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Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241376/non-endoscopic-biopsy-techniques-a-review
#1
David O Otuya, Yogesh Verma, Hamid Farrokhi, Lisa Higgins, Mireille Rosenberg, Christopher Damman, Guillermo J Tearney
Diseases of the stomach and small intestine account for approximately 20% of all gastrointestinal (GI)-related mortality. Biopsy of the stomach and small intestine remains a key diagnostic tool for most of the major diseases that affect the GI tract. While endoscopic means for obtaining biopsy is generally the standard of care, it has several limitations that make it less ideal for pediatric patients and in low resource areas of the world. Therefore, non-endoscopic means for obtaining biopsy samples is of interest in these settings...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237299/erratum
#2
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231791/glucagon-like-peptide-2-and-neoplasia-a-systematic-review
#3
Linea Landgrebe Ring, Nikolaj Nerup, Palle Bekker Jeppesen, Lars Bo Svendsen, Michael Patrick Achiam
Glucagon like peptide-2 is synthesized from enteroendocrine L cells primarily located in the ileum and large intestine. GLP-2 stimulates crypt cell proliferation, increases intestinal blood flow, enhances gut barrier function, induces mucosal healing, and exerts an anti-apoptotic effect. Due to these effects GLP-2 is used in the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Areas covered The aim of this systematic review was to provide information on the potential risk of intestinal neoplasia in patients receiving treatment with GLP-2...
December 12, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231769/liver-transplantation-beyond-or-downstaging-within-the-milan-criteria-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Sean R Rudnick, Mark W Russo
Unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common indication for liver transplantation (LT). The Milan criteria became standard criteria but expansion beyond the Milan criteria (tumor size and number) have resulted in similar post-transplant outcomes, thus suggesting LT is a viable treatment option for HCC presenting beyond the Milan criteria Areas covered: Expanded criteria and the use of downstaging therapies to meet Milan criteria are reviewed. Surrogates of tumor biology (including biomarkers and response to therapy) are described in detail...
December 12, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227748/survival-in-signet-ring-cell-carcinoma-varies-based-on-primary-tumor-location-a-surveillance-epidemiology-and-end-results-database-analysis
#5
San-Gang Wu, Xue-Ting Chen, Wen-Wen Zhang, Jia-Yuan Sun, Feng-Yan Li, Zhen-Yu He, Xiao-Qing Pei, Qin Lin
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the survival of patients with signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) based on primary tumor location. METHODS: Patient data were obtained from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1988-2012) with ≥200 cases per tumor location. Cox regression analysis was used to investigate prognostic factors of cause-specific survival (CSS). RESULTS: We identified 24,171 patients. Of the patients, 63...
December 11, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224471/clinical-relevance-of-liver-histopathology-and-different-histological-classifications-of-nash-in-adults
#6
Fabio Nascimbeni, Stefano Ballestri, Mariana Verdehlho Machado, Alessandro Mantovani, Helena Cortez-Pinto, Giovanni Targher, Amedeo Lonardo
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses simple steatosis and steatohepatitis (NASH) with or without fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. NAFLD occurs epidemically in most areas of the world, contributes to cardiovascular events and liver-related mortality and therefore exacts a major economic toll. Areas covered: Here we summarize what clinicians should know about NAFLD histopathology in adults. We report on the individual histological features and scoring systems of NAFLD: the NAFLD activity score (NAS) introduced by the NASH-Clinical Research Network, the "Fatty Liver Inhibition of Progression" algorithm and Steatosis, Activity, and Fibrosis (SAF) score...
December 11, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219625/utility-of-point-shear-wave-elastography-in-characterisation-of-focal-liver-lesions
#7
Maha Hasab-Allah, Rabab Mamoun Salama, Mohamed Saeed Marie, Ahmed Alsaeed Mohammed Mandur, Heba Omar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 8, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198151/validation-of-the-8th-ajcc-staging-system-for-gastric-cancer-in-a-population-based-setting
#8
Omar Abdel-Rahman
OBJECTIVE: To validate the prognostic value 8th edition American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging system for gastric cancer. METHODS: Through SEER*Stat program, Surveillance, epidemiology and end results database (2010-2013) was accessed and 8th AJCC stages were reconstructed. Cancer-specific survival analyses according to both 7th and 8th editions were conducted through Kaplan-Meier analysis/log-rank testing and multivariate analysis was conducted through a Cox model...
December 2, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187007/glecaprevir-pibrentasvir-abt493-abt-530-for-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c
#9
Hope Hubbard, Eric Lawitz
Glecaprevir (formerly ABT-493, pangenotypic NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and pibrentasvir (formerly ABT-530, pangenotypic NS5A inhibitor) are second generation direct acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of chronic Hepatitis C (HCV). It is a fixed dose ribavirin (RBV)-free regimen with activity against genotypes (GT) 1-6. In vitro the two antivirals have synergistic activity with a high barrier to resistance and potent activity against common polymorphisms. It is once daily oral dosing with minimal absorption, primary biliary excretion, and negligible renal excretion, making it safe for patients with renal impairment...
November 30, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186994/supersonic-shear-imaging-for-the-diagnosis-of-liver-fibrosis-and-portal-hypertension-in-liver-diseases-a-meta-analysis
#10
Han Deng, Xingshun Qi, Tiansong Zhang, Xiaolong Qi, Eric M Yoshida, Xiaozhong Guo
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The meta-analysis aimed to summarize the technical success rate of supersonic shear imaging (SSI) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of liver and spleen stiffness measurement (LSM and SSM) with SSI for the detection of liver fibrosis, portal hypertension, and gastroesophageal varices in liver diseases. METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched. Technical success rate of SSI was pooled. Area under curve (AUC), sensitivity, and specificity with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated...
November 30, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140126/new-insights-into-the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#11
Dong-Bo Wu, Meng-Lan Wang, En-Qiang Chen, Hong Tang
In addition to being crucial for host immune defense, vitamin D is involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, inflammation, invasion and metastasis, angiogenesis and micro-RNA modulation. To date, clinical studies have demonstrated that vitamin D deficiency is common not only in patients with chronic liver diseases but also in those with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Experimental studies have also demonstrated that vitamin D and its receptors are related to the occurrence of HCC and the prognoses of patients with HCC...
November 15, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140124/apprenticeship-based-training-in-neurogastroenterology-and-motility
#12
Dipesh H Vasant, Amol Sharma, Jigar Bhagatwala, Lavanya Viswanathan, Satish S C Rao
Although neurogastroenterology and motility (NGM) disorders affect 50% of patients seen in clinics, many gastroenterologists receive limited NGM training. One-month apprenticeship-based NGM training has been provided at ten centers in the USA for a decade, however, outcomes of this training are unclear. Our goal was to describe the effectiveness of this program from a trainees perspective. Areas Covered: We describe the training model, learning experiences, and outcomes of one-month apprenticeship-based training in NGM at a center of excellence, using a detailed individual observer account and data from 12 consecutive trainees that completed the program...
November 15, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129158/practical-gastrointestinal-investigation-of-iron-deficiency-anaemia
#13
Anjan K Banerjee, Valerio Celentano, Jim Khan, Gaius Longcroft-Wheaton, Amanda Quine, Pradeep Bhandari
About 10% of oesophagogastroduodenoscopies (OGDs) and colonoscopies are done for investigation of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) . Much of the existing guidance on investigation of IDA predates CRC screening, which has driven significant improvements in colonoscopy quality and completion rates, as well as a reduction in Helicobacter pylori prevalence and increase in PPI usage, and therefore probably needs re-consideration. New investigations, e.g. CT colonography, enteroscopy and capsule endoscopy have also been introduced...
November 13, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124987/outcomes-of-treatment-with-sorafenib-in-egyptian-patients-with-hepatocellular-carcinoma-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#14
Yousery Nada, Noha Rashad, Mai Eissa, Aya Ghonaim, Kyrillus Farag, Islam Saadawi, Ahmed Sheha, Mahmoud El Gewaity, Omar Abdel-Rahman
BACKGROUND: Sorafenib is the standard of care, first line treatment for advanced HCC. This study aims to evaluate real-life efficacy and safety of sorafenib in Egyptian patients with Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted in the medical oncology department at Maadi Armed Forces Medical Compound. Patients with advanced HCC who received sorafenib between January and December 2015 were included (130 patients)...
November 10, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098897/nasogastric-aspiration-lavage-in-patients-with-gastrointestinal-bleeding-a-review-of-the-evidence
#15
Stamatis Karakonstantis, Emmanouil Tzagkarakis, Dimitra Kalemaki, Charalampos Lydakis, Gregorios Paspatis
The usefulness of nasogastric aspiration and nasogastric lavage in patients with gastrointestinal bleeding is controversial, as evidenced by conflicting recommendations, both among and within society guidelines. Areas covered: Considering these controversies, we reviewed the evidence regarding the following questions: 1) Can nasogastric lavage stop or slow down the bleeding and improve subsequent endoscopic visualization? 2) Is nasogastric aspiration helpful for the localization of bleeding? 3) Can nasogastric aspiration identify high risk patients that might benefit from earlier endoscopy? 4) Is there evidence for benefit in terms of outcomes from using nasogastric aspiration? 5) Is nasogastric intubation safe in patients with possible esophageal varices? Our review was conducted according to PRISMA guidelines...
November 10, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096549/advances-in-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-therapy-in-the-management-of-crohn-s-disease
#16
Hajir Ibraheim, Chiara Giacomini, Zain Kassam, Francesco Dazzi, Nick Powell
The aim of therapy in Crohn's disease (CD) is induction and maintenance of remission, promotion of mucosal healing and restoration of quality of life. Even the best treatment regimes, including combinations of biologics and immunomodulators lack durable efficacy and have well documented side effects. Accordingly, there is an unmet need for novel therapies. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are a subset of non-hematopoietic stem cells that home to sites of inflammation where they exert potent immunomodulatory effects and contribute to tissue repair...
November 2, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29088978/the-biological-challenges-and-pharmacological-opportunities-of-orally-administered-nanomedicine-delivery
#17
Darren Michael Moss, Paul Curley, Hannah Kinvig, Clare Hoskins, Andrew Owen
Nano-scale formulations are being developed to improve the delivery of orally administered medicines, and the interactions between nanoformulations and the gastrointestinal luminal, mucosal and epithelial environment is currently being investigated. The mucosal surface of the gastrointestinal tract is capable of trapping and eliminating large particles and pathogens as part of the natural defences of the body, it is becoming clearer that nanoformulation properties such as particle size, charge, and shape, as well as mucous properties such as viscoelasticity, thickness, density, and turn-over time are all relevant to these interactions...
November 1, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082798/the-use-of-obeticholic-acid-for-the-management-of-non-viral-liver-disease-current-clinical-practice-and-future-perspectives
#18
Stefano Gitto, Valeria Guarneri, Alessandro Sartini, Pietro Andreone
Farnesoid X nuclear receptor is involved in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, though mainly in the homeostasis of bile acids. Indeed, the agonists of farnesoid X nuclear receptor represent promising drugs. Areas covered: Obeticholic acid, a novel semi-synthetic analogue of the naturally occurring bile acid, has led to encouraging preliminary results in both cholestatic and metabolic liver disease. In patients with primary biliary cholangitis, obeticholic acid determines a significant biochemical improvement although the effects on liver fibrosis are lacking...
October 30, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073801/management-of-gastrointestinal-complications-in-hereditary-transthyretin-amyloidosis-a-single-center-experience-over-40-years
#19
Jonas Wixner, Ole B Suhr, Intissar Anan
Hereditary transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRm amyloidosis) is a rare disease caused by the deposition and accumulation of insoluble non-native transthyretin fibrils in the body. The disease inevitably results in widespread organ disruption, and poor life expectancy. The GI tract is one organ system vulnerable to disruption and, although the clinical presentation of the disease varies, GI involvement affects most patients with ATTRm amyloidosis. Areas covered: This article presents our experience with diagnosing and treating the GI symptoms of ATTRm amyloidosis patients at our center over the last 40 years, in the Swedish clustering area of the disease...
October 27, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034764/indeterminate-biliary-strictures-a-simplified-approach
#20
Chencheng Xie, Khalil Aloreidi, Bhavesh Patel, Timothy Ridgway, Thavam Thambi-Pillai, Gary Timmerman, Adeel Khan, Muslim Atiq
Pre-operative evaluation of biliary strictures remains challenging. The dilemma that exists is how to balance the risk of failing to detect malignancy and the potential morbidity caused by unnecessary surgery in patients with benign etiologies. With emerging novel diagnostic modalities, this study aims to assess the efficacy of diagnostic techniques and facilitate a clinical approach to indeterminate biliary strictures. Areas covered: Conventional imaging modalities are crucial in identifying the location of a stricture and are helpful for choosing further diagnostic modalities...
October 23, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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