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Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30433839/is-bronchoscopic-treatment-of-lung-cancer-possible
#1
Andrew D Lerner, David Feller-Kopman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30431366/the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-pathophysiology-current-clinical-practice-and-emerging-therapies
#2
Matthias Derwall, Lukas Martin, Rolf Rossaint
More than fifty years after the first description of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) by Ashbaugh and colleagues, no specific treatment of the underlying pathophysiological processes is available. The current therapeutic regime is comprised of supportive measures such as lung protective ventilation, restrictive fluid management, paralyzing drugs and prone positioning. Although vast improvements have been made in ARDS-treatment during the last five decades, mortality among patients with severe ARDS remains at an unacceptable rate of 45%...
November 15, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30415575/can-a-temporary-increase-in-corticosteroid-dosage-reduce-asthma-exacerbations
#3
Lissa G Sutherland, Tim W Harrison
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30365900/solriamfetol-for-the-treatment-of-daytime-sleepiness-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#4
Vivien C Abad, Christian Guilleminault
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is highly prevalent and constitutes a major health hazard. Current pharmacotherapy is ineffective in correcting sleep-disordered breathing and is used adjunctively to address residual sleepiness. A new drug, solriamfetol, a selective norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor, is the first drug of its class that is being considered by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat excessive sleepiness in OSA and narcolepsy patients. Areas Covered: This review covers drug chemistry, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, and metabolism of solriamfetol...
October 26, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362836/sex-smoking-and-body-mass-index-do-they-aid-in-uncovering-the-complex-mechanisms-behind-airway-hyperresponsiveness
#5
Andreas A Teferra, Judith M Vonk, H Marike Boezen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 26, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30345849/chronic-interstitial-lung-diseases-in-children-diagnosis-approaches
#6
Nadia Nathan, Laura Berdah, Keren Borensztajn, Annick Clement
Children interstitial lung disease (chILD) is a heterogeneous group of rare respiratory disorders characterized by inflammatory and fibrotic changes of the lung parenchyma. They include ILD related to exposure/environment insults, ILD related to systemic diseases processes, ILD related to primary lung parenchyma dysfunctions and ILD specific to infancy. Areas covered: This review provides an update on chILD pathophysiology and diagnosis approaches in immunocompetent children. It includes current information on genetic causes...
October 22, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30296384/cognitive-impairment-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-disease-burden-determinants-and-possible-future-interventions
#7
Martijn van Beers, Daisy J A Janssen, Harry R Gosker, Annemie M W J Schols
Cognitive impairment (CI) is an important but an under-recognized extra-pulmonary feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). It is related to the burden of disability, worse health outcomes, and impaired self-management. Areas covered: CI includes deterioration of a wide range of cognitive functions, such as memory and various executive functions. Risk of hospitalization might be higher in patients with COPD compared to those without, with CI negatively impacting the wellbeing of patients with COPD...
October 8, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30251562/safe-and-effective-exercise-training-for-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-putting-current-evidence-into-clinical-practice
#8
Melanie Lavender, Karen Sw Chia, Nathan Dwyer, Tamera J Corte, Lissa Spencer, Vivek Thakkar, Tanya McWilliams, Eugene Kotlyar, Helen Whitford
Whilst there have been significant advances in the medical treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), life expectancy and quality of life remain reduced in this disease. Strenuous exercise may be hazardous for PAH patients; however, several relatively small trials have confirmed that exercise training programs can be used safely and effectively as adjunctive treatment for selected patients. The use of exercise training is now recommended in consensus international PAH treatment algorithms, however, there is no published guideline detailing how this intervention should be carried out...
September 25, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30173593/predicting-disease-progression-in-cystic-fibrosis
#9
Oded Breuer, Daan Caudri, Stephen Stick, Lidija Turkovic
Progressive lung disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Methods of correctly predicting the future progression of lung disease in patients with CF are essential for directing aggressive treatment to prevent loss of lung function and end stage respiratory failure. Areas covered: This review addresses predictors of respiratory disease progression in patients with CF. We searched Web of Science and Medline, with no restriction on publication date, with the search terms 'cystic fibrosis' and 'disease progression', 'lung function decline', 'prognosis', 'prediction/predictive', 'prediction/prognostic scores', 'risk factors', 'outcome measures/endpoints/disease surrogate', 'longitudinal/long term', 'statistical model', and 'survival'...
September 13, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30204000/thirty-five-alternatives-to-positive-airway-pressure-therapy-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea-an-overview-of-meta-analyses
#10
Macario Camacho, Edward T Chang, Cindy Lee P Neighbors, Michael W Noller, Douglas Mack, Robson Capasso, Clete A Kushida
Positive airway pressure (PAP) devices are generally considered to be the first-line treatment of choice for most adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, there are several alternatives. It is important for patients and their sleep providers to be aware of the most up-to-date information regarding the current international literature. Areas covered: The objective is to provide an overview of the meta-analyses evaluating non-PAP treatments for OSA. Four authors searched four databases, including PubMed/MEDLINE through 30 November 2017, for meta-analyses evaluating non-PAP therapies as treatment for OSA...
September 11, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198350/risks-associated-with-lung-transplantation-in-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#11
Susan S Li, Dmitry Tumin, Katie A Krone, Debra Boyer, Stephen E Kirkby, Heidi M Mansour, Don Hayes
Survival after lung transplantation lags behind outcomes of other solid organ transplants, and complications from lung transplant are the second most common cause of death in cystic fibrosis. Evolving surgical techniques, therapeutics, and perioperative management have improved short-term survival after lung transplantation, yet have not translated into significant improvement in long-term mortality. Areas covered: We review risk factors for poor long-term outcomes among patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation to highlight areas for improvement...
September 9, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198358/predictors-of-tuberculosis-treatment-success-under-the-dots-program-in-namibia
#12
Dan Kibuule, Roger K Verbeeck, Ruswa Nunurai, Farai Mavhunga, Ette Ene, Brian Godman, Timothy W Rennie
OBJECTIVES: Optimal treatment success rates are critical to end tuberculosis in Namibia. Despite the scale-up of high quality directly observed therapy short-course strategy (DOTS) in Namibia, treatment success falls short of the global target of 90%. The objective of this study was to ascertain the predictors of treatment success rates under DOTS in Namibia to provide future direction. METHODS: A nation-wide comparative analysis of predictors of treatment success was undertaken...
September 8, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099918/cardiac-sarcoidosis-an-expert-review-for-the-chest-physician
#13
Jamie S Y Ho, Edwin R Chilvers, Muhunthan Thillai
Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease predominantly affecting the lungs, with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, pulmonary hypertension and cardiac sarcoidosis (CS), the latter due to direct granuloma infiltration. Sarcoidosis is often managed by chest physicians who need to understand the diagnostic pathways and initial management plans for patients with cardiac involvement. Areas covered: The most serious consequence of CS is sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias or complete atrioventricular block...
September 3, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30241450/therapeutic-targets-for-inflammation-mediated-airway-remodeling-in-chronic-lung-disease
#14
Allan R Brasier
Acute exacerbations of chronic lung disease account for substantial morbidity and health costs. Repeated inflammatory episodes and attendant bronchoconstriction cause structural remodeling of the airway. Remodeling is a multicellular response to mucosal injury that results in epithelial cell-state changes, enhanced extracellular deposition, and expansion of pro-fibrotic myofibroblast populations. Areas covered: This manuscript overviews mechanistic studies identifying key sentinel cell populations in the airway and how pattern recognition signaling induces maladaptive mucosal changes and airway remodeling...
November 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30221563/insights-into-endotoxin-mediated-lung-inflammation-and-future-treatment-strategies
#15
Amlan Chakraborty, Jennifer C Boer, Cordelia Selomulya, Magdalena Plebanski, Simon G Royce
Airway inflammatory disorders are prevalent diseases in need of better management and new therapeutics. Immunotherapies offer a solution to the problem of corticosteroid resistance. Areas covered: The current review focuses on lipopolysaccharide (Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin)-mediated inflammation in the lung and the animal models used to study related diseases. Endotoxin-induced lung pathology is usually initiated by antigen presenting cells (APC). We will discuss different subsets of APC including lung dendritic cells and macrophages, and their role in responding to endotoxin and environmental challenges...
November 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30193532/recent-developments-in-the-use-of-biologics-targeting-il-5-il-4-or-il-13-in-severe-refractory-asthma
#16
Garry M Walsh
Severe or refractory asthma is seen in approximately 5% of asthmatic subjects who have unsatisfactory symptom control despite adherence to high-dose inhaled glucocorticoid therapies resulting in significant morbidity, reduced quality of life and health-care cost implications. Asthma exhibits marked heterogeneity both clinically and at the molecular phenotypic level requiring specifically targeted treatments to block the key pathways of the disease. Monoclonal antibody-based biologics targeted at inhibition of the type 2 cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 have considerable potential as effective treatments for severe asthma...
November 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198807/management-of-severe-hemoptysis
#17
Antoine Parrot, Sebastian Tavolaro, Guillaume Voiriot, Antony Canellas, Jalal Assouad, Jacques Cadranel, Muriel Fartoukh
Though rare, severe hemoptysis (SH) is associated with a mortality rate exceeding 50% when not managed properly. Areas covered: This paper reviews the recent epidemiological data regarding SH, the role of multidetector computed tomography angiography (MDCTA), and fiberoptic bronchoscopy (FOB) in its management, as well as the value of current treatments. Expert commentary: MDCTA is becoming an essential modality, since it allows determining the location, etiology, and mechanism of the bleeding. FOB can be delayed, except when local control of bleeding is required...
October 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30142003/the-importance-of-right-ventricular-function-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#18
Roberto Badagliacca, Silvia Papa, Roberto Poscia, Beatrice Pezzuto, Giovanna Manzi, Roberto Torre, Francesco Fedele, Carmine Dario Vizza
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive, life-threatening, and incurable disease. Its prognosis is based on right ventricular (RV) function. Therefore, adequate assessment of RV function is mandatory. Areas covered: This article presents the case of a patient with PAH in which the traditional diagnostic approach did not provide a complete assessment of RV function. The authors show how the analysis of other parameters yielded additional information that improved the management of this patient...
October 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30138039/corticosteroids-as-an-adjunct-to-tuberculosis-therapy
#19
Charlotte Schutz, Angharad G Davis, Bianca Sossen, Rachel P-J Lai, Mpiko Ntsekhe, Yolande Xr Harley, Robert J Wilkinson
Inflammation, or the prolonged resolution of inflammation, contributes to death from tuberculosis. Interest in inflammatory mechanisms and the prospect of beneficial immune modulation as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy has revived and the concept of host directed therapies has been advanced. Such renewed attention has however, overlooked the experience of such therapy with corticosteroids. Areas covered: The authors conducted literature searches and evaluated randomized clinical trials, systematic reviews and current guidelines and summarize these findings...
October 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30136607/novel-management-strategies-for-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#20
Kareem Ahmad, Steven D Nathan
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) treatment was revolutionized by the advent of two novel antifibrotics, nintedanib and pirfenidone. However, neither is a panacea and other agents are still sorely needed. This review presents on-going efforts to improve outcomes for patients with IPF by targeting novel pharmacologic pathways, improving comorbidity management, and aiming for improved quality of life. Areas covered: We provide an overview of on-going basic and clinical science efforts focused on development of additional drug therapies for patients with IPF...
October 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
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