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Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319429/current-standards-and-new-developments-of-colorectal-polyp-management-and-resection-techniques
#1
Daniel von Renteln, Mickael Bouin, Alan N Barkun
Colonoscopy and endoscopic removal of precancerous polyps play an important role in colorectal cancer (CRC) prevention. Improved endoscopes and quality standards have led to an increasing polyp and adenoma detection rate. Optimal polyp resection techniques and management strategies are key for an effective colonoscopy practice. Areas covered: Strategies for how to improve diminutive polyp (polyps up to 5mm in size) management are discussed because of their high prevalence. Systematic removal of diminutive polyps leads to increasing costs of colonoscopy practice, while the effect on colorectal cancer prevention might be negligible...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319427/new-horizons-in-the-imaging-of-perianal-crohn-s-disease-transperineal-ultrasonography
#2
Cristina Bezzio, Robert V Bryant, Gianpiero Manes, Giovanni Maconi, Simone Saibeni
Perianal disease, most commonly manifest as fistula or abscess formation, affects up to 40% of patients with Crohn's disease. Perianal Crohn's disease is disabling, associated with poor outcomes, and represents a therapeutic challenge for physicians. Correct diagnosis and classification of perianal disease is the first crucial step for appropriate multidisciplinary management. Areas covered: A literature search was performed of the PubMed database using the terms "transperineal ultrasonography", "transperineal ultrasound", "perianal disease", "perianal fistula", "perianal abscess", "magnetic resonance", "endoanal ultrasonography", "endoscopic ultrasound" in combination with "Crohn's disease"...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317452/recent-advances-in-diagnostic-testing-for-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease
#3
Rishi D Naik, Michael F Vaezi
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) has a large economic burden with important complications that include esophagitis, Barrett's esophagus, and adenocarcinoma. Despite endoscopy, validated patient questionnaires, and traditional ambulatory pH monitoring, the diagnosis of GERD continues to be challenging. Areas covered: This review will explore the difficulties in diagnosing GERD with a focus on new developments, ranging from basic fundamental changes (histology and immunohistochemistry) to direct patient care (narrow-band imaging, impedance, and response to anti-reflux surgery)...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317409/ombitasvir-and-paritaprevir-boosted-with-ritonavir-and-combined-with-dasabuvir-for-chronic-hepatitis-c
#4
Robert Flisiak, Marta Flisiak-Jackiewicz
Hepatitis C is a leading cause of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma responsible for almost 700,000 deaths worldwide annually. Until 2014, management of HCV infections was based on interferon alfa containing regimens, with efficacy of 40-70% and a high adverse event rate. Interferon-free therapeutic options improved sustained viral response (SVR) rate to >90% and safety profile to placebo-like levels. Areas covered: This article describes all-oral regimen consisting of three direct acting antivirals (DAA) - ombitasvir (OBV), paritaprevir (PTV) and dasabuvir (DSV), which in clinical practice is boosted with ritonavir (r) and sometimes with ribavirin (RBV)...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317406/better-together-improved-care-of-the-ibd-patient-using-the-multi-disciplinary-ibd-center
#5
Walter A Koltun
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317404/nanotherapeutics-for-the-treatment-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Qiubing Chen, Bo Xiao, Didier Merlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317403/intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-current-management-and-emerging-therapies
#7
Amir A Rahnemai-Azar, Allison B Weisbrod, Mary Dillhoff, Carl Schmidt, Timothy M Pawlik
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is a malignancy with an increasing incidence and a high-case fatality. While surgery offers the best hope at long-term survival, only one-third of tumors are amenable to surgical resection at the time of the diagnosis. Unfortunately, conventional chemotherapy offers limited survival benefit in the management of unresectable or metastatic disease. Recent advances in understanding the molecular pathogenesis of iCCA and the use of next-generation sequencing techniques have provided a chance to identify "target-able" molecular aberrations...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317399/recent-advances-in-pediatric-celiac-disease
#8
Grace J Lee, John Y Kao
The incidence of celiac disease (CD) has increased over the last half-century, resulting in rising interest in identifying risk factors for CD. The necessity of duodenal biopsies in the diagnosis of CD has recently been challenged. Areas covered: This review covers the recent literature regarding the role of infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding and timing of gluten introduction, and the microbiota in the development of CD. Additionally, the application of the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition guidelines for a non-biopsy approach to the diagnosis of CD is reviewed...
March 20, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317401/biological-implications-and-clinical-value-of-mir-210-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#9
Wanli Yang, Jiaojiao Ma, Wei Zhou, Xin Zhou, Bo Cao, Daiming Fan, Liu Hong
Introduction Hypoxia, a common feature of tumor microenvironment, is known to accelerate tumor development and growth by promoting the formation of a neoplastic environment. Recent studies have provided a wealth of evidence that miRNAs are significant members of the adaptive response to low oxygen in tumors. miR-210 is one of the hypoxia-induced miRNAs, which has been reported extensively in cancer researches. However, there is no systematic discussion about the role of miR-210 in gastrointestinal cancer. We conducted a literature research in database including PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct and Medline before September 16, 2016, in order to collect articles of miR-210 in gastrointestinal cancer...
March 18, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317394/an-update-on-the-pathophysiology-and-management-of-polycystic-liver-disease
#10
May Yw Wong, Geoffrey W McCaughan, Simone I Strasser
Polycystic liver disease (PLD) is characterized by the presence of multiple cholangiocyte-derived hepatic cysts that progressively replace liver tissue. They are classified as an inherited ciliopathy /cholangiopathy as pathology exists at the level of the primary cilia of cholangiocytes. Aberrant expression of the proteins in primary cilia can impair their structures and functions, thereby promoting cystogenesis. Areas covered: This review begins by looking at the epidemiology of PLD and its natural history...
March 18, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276288/golimumab-for-moderate-to-severe-ulcerative-colitis
#11
Anne S Strik, Sophie E Berends, Ron A Mathôt, Geert R D'Haens, Mark Löwenberg
Golimumab (GLM) is a subcutaneously administered human anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) agent that has been approved by the regulatory authorities for the treatment of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis (UC) in 2013. Areas covered: Maintained clinical remission rates up to 50% have been shown in UC patients receiving GLM, and higher GLM serum concentrations have been associated with improved clinical outcomes. Approximately 50% of UC patients do not respond to induction therapy with GLM, and up to 40% of GLM responders will lose response over time...
March 9, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276276/resolution-of-crohn-s-johne-s-disease-with-antibiotics-what-are-the-next-steps
#12
William C Davis, J Todd Kuenstner, Shoor Vir Singh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 9, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266231/multicentre-european-study-of-double-balloon-enteroscopy-for-small-bowel-pathology-in-patients-with-cardiovascular-disease
#13
Suneil A Raju, Hey-Long Ching, Frederica Branchi, Diana E Yung, Anastasios Koulaouzidis, John N Plevris, Luca Elli, David S Sanders, Reena Sidhu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277856/electrical-therapies-for-gastrointestinal-motility-disorders
#14
Jiande D Z Chen, Jieyun Yin, Wei Wei
Gastrointestinal (GI) motility disorders are common in clinical settings, including esophageal motility disorders, gastroesophageal reflux disease, functional dyspepsia, gastroparesis, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, post-operative ileus, irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhea and constipation. While a number of drugs have been developed for treating GI motility disorders, few are currently available. Emerging electrical stimulation methods may provide new treatment options for these GI motility disorders...
March 6, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276807/asbestos-ingestion-and-gastrointestinal-cancer-a-possible-underestimated-hazard
#15
Agostino Di Ciaula
The presence of asbestos fibres (AFs) in drinking water could be linked with gastrointestinal cancers. However, it is not regulated in several countries due to conflicting evidence. Areas covered: Some reports mainly associated AF ingestion with gastric and colorectal cancer. Experimental evidence suggested a role for timing and extent of exposure, and showed that ingested AFs induce toxic effects on the stomach, ileum and colon, histological alterations and negative effects at a molecular level, cross the placenta and enter foetal organs (including the liver), and seem able to act as a co-carcinogen agent...
March 6, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276808/caspase-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-liver-disease-friend-or-foe
#16
Benjamin L Woolbright, Wen-Xing Ding, Hartmut Jaeschke
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 4, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276810/surveillance-strategies-for-colitis-associated-cancer-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#17
Gian Eugenio Tontini, Timo Rath, Luca Pastorelli, Maurizio Vecchi, Helmut Neumann
Colitis-associated cancer (CAC) represents a concrete risk of morbidity and mortality in patients with long lasting inflammatory bowel diseases. Surveillance colonoscopy is a rapidly evolving research field with profound changes from the traditional approach based on scheduled controls and random biopsy protocols. Areas covered: A literature search was performed using PubMed/Embase to review the latest evidence supporting the need for surveillance colonoscopy. By focusing on the most promising recent advances in this field, we provide a state-of-the-art overview of the current gold standards for the diagnosis and management of colitis-associated dysplasia...
March 1, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276809/management-of-rectovaginal-fistulas-and-patient-outcome
#18
Mahmoud Abu Gazala, Steven D Wexner
Rectovaginal fistulas are a relatively rare, but debilitating condition which pose a significant treatment challenge. Areas covered: In this manuscript we discuss the etiology, classification as well as the manifestations and evaluation of rectovaginal fistulas. We summarize the different surgical techniques and evaluate their success rates and perioperative considerations according to cited sources. Expert commentary: A deep understanding of the disease, treatment options, and familiarity with the different surgical treatment options available is mandatory for choosing the correct treatment...
March 1, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276812/prognostic-value-of-site-specific-extra-hepatic-disease-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-seer-database-analysis
#19
Hani Oweira, Ulf Petrausch, Daniel Helbling, Jan Schmidt, Arianeb Mehrabi, Othmar Schöb, Anwar Giryes, Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: We the prognostic value of site-specific extra-hepatic disease in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients registered within the surveillance, epidemiology and end results (SEER) database. METHODS: SEER database (2010-2013) has been queried through SEER*Stat program to determine the prognosis of advanced HCC patients according to the site of extra-hepatic disease. Survival analysis has been conducted through Kaplan Meier analysis. RESULTS: A total of 4396 patients with stage IV HCC were identified in the period from 2010-2013 and they were included into this analysis...
February 23, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276816/emerging-treatments-for-primary-sclerosing-cholangitis
#20
Eduardo A Rodriguez, Elizabeth J Carey, Keith D Lindor
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic, cholestatic, idiopathic liver disease that can progress to end-stage liver disease, cirrhosis and cholangiocarcinoma. PSC is an uncommon and highly heterogeneous disease, associated with inflammatory bowel disease and a complex pathophysiology. To date, no medical therapies have proved effective. The only available treatment for end-stage PSC is liver transplant, but recurrence is a significant complication. Areas covered: This review will explore previously tested treatments, discuss current treatment strategies and present viewpoints about future emerging therapies in PSC...
February 22, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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