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Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910720/the-management-of-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-young-children-post-2015-an-opportunity-to-close-the-policy-practice-gap
#1
Stephen M Graham
The treatment of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in young children is supported by universal policy based on strong rationale and evidence of effectiveness, but has rarely been implemented in tuberculosis endemic countries. Areas covered: This review highlights a number of important recent developments that provide an unprecedented opportunity to close the policy-practice gap, as well as ongoing needs to facilitate implementation under programmatic conditions and scale-up. Expert commentary: The WHO's End TB Strategy and Stop TB Partnership's Plan to End TB provide ambitious targets for prevention at a time when National Tuberculosis Programs in tuberculosis endemic countries are increasing attention to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis disease in children...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910714/strategies-for-smoking-cessation-among-high-risk-populations-to-prevent-lung-cancer
#2
Alana M Rojewski, Kelly L Zuromski, Benjamin A Toll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910706/intravenous-oxygen-a-novel-method-of-oxygen-delivery-in-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure
#3
Jonathan A Gehlbach, Kyle J Rehder, Michael A Gentile, David A Turner, Daniel J Grady, Ira M Cheifetz
Hypoxemic respiratory failure is a common problem in critical care. Current management strategies, including mechanical ventilation and extracorporeal membranous oxygenation, can be efficacious but these therapies put patients at risk for toxicities associated with invasive forms of support. Areas Covered: In this manuscript, we discuss intravenous oxygen (IVO2), a novel method to improve oxygen delivery that involves intravenous administration of a physiologic solution containing dissolved oxygen at hyperbaric concentrations...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910701/obesity-in-copd-to-treat-or-not-to-treat
#4
Vanessa M McDonald, Lisa G Wood, Anne E Holland, Peter G Gibson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817221/reference-value-for-the-6-minute-walk-test-in-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#5
C F Mylius, D Paap, T Takken
The 6-minute walk test is a submaximal exercise test used to quantify the functional exercise capacity in clinical populations. It measures the distance walked within a period of 6-minutes. Obtaining reference values in the pediatric population is especially demanding due to factors as the development stage and age. RV provide a comparative basis for answering questions concerning the normality of health status, exercise responses and functional exercise capacity in patients. Areas covered: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of reference values and reference value prediction equations for the 6-minute walk test in the children and in adolescent pediatric population and of the methodology used to obtain them...
November 21, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817219/current-complications-and-treatment-of-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#6
Kevin A Cook, Donald D Stevenson
Aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease is defined by the clinical tetrad of aspirin sensitivity, nasal polyps, asthma, and chronic rhinosinusitis. Patients experience acute upper and lower airway reactions with exposure to aspirin and other cyclooxygenase-1 inhibiting medications. However, airway inflammation and disease progression occur even in the absence of exposure to these medications, often leading to aggressive polyp formation and need for systemic corticosteroids to treat exacerbations in asthma and rhinosinusitis...
November 17, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744712/developments-in-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-allergic-bronchopulmonary-aspergillosis
#7
Ritesh Agarwal, Inderpaul S Sehgal, Sahajal Dhooria, Ashutosh N Aggarwal
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a complex pulmonary disorder characterized by recurrent episodes of wheezing, fleeting pulmonary opacities and bronchiectasis. It is the most prevalent of the Aspergillus disorders with an estimated five million cases worldwide. Despite six decades of research, the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of this condition remains controversial. The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology has formed a working group to resolve the controversies around this entity...
November 7, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771979/recent-advances-in-understanding-and-treating-copd-related-to-%C3%AE-1-antitrypsin-deficiency
#8
Maria Paula Henao, Timothy J Craig
Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an orphan disease that predisposes individuals to COPD and liver disease. The following is a comprehensive review of AATD from epidemiology to treatment for physicians who treat COPD or asthma. Areas covered: In this comprehensive review of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, we describe the historical perspective, genetics, epidemiology, clinical presentation and symptoms, screening and diagnosis, and treatments of the condition. Expert commentary: The two most important directions for advancing the understanding of AATD involve improving detection of the condition, especially in asymptomatic patients, and advancing knowledge of treatments directed specifically at AATD-related conditions...
November 4, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766893/optimal-mechanical-ventilation-strategies-to-minimize-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-in-non-injured-and-injured-lungs
#9
Pedro L Silva, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia R M Rocco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 4, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753516/solithromycin-for-the-treatment-of-community-acquired-bacterial-pneumonia
#10
Diego Viasus, Oscar Ramos, Leidy Ramos, Antonella F Simonetti, Jordi Carratalà
Community-acquired pneumonia is a major public health problem worldwide. In recent years, there has been an increase in the frequency of resistance to the antimicrobials such as β-lactams or macrolides which have habitually been used against the causative pathogens. Solithromycin, a next-generation macrolide, is the first fluoroketolide with activity against most of the frequently isolated bacteria in community-acquired pneumonia, including typical and atypical bacteria as well as macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae...
October 31, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27786592/diagnosing-and-treating-pancoast-tumors
#11
Konstantinos Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos Porpodis, Kelly Domvri, Ellada Eleftheriadou, Despoina Ioannidou, Paul Zarogoulidis
According to the American College of Chest Physician definition, a Pancoast tumor is a tumor which invades any of the structures of the apex of the chest including the first thoracic ribs or periosteum, the lower nerve roots of the bronchial plexus, the sympathetic chain and stellate gaglion near the apex of the chest or the subclavian vessels. Pancoast tumors account for less than 3-5 % of lung tumors. Areas covered: We searched the libraries scopus and pub med and found 124 related manuscripts. From those we chose 18 to include in our short commentary based on the most up-date information included...
October 27, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780369/early-lung-surveillance-of-cystic-fibrosis-what-have-we-learnt
#12
Rachel E Foong, Tim Rosenow, Luke W Garratt, Graham L Hall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27653767/clinical-approach-to-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis-and-cftr-related-disorders
#13
Ruth K Michl, Harold Tabori, Julia Hentschel, James F Beck, Jochen G Mainz
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is the most frequent life-shortening autosomal recessive disorder in Caucasians. Defects or absence of the CF-transmembrane conductance regulator impair ion transport in apical membranes of exocrine glands. Leading symptoms of typical CF are exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and progressive pulmonary destruction, causing premature death. Additionally, patients can suffer from chronic rhinosinusitis, hepatic and intestinal involvement, diabetes and predominantly male infertility. Areas covered: CFTR-related disorders affect only one or several different organ systems, often to a milder degree...
October 12, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718754/special-considerations-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-exacerbations-in-children-with-cystic-fibrosis
#14
Valerie Waters, Sanja Stanojevic, Felix Ratjen
Introduction Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease characterized by recurrent flares of respiratory symptoms, known as pulmonary exacerbations (PExs), which have a cumulative, detrimental effect on lung function decline and overall mortality. Although much research has been done on the effects of PExs in adults with CF, considerably less is known about these events in young children with CF. Areas covered This review describes the typical presentation of PExs in children and their impact on long-term clinical outcomes...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718752/bronchodilators-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-critical-analysis
#15
Peter J Barry, Patrick A Flume
Cystic fibrosis airways disease is characterized by chronic inflammation and infection resulting in bronchiectasis. Published guidelines recommend medications for use by CF patients to maintain lung health. There are conflicting recommendations regarding inhaled bronchodilators. This is primarily because of the interpretation of the available evidence, which suffers from studies using small numbers of subjects, varying doses and durations of treatment, and modest effects on clinically relevant endpoints. Areas covered: Herein we review the available evidence demonstrating the challenge in determining whether bronchodilators have benefit for patients...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27677224/addressing-the-misdiagnosis-of-asthma-in-adults-where-does-it-go-wrong
#16
Jenna MacNeil, Robyn H Loves, Shawn D Aaron
Asthma is diagnosed based on patients' respiratory symptoms of wheeze, cough, chest tightness and/or dyspnea together with physiologic evidence of variable and reversible expiratory airflow limitation. A high prevalence of overdiagnosis, underdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of adult asthma has been reported in the literature. Areas covered: Misdiagnosis of asthma in adults can occur in the community due to physicians' failure to confirm airflow limitation using spirometry, the relatively poor sensitivity of spirometry to absolutely rule in asthma, the complexity of multiple asthma phenotypes and endotypes, and the inherent day to day variability of asthma symptoms and airflow limitation...
October 8, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701925/diet-and-asthma-need-to-account-for-asthma-type-and-level-of-prevention
#17
Raphaëlle Varraso, Carlos A Camargo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 5, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666112/evaluation-of-monitoring-strategies-for-childhood-asthma
#18
M L Brouwer, L S van den Wijngaart, C A C Hugen, G P J M Gerrits, J Roukema, P J F M Merkus
The goal of monitoring pediatric asthma is to obtain and maintain asthma control, which is defined as minimizing asthma symptoms, restrictions to daily activities and the use of rescue medication. Long term goals include reducing the risk of fixed airflow limitation, and preventing asthma exacerbations and side effects of treatment. Several monitoring tools are available but no consensus exists on how to monitor patients in the most optimal way. Areas covered: In this review, we provide an overview of different tools and address general considerations on monitoring childhood asthma...
October 5, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690702/clinical-management-of-community-acquired-pneumonia-in-the-elderly-patient
#19
Catia Cilloniz, Adrian Ceccato, Alicia San Jose, Antoni Torres
Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major health problem in elderly persons and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Areas covered: This article reviews the most recent publications relative to CAP in the elderly population, with a focus on epidemiology, prognostic factors, microbial etiology, therapy and prevention. The data discussed in this review were mainly obtained from a non-systematic review using Medline, and references from relevant articles. Expert Commentary: CAP can occur at any age, but its incidence and risk of death are linked to increasing age...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27661451/the-role-of-docetaxel-in-the-treatment-of-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-lung-cancer-an-update
#20
A Matikas, V Georgoulias, A Kotsakis
Non-small cell lung cancer lung cancer (NSCLC) is a devastating disease, with poor prognosis for patients with metastatic disease. The management of these patients has evolved during the past decade, challenging the role of cytotoxic chemotherapy as the only available treatment option. Nevertheless, chemotherapy still retains a dominant position for the majority of both treatment naïve and pretreated patients. Among the chemotherapeutic agents, docetaxel is one of the most commonly used in 1st and subsequent treatment lines, even in the current era of precision medicine...
October 3, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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