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Experimental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790061/lrrk2-inhibits-fak-activity-by-promoting-ferm-mediated-autoinhibition-of-fak-and-recruiting-the-tyrosine-phosphatase-shp-2
#1
Insup Choi, Ji-Won Byun, Sang Myun Park, Ilo Jou, Eun-Hye Joe
Mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) causes an autosomal dominant and late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we reported that LRRK2 directly binds to and phosphorylates the threonine 474 (T474)-containing Thr-X-Arg(Lys) (TXR) motif of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of FAK at tyrosine (Y) 397 residue (pY397-FAK), which is a marker of its activation. Mechanistically, however, it remained unclear how T474-FAK phosphorylation suppressed FAK activation...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790060/systematic-analysis-of-translocator-protein-18-kda-tspo-ligands-on-toll-like-receptors-mediated-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-microglia-and-astrocytes
#2
Ji-Won Lee, Hyeri Nam, Seong-Woon Yu
Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial protein highly expressed on reactive microglia and astrocytes, and is considered as a biomarker for neurodegeneration and brain damage, especially neuroinflammation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are closely related with inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and these signaling pathways regulate neuroinflammation. Previous reports have identified the anti-inflammatory effects of TSPO ligands, however study of their effects in relation to the TLR signaling was limited...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790059/comparative-analysis-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases-regulating-microglial-activation
#3
Gyun Jee Song, Jaehong Kim, Jong-Heon Kim, Seungeun Song, Hana Park, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Kyoungho Suk
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study, we examined the expression of 6 different PTPs (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, MEG2, LYP, and RPTPβ) and their role in glial activation and neuroinflammation. All PTPs were expressed in brain and glia. The expression of PTP1B, SHP2, and LYP was enhanced in the inflamed brain. The expression of PTP1B, TC-PTP, and LYP was increased after treating microglia cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790058/inflammation-after-ischemic-stroke-the-role-of-leukocytes-and-glial-cells
#4
REVIEW
Jong Youl Kim, Joohyun Park, Ji Young Chang, Sa-Hyun Kim, Jong Eun Lee
The immune response after stroke is known to play a major role in ischemic brain pathobiology. The inflammatory signals released by immune mediators activated by brain injury sets off a complex series of biochemical and molecular events which have been increasingly recognized as a key contributor to neuronal cell death. The primary immune mediators involved are glial cells and infiltrating leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocyte. After ischemic stroke, activation of glial cells and subsequent release of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals are important for modulating both neuronal cell damage and wound healing...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790057/astrocytes-and-microglia-as-non-cell-autonomous-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-als
#5
REVIEW
Junghee Lee, Seung Jae Hyeon, Hyeonjoo Im, Hyun Ryu, Yunha Kim, Hoon Ryu
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a progressive muscle wasting and paralysis. The pathological phenotypes are featured by severe motor neuron death and glial activation in the lumbar spinal cord. Proposed ALS pathogenic mechanisms include glutamate cytotoxicity, inflammatory pathway, oxidative stress, and protein aggregation. However, the exact mechanisms of ALS pathogenesis are not fully understood yet. Recently, a growing body of evidence provides a novel insight on the importance of glial cells in relation to the motor neuronal damage via the non-cell autonomous pathway...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790056/two-pore-domain-potassium-channels-in-astrocytes
#6
REVIEW
Kanghyun Ryoo, Jae-Yong Park
Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels have a distinct structure and channel properties, and are involved in a background K(+) current. The 15 members of the K2P channels are identified and classified into six subfamilies on the basis of their sequence similarities. The activity of the channels is dynamically regulated by various physical, chemical, and biological effectors. The channels are expressed in a wide variety of tissues in mammals in an isoform specific manner, and play various roles in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790055/optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-approaches-for-studying-astrocytes-and-gliotransmitters
#7
REVIEW
Juwon Bang, Hak Yeong Kim, Hyosang Lee
The brain consists of heterogeneous populations of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The revelation of their connections and interactions is fundamental to understanding normal brain functions as well as abnormal changes in pathological conditions. Optogenetics and chemogenetics have been developed to allow functional manipulations both in vitro and in vivo to examine causal relationships between cellular changes and functional outcomes. These techniques are based on genetically encoded effector molecules that respond exclusively to exogenous stimuli, such as a certain wavelength of light or a synthetic ligand...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790054/optogenetic-glia-manipulation-possibilities-and-future-prospects
#8
REVIEW
Woo-Hyun Cho, Ellane Barcelon, Sung Joong Lee
Our brains are composed of two distinct cell types: neurons and glia. Emerging data from recent investigations show that glial cells, especially astrocytes and microglia, are able to regulate synaptic transmission and thus brain information processing. This suggests that, not only neuronal activity, but communication between neurons and glia also plays a key role in brain function. Thus, it is currently well known that the physiology and pathophysiology of brain function can only be completely understood by considering the interplay between neurons and glia...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574486/brain-edema-after-repeat-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-a-large-arteriovenous-malformation-a-case-report
#9
Joo Whan Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Moon Hee Han, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek
Brain edema due to venous thrombosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has rarely been reported. We report a patient with a large AVM in the eloquent area, and brain edema developed in this area after repeat Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). An 18-year-old female presented with a 4-year-history of persistent headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral carotid angiogram revealed a high-flow large AVM in the left parieto-occipital area. Brain edema developed and aggravated patient's symptoms after time-staged GKRS...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574485/regional-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-novelty-seeking-and-antisocial-personality-a-positron-emission-tomography-study
#10
So Hyeon Park, Hyun Soo Park, Sang Eun Kim
Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574484/palmitoyl-serotonin-inhibits-l-dopa-induced-abnormal-involuntary-movements-in-the-mouse-parkinson-model
#11
Hye-Yeon Park, Young-Kyoung Ryu, Jun Go, Eunjung Son, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Mee Ree Kim
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most common treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long term use of L-DOPA for PD therapy lead to abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as dyskinesia. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is enriched protein in basal ganglia, and inhibition of the protein reduces dyskinetic behavior of mice. Palmitoyl serotonin (PA-5HT) is a hybrid molecule patterned after arachidonoyl serotonin, antagonist of FAAH. However, the effect of PA-5HT on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD have not yet been elucidated...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574483/physical-exercise-counteracts-stress-induced-upregulation-of-melanin-concentrating-hormone-in-the-brain-and-stress-induced-persisting-anxiety-like-behaviors
#12
Tae-Kyung Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Chronic stress induces anxiety disorders, whereas physical exercise is believed to help people with clinical anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying stress-induced anxiety and its counteraction by exercise using an established animal model of anxiety. Mice treated with restraint for 2 h daily for 14 days exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, including social and nonsocial behavioral symptoms, and these behavioral impairments lasted for more than 12 weeks after the stress treatment was removed...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574482/effects-of-the-female-estrous-cycle-on-the-sexual-behaviors-and-ultrasonic-vocalizations-of-male-c57bl-6-and-autistic-btbr-t-tf-j-mice
#13
Hyopil Kim, Junehee Son, Hyoungseob Yoo, Hakyoo Kim, Jihae Oh, DaeHee Han, Yoon Hwang, Bong-Kiun Kaang
A primary characteristic of autism, which is a neurodevelopmental disorder, is impaired social interaction and communication. Furthermore, patients with autism frequently show abnormal social recognition. In mouse models of autism, social recognition is usually assessed by examining same-sex social behavior using various tests, such as the three-chamber test. However, no studies have examined the ability of male mice with autism to recognize the estrous cycle of female partners. In this study, we investigated the sexual behaviors, especially mounting and ultrasonic vocal communication (USV), of BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mice, which are used as a well-known mouse model of autism, when they encountered estrus or diestrus female mice...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574481/prothrombin-kringle-2-a-potential-inflammatory-pathogen-in-the-parkinsonian-dopaminergic-system
#14
REVIEW
Eunju Leem, Kyoung Hoon Jeong, So-Yoon Won, Won-Ho Shin, Sang Ryong Kim
Although accumulating evidence suggests that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may be crucial for the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), and that the control of neuroinflammation may be a useful strategy for preventing the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projections in the adult brain, it is still unclear what kinds of endogenous biomolecules initiate microglial activation, consequently resulting in neurodegeneration. Recently, we reported that the increase in the levels of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2), which is a domain of prothrombin that is generated by active thrombin, can lead to disruption of the nigrostriatal DA projection...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358583/bilateral-adduction-palsy-in-a-patient-with-myotonic-dystrophy-type-1
#15
Hong-Jeon Kim, Jung-Hwan Oh, Sa-Yoon Kang
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by CTG repeat expansion in the DMPK gene in chromosome 19q13.3. External ophthalmoplegia is a rare manifestation in DM1. We report a DM1 patient confirmed by the presence of 650 CTG triplet expansions in the DMPK gene and had limitation of adduction gaze bilaterally. Brain MRI showed bilateral medial rectus muscles atrophy. Our patient provides additional evidence of ocular motor muscle involvement in DM1.
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358582/toxocara-canis-associated-myelitis-with-eosinophilic-pneumonia
#16
Kee Hong Park, Young-Soo Kim, Soo-Kyung Kim, Nack-Cheon Choi, Oh-Young Kwon, ByeongHoon Lim, Ki-Jong Park
The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358581/cerebral-hemodynamics-and-vascular-reactivity-in-mild-and-severe-ischemic-rodent-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-stroke-models
#17
Jeongeun Sim, Areum Jo, Bok-Man Kang, Sohee Lee, Oh Young Bang, Chaejeong Heo, Gil-Ja Jhon, Youngmi Lee, Minah Suh
Ischemia can cause decreased cerebral neurovascular coupling, leading to a failure in the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. This study aims to investigate the effect of varying degrees of ischemia on cerebral hemodynamic reactivity using in vivo real-time optical imaging. We utilized direct cortical stimulation to elicit hyper-excitable neuronal activation, which leads to induced hemodynamic changes in both the normal and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ischemic stroke groups. Hemodynamic measurements from optical imaging accurately predict the severity of occlusion in mild and severe MCAO animals...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358580/neuronal-expression-and-cell-type-specific-gene-silencing-of-best1-in-thalamic-reticular-nucleus-neurons-using-psico-red-system
#18
Jae-Young Jung, Seung Eun Lee, Eun Mi Hwang, C Justin Lee
Assessing the cell-type expression pattern of a certain gene can be achieved by using cell-type-specific gene manipulation. Recently, cre-recombinase-dependent gene-silencing tool, pSico has become popular in neuroscientific research. However, pSico has a critical limitation that gene-silenced cell cannot be identified by fluorescence, due to an excision of the reporter gene for green fluorescence protein (GFP). To overcome this limitation, we newly developed pSico-Red, with mCherry gene as a reporter outside two loxP sites, so that red mCherry signal is detected in all transfected cells...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358579/non-cell-autonomous-neurotoxicity-of-%C3%AE-synuclein-through-microglial-toll-like-receptor-2
#19
Changyoun Kim, He-Jin Lee, Eliezer Masliah, Seung-Jae Lee
Synucleinopathies are a collection of neurological diseases that are characterized by deposition of α-synuclein aggregates in neurons and glia. These diseases include Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Although it has been increasingly clear that α-synuclein is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and other synucleinopathies, the precise mechanism underlying the disease process remains to be unraveled. The past studies on how α-synuclein exerts pathogenic actions have focused on its direct, cell-autonomous neurotoxic effects...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358578/adult-neurogenesis-and-gliogenesis-possible-mechanisms-for-neurorestoration
#20
REVIEW
Zoltán Rusznák, Willem Henskens, Emma Schofield, Woojin S Kim, YuHong Fu
The subgranular zone (SGZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) are developmental remnants of the germinal regions of the brain, hence they retain the ability to generate neuronal progenitor cells in adult life. Neurogenesis in adult brain has an adaptive function because newly produced neurons can integrate into and modify existing neuronal circuits. In contrast to the SGZ and SVZ, other brain regions have a lower capacity to produce new neurons, and this usually occurs via parenchymal and periventricular cell genesis...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
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