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Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165825/chemoprevention-of-colorectal-cancer-in-ulcerative-colitis-digging-deep-in-current-evidence
#1
Cristina Bezzio, Stefano Festa, Simone Saibeni, Claudio Papi
Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC). Surveillance colonoscopy is currently recommended for patients with long-standing extensive colitis for reducing CRC risk. Chemoprevention is an attractive complementary strategy. Areas covered: Inflammation is a major determinant of CRC risk and is potentially modifiable. Reducing inflammation is supposed to reduce CRC risk. Several medications have been evaluated in this setting: 5-ASA, thiopurines, anti-TNFα agents and ursodeoxycholic acid (UCDA) in patients with associated primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)...
February 6, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162008/clinical-implications-of-understanding-the-association-between-oxidative-stress-and-pediatric-nafld
#2
Jake P Mann, Massimiliano Raponi, Valerio Nobili
Oxidative stress is central to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) that characterise oxidative stress are generated in several cellular sites and their production is influence by multi-organ interactions. Areas covered: Mitochondrial dysfunction is the main source of ROS in fatty liver and is closely related to endoplasmic reticulum stress. Both are caused by lipotoxicity and together these three factors form a cycle of progressive organelle damage, resulting in sterile inflammation and apoptosis...
February 6, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162003/diagnostic-efficacy-of-ultrasound-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-diagnosis
#3
Kwong-Ming Kee, Sheng-Nan Lu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 6, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162004/molecular-profiling-of-intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma-the-search-for-new-therapeutic-targets
#4
Douglas V N P Oliveira, Shanshan Zhang, Xin Chen, Diego F Calvisi, Jesper B Andersen
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) is the second most frequent primary tumor of the liver and a highly lethal disease. Therapeutic options for advanced iCCA are limited and ineffective due to the largely incomplete understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this deadly tumor. Areas covered: The present review article outlines the main studies and resulting discoveries on the molecular profiling of iCCA, with a special emphasis on the different techniques used for this purpose, the diagnostic and prognostic markers identified, as well as the genes and pathways that could be potentially targeted with innovative therapies...
February 4, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117605/quality-assessment-of-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-using-the-agree-ii-instrument
#5
Alfredo J Lucendo, Ángel Arias, Olga Redondo-González, Javier Molina-Infante
BACKGROUND: High-quality evidence-based clinical practice guidelines can guide diagnosis and treatment to optimize outcomes. We aimed to systematically review the quality of international guidelines on eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). METHODS: MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched for appropriate guidelines up to 2016. Two gastroenterologists and two methodologists independently evaluated the documents using the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research and Evaluation (AGREE II) instrument...
February 1, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128666/biomarkers-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-irritable-bowel-syndrome-where-are-we
#6
Michael Camilleri, Houssam Halawi, Ibironke Oduyebo
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common condition in clinical practice. There are currently no objective tests to rule in the disease, but rather tests to rule out other diseases. Biomarkers in IBS may provide the tools needed for diagnosis, prognosis and therapy. These include identification of differences in microbial composition, immune activation, bile acid composition, colonic transit, and alteration in sensation in subgroups of IBS patients. Areas Covered: Studies included in our review were chosen based on a PubMed search for "biomarkers" and "IBS"...
January 27, 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936974/the-practical-management-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-in-japan-dual-therapy-of-daclatasvir-asunaprevir
#7
C Nelson Hayes, Michio Imamura, Kazuaki Chayama
Without treatment, many of the 200 million people worldwide with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection will develop cirrhosis or liver cancer. Japan was the first nation to approve an interferon-free therapy for HCV, and sustained viral response (SVR) rates >90% have been achieved with asunaprevir, a protease inhibitor, plus daclatasvir, an inhibitor of the non-structural 5A (NS5A) protein. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the results from both clinical trials and real world experience with asunaprevir and daclatasvir therapy focused primarily on Japan...
December 16, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927062/the-possible-role-of-gastrointestinal-endocrine-cells-in-the-pathophysiology-of-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Magdy El-Salhy, Trygve Hausken, Odd Helge Gilja, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk
The etiology of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is unknown, but several factors appear to play a role in its pathophysiology, including abnormalities of the gastrointestinal endocrine cells. The present review illuminates the possible role of gastrointestinal hormones in the pathophysiology of IBS and the possibility of utilizing the current knowledge in treating the disease. Areas covered: Research into the intestinal endocrine cells and their possible role in the pathophysiology of IBS is discussed. Furthermore, the mechanisms underlying the abnormalities in the gastrointestinal endocrine cells in IBS patients are revealed...
December 14, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915485/impact-of-curcumin-on-the-regulation-of-micrornas-in-colorectal-cancer
#9
Luis E Simental-Mendía, Michele Caraglia, Muhammed Majeed, Amirhossein Sahebkar
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2016: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116926/patient-reported-outcomes-with-direct-acting-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-c-current-knowledge-and-outstanding-issues
#10
Fabienne Marcellin, Perrine Roux, Camelia Protopopescu, Martin Duracinsky, Bruno Spire, Maria Patrizia Carrieri
Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) play a key role in the evaluation of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C (CHC). The main PROs of particular interest in CHC include quality of life (QoL), fatigue and its functional repercussions, work productivity, adherence to treatment, and risk behaviors. Areas covered: This study summarizes the body of knowledge regarding PROs in CHC with DAA-based therapy. Outstanding related issues are presented and discussed. Expert commentary: Current knowledge on PROs with CHC mainly relies on clinical trial data...
March 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099821/medication-non-adherence-in-adult-patients-affected-by-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-critical-review-and-update-of-the-determining-factors-consequences-and-possible-interventions
#11
Marco Vincenzo Lenti, Christian P Selinger
Achieving adherence to medications can be a serious challenge for patients affected by inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medical treatment is fundamental for inducing and maintaining remission, preventing flares and reducing the risk of colorectal cancer. Non-adherence may affect patients' quality of life resulting in unfavourable treatment outcomes, more hospitalizations and higher healthcare-related costs. Recognising and improving adherence is therefore a primary aim for the treatment of IBD. Areas covered: We critically discuss the current knowledge on medication non-adherence in adult patients affected by IBD, also mentioning a few issues concerning the paediatric and adolescent populations...
March 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099818/intraperitoneal-chemotherapy-and-cytoreductive-surgery-for-peritoneal-metastases-coupled-with-curative-treatment-of-colorectal-liver-metastases-an-updated-systematic-review
#12
Sarah El-Nakeep, Noha Rashad, Hani Oweira, Jan Schmidt, Daniel Helbling, Anwar Giryes, Ulf Petrausch, Arianeb Mehrabi, Michael Decker, Omar Abdel-Rahman
We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of delivering intraperitoneal chemotherapy and cytoreductive surgery for peritoneal metastases coupled with curative treatment of colorectal liver metastases. Areas covered: A comprehensive literature search using PubMed was conducted to screen for eligible records. Studies evaluating colorectal surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy combined with curative treatment of liver metastases were included. We excluded duplicate publications. Sixty-seven full-text papers were assessed and six papers were finally included...
March 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095714/disease-related-and-drug-induced-skin-manifestations-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Pieter Hindryckx, Gregor Novak, Antonio Costanzo, Silvio Danese
Skin manifestations are common in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) and can be part of a concomitant illness with a shared genetic background, an extra-intestinal manifestation of the disease, or a drug side-effect. Areas covered: We provide a practical overview of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, therapeutic approach and prognosis of the most frequent disease-related and drug-induced cutaneous manifestations in IBD, illustrated by cases encountered in our clinical practice. Among the most frequently encountered IBD-related lesions are erythema nodosum, pyoderma gangrenosum and Sweet's syndrome...
March 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095261/serum-alkaline-phosphatase-a-risk-factor-for-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-but-only-for-women-in-their-30s-and-40s-evidence-from-a-large-cohort-study
#14
Yu-Jie Zhou, Hai Zou, Ji-Na Zheng, Tian-Tian Zou, Alessandro Vitale, Luca Miele, Sven Van Poucke, Wen-Yue Liu, Shengrong Shen, Dong-Chu Zhang, Ke-Qing Shi, Ming-Hua Zheng
BACKGROUND: Several risk factors are able to predict non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) development, but the predictive value of serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) remains uncertain. Our aim is to investigate the association between serum ALP levels and NAFL. METHODS: 21,331 NAFL-free subjects were included. Sex-specific ALP quartiles (Q1 to Q4) were defined. With Q1 used as reference, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated across each quartile...
March 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092724/the-pediatric-rome-iv-criteria-what-s-new
#15
Ilan J N Koppen, Samuel Nurko, Miguel Saps, Carlo Di Lorenzo, Marc A Benninga
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are common in children of all ages and comprise of a wide range of conditions related to the gastrointestinal tract that cannot be attributed to structural or biochemical abnormalities. FGIDs are diagnosed according to the symptom-based Rome criteria. Areas covered: In 2016, the revised pediatric Rome IV criteria were published, these revised criteria are discussed in this review article. For the youngest age group (neonates/toddlers), the criteria for infant colic have undergone the most notable revisions...
March 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081662/neuroendocrine-goblet-cell-and-mixed-adeno-neuroendocrine-tumours-of-the-appendix-updates-clinical-applications-and-the-future
#16
Ashley K Clift, Andrea Frilling
Appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms are rare, clinically challenging tumours that are typically incidentally diagnosed, have a poorly understood biology and have controversy surrounding their management. Most are adequately treated with appendectomy, and although distant metastases are rare, the threat of disease dissemination remains and current guidelines possess poor accuracy in terms of selecting patients requiring more extensive surgery, i.e. oncological right-hemicolectomy. Areas covered: In this article, we discuss the presentation and diagnostic work-up of patients with appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasms, and also examine the evidence base for existing management strategies...
March 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052695/management-of-early-colonic-neoplasia-where-are-we-now-and-where-are-we-heading
#17
Gaius Longcroft-Wheaton, Pradeep Bhandari
There have been considerable advances in the endoscopic treatment of colorectal neoplasia. The development of endoscopic submucosal dissection and full thickness resection techniques is changing the way benign disease and early cancers are managed. This article reviews the evidence behind these new techniques and discusses where this field is likely to move in the future. Areas covered: A PubMed literature review of resection techniques for colonic neoplasia was performed. The clinical and cost effectiveness of endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is examined...
March 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004601/does-the-evidence-support-a-survival-benefit-of-albumin-infusion-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-undergoing-large-volume-paracentesis
#18
Mauro Bernardi, Paolo Caraceni, Roberta J Navickis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000520/small-bowel-villous-atrophy-celiac-disease-and-beyond
#19
Luca Elli, Federica Branchi, Reena Sidhu, Stefano Guandalini, Asaad Assiri, Firas Rinawi, Raanan Shamir, Prasenjit Das, Govind K Makharia
Small bowel villous atrophy can represent a diagnostic challenge for gastroenterologists and pathologists. In Western countries small bowel atrophy and mild non-atrophic alterations are frequently caused by celiac disease. However, other pathology can mimic celiac disease microscopically, widening the differential diagnosis. The several novelties on this topic and the introduction of the device-assisted enteroscopy in the diagnostic flowchart make an update of the literature necessary. Areas covered: In this review, a description of the different clinical scenarios when facing with small bowel mucosal damage, particularly small bowel atrophy, is described...
February 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998193/update-on-dietary-therapy-for-eosinophilic-esophagitis-in-children-and-adults
#20
Javier Molina-Infante, Pedro Luis Gonzalez-Cordero, Angel Arias, Alfredo J Lucendo
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory esophageal disease triggered predominantly, but not excusively, by food antigens. Elimination diet thus remains the only therapy targeting the cause of the disease. Importantly, EoE is a unique form of non-IgE mediated food allergy, largely dependant upon delayed, cell-mediated hypersensitivity. Areas covered: A comprehensive review of literature to summarize and update the most relevant advances on dietary therapy for pediatric and adult EoE patients is conducted...
February 2017: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
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