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Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

Angela Lamarca, Lynne McCallum, Christina Nuttall, Jorge Barriuso, Alison Backen, Melissa Frizziero, Rebecca Leon, Was Mansoor, Mairéad G McNamara, Richard A Hubner, Juan W Valle
Background Patients with advanced well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumours(Wd-NETs) are commonly treated with somatostatin analogues(SSAs). Some patients may develop SSA-related side effects such as pancreatic exocrine insufficiency(PEI). Methods In this single-institution, prospective, observational study, the frequency of SSA-induced PEI in 50 sequential patients with advanced Wd-NETs treated with SSAs was investigated. Toxicity was assessed monthly and faecal elastase-1 (FE1) and quality of life (QoL) were assessed 3-monthly...
June 20, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Nicolò de Pretis, Antonio Amodio, Luca Frulloni
Autoimmune Pancreatitis (AIP) is a peculiar form of pancreatitis different from all other type of pancreatitis ("one like no one pancreatitis") and characterized by a dramatic response to steroids. AIP can be classified histologically in type 1, included in a larger group of diseases named IgG4-related disease, and type 2. At imaging, AIP may involve all (diffuse form) or only a part (focal form) of the pancreatic gland. Areas covered: In this article, the clinical approach to diagnosis and different therapeutic strategies of this complicated disease are reviewed...
June 20, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Malcolm H Squires, Jordan M Cloyd, Mary Dillhoff, Carl Schmidt, Timothy M Pawlik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Eva Barreiro-Alonso, Cristina Saro-Gismera, Manuel Sánchez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Koichi Sawaki, Mitsuro Kanda, Yasuhiro Kodera
Gastric cancer (GC) is the leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Despite recent advances in diagnosis and therapy, the prognosis of patients with GC is poor. Many patients have inoperable disease upon diagnosis or experience recurrent disease after curative gastrectomy. Unfortunately, tumor markers for GC, such as serum carcinoembryonic antigen and carbohydrate antigen 19-9, lack sufficient sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, effective biomarkers are required to detect early GC and to predict tumor recurrence and chemosensitivity...
June 14, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Stefania Chetcuti Zammit, Reena Sidhu, David S Sanders
Coeliac disease is an autoimmune mediated condition in response to gluten. A combination of innate and adaptive immune responses results in villous shortening in the small bowel which can be morphologically picked up on capsule endoscopy. Small bowel capsule endoscopy is the only imaging modality that can provide mucosal views of the whole length of the small bowel whilst histology is generally limited to the proximal small bowel. Radiological modalities are not designed to pick up changes in villous morphology...
June 10, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Antonio Tursi
Diverticulosis of the colon is a common condition, and about one fourth of those people develop symptoms, which is called "diverticular disease" (DD). Since there are still some concerns about the diagnosis of diverticular disease, the aim of this review was to analyse current and evolving advances in its diagnosis. Area covered: Analysis of clinical, radiology, laboratory and endoscopic tools to pose a correct diagnosis of DD was performed according to current PubMed literature. Expert commentary: A combination of clinical characteristic of the abdominal pain and fecal calprotectin expression may help to differentiate between Symptomatic Uncomplicated Diverticular Disease (SUDD) and Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)...
June 9, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
James H Tabibian, Todd H Baron
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a rare but clinically important cholestatic liver disease. Histopathologically and cholangiographically, PSC is characterized by intra- and/or extra-hepatic bile duct inflammation and fibro-obliteration, which ultimately leads to biliary cirrhosis and related sequelae, including development of hepatobiliary and colorectal carcinomata. PSC can be diagnosed at essentially any age and carries a median survival of 15-20 years, regardless of age at diagnosis, and is a foremost risk factor for cholangiocarcinoma...
June 8, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Kathleen M Schieffer, Bryan P Kline, Gregory S Yochum, Walter A Koltun
Inflammation of diverticula, or outpouchings of the colonic mucosa and submucosa through the muscularis layer, leads to diverticulitis. The development of diverticular disease, encompassing both diverticulosis and diverticulitis, is a result of genetic predisposition, lifestyle, and environmental factors, including the microbiome. Areas covered: Previous reports implicated genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and colonic dysmotility in diverticular disease. Recent studies have associated specific host immune responses and the microbiome as contributors to diverticulitis...
May 30, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Dirk J van Leeuwen, Venancio Alves, Charles Balabaud, Prithi S Bhathal, Paulette Bioulac-Sage, Romano Colombari, James M Crawford, Amar P Dhillon, Linda Ferrell, Ryan Gill, Maria Guido, Prodromos Hytiroglou, Yasuni Nakanuma, Valerie Paradis, Pierre Emmanuel Rautou, Christine Sempoux, Dale C Snover, Neil D Theise, Swan N Thung, Wilson M S Tsui, Alberto Quaglia
"Acute-on-Chronic-Liver Failure (ACLF)" entered hepatology practice by the end of the 20th century. Although we lack precise and universally agreed definitions, acute decompensation of chronic liver disease with jaundice and deranged clotting, multi-organ failure and high, short-term mortality are hallmarks of the syndrome. Timely recognition and and treatment, including urgent liver transplantation, may save the life of certain patients. The diagnosis and management are mostly based on clinical features, but some have suggested to incorporate histopathology (liver biopsy)...
May 28, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Francesca Romana Ponziani, Maria Assunta Zocco, Lucia Cerrito, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maurizio Pompili
The gut liver axis is an operative unit that works to protect the human body against potentially harmful substances and microorganisms, maintaining the homeostasis of the immune system. Liver cirrhosis profoundly alters this complex system. The intestine becomes more permeable allowing the translocation of bacteria, bacterial products and fragments into the portal circulation, triggering an abnormal local and systemic inflammatory response and a condition of perpetual immunologic alarm. This immune-inflammatory disorder related to dysbiosis is involved in the development of liver damage and liver cirrhosis complications, and increases intestinal permeability in a vicious circle...
May 27, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Francisco Schlottmann, Marco G Patti
Esophageal achalasia is a primary esophageal motility disorder of unknown origin, characterized by lack of peristalsis and by incomplete or absent relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter in response to swallowing. The goal of treatment is to eliminate the functional obstruction at the level of the gastroesophageal junction Areas covered: This comprehensive review will evaluate the current literature, illustrating the diagnostic evaluation and providing an evidence-based treatment algorithm for this disease Expert commentary: Today we have three very effective therapeutic modalities to treat patients with achalasia - pneumatic dilatation, per-oral endoscopic myotomy and laparoscopic Heller myotomy with fundoplication...
May 27, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
David H Adams, Emma L Shepherd, Patricia F Lalor
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 25, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Seyed Alireza Taghavi, Ahad Eshraghian, Ramin Niknam, Gholam Reza Sivandzadeh, Kamran Bagheri Lankarani
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the hepatobiliary system characterized by chronic inflammation, progressive fibrosis, stricture formation and destruction of extrahepatic and intrahepatic bile ducts. Areas covered: The increased incidence of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) in PSC has been well documented and can be explained by the continuous inflammation in the biliary tree leading to an enhanced dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Although PSC patients may progress to liver cirrhosis; CCA most commonly occurs between the ages of 30 and 45 years when cirrhosis has not yet developed...
May 21, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Wolfgang Fischbach, Rory Elsome, Bharat Amlani
Colonoscopy provides less protection from colorectal cancer in the right colon than the left. Areas Covered: This review examines patient outcomes and colonoscopy success rates to identify factors that limit the protective effect of colonoscopy in the right colon. The MEDLINE and Embase databases were searched for literature from 2000 onwards, on the long-term outcomes and differences in screening practice between the right and left colon. In total, 12 systematic reviews (including nine meta-analyses) and 44 primary data records were included...
May 21, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Nicholas J Talley, Gerald Holtmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 18, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Antonio Magan-Fernandez, Manfredi Rizzo, Giuseppe Montalto, Giulio Marchesini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 17, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Sarah Townsend, Philip Newsome, Alice M Turner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 16, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Russell Dolan, William D Chey, Shanti Eswaran
Irritable bowel syndrome is a common condition that negatively impacts quality of life and results in significant health care expenditures. The vast majority of IBS patients associate their symptoms with eating. Numerous randomized, controlled trials suggest that restriction of dietary FODMAPs improves overall symptoms, abdominal pain, bloating and quality of life in more than half of IBS sufferers. There is emerging data which suggests that other diets (gluten free, guided elimination diets) might also be of benefit to IBS patients...
May 15, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Mohamed El Kassas, Mohamed Alboraie, Dalia Omran, Mohamed Salaheldin, Mohamed Naguib Wifi, Mohamed ElBadry, Adel El Tahan, Sameera Ezzat, Enass Moaz, Amir M Farid, Heba Omar, Mahmoud Abouelkhair, Shimaa Afify, Kadry Elsaeed, Yehia Shazly, Wahid Doss, Gamal Esmat
BACKGROUND: A large Egyptian treatment program for HCV was launched in 2014 after the introduction of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). This program depended mainly on establishing specialized independent centres for HCV treatment. These centres represent the major strengths in the Egyptian model of care, as they provide integrated care for HCV patients and have enabled Egypt to treat more than one million patients in 3 years. The New Cairo Viral Hepatitis Treatment Center (NCVHTC) is an example of these specialized centres...
May 14, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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