Abdel-Rahman
We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of delivering intraperitoneal chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases coupled with curative treatment of colorectal liver metastases. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search using PubMed was conducted to screen for eligible records. Studies evaluating colorectal surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy combined with curative treatment of liver metastases were included. We excluded duplicate publications. Sixty-seven full-text papers were assessed and six papers were finally included...
January 18, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095714/disease-related-and-drug-induced-skin-manifestations-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#3
Pieter Hindryckx, Gregor Novak, Antonio Costanzo, Silvio Danese
Skin manifestations are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and can be part of a concomitant illness with a shared genetic background, an extra-intestinal manifestation of the disease, or a drug side-effect. Areas covered: We provide a practical overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapeutic approach and prognosis of the most frequent disease-related and drug-induced cutaneous manifestations in IBD, illustrated by cases encountered in our clinical practice. Among the most frequently encountered IBD-related lesions are erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum and Sweet's syndrome...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095261/serum-alkaline-phosphatase-a-risk-factor-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-but-only-for-women-in-their-30s-and-40s-evidence-from-a-large-cohort-study
#4
Yu-Jie Zhou, Hai Zou, Ji-Na Zheng, Tian-Tian Zou, Alessandro Vitale, Luca Miele, Sven Van Poucke, Wen-Yue Liu, Shengrong Shen, Dong-Chu Zhang, Ke-Qing Shi, Ming-Hua Zheng
BACKGROUND: Several risk factors are able to predict non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) development, but the predictive value of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) remains uncertain. Our aim is to investigate the association between serum ALP levels and NAFL. METHODS: 21,331 NAFL-free subjects were included. Sex-specific ALP quartiles (Q1 to Q4) were defined. With Q1 used as reference, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated across each quartile...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092724/the-pediatric-rome-iv-criteria-what-s-new
#5
Ilan J N Koppen, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Marc A Benninga
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common in children of all ages and comprise of a wide range of conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be attributed to structural or biochemical abnormalities. FGIDs are diagnosed according to the symptom-based Rome criteria. Areas covered: In 2016, the revised pediatric Rome IV criteria were published, these revised criteria are discussed in this review article. For the youngest age group (neonates/toddlers), the criteria for infant colic have undergone the most notable revisions...
January 16, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081662/neuroendocrine-goblet-cell-and-mixed-adeno-neuroendocrine-tumours-of-the-appendix-updates-clinical-applications-and-the-future
#6
Ashley K Clift, Andrea Frilling
Appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms are rare, clinically challenging tumours that are typically incidentally diagnosed, have a poorly understood biology and have controversy surrounding their management. Most are adequately treated with appendectomy, and although distant metastases are rare, the threat of disease dissemination remains and current guidelines possess poor accuracy in terms of selecting patients requiring more extensive surgery, i.e. oncological right-hemicolectomy. Areas covered: In this article, we discuss the presentation and diagnostic work-up of patients with appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms, and also examine the evidence base for existing management strategies...
January 12, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052695/management-of-early-colonic-neoplasia-where-are-we-now-and-where-are-we-heading
#7
Gaius Longcroft-Wheaton, Pradeep Bhandari
There have been considerable advances in the endoscopic treatment of colorectal neoplasia. The development of endoscopic submucosal dissection and full thickness resection techniques is changing the way benign disease and early cancers are managed. This article reviews the evidence behind these new techniques and discusses where this field is likely to move in the future. Areas covered: A PubMed literature review of resection techniques for colonic neoplasia was performed. The clinical and cost effectiveness of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is examined...
January 4, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000520/small-bowel-villous-atrophy-celiac-disease-and-beyond
#8
Luca Elli, Federica Branchi, Reena Sidhu, Stefano Guandalini, Asaad Assiri, Firas Rinawi, Raanan Shamir, Prasenjit Das, Govind K Makharia
Small bowel villous atrophy can represent a diagnostic challenge for gastroenterologists and pathologists. In Western countries small bowel atrophy and mild non-atrophic alterations are frequently caused by celiac disease. However, other pathology can mimic celiac disease microscopically, widening the differential diagnosis. The several novelties on this topic and the introduction of the device-assisted enteroscopy in the diagnostic flowchart make an update of the literature necessary. Areas covered: In this review, a description of the different clinical scenarios when facing with small bowel mucosal damage, particularly small bowel atrophy, is described...
December 29, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004601/does-the-evidence-support-a-survival-benefit-of-albumin-infusion-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-undergoing-large-volume-paracentesis
#9
Mauro Bernardi, Paolo Caraceni, Roberta J Navickis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 28, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27983877/new-insights-into-the-anti-diabetic-actions-of-metformin-from-the-liver-to-the-gut
#10
Tongzhi Wu, Michael Horowitz, Christopher K Rayner
Metformin is established as the first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but its mode of action remains elusive. Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the anti-diabetic action of metformin may have the potential to optimise its glucose-lowering efficacy and lead to the development of agents acting on novel targets for the management of type 2 diabetes. Areas covered: This review highlights key pharmacokinetic features of metformin, summarises recent insights into its hepatic and gastrointestinal actions relevant to blood glucose homeostasis, and discusses the common gastrointestinal side effects of metformin...
December 26, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998193/update-on-dietary-therapy-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children-and-adults
#11
Javier Molina-Infante, Pedro Luis Gonzalez-Cordero, Angel Arias, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory esophageal disease triggered predominantly, but not excusively, by food antigens. Elimination diet thus remains the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease. Importantly, EoE is a unique form of non-IgE mediated food allergy, largely dependant upon delayed, cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of literature to summarize and update the most relevant advances on dietary therapy for pediatric and adult EoE patients is conducted...
December 23, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937041/new-developments-in-the-early-diagnosis-of-pancreatic-cancer
#12
QiuBo Zhang, ShaoJie Chen, LinJuan Zeng, YinTing Chen, GuoDa Lian, ChenChen Qian, JiaJia Li, RuiJie Xie, Kai-Hong Huang
Pancreatic cancer is an aggressive carcinoma of the digestive system and radical resection, which is available to very few patients, is the only possibility for cure. Since therapeutic choices are limited at the advanced stage, screening and early diagnostic tools are indispensable for a better prognosis. Areas covered: This review illustrates serologic and imaging examinations, and carbohydrate antigens, microRNAs, methylation biomarkers, molecules in exosomes, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, among other topics...
December 20, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936974/the-practical-management-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-in-japan-dual-therapy-of-daclatasvir-asunaprevir
#13
C Nelson Hayes, Michio Imamura, Kazuaki Chayama
Without treatment, many of the 200 million people worldwide with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection will develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. Japan was the first nation to approve an interferon-free therapy for HCV, and sustained viral response (SVR) rates >90% have been achieved with asunaprevir, a protease inhibitor, plus daclatasvir, an inhibitor of the non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the results from both clinical trials and real world experience with asunaprevir and daclatasvir therapy focused primarily on Japan...
December 16, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927062/the-possible-role-of-gastrointestinal-endocrine-cells-in-the-pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#14
Magdy El-Salhy, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
The etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is unknown, but several factors appear to play a role in its pathophysiology, including abnormalities of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. The present review illuminates the possible role of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathophysiology of IBS and the possibility of utilizing the current knowledge in treating the disease. Areas covered: Research into the intestinal endocrine cells and their possible role in the pathophysiology of IBS is discussed. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells in IBS patients are revealed...
December 14, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900879/how-should-we-treat-mild-and-moderate-severe-crohn-s-disease-in-2017-a-brief-overview-of-available-therapies
#15
Rachel W Winter, Robert Burakoff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 11, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915485/impact-of-curcumin-on-the-regulation-of-micrornas-in-colorectal-cancer
#16
Luis E Simental-Mendía, Michele Caraglia, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830958/role-of-liver-directed-local-tumor-therapy-in-the-management-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-with-extrahepatic-metastases-a-seer-database-analysis
#17
Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: This study assessed the prognostic impact of the liver-directed local tumor therapy in the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with extrahepatic metastases. METHODS: Metastatic HCC patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2013 were identified from the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results) database. Propensity-matched analysis was performed considering baseline characteristics (age, gender, race, histology, TNM stage, site of metastases, fibrosis score and alpha fetoprotein)...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27937040/multiparametric-or-practical-quantitative-liver-mri-towards-millisecond-fat-fraction-kilopascal-and-function-era
#18
Emre Unal, Ilkay Sedakat Idilman, Muşturay Karçaaltıncaba
New advances in liver magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may enable diagnosis of unseen pathologies by conventional techniques. Normal T1 (550-620 ms for 1.5 T and 700-850 ms for 3 T), T2, T2* (>20 ms), T1rho (40-50 ms) mapping, proton density fat fraction (PDFF) (≤5%) and stiffness (2-3kPa) values can enable differentiation of a normal liver from chronic liver and diffuse diseases. Gd-EOB-DTPA can enable assessment of liver function by using postcontrast hepatobiliary phase or T1 reduction rate (normally above 60%)...
February 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897033/the-toll-of-not-screening-for-colorectal-cancer
#19
Chen Chen, Michael Hoffmeister, Hermann Brenner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885843/current-evaluation-and-management-of-anemia-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#20
Julia Martin, Heinfried H Radeke, Axel Dignass, Jürgen Stein
Anemia is a common extraintestinal manifestation in IBD patients and considerably impacts disease prognosis, hospitalization rates and time lost from work. While iron deficiency anemia is predominant, combinations of hematimetric and biochemical markers enable detection and targeted therapy of other etiologies including vitamin B12/folic acid deficiencies, hemolysis, myelosuppression and pharmacotherapies. Areas covered: Current literature was searched for articles focusing on etiology, diagnostics and therapy of anemia in IBD...
January 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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