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Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28157433/sarcoidosis-treatments-beyond-prednisone-and-methotrexate
#1
Manuel L Ribeiro Neto, Daniel A Culver
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132571/the-diagnosis-and-management-of-respiratory-viral-infections-in-cystic-fibrosis
#2
William Flight, Andrew Jones
Respiratory viruses, such as those that cause influenza and the common cold, are a regular feature of life for the entire human population. Among people with CF, these viruses are associated with prolonged respiratory illness and show a clear association with pulmonary exacerbations which in turn are associated with lung function decline and risk of death. Human rhinovirus is the most commonly encountered respiratory viral pathogen in CF although adenovirus, bocavirus, coronavirus, influenza, parainfluenza, metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus are all also responsible for infections in this population...
February 3, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128006/non-infectious-pulmonary-disorders-in-hiv
#3
Choua Thao, Andrew F Shorr, Christian Woods
Since the advent of antiretroviral therapy (ART), non-infectious pulmonary disorders have become common comorbidities in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive population. Clinicians caring for those with HIV disease should be aware of the prevalence of non-infectious pulmonary disorders. A comprehensive understanding is required to diagnosis and manage these syndromes appropriately. Areas covered: This review focuses on the epidemiology, risk factors, pathogenesis, clinical feature and diagnosis, and treatment of HIV-related chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), lung cancer, pulmonary hypertension...
February 3, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152323/chemotherapy-and-intercalated-gefitinib-or-erlotinib-in-the-treatment-of-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#4
Antonio Rossi, Anna La Salvia, Massimo Di Maio
Preclinical data showed that intercalated administration of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and chemotherapy might be effective in the treatment of advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This review will summarize and discuss the clinical results available to date from prospective studies investigating this approach. Areas covered: A structured search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed literature and of main International meetings was undertaken, for trials testing the intercalated addition of EGFR-TKIs to chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC...
February 2, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140686/role-of-muscarinic-antagonists-in-asthma-therapy
#5
Mario Cazzola, Josuel Ora, Paola Rogliani, Maria Gabriella Matera
Higher parasympathetic tone has been reported in asthmatics. In general, cholinergic contractile tone is increased by airway inflammation associated with asthma. Nevertheless, the role of muscarinic antagonists for the treatment of asthma has not yet been clearly defined. Areas covered: The use of SAMAs and LAMAs in asthma has been examined and discussed according with the published evidence. Particular attention has been given to the large Phase III clinical trial programme designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tiotropium Respimat added to standard treatment in adults, adolescents and children with persistent asthma across the spectrum of asthma severity...
January 31, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095078/diagnosis-classification-and-therapeutic-interventions-for-sinopulmonary-aspergillosis
#6
Matthew William McCarthy, Daniel Aguilar-Zapata, Vidmantas Petraitis, Thomas J Walsh
Sinopulmonary aspergillosis represents a diverse collection of allergic, invasive, and chronic sinus and respiratory conditions. These diseases can affect patients with and without immune impairment and in some cases may be life-threatening. Areas covered: We review the diagnosis, classification, and therapeutic options available to treat sinopulmonary aspergillosis and look ahead to emerging diagnostic and therapeutic options that may soon play an important role in clinical practice. Expert commentary: Histopathology and tissue culture remain the gold standard for the diagnosis of invasive sinopulmonary aspergillosis, but several new molecular detection methods have recently emerged, including various PCR-based platforms, MALDI-TOF, and lateral flow assays...
January 27, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107795/adherence-to-therapies-in-cystic-fibrosis-a-targeted-literature-review
#7
Siva Narayanan, Jochen G Mainz, Smeet Gala, Harold Tabori, Daniel Grossoehme
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-shortening condition with no cure. Available therapies relieving the symptoms of CF are complex and time-consuming. A comprehensive review assessing adherence to different CF therapies, association of adherence with outcomes, and factors influencing adherence could inform optimal patient management strategies. Areas covered: A targeted literature review of studies published from 2010-2016 assessed adherence to CF therapies. Nineteen studies qualified for inclusion. Adherence to CF therapies was sub-optimal, and varied by treatment, mode of treatment administration, age, season, time and method of adherence measurement...
January 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107788/the-indications-and-role-of-paediatric-bronchoscopy-in-a-developing-country-with-high-prevalence-of-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-hiv
#8
Irwin Webster, Pierre Goussard, Robert Gie, Jacques Janson, Gawie Rossouw
BACKGROUND: Bronchoscopy, an important investigation for the diagnosis and management of respiratory diseases, is widely used in high income countries. There is limited information on value of paediatric bronchoscopy in low and middle income countries (LMIC). AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Aim was to describe the indications, findings and complications of bronchoscopy in a middle income country with a high prevalence of tuberculosis and HIV. METHODOLOGY: A retrospective analysis of a database over a 3...
January 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076986/utilising-exhaled-nitric-oxide-information-to-enhance-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-respiratory-disease-current-evidence-for-clinical-practice-and-proposals-to-improve-the-methodology
#9
Marieann Högman, Lauri Lehtimäki, Anh Tuan Dinh-Xuan
A non-invasive tool to diagnose respiratory diseases and to follow treatment has long been looked-for. Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) is a promising marker of inflammation in asthma but nearly 25-years of research has shown that it works in only certain endotypes of asthma. The modelling of NO dynamics of the lung can give more information than a single FENO value. Areas covered: The estimation of the NO production in the conducting airways and in the gas exchange area has given new insight of the NO production in diseases beyond asthma...
January 20, 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005439/early-lung-cancer-detection-by-low-dose-ct-screening-therapeutic-implications
#10
Marjolein A Heuvelmans, Harry J M Groen, Matthijs Oudkerk
Lung cancer screening by low-dose chest computed tomography is currently implemented in the U.S. After implementation of screening, a stage shift may be observed from around 15% stage I non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) in routine clinical practice to up to 70% in screening patients. This indicates a move in treatment options from advanced to early lung cancers, especially in those with small suspected intrapulmonary nodules. Areas covered: We have reviewed the current status of lung cancer screening from the different randomized controlled lung cancer screening studies and the clinical evidence so far for both surgical and non-surgical treatment options for (screen-detected) stage I NSCLC...
December 30, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910714/strategies-for-smoking-cessation-among-high-risk-populations-to-prevent-lung-cancer
#11
Alana M Rojewski, Kelly L Zuromski, Benjamin A Toll
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 13, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910701/obesity-in-copd-to-treat-or-not-to-treat
#12
Vanessa M McDonald, Lisa G Wood, Anne E Holland, Peter G Gibson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 10, 2016: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118799/lung-cancer-and-mirnas-a-possible-remedy-for-anti-metastatic-therapeutic-and-diagnostic-applications
#13
Zahra Sadat Hashemi, Saeed Khalili, Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam, Esmaeil Sadroddiny
Lung cancer still accounts for the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and despite the emerging advances in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques it remains to be a serious global public health concern. Micro-ribonucleic acids (microRNAs) are responsible for invasion and metastasis of various tumors including lung cancer which underscores the necessity of understanding their functions. Areas covered: Herein, we aim to summarize the recent advances made in our understanding of the miRNAs with special reference to lung cancer...
February 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076979/strategies-for-identifying-pulmonary-sarcoidosis-patients-at-risk-for-severe-or-chronic-disease
#14
Marc A Judson
Most of the morbidity and mortality resulting from pulmonary sarcoidosis relates to complications of fibrotic disease. Because the fibrosis related to pulmonary sarcoidosis is often of minimal clinical importance, pharmacotherapy is not mandated. However, a small fraction of pulmonary sarcoidosis patients develop significant lung fibrosis, and they could potentially benefit from anti-sarcoidosis therapy. A reliable algorithm to determine the likelihood of a pulmonary sarcoidosis patient developing fibrosis would minimize the toxicity of therapy and potentially prevent serious complications of the disease...
February 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074663/primary-graft-dysfunction-pathophysiology-to-guide-new-preventive-therapies
#15
Ciara M Shaver, Lorraine B Ware
Primary graft dysfunction (PGD) is a common complication of lung transplantation characterized by acute pulmonary edema associated with bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and hypoxemia in the first 3 post-operative days. Development of PGD is a predictor of poor short- and long-term outcomes after lung transplantation, but there are currently limited tools to prevent its occurrence. Areas covered: Several potentially modifiable donor, recipient, and operative risk factors for PGD have been identified. In addition, basic and translational studies in animals and ex vivo lung perfusion systems have identified several biomarkers and mechanisms of injury in PGD...
February 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935742/risk-factors-for-premenstrual-asthma-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
José L Sánchez-Ramos, Antonio R Pereira-Vega, Francisco Alvarado-Gómez, Jose A Maldonado-Pérez, Cecilie Svanes, Francisco Gómez-Real
Asthma in women can deteriorate in specific phases during the menstrual cycle. Deterioration in the premenstrual phase (increase in symptoms or deterioration in peak flow measurements) is known as premenstrual asthma. The etiology remains mostly unknown. Areas covered: This paper systematically reviews risk factors for premenstrual asthma. Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS and secondary sources were searched. The selection criteria were met by 20 articles. Expert commentary: Women with pre-menstrual asthma are older, have more severe asthma, a higher body-mass index, a longer duration of asthma and a greater likelihood of aspirin sensitive asthma...
January 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927060/new-data-on-clinical-decisions-in-nsclc-patients-with-uncommon-egfr-mutations
#17
Ting-Hui Wu, Emily Han-Chung Hsiue, Jih-Hsiang Lee, Chia-Chi Lin, James Chih-Hsin Yang
Non-small cell lung cancer patients harboring uncommon epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations together account for approximately 10% of all EGFR mutations. The most common of which being G719X, S768I, L861Q, and exon 20 insertions. The clinical significance, particularly their response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is largely unclear. Previous data is limited to a small fraction of patients in prospective studies and retrospective series. Recently, a combined analysis of patients with uncommon EGFR mutations in the Lux-Lung 2, Lux-Lung 3, Lux-Lung 6 trials provide new perspectives of uncommon EGFR mutations...
January 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927050/the-use-of-multiple-breath-washout-for-assessing-cystic-fibrosis-in-infants
#18
Gwyneth Davies, Paul Aurora
Lung Clearance Index, measured using the multiple breath washout (MBW) technique, may be a useful test in infants with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). However, the requirement for specialised equipment and a number of important technical and methodological considerations relevant to testing in infants have complicated matters, and to date prevented its widespread translatability in this age group. Areas covered: We review the current status of infant MBW testing in CF, focusing on Lung Clearance Index. This includes a review of recent developments in the field relevant to testing methodology in the infant population, use in evaluating lung disease in CF in infancy, and the associated challenges which remain...
January 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918221/neutrophilic-inflammation-in-asthma-mechanisms-and-therapeutic-considerations
#19
Hun Soo Chang, Tae-Hyeong Lee, Ji Ae Jun, Ae Rin Baek, Jong-Sook Park, So-My Koo, Yang-Ki Kim, Ho Sung Lee, Choon-Sik Park
Neutrophilic airway inflammation represents a pathologically distinct form of asthma and frequently appears in symptomatic adulthood asthmatics. However, clinical impacts and mechanisms of the neutrophilic inflammation have not been thoroughly evaluated up to date. Areas covered: Currently, distinct clinical manifestations, triggers, and molecular mechanisms of the neutrophilic inflammation (namely Toll-like receptor, Th1, Th17, inflammasome) are under investigation in asthma. Furthermore, possible role of the neutrophilic inflammation is being investigated in respect to the airway remodeling...
January 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910720/the-management-of-infection-with-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-young-children-post-2015-an-opportunity-to-close-the-policy-practice-gap
#20
Stephen M Graham
The treatment of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in young children is supported by universal policy based on strong rationale and evidence of effectiveness, but has rarely been implemented in tuberculosis endemic countries. Areas covered: This review highlights a number of important recent developments that provide an unprecedented opportunity to close the policy-practice gap, as well as ongoing needs to facilitate implementation under programmatic conditions and scale-up. Expert commentary: The WHO's End TB Strategy and Stop TB Partnership's Plan to End TB provide ambitious targets for prevention at a time when National Tuberculosis Programs in tuberculosis endemic countries are increasing attention to the challenges of management and prevention of tuberculosis disease in children...
January 2017: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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