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Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451037/esophageal-hiatal-hernia-risk-diagnosis-and-management
#1
Hai-Xiang Yu, Chun-Shan Han, Jin-Ru Xue, Zhi-Feng Han, Hua Xin
Esophageal hiatal hernia involves abnormal abdominal entry into thoracic cavity. It is classified based on orientation between esophageal junction and diaphragm. Sliding hiatal hernia (Type-I) comprises the most frequent category, emanating from right crus of diaphragm. Type-II esophageal hernia engages both left and right muscular crura. Type-III and IV additionally include the left crus. Age and increased body mass index are key risk factors, and congenital skeletal aberrations trigger pathogenesis through intestinal malrotations...
February 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406791/functional-abdominal-pain-disorders-in-children
#2
Shaman Rajindrajith, Judith Zeevenhooven, Niranga Manjuri Devanarayana, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus Perera, Marc A Benninga
Chronic abdominal pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The majority of cases fulfill the Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). At times, these disorders may lead to rather serious repercussions. Area covered: We have attempted to cover current knowledge on epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors related to pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and management of children with FAPDs. Expert commentary: FAPDs are a worldwide problem with a pooled prevalence of 13.5%. There are a number of predisposing factors and pathophysiological mechanisms including stressful events, child maltreatment, visceral hypersensitivity, altered gastrointestinal motility and change in intestinal microbiota...
February 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439587/clinical-management-of-pediatric-achalasia
#3
Marinde van Lennep, Michiel P van Wijk, Taher I Omari, Marc A Benninga, Maartje M J Singendonk
Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder. Much of the literature is based on the adult population. In adults, guidance of therapeutic approach by manometric findings has led to improvement in patient outcome. Promising results have been achieved with novel therapies such as PerOral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM). Areas covered: In this review, we provide an overview of the novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools for achalasia management and in what way they will relate to the future management of pediatric achalasia...
February 13, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431526/the-potential-role-of-statins-in-treating-liver-disease
#4
Konstantinos P Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Michael Doumas, Anastasia Skalkou, Ioanna Zografou, Vasilios G Athyros
Statins are commonly use for the management of dyslipidemia, worldwide. Various studies have demonstrated that statins offer significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, this class of drugs has been implicated in potential liver toxicity, thus has been considered as a "forbidden-drug" in patients with increased liver enzymes. Areas covered: Studies have shown that statins might offer clinical benefits in the setting of viral hepatitis, progression of cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
February 12, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419329/understanding-gastroschisis-and-its-clinical-management-where-are-we
#5
Candace Haddock, Erik D Skarsgard
Gastroschisis is the commonest developmental defect of the anterior abdominal wall in both developed and developing countries. The past 30 years have seen transformational improvements in outcome due to advances in neonatal intensive care and enhanced integration between the disciplines of maternal fetal medicine, neonatology and pediatric surgery. A review of gastroschisis, which emphasizes its epidemiology, multidisciplinary care strategies and contemporary outcomes is timely. Areas covered: This review discusses the current state of knowledge related to prevalence and causation, and postulated embryopathologic mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroschisis...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334786/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-an-update
#6
Rui-Hong Zhao, Yu Shi, Hong Zhao, Wei Wu, Ji-Fang Sheng
Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300496/hepcare-europe-bridging-the-gap-in-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-study-protocol
#7
Davina Swan, Walter Cullen, Juan Macias, Cristiana Oprea, Alistair Story, Julian Surey, Peter Vickerman, John S Lambert
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C (HCV) infection is highly prevalent among people who inject drugs (PWID). Many PWID are unaware of their infection and few have received HCV treatment. Recent developments in treatment offer cure rates >90%. However, the potential of these treatments will only be realised if HCV identification among PWID with linkage to treatment is optimised. This paper describes the Hepcare Europe project, a collaboration between five institutions across four member states (Ireland, UK, Spain, Romania), to develop, implement and evaluate interventions to improve the identification, evaluation and treatment of HCV among PWID...
January 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300103/stratified-alpha-fetoprotein-pattern-accurately-predicts-mortality-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-hepatitis-b-liver-failure
#8
Gui-Qian Huang, Yao-Yao Xie, Pei-Wu Zhu, Xiao-Dong Wang, Zhuo Lin, Yan Wang, Jiang-Pin Ye, Yu-Min Wang, Ying-Xiao Chen, Xiao-Zhi Jin, Sven Van Poucke, Yong-Ping Chen, Ming-Hua Zheng
BACKGROUND: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) has been shown to predict the prognosis of liver disease in several studies. This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of stratified AFP in patients with acute-on-chronic hepatitis B liver failure (ACHBLF). METHODS: A total of 192 patients were included and AFP were categorized into quartiles. The prognostic value was determined for overall survival (OS) and assessed by Kaplan-Meier analysis. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses studied the association of all independent parameters with disease prognosis...
January 12, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323538/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-induced-liver-injury-a-systematic-review
#9
Ran Wang, Xingshun Qi, Eric Yoshida, Nahum Mendez-Sanchez, Rolf Teschke, Mingyu Sun, Xu Liu, Chunping Su, Jiao Deng, Han Deng, Feifei Hou, Xiaozhong Guo
BACKGROUNDS: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is becoming increasingly popular and related adverse events are often ignored or underestimated. AIMS: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of TCM-induced liver injury (TCM-ILI) and to estimate the proportion of TCM-ILI in all drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). METHODS: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched...
January 11, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316808/impact-of-prior-malignancy-on-outcomes-of-stage-iv-esophageal-carcinoma-seer-based-study
#10
Anas M Saad, Muneer J Al-Husseini, Ahmed Elgebaly, Omar A Aboshady, Sami Salahia, Omar Abdel-Rahman
INTRODUCTION: Usually, clinical trials on esophageal cancer exclude patients with a prior malignancy, assuming that this may influence survival outcomes. However, little is known about the impact of a prior malignancy on its prognosis. METHODOLOGY: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (SEER) was used to review patients with stage IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and adenocarcinoma (AC) of the esophagus during 1973-2014. We calculated overall and esophageal cancer-specific survival using unadjusted Kaplan-Meier and multivariable covariate-adjusted Cox models...
January 10, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310470/new-therapies-target-the-toxic-consequences-of-cholestatic-liver-disease
#11
Peter L M Jansen
In most cholestatic liver diseases the primary cholestasis-causing lesions are located in the biliary tree and may be of (auto)immune origin. Bile salts are responsible for the secondary toxic consequences. Bile salt and nuclear hormone directed therapies primarily aim at improving this secondary toxic injury. In primary biliary cholangitis, trials show statistically significant responses on biochemical endpoints. Preclinical studies suggest that FXR- and PPAR-agonists, inhibitors of the apical sodium-dependent bile salt transporter (ASBT-inhibitors) and the C23 UDCA derivative nor-UDCA are promising agents for the treatment of primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)...
January 10, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224471/clinical-relevance-of-liver-histopathology-and-different-histological-classifications-of-nash-in-adults
#12
Fabio Nascimbeni, Stefano Ballestri, Mariana Verdelho Machado, Alessandro Mantovani, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Giovanni Targher, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses simple steatosis and steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD occurs epidemically in most areas of the world, contributes to cardiovascular events and liver-related mortality and therefore exacts a major economic toll. Areas covered: Here we summarize what clinicians should know about NAFLD histopathology in adults. We report on the individual histological features and scoring systems of NAFLD: the NAFLD activity score (NAS) introduced by the NASH-Clinical Research Network, the 'Fatty Liver Inhibition of Progression' algorithm and Steatosis, Activity, and Fibrosis (SAF) score...
December 26, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237299/erratum
#13
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231791/glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-neoplasia-a-systematic-review
#14
Linea Landgrebe Ring, Nikolaj Nerup, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Lars Bo Svendsen, Michael Patrick Achiam
Glucagon like peptide-2 is synthesized from enteroendocrine L cells primarily located in the ileum and large intestine. GLP-2 stimulates crypt cell proliferation, increases intestinal blood flow, enhances gut barrier function, induces mucosal healing, and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect. Due to these effects GLP-2 is used in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Areas covered The aim of this systematic review was to provide information on the potential risk of intestinal neoplasia in patients receiving treatment with GLP-2...
December 12, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231769/liver-transplantation-beyond-or-downstaging-within-the-milan-criteria-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#15
Sean R Rudnick, Mark W Russo
Unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common indication for liver transplantation (LT). The Milan criteria became standard criteria but expansion beyond the Milan criteria (tumor size and number) have resulted in similar post-transplant outcomes, thus suggesting LT is a viable treatment option for HCC presenting beyond the Milan criteria Areas covered: Expanded criteria and the use of downstaging therapies to meet Milan criteria are reviewed. Surrogates of tumor biology (including biomarkers and response to therapy) are described in detail...
December 12, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219625/utility-of-point-shear-wave-elastography-in-characterisation-of-focal-liver-lesions
#16
Maha Hasab-Allah, Rabab Mamoun Salama, Mohamed Saeed Marie, Ahmed Alsaeed Mohammed Mandur, Heba Omar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198151/validation-of-the-8th-ajcc-staging-system-for-gastric-cancer-in-a-population-based-setting
#17
Omar Abdel-Rahman
OBJECTIVE: To validate the prognostic value 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for gastric cancer. METHODS: Through SEER*Stat program, Surveillance, epidemiology and end results database (2010-2013) was accessed and 8th AJCC stages were reconstructed. Cancer-specific survival analyses according to both 7th and 8th editions were conducted through Kaplan-Meier analysis/log-rank testing and multivariate analysis was conducted through a Cox model...
December 2, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129158/practical-gastrointestinal-investigation-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia
#18
Anjan K Banerjee, Valerio Celentano, Jim Khan, Gaius Longcroft-Wheaton, Amanda Quine, Pradeep Bhandari
About 10% of oesophagogastroduodenoscopies (OGDs) and colonoscopies are done for investigation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) . Much of the existing guidance on investigation of IDA predates CRC screening, which has driven significant improvements in colonoscopy quality and completion rates, as well as a reduction in Helicobacter pylori prevalence and increase in PPI usage, and therefore probably needs re-consideration. New investigations, e.g. CT colonography, enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy have also been introduced...
March 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258378/hepatorenal-syndrome-the-clinical-impact-of-vasoactive-therapy
#19
Isabelle Colle, Pierre-Fran├žois Laterre
Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is a unique form of acute kidney injury seen in cirrhotic patients and associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Despite its impact, diagnosis and treatment of HRS remains challenging and this review aims to assess and compare the available vasoconstrictors used as first-line treatment for HRS. Areas covered: A literature review was undertaken on the use of vasoconstrictors in HRS, using PubMed/Medline database searches of: 'hepatorenal syndrome', 'HRS' and 'vasoconstrictor'...
February 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241376/non-endoscopic-biopsy-techniques-a-review
#20
David O Otuya, Yogesh Verma, Hamid Farrokhi, Lisa Higgins, Mireille Rosenberg, Christopher Damman, Guillermo J Tearney
Diseases of the stomach and small intestine account for approximately 20% of all gastrointestinal (GI)-related mortality. Biopsy of the stomach and small intestine remains a key diagnostic tool for most of the major diseases that affect the GI tract. While endoscopic means for obtaining biopsy is generally the standard of care, it has several limitations that make it less ideal for pediatric patients and in low resource areas of the world. Therefore, non-endoscopic means for obtaining biopsy samples is of interest in these settings...
February 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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