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Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667436/is-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-a-temporary-patch-for-treatment-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-or-a-new-frontier-of-therapeutics
#1
Alexander Khoruts
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658347/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-ceus-imaging-of-solid-benign-focal-liver-lesions
#2
Christoph F Dietrich, Claudio Tana, Cosmin Caraiani, Yi Dong
Ultrasound is well accepted worldwide for imaging of the liver. Absences of radiation exposure, low cost and large diffusion are some of the advantages that make this technique the first to be used in the assessment of focal liver lesions (FLL). Areas covered: Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) has been introduced more than twenty years ago, and its detection rate is comparable to that of contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (CEMRI) and contrast enhanced computed tomography (CECT). In this narrative review, we discuss the main CEUS features of benign liver lesions and controversies in published results including the gold standard chosen and the quality and knowledge of the preferred techniques...
April 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29633902/pediatric-irritable-bowel-syndrome-and-other-functional-abdominal-pain-disorders-an-update-of-non-pharmacological-treatments
#3
Shivani Gupta, Gilda Schaffer, Miguel Saps
Functional abdominal pain disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome, are common in children and treatment can often be difficult. Pharmacological therapies and complementary treatments are widely used, despite the limited data in pediatrics. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the available data for the use of diet, probiotics, percutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and psychosocial interventions, including hypnotherapy, yoga, cognitive and behavioral therapy and mind-body interventions for the treatment of functional abdominal pain disorders in children...
April 10, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629846/molecular-profiling-of-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-pnets-and-the-clinical-potential
#4
Massimiliano Camilli, Konstantinos Papadimitrio, Amanda Nogueira, Lorena Incorvaia, Antonio Galvano, Federica D'Antonio, Jose Ferri, Daniele Santini, Nicola Silvestris, Antonio Russo, Marc Peeters, Christian Rolfo
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) represent a small part of pancreatic neoplasms, and the knowledge about their indolent clinical course remains a subject of investigation. They occur sporadically or as part of familial cancer syndromes and are classified by WHO in 3 categories. There is ongoing research to understand their molecular profiling and leading mutations. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to clarify the overall aspects of tumorigenesis, to expose the latest developments in understanding the course of the disease and the possible therapeutic implications of these...
April 9, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629626/the-role-of-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-for-the-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis-a-systematic-review
#5
Ying Peng, Yan Li, Yonghong He, Qinglin Wei, Qiaoling Xie, Liangjun Zhang, Yiju Xia, Xueqian Zhou, Lu Zhang, Xinchan Feng, Kun Chen, Sheng Chen, Wensheng Chen, Qinglin Long, Jin Chai
Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is widely used to assess inflammatory diseases. We performed a systematic review to explore the prognostic role of NLR for the assessment of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Areas covered: We searched the PubMed and EMBASE databases for the eligible papers which explored the association between NLR and liver fibrosis/cirrhosis or investigated the prognostic value of NLR in cirrhotic patients. Expert commentary: In accordance with assessment of liver fibrosis stage, we classified papers into four subgroups by etiology...
April 9, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611452/the-use-of-human-albumin-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-a-european-survey
#6
Paolo Caraceni, Marco Pavesi, Maurizio Baldassarre, Mauro Bernardi, Vicente Arroyo
BACKGROUND: The administration of human albumin (HA) in patients with decompensated cirrhosis is still debated. The European Foundation for the Study of Chronic Liver Failure (EF-CLIF) promoted an online survey to assess its use across Europe. METHODS: Hepatologists were invited to participate to an electronic questionnaire based on multiple-choice questions divided in 6 different areas. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed to analyze the responses. RESULTS: One hundred-one hepatologists (36% non-EF-CLIF member), belonging to 86 centers (25% non-academic hospitals) completed the survey...
April 4, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609501/the-relationship-between-obesity-and-the-severity-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Feng-Bin Lu, En-De Hu, Lan-Man Xu, Lu Chen, Jin-Lu Wu, Hui Li, Da-Zhi Chen, Yong-Ping Chen
A number of researches have explored the association between obesity and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) liver function, histopathology, complications, genetic factors and prognosis, but the results were conflicting and inconclusive. Areas covered: In this meta-analysis, the liver function, histopathology, metabolic complications, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 3 (PNPLA3) genetic polymorphism and prognosis were compared between non-obese and obese NAFLD. Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane databases were searched to identify eligible studies...
April 2, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564926/acid-suppression-in-patients-treated-with-endoscopic-therapy-for-the-management-of-gastroesophageal-varices-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Jia Zhu, Xingshun Qi, Haonan Yu, Chunping Su, Xiaozhong Guo
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Endoscopic therapy is the cornerstone choice for the management of varices and variceal hemorrhage. The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy of acid suppression in patients treated with endoscopic therapy for gastroesophageal varices. METHODS: All eligible studies were searched via the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Incidence of bleeding, mortality, ulcers, chest pain, and dysphagia after endoscopic therapy and length of stay were analyzed...
March 22, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543072/conditional-survival-of-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-results-from-the-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-registry
#9
Guoqing Zhang, Renfeng Li, Yilei Deng, Longshuan Zhao
BACKGROUND: Compared with overall survival, conditional survival is a more relevant measure of prognosis in surviving patients over time. The aim of this study was to describe the conditional survival of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma according to different prognostic variables through an analysis of a national population-based cancer registry. METHODS: We analyzed data from 3,082 hepatocellular carcinoma patients who were diagnosed between 2004 and 2014...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540068/emerging-therapeutic-biomarkers-of-autoimmune-hepatitis-and-their-impact-on-current-and-future-management
#10
Albert J Czaja
Autoimmune hepatitis lacks a quantifiable biomarker that is close to its pathogenic mechanisms and that accurately reflects inflammatory activity, correlates with treatment response, and ensures inactive disease before treatment withdrawal. Areas covered: Micro-ribonucleic acids, programmed death-1 protein and its ligands, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, soluble CD163, B cell activating factor, and metabolite patterns in blood were considered the leading candidates as therapeutic biomarkers after search of PubMed from August 1981 to August 2017 using the search words 'biomarkers of autoimmune hepatitis'...
March 20, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495889/elucidating-the-link-between-collagen-and-pancreatic-cancer-what-s-next
#11
Shin Hamada, Atsushi Masamune
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29493330/fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-managing-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#12
Magdy El-Salhy, Tarek Mazzawi
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a widespread gastrointestinal disorder affecting 11.2% of the world adult population. The intestinal microbiome is thought to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of IBS. The composition of the fecal microbiome in IBS patients differs from that in healthy individuals, but the exact bacteria species involved in the development of IBS remain to be determined. There is also an imbalance between useful and harmful bacteria (dysbiosis) in the intestinal microbiome in patients with IBS...
March 1, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488419/the-potential-of-gut-microbiota-and-fecal-volatile-organic-compounds-analysis-as-early-diagnostic-biomarker-for-necrotizing-enterocolitis-and-sepsis-in-preterm-infants
#13
Daniel Johannes Cornelis Berkhout, Hendrik Johannes Niemarkt, Nanne Klaas de Boer, Marc Alexander Benninga, Timotheüs Gualtherus Jacob de Meij
Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of both necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) in preterm infants are yet to be elucidated, evidence is emerging that the gut microbiota plays a key role in their pathophysiology. Areas covered: In this review, initial microbial colonization and factors influencing microbiota composition are discussed. For both NEC and LOS, an overview of studies investigating preclinical alterations in gut microbiota composition and fecal volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is provided...
February 28, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451037/esophageal-hiatal-hernia-risk-diagnosis-and-management
#14
Hai-Xiang Yu, Chun-Shan Han, Jin-Ru Xue, Zhi-Feng Han, Hua Xin
Esophageal hiatal hernia involves abnormal abdominal entry into thoracic cavity. It is classified based on orientation between esophageal junction and diaphragm. Sliding hiatal hernia (Type-I) comprises the most frequent category, emanating from right crus of diaphragm. Type-II esophageal hernia engages both left and right muscular crura. Type-III and IV additionally include the left crus. Age and increased body mass index are key risk factors, and congenital skeletal aberrations trigger pathogenesis through intestinal malrotations...
April 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439587/clinical-management-of-pediatric-achalasia
#15
Marinde van Lennep, Michiel P van Wijk, Taher I M Omari, Marc A Benninga, Maartje M J Singendonk
Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder. Much of the literature is based on the adult population. In adults, guidance of therapeutic approach by manometric findings has led to improvement in patient outcome. Promising results have been achieved with novel therapies such as PerOral Endoscopic Myotomy (POEM). Areas covered: In this review, we provide an overview of the novel diagnostic and therapeutic tools for achalasia management and in what way they will relate to the future management of pediatric achalasia...
April 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431526/the-potential-role-of-statins-in-treating-liver-disease
#16
Konstantinos P Imprialos, Konstantinos Stavropoulos, Michael Doumas, Anastasia Skalkou, Ioanna Zografou, Vasilios G Athyros
Statins are commonly use for the management of dyslipidemia, worldwide. Various studies have demonstrated that statins offer significant reduction in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, this class of drugs has been implicated in potential liver toxicity, thus has been considered as a 'forbidden-drug' in patients with increased liver enzymes. Areas covered: Studies have shown that statins might offer clinical benefits in the setting of viral hepatitis, progression of cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma...
April 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419329/understanding-gastroschisis-and-its-clinical-management-where-are-we
#17
Candace Haddock, Erik D Skarsgard
Gastroschisis is the commonest developmental defect of the anterior abdominal wall in both developed and developing countries. The past 30 years have seen transformational improvements in outcome due to advances in neonatal intensive care and enhanced integration between the disciplines of maternal fetal medicine, neonatology and pediatric surgery. A review of gastroschisis, which emphasizes its epidemiology, multidisciplinary care strategies and contemporary outcomes is timely. Areas covered: This review discusses the current state of knowledge related to prevalence and causation, and postulated embryopathologic mechanisms contributing to the development of gastroschisis...
April 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406791/functional-abdominal-pain-disorders-in-children
#18
Shaman Rajindrajith, Judith Zeevenhooven, Niranga Manjuri Devanarayana, Bonaventure Jayasiri Crispus Perera, Marc A Benninga
Chronic abdominal pain is a common problem in pediatric practice. The majority of cases fulfill the Rome IV criteria for functional abdominal pain disorders (FAPDs). At times, these disorders may lead to rather serious repercussions. Area covered: We have attempted to cover current knowledge on epidemiology, pathophysiology, risk factors related to pathophysiology, clinical evaluation and management of children with FAPDs. Expert commentary: FAPDs are a worldwide problem with a pooled prevalence of 13.5%. There are a number of predisposing factors and pathophysiological mechanisms including stressful events, child maltreatment, visceral hypersensitivity, altered gastrointestinal motility and change in intestinal microbiota...
April 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334786/acute-on-chronic-liver-failure-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-an-update
#19
Rui-Hong Zhao, Yu Shi, Hong Zhao, Wei Wu, Ji-Fang Sheng
Acute-on-chronic liver failure is a common pattern of end-stage liver disease in clinical practice and occurs frequently in patients with chronic hepatitis B or HBV-related cirrhosis. New progress in recent years leads to a better understanding of this disease. Areas covered: This review updates the current comprehensive knowledge about HBV-ACLF from epidemiological studies, experimental studies, and clinical studies and provide new insights into the definition, diagnostic criteria, epidemiology, nature history, pathogenesis, treatment and prognostication of HBV-ACLF...
April 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323538/clinical-characteristics-and-outcomes-of-traditional-chinese-medicine-induced-liver-injury-a-systematic-review
#20
Ran Wang, Xingshun Qi, Eric M Yoshida, Nahum Méndez-Sánchez, Rolf Teschke, Mingyu Sun, Xu Liu, Chunping Su, Jiao Deng, Han Deng, Feifei Hou, Xiaozhong Guo
BACKGROUNDS: Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is becoming increasingly popular and related adverse events are often ignored or underestimated. AIMS: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the clinical characteristics and outcomes of TCM-induced liver injury (TCM-ILI) and to estimate the proportion of TCM-ILI in all drug-induced liver injuries (DILI). METHODS: China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, VIP, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched...
April 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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