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Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343149/interventional-bronchoscopy-in-adults
#1
Diana H Yu, David Feller-Kopman
The field of interventional pulmonology (IP) is a rapidly maturing subspecialty of pulmonary medicine, which emphasizes advanced diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopy for the evaluation and management of central airway obstruction, mediastinal/hilar adenopathy and lung nodules/masses, as well as minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic pleural procedures. Areas covered: This review describes advances in diagnostic and therapeutic bronchoscopic techniques. Expert Commentary: In the past decade, there has been a remarkable growth in available technology and equipment, as well as clinical and translational research efforts focused on patient-centered outcomes...
January 18, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338644/pulmonary-mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-diagnosis-and-treatment
#2
Neda Kalhor, Cesar A Moran
Primary mucoepidermoid carcinomas (MEC) of the lung are rare and represent a diagnostic challenge. MEC in the lung is under the umbrella of primary salivary gland type tumors of the lung. Areas Covered: In general, salivary gland type tumors are represented by malignant neoplasms that may range from low to intermediate to high-grade type of malignancy sharing similar histopathological features as those in salivary glands. The focus in this review will be on one tumor in particular - mucoepidermoid carcinoma...
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338501/does-the-evidence-support-the-implementation-of-lung-cancer-screening-with-low-dose-computed-tomography
#3
Paul F Pinsky
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 17, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303380/should-vitamin-k-be-supplemented-instead-of-antagonised-in-patients-with-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#4
Bart de Brouwer, Ianthe Piscaer, Jan H von der Thusen, Jan C Grutters, Roger Eg Schutgens, Emiel Fm Wouters, Rob Janssen
There is an ongoing need for additional interventions in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) as antifibrotic drugs currently available only inhibit and do not stall disease progression. Vitamin K is a co-factor for the activation of coagulation factors. However, it is also required to activate proteins with functions outside of the coagulation cascade, such as matrix Gla protein (MGP), a defender against soft tissue calcification. Vitamin K antagonists are anticoagulants that are, for unknown reasons, associated with increased mortality in IPF...
January 5, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300109/improving-the-diagnosis-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-children-with-nocturnal-oximetry-based-evaluations
#5
Annelies Van Eyck, Stijn L Verhulst
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 4, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298106/the-complications-of-treating-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-low-income-countries-of-sub-saharan-africa
#6
Frederik A van Gemert, Bruce J Kirenga, Tewodros Haile Gebremariam, George Nyale, Corina de Jong, Thys van der Molen
In most low and middle-income countries, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is on the rise. Areas covered: Unfortunately, COPD is a neglected disease in these countries. Taking sub-Saharan Africa as an example, in rural areas, COPD is even unknown regarding public awareness and public health planning. Programs for the management of COPD are poorly developed, and the quality of care is often of a low standard. Inhaled medication is often not available or not affordable. Tobacco smoking is the most common encountered risk factor for COPD...
January 3, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278018/underdiagnosis-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-should-smokers-be-offered-routine-spirometry-tests
#7
Rogelio Perez-Padilla, Ireri Thirion-Romero, Nicolas Guzman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 26, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29265893/targeted-drug-delivery-and-drug-resistant-pathogens
#8
Joseph M Blondeau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 21, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261337/current-and-emerging-imaging-techniques-in-the-diagnosis-and-assessment-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#9
Christopher S Johns, Jim M Wild, Smitha Rajaram, Andy J Swift, David G Kiely
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. Over the last two decades, there have been significant advances in therapeutic approaches and imaging technologies. Current guidelines emphasize the importance of cardiac catheterization; however, the increasing availability of non-invasive imaging has the potential to improve diagnostic rates, whilst providing additional information on patient phenotypes. Areas covered: This review discusses the role of imaging in the diagnosis, prognostic assessment and follow-up of patients with PH...
December 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258360/the-role-of-beta-blockers-in-the-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#10
Fernando Sergio Leitao Filho, Nawaf M Alotaibi, Kei Yamasaki, David A Ngan, Don D Sin
The use of beta-blockers in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is controversial, primarily due to concerns that they may worsen lung function and attenuate bronchodilator response. Areas covered: This review summarizes the reasons for and against the use of beta-blockers in COPD by evaluating the literature on the effects of these drugs on lung function, exacerbation rate, and mortality. The safety of beta-blockers in COPD patients with concomitant heart failure, an entity that is not always distinguishable from COPD exacerbations, is also explored...
December 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249187/an-update-on-the-management-of-aspirin-exacerbated-respiratory-disease
#11
Ji-Ho Lee, Chang-Gyu Jung, Hae-Sim Park
Clinical features of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD) consist of moderate to severe asthma associated with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), which are derived from overproduction of cysteinyl leukotrienes along with chronic type 2 mediated inflammation in the upper and lower airway mucosa. Area covered: This review provides recent up-to-date information regarding phenotypes of AERD and encompasses comprehensive diagnostic methods and treatment options. To confirm the diagnosis of AERD, provocation testing via nasal, inhalation or the oral route of aspirin remains the gold standard; in vitro diagnostic methods are still not available...
December 18, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241393/multidimensional-approach-for-the-proper-management-of-a-complex-chronic-patient-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#12
Paola Rogliani, Vito Brusasco, Leonardo Fabbri, Andrea Ungar, Elisa Muscianisi, Ilaria Barisone, Alberto Corsini, Giuseppe De Angelis
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently associated with comorbidities occurring either independently or as consequences of COPD. Areas covered: This review examines the interactions between the pathophysiology of COPD and the most frequent comorbidities, and highlights the need for multidimensional clinical strategies to manage COPD patients with comorbidities. Expert commentary: Most COPD patients need to be approached in a complex and multifactorial scenario. The diagnosis of COPD is necessarily based on the presence of chronic respiratory symptoms and poorly reversible airflow obstruction, but exacerbations and comorbidities need to be considered in the evaluation of disease severity and prognosis in individual patients...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241369/oxygen-saturation-measurements-in-telemonitoring-of-patients-with-copd-a-systematic-review
#13
Joren Buekers, Patrick De Boever, Anouk W Vaes, Jean-Marie Aerts, Emiel F M Wouters, Martijn A Spruit, Jan Theunis
Telemonitoring applications are expected to become a key component in future healthcare. Despite the frequent use of SpO2 measurements in telemonitoring of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), no profound overview is available about these measurements. Areas covered: A systematic search identified 71 articles that performed SpO2 measurements in COPD telemonitoring. The results indicate that long-term follow-up of COPD patients using daily SpO2 spot checks is practically feasible. Very few studies specified protocols for performing these measurements...
December 15, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235400/role-of-bevacizumab-in-the-management-of-the-patient-with-malignant-pleural-effusion-more-questions-than-answers
#14
Ralph Llewel Sabang, Deepthi Gandhiraj, Michael Fanucchi, Oleg Epelbaum
Malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a feature of metastatic cancer that is associated with significant morbidity and healthcare costs. The typical current management of MPE involves the combination of systemic chemotherapy and mechanical intervention in the pleural space. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an extremely potent inducer of vascular permeability, has been shown to mediate fluid formation in pleural malignancy. Therefore, bevacizumab, an inhibitor of VEGF activity, offers theoretical promise as a means of abolishing fluid formation in MPE...
December 13, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187004/personalized-medicine-for-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-where-are-we-now-and-where-can-we-go
#15
Doreen A Ezeife, Natasha B Leighl
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 30, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171770/emerging-biomarkers-of-lymphangioleiomyomatosis
#16
Julie Nijmeh, Souheil El-Chemaly, Elizabeth P Henske
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease affecting primarily women. LAM is caused by inactivating mutations in the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, resulting in hyperactivation of mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Over the past five years, there have been remarkable advances in the diagnosis and therapy of LAM, including the identification of vascular endothelial growth factor D (VEGF-D) as a diagnostic biomarker and the US Food and Drug Administration approval of sirolimus as therapy for LAM...
November 24, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130355/adherence-and-outcomes-a-systematic-review-of-palivizumab-utilization
#17
Sophie K Wong, Abby Li, Krista L Lanctôt, Bosco Paes
Palivizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody used for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) prophylaxis. RSV is the primary cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children aged <2 years, and can give rise to high-burden hospitalization and respiratory complications in later life. Adherence to a monthly dosing regimen, both in timing and injection number, is essential to sustain therapeutic levels of palivizumab and maintain protective status. Deviation from the approved dosing schedule may reduce the efficacy of palivizumab and increase the risk of breakthrough RSV infection and hospitalization...
November 13, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111830/surgical-and-non-surgical-management-of-malignant-pleural-effusions
#18
Deirdre B Fitzgerald, Coenraad F N Koegelenberg, Kazuhiro Yasufuku, Y C Gary Lee
Optimal management of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is important in the care of patients with advanced cancer. Surgical (especially video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS)) and non-surgical strategies are available. Clinicians should be aware of the evidence supporting the use of different modalities to guide treatment choice. Areas covered: This review covers published evidence of the advantages and disadvantages of VATS and non-surgical alternatives for MPE management. Expert commentary: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are needed to define the roles and benefits of VATS as existing literature is often flawed by selection bias...
November 9, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115880/treatment-response-heterogeneity-in-asthma-the-role-of-genetic-variation
#19
Susanne J H Vijverberg, Niloufar Farzan, Elise M A Slob, Anne H Neerincx, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee
Asthmatic patients show a large heterogeneity in response to asthma medication. Rapidly evolving genotyping technologies have led to the identification of various genetic variants associated with treatment outcomes. Areas covered: This review focuses on the current knowledge of genetic variants influencing treatment response to the most commonly used asthma medicines: short- and long-acting beta-2 agonists (SABA/LABA), inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and leukotriene modifiers. This review shows that various genetic variants have been identified, but none are currently used to guide asthma treatment...
November 8, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082808/an-overview-of-the-current-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-can-we-go-beyond-the-gold-recommendations
#20
Mario Cazzola, Paola Rogliani, Ermanno Puxeddu, Josuel Ora, Maria Gabriella Matera
Treatment recommendations are based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs). However, only about 1 in 20 people meet the inclusion criteria for RCTs forming consensus guidelines in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Consequently, the one-size-fits-all approach focused merely on traditional symptoms and risk of exacerbations is inadequate to treat COPD. COPD needs a personalized medicine strategy because of the relevance of COPD heterogeneity for subject-based health risk assessment and stratification in the clinical arena...
November 3, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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