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Experimental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093639/rapid-assessment-of-microbiota-changes-in-individuals-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-using-bacteria-derived-membrane-vesicles-in-urine
#1
Yunjin Lee, Jin-Young Park, Eun-Hwa Lee, Jinho Yang, Bo-Ri Jeong, Yoon-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, SoHyun Lee, Pyung-Lim Han, Eui-Jung Kim
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have altered gut microbiota, which appears to regulate ASD symptoms via gut microbiota-brain interactions. Rapid assessment of gut microbiota profiles in ASD individuals in varying physiological contexts is important to understanding the role of the microbiota in regulating ASD symptoms. Microbiomes secrete extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) to communicate with host cells and secreted EVs are widely distributed throughout the body including the blood and urine...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093638/inhibition-of-hif1%C3%AE-and-pdk-induces-cell-death-of-glioblastoma-multiforme
#2
Jiwon Esther Han, Pyung Won Lim, Chul Min Na, You Sik Choi, Joo Young Lee, Yona Kim, Hyung Woo Park, Hyo Eun Moon, Man Seung Heo, Hye Ran Park, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of brain tumors. GBMs, like other tumors, rely relatively less on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and utilize more aerobic glycolysis, and this metabolic shift becomes augmented under hypoxia. In the present study, we investigated the physiological significance of altered glucose metabolism and hypoxic adaptation in the GBM cell line U251 and two newly established primary GBMs (GBM28 and GBM37). We found that these three GBMs exhibited differential growth rates under hypoxia compared to those under normoxia...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093637/structural-and-functional-alterations-at-pre-epileptic-stage-are-closely-associated-with-epileptogenesis-in-pilocarpine-induced-epilepsy-model
#3
Hani Kim, Yunsook Choi, Hye-Young Joung, Yun Seo Choi, Hyeon Jin Kim, Yohan Joo, Jin-Hwan Oh, Hoo Jae Hann, Zang-Hee Cho, Hyang Woon Lee
Pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model is an established animal model that mimics medial temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate neuroimaging abnormalities in various stages of epileptogenesis and to correlate them with seizure severity in pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to continuous video and electroencephalographic monitoring after inducing status epilepticus (SE) and seizure severity was estimated by frequency and total durations of class 3 to 5 spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) by modified Racine's classification...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093636/agmatine-modulates-the-phenotype-of-macrophage-acute-phase-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#4
Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Chin Hee Mun, Minah Suh, Jong Eun Lee
Agmatine is a decarboxylated arginine by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is known to be a neuroprotective agent. It has been reported that agmatine works as a NMDA receptor blocker or a competitive nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in CNS injuries. In spinal cord injury, agmatine showed reduction of neuropathic pain, improvement of locomotor function, and neuroprotection. Macrophage is a key cellular component in neuroinflammation, a major cause of impairment after spinal cord injury. Macrophage has subtypes, M1 and M2 macrophages...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093635/beneficial-effects-of-silibinin-against-kainic-acid-induced-neurotoxicity-in-the-hippocampus-in-vivo
#5
Sehwan Kim, Un Ju Jung, Yong-Seok Oh, Min-Tae Jeon, Hyung-Jun Kim, Won-Ho Shin, Jungwan Hong, Sang Ryong Kim
Silibinin, an active constituent of silymarin extracted from milk thistle, has been previously reported to confer protection to the adult brain against neurodegeneration. However, its effects against epileptic seizures have not been examined yet. In order to investigate the effects of silibinin against epileptic seizures, we used a relevant mouse model in which seizures are manifested as status epilepticus, induced by kainic acid (KA) treatment. Silibinin was injected intraperitoneally, starting 1 day before an intrahippocampal KA injection and continued daily until analysis of each experiment...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093634/valproic-acid-induces-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-expression-during-cortical-development
#6
Ki Chan Kim, Chang Soon Choi, Edson Luck T Gonzales, Darine Froy N Mabunga, Sung Hoon Lee, Se Jin Jeon, Ram Hwangbo, Minha Hong, Jong Hoon Ryu, Seol-Heui Han, Geon Ho Bahn, Chan Young Shin
The valproic acid (VPA)-induced animal model is one of the most widely utilized environmental risk factor models of autism. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains an insurmountable challenge among neurodevelopmental disorders due to its heterogeneity, unresolved pathological pathways and lack of treatment. We previously reported that VPA-exposed rats and cultured rat primary neurons have increased Pax6 expression during post-midterm embryonic development which led to the sequential upregulation of glutamatergic neuronal markers...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093633/modulating-the-voltage-sensitivity-of-a-genetically-encoded-voltage-indicator
#7
Arong Jung, Dhanarajan Rajakumar, Bong-June Yoon, Bradley J Baker
Saturation mutagenesis was performed on a single position in the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) of a genetically encoded voltage indicator (GEVI). The VSD consists of four transmembrane helixes designated S1-S4. The V220 position located near the plasma membrane/extracellular interface had previously been shown to affect the voltage range of the optical signal. Introduction of polar amino acids at this position reduced the voltage-dependent optical signal of the GEVI. Negatively charged amino acids slightly reduced the optical signal by 33 percent while positively charge amino acids at this position reduced the optical signal by 80%...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912645/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-exendin-4-through-modulation-of-ib1-jip1-expression-and-jnk-signaling-in-stroke
#8
Soojin Kim, Jaewon Jeong, Hye-Seon Jung, Bokyung Kim, Ye-Eun Kim, Da-Sol Lim, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which block inactivation of GLP-1, are currently in clinical use for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, GLP-1 has also been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cases of cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4), after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced in rats by intracerebroventricular (i...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912644/tlr5-activation-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-is-a-neuroprotective-mechanism-of-postconditioning-after-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#9
Jaewon Jeong, Soojin Kim, Da-Sol Lim, Seo-Hea Kim, Heeju Doh, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Postconditioning has been shown to protect the mouse brain from ischemic injury. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms of postconditioning remain elusive. We have found that toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) plays an integral role in postconditioning-induced neuroprotection through Akt/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in cerebral ischemia. Compared to animals that received 30 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) group, animals that also underwent postconditioning showed a significant reduction of up to 60...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912643/decreased-glial-gaba-and-tonic-inhibition-in-cerebellum-of-mouse-model-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#10
Yoo Sung Kim, Junsung Woo, C Justin Lee, Bo-Eun Yoon
About 5~12% of school-aged children suffer from the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the core mechanism of ADHD remains unclear. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein-1 (GIT1) has recently been reported to be associated with ADHD in human and the genetic deletion of GIT1 result in ADHD-like behaviors in mice. Mice lacking GIT1 shows a shift in neuronal excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. However, the pricise mechanism for E/I imbalance and the role of neuron-glia interaction in GIT1 knockout (KO) mice have not been studied...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912642/nox-inhibitors-a-promising-avenue-for-ischemic-stroke
#11
REVIEW
Jong Youl Kim, Joohyun Park, Jong Eun Lee, Midori A Yenari
NADPH-oxidase (NOX) mediated superoxide originally found on leukocytes, but now recognized in several types of cells in the brain. It has been shown to play an important role in the progression of stroke and related cerebrovascular disease. NOX is a multisubunit complex consisting of 2 membrane-associated and 4 cytosolic subunits. NOX activation occurs when cytosolic subunits translocate to the membrane, leading to transport electrons to oxygen, thus producing superoxide. Superoxide produced by NOX is thought to function in long-term potentiation and intercellular signaling, but excessive production is damaging and has been implicated to play an important role in the progression of ischemic brain...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912641/toll-like-receptor-2-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-white-matter-injury-and-oligodendrocyte-death
#12
REVIEW
Jun Young Choi, Byung Gon Kim
Despite paramount clinical significance of white matter stroke, there is a paucity of researches on the pathomechanism of ischemic white matter damage and accompanying oligodendrocyte (OL) death. Therefore, a large gap exists between clinical needs and laboratory researches in this disease entity. Recent works have started to elucidate cellular and molecular basis of white matter injury under ischemic stress. In this paper, we briefly introduce white matter stroke from a clinical point of view and review pathophysiology of ischemic white matter injury characterized by OL death and demyelination...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912640/spike-frequency-adaptation-in-neurons-of-the-central-nervous-system
#13
REVIEW
Go Eun Ha, Eunji Cheong
Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information of the neurons. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels such as BKCa and SKCa channels have long been known to be important mediators of spike adaptation via generation of a large afterhyperpolarization when neurons are hyper-activated. However, it has been shown that a strong hyperpolarization via these KCa channels would cease action potential generation rather than reducing the frequency of spike generation...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680303/an-autopsy-proven-child-onset-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#14
Kyuho Lee, Seong-Ik Kim, Yujin Lee, Jae Kyung Won, Sung-Hye Park
Here we present an autopsy case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a 36-year-old man. He had a history of febrile seizures at the age of four and was severely demented at age 10 when he was admitted to a mental hospital. He had suffered repetitive self-harm, such as frequent banging of the head on the wall in his hospital record, but he had no clear history between the ages of four and ten. Autopsy revealed global cerebral atrophy, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, mammilary bodies and lateral geniculate bodies...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680302/eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-presented-as-acute-polyneuropathy-and-cerebral-vasculitis
#15
Il-Han Yoo, Sang Tae Choi, Seong-Ho Choi, Jeong-Min Kim, Suk-Won Ahn
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is an immune related systemic disease that is caused by vasculitis affecting multiple organ systems. It is characterized by asthma, fever, eosinophilia, cardiac problems, renal injury, and peripheral neuropathy. In this report, we describe a patient with EGPA with concurrent cerebral infarction and acute polyneuropathy mimicking a Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). A 46-year-old man presented with rapidly progressing gait disturbance, muscular weakness, and tingling sensation in all four limbs...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680301/functional-characterization-of-resting-and-adenovirus-induced-reactive-astrocytes-in-three-dimensional-culture
#16
Junsung Woo, Sun-Kyoung Im, Heejung Chun, Soon-Young Jung, Soo-Jin Oh, Nakwon Choi, C Justin Lee, Eun-Mi Hur
Brain is a rich environment where neurons and glia interact with neighboring cells as well as extracellular matrix in three-dimensional (3D) space. Astrocytes, which are the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, reside in 3D space and extend highly branched processes that form microdomains and contact synapses. It has been suggested that astrocytes cultured in 3D might be maintained in a less reactive state as compared to those growing in a traditional, two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture. However, the functional characterization of the astrocytes in 3D culture has been lacking...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680300/repeated-oral-administration-of-human-serum-albumin-protects-from-the-cerebral-ischemia-in-rat-brain-following-mcao
#17
Hyejin Park, Minyoung Hong, Gil-Ja Jhon, Youngmi Lee, Minah Suh
Albumin is known to have neuroprotective effects. The protein has a long half-life circulation, and its effects can therefore persist for a long time to aid in the recovery of brain ischemia. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of human serum albumin (HSA) on brain hemodynamics. Albumin is administrated using repeated oral gavage to the rodents. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion procedures and served as a stroke model. Afterwards, 25% human serum albumin (1...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680299/the-scaffolding-protein-grb2-associated-binder-1-in-skeletal-muscles-and-terminal-schwann-cells-regulates-postnatal-neuromuscular-synapse-maturation
#18
So Young Park, So Young Jang, Yoon Kyoung Shin, Dong Keun Jung, Byeol A Yoon, Jong Kook Kim, Young Rae Jo, Hye Jeong Lee, Hwan Tae Park
The vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is considered as a "tripartite synapse" consisting of a motor axon terminal, a muscle endplate, and terminal Schwann cells that envelope the motor axon terminal. The neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB2 signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of the NMJ. We previously showed that Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1), a scaffolding mediator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, is required for NRG1-induced peripheral nerve myelination. Here, we determined the role of Gab1 in the development of the NMJ using muscle-specific conditional Gab1 knockout mice...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680298/high-fat-diet-and-voluntary-chronic-aerobic-exercise-recover-altered-levels-of-aging-related-tryptophan-metabolites-along-the-kynurenine-pathway
#19
Keon-Joo Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Joo-Youn Cho, Soon-Tae Lee, Hwa Suk Kim, Jun Hwa Shim, Sang Kun Lee, Manho Kim, Kon Chu
Tryptophan metabolites regulate a variety of physiological processes, and their downstream metabolites enter the kynurenine pathway. Age-related changes of metabolites and activities of associated enzymes in this pathway are suggestable and would be potential intervention targets. Blood levels of serum tryptophan metabolites in C57BL/6 mice of different ages, ranging from 6 weeks to 10 months, were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the enzyme activities for each metabolic step were estimated using the ratio of appropriate metabolite levels...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680297/altered-gabaergic-signaling-in-brain-disease-at-various-stages-of-life
#20
REVIEW
Yoo Sung Kim, Bo-Eun Yoon
In the healthy brain, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is regulated by neurons and glia. This begs the question: what happens in the malfunctioning brain? There are many reasons why diseases occur, including genetic mutations, systemic problems, and environmental influences. There are also many ways in which GABA can become dysregulated, such as through alterations in its synthesis or release, and changes in systems that respond to it. Notably, dysregulation of GABA can have a large impact on the brain. To date, few reviews have examined brain diseases in which dysregulation of GABA is implicated as an underlying factor...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
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