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Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715922/dlk1-dio3-imprinted-locus-deregulation-in-development-respiratory-disease-and-cancer
#1
Jhon R Enterina, Katey Ss Enfield, Christine Anderson, Erin A Marshall, Kevin W Ng, Wan L Lam
The imprinted DLK1-DIO3 locus at 14q32.1-32.31 holds biological significance in fetal development, whereby imprinting errors are causal to developmental disorders. Emerging evidence has implicated this locus in other diseases including cancer, highlighting the biological parallels between fetal organ and tumour development. Areas covered: Controlled regulation of gene expression from the imprinted DLK1-DIO3 locus at 14q32.1-32.31 is crucial for proper fetal development. Deregulation of locus gene expression due to imprinting errors has been mechanistically linked to the developmental disorders Kagami-Ogata Syndrome and Temple Syndrome...
July 18, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703045/the-role-of-human-host-genetics-in-tuberculosis-resistance
#2
Craig Kinnear, Eileen G Hoal, Haiko Schurz, Paul D van Helden, Marlo Möller
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a public health problem: the latest estimate of new incident cases per year is a staggering 10.4 million. Despite this overwhelming number, the majority of the immunocompetent population can control infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The human genome underlies the immune response and contributes to the outcome of TB infection. Areas covered: Investigations of TB resistance in the general population have closely mirrored those of other infectious diseases and initially involved epidemiological observations...
July 13, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699821/physical-activity-in-patients-with-copd-the-impact-of-comorbidities
#3
Leandro Cruz Mantoani, Silvina Dell'Era, William MacNee, Roberto A Rabinovich
Comorbidities are common in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and it plays an important role on physical activity (PA) in this population. Since low PA levels have been described as a key factor to predict morbi-mortality in COPD, it seems crucial to review the current literature available on this topic. Areas covered: This review covers the most common comorbidities found in COPD, their prevalence and prognostic implications. We explore the differences in PA between COPD patients with and without comorbidities, as well as the impact of the number or type of comorbidities on activity levels of this population...
July 12, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699819/targeting-cytokines-in-asthma-therapy-could-il-37-be-a-solution
#4
Michael Wegmann
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 12, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673104/biopsy-in-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis-back-to-the-future
#5
Giulio Rossi, Paolo Spagnolo
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a relentlessly progressive, fibrosing interstitial pneumonia characterized by a radiologic and/or histologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). The availability of two effective anti-fibrotic drugs in IPF has encouraged the identification and treatment of patients in early stages in order to maximize clinical benefit. The ability of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) to identify a 'definite' UIP pattern is suboptimal, particularly in the absence of honeycombing...
July 10, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621155/the-role-of-telemedicine-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-management
#6
Vera Lugo, Jair Asir Villanueva, Onintza Garmendia, Josep M Montserrat
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disease that leads in notorious symptoms and comorbidities. Although general measures are important, continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the best treatment option. However, compliance can be suboptimal and telemedicine may play a role to improve it. Areas covered: Review authors searched EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane data bases using the following keywords: continuous positive airway pressure, Obstructive sleep apnea, telemedicine, respiratory telemedicine, information and communication technology...
June 29, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595486/special-considerations-for-the-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-invasive-pulmonary-aspergillosis
#7
Matthew William McCarthy, Thomas J Walsh
The diagnosis and treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) are ongoing challenges in clinical practice. While important advances have recently been made, including enhanced diagnostic modalities as well as novel therapeutic and prophylactic options, more effective options are urgently needed as the population of immunocompromised patients continues to expand. Areas covered: In this paper, we review novel approaches to diagnosis of IPA, including multiplex PCR, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry and provide a detailed review of the extended-spectrum triazole isavuconazole, which was approved in 2015 to treat IPA...
June 21, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544852/the-asthma-plus-syndrome
#8
James H Hull, Emil S Walsted, Vibeke Backer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 9, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562103/the-paradigm-shift-to-end-tuberculosis-are-we-ready-to-assume-the-changes
#9
Ignacio Monedero, Rajita Bhavaraju, Alberto Mendoza-Ticona, Adrián Sánchez-Montalvá
Tuberculosis (TB) is the number one infectious disease killer and exemplifies the most neglected of them. Drug-susceptible TB presents with high mortality especially in atypical forms, disproportionally affecting immunosuppressed and vulnerable populations. The drug-resistant TB (DR-TB) epidemic, a world crisis, is sustained and increased through person-to-person transmission in households and the community. TB diagnostics and treatment in recent years are highly evolving fields. New rapid molecular tests are changing the perspectives in diagnosis and resistance screening...
June 5, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540765/an-update-on-pediatric-bronchiectasis
#10
Danielle F Wurzel, Anne B Chang
The prevalence and awareness of bronchiectasis not related to cystic fibrosis (CF) is increasing and it is now recognized as a major cause of respiratory morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilization worldwide. The need to elucidate the early origins of bronchiectasis is increasingly appreciated and has been identified as an important research priority. Current treatments for pediatric bronchiectasis are limited to antimicrobials, airway clearance techniques and vaccination. Several new drugs targeting airway inflammation are currently in development...
June 5, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467720/second-line-therapy-of-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-an-evolving-landscape
#11
Chiara Lazzari, Niki Karachaliou, Vanesa Gregorc, Alessandra Bulotta, Maria Gonzalez-Cao, Alberto Verlicchi, Giuseppe Altavilla, Rafael Rosell, Mariacarmela Santarpia
The treatment of lung cancer has radically changed over the last few years. The discovery of druggable oncogenic alterations and the introduction of immunotherapy have provided lung cancer patients with the possibility of more efficient and less toxic therapeutic alternatives than chemotherapy. In the case of lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), the treatment progress is slower than adenocarcinoma, for which several targeted agents have been already approved. The standard first-line therapy for LSCC, in most sites of the world, is platinum-based chemotherapy...
May 15, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467730/combination-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-mold-infections
#12
Matthew William McCarthy, Vidmantas Petraitis, Thomas J Walsh
Pulmonary mold infections are caused by ubiquitous organisms found in soil, water, and decaying vegetation, including Aspergillus spp., the Mucormycetes, hyaline molds, and dematiaceous (black) molds. Areas covered: These infections are often a challenge to diagnose and even more difficult to treat. Recently, antifungal combination therapy has emerged as a promising strategy to treat some forms of invasive mycoses, including pulmonary mold infections. Historically, this approach has been limited due to non-uniform interpretation criteria, variations in pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic properties of antifungals used in combination, and an inability to predict clinical success based on in vitro data and animal models...
May 9, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436715/controlled-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-strategies-in-obese-patients-undergoing-surgery
#13
Lígia de Albuquerque Maia, Pedro Leme Silva, Paolo Pelosi, Patricia Rieken Macedo Rocco
The obesity prevalence is increasing in surgical population. As the number of obese surgical patients increases, so does the demand for mechanical ventilation. Nevertheless, ventilatory strategies in this population are challenging, since obesity results in pathophysiological changes in respiratory function. Areas covered: We reviewed the impact of obesity on respiratory system and the effects of controlled invasive mechanical ventilation strategies in obese patients undergoing surgery. To date, there is no consensus regarding the optimal invasive mechanical ventilation strategy for obese surgical patients, and no evidence that possible intraoperative beneficial effects on oxygenation and mechanics translate into better postoperative pulmonary function or improved outcomes...
April 28, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399721/the-prostacyclin-pathway-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-a-clinical-review
#14
R Del Pozo, I Hernandez Gonzalez, P Escribano-Subias
Prostacyclin is produced in vascular endothelial cells and acts via the IP prostacyclin receptor to cause vasodilation and inhibit smooth muscle cell proliferation and platelet aggregation. Prostacyclin production is reduced in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), and drugs targeting the prostacyclin pathway are one of the pharmacotherapeutic options for PAH. Areas covered: The prostacyclin pathway and drugs that target it are discussed, including synthetic prostacyclin (epoprostenol), prostacyclin analogs (iloprost, treprostinil, beraprost) and selective prostacyclin IP receptor agonists (selexipag)...
April 24, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610545/personalized-medicine-of-patients-with-respiratory-infections-through-the-measurement-of-specific-blood-biomarkers-fact-or-fiction
#15
Philipp Schuetz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608758/a-systematic-narrative-review-of-the-effectiveness-of-behavioural-smoking-cessation-interventions-in-selected-disadvantaged-groups-2010-2017
#16
Amanda Wilson, Ashleigh Guillaumier, Johnson George, Alexandra Denham, Billie Bonevski
Tobacco remains the key modifiable risk factor for the development of a number of diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, lower respiratory infections, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculosis and cancer. Among priority populations, smoking prevalence remains high, smokers tend to relapse more often and earlier and fewer are able to sustain quit attempts. This systematic review provides an update on the literature. Areas covered: Twenty-four randomized controlled trials published from 2010-2017, in English language, were identified after searching on Medline, Ovid, Embase and PsycINFO databases...
August 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583012/exhaled-breath-analysis-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#17
Esther I Schwarz, Anna Engler, Malcolm Kohler
Breath analysis is a novel application that can be used for non-invasive metabolic phenotyping and identification of disease specific breath patterns. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent and has diverse metabolic and cardiovascular consequences, many of them incompletely understood. Areas covered: This review systematically summarizes the current evidence from breath metabolomics using immunoassays of breath condensate, off-line mass spectrometry as well as real-time analysis by electronic sensors and by untargeted mass spectrometry, and discusses the challenges and perspectives of breath analysis in OSA...
August 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580865/the-association-between-environmental-tobacco-smoke-exposure-and-childhood-respiratory-disease-a-review
#18
A Vanker, R P Gie, H J Zar
Childhood respiratory illness is a major cause of morbidity and mortality particularly in low and middle-income countries. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure is a recognised risk factor for both acute and chronic respiratory illness. Areas covered: The aim of this paper was to review the epidemiology of ETS exposure and impact on respiratory health in children. We conducted a search of 3 electronic databases of publications on ETS and childhood respiratory illness from 1990-2015. Key findings were that up to 70% of children are exposed to ETS globally, but under-reporting may mask the true prevalence...
August 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580827/therapeutic-management-of-acute-pulmonary-embolism
#19
Cécile Tromeur, Liselotte M Van Der Pol, Francis Couturaud, Frederikus A Klok, Menno V Huisman
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a potentially fatal manifestation of venous thromboembolism. Prompt anticoagulant treatment is crucial for PE patients, which can decrease morbidity and mortality. Risk assessment is the cornerstone of the therapeutic management of PE. It guides physicians to the most appropriate treatment and selects patients for early discharge or home treatment. Areas covered: Here, we review the current treatments of acute PE according to contemporary risk stratification strategies, highlighting each step of PE therapeutic management...
August 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580813/induction-chemotherapy-vs-post-operative-adjuvant-therapy-for-malignant-pleural-mesothelioma
#20
Giuseppe Marulli, Eleonora Faccioli, Alice Bellini, Marco Mammana, Federico Rea
Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is an aggressive neoplasia. Multidisciplinary treatments, including the association of induction and/or adjuvant therapeutic regimens with surgery, have been reported to give encouraging results. Current therapeutic options are not well standardized yet, especially regarding the best association between surgery and medical treatments. The present review aims to assess safety, efficacy and outcomes of different therapies for MPM. Areas covered: This article focuses on the multimodality treatment of mesothelioma...
August 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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