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Experimental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035186/rapid-progression-of-sporadic-als-in-a-patient-carrying-sod1-p-gly13arg-mutation
#1
Myung-Jin Kim, Jae-Han Bae, Jeong-Min Kim, Hye Ryoun Kim, Byung-Nam Yoon, Jung-Joon Sung, Suk-Won Ahn
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common adult onset motor neuron disease, is pathologically characterized by progressive loss of the upper and lower motor neurons. Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) account for about 20% of familial ALS cases and a small percentage of sporadic ALS (SALS) cases, and have revealed a validated genotype-phenotype correlation. Herein, we report a p.Gly13Arg mutation in SOD1 exon 1 in a patient with SALS who presented with a rapidly progressive course, predominantly affecting the lower motor neurons...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035185/mildly-increased-mechanical-nociceptive-sensitivity-in-rev-erb%C3%AE-knock-out-mice
#2
Jaehyun Lee, Hyoung-Gon Ko, Kyungjin Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Nociception is one of the most complex senses that is affected not only by external stimulation but also internal conditions. Previous studies have suggested that circadian rhythm is important in modulating nociception. REV-ERBα knock-out (KO) mice have disrupted circadian rhythm and altered mood-related phenotypes. In this study, we examined the role of REV-ERBα in inflammatory nociception. We found that the nociceptive sensitivity of KO mice was partially enhanced in mechanical nociception. However, this partial alteration was independent of the circadian rhythm...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035184/prefrontal-cortical-thickness-deficit-in-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients
#3
Sujin Bae, Ilhyang Kang, Boung Chul Lee, Yujin Jeon, Han Byul Cho, Sujung Yoon, Soo Mee Lim, Jungyoon Kim, In Kyoon Lyoo, Jieun E Kim, Ihn-Geun Choi
Alcohol dependence is a serious disorder that can be related with a number of potential health-related and social consequences. Cortical thickness measurements would provide important information on the cortical structural alterations in patients with alcohol dependence. Twenty-one patients with alcohol dependence and 22 healthy comparison subjects have been recruited and underwent high-resolution brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical assessments. T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using the cortical thickness analysis program...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035183/neonatal-administration-of-memantine-enhances-social-cognition-in-adult-rats-subjected-to-early-maternal-deprivation
#4
Ezequiel Uribe, Eduardo Sánchez-Mendoza, Nayadoleni Nieves, Gustavo Merchor
Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder; however, all the available treatment options are used when the disease becomes clinically significant in adolescence or early adulthood. Using a developmental rat model of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal treatment with memantine, an NMDA receptor modulator, can improve schizophrenic-like symptoms in adulthood. Early maternal deprivation in rats produces deficits in social interaction behaviors in adulthood. In contrast, memantine administrated in neonatal rats subjected to early maternal deprivation significantly reduces deficits in social interaction behaviors in adulthood...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035182/chronic-nonmodulated-microwave-radiations-in-mice-produce-anxiety-like-and-depression-like-behaviours-and-calcium-and-no-related-biochemical-changes-in-the-brain
#5
Manoj Kumar, Surya P Singh, Chandra M Chaturvedi
The present study was aimed to investigate behavioural and biochemical effects of chronic exposure of amplitude modulated and non-modulated microwave radiation on laboratory mice. Chronic microwave exposures were executed with 2.45 GHz of either modulated (power density, 0.029 mW/cm(2); specific absorption rate, 0.019 W/Kg with sinusoidal modulation of 400 Hz) or nonmodulated continuous sinusoidal wave (power density, 0.033 mW/cm(2); specific absorption rate, 0.023 W/Kg) for 2 hrs daily for 1 month. Mice subjected to non-modulated microwave exposure had significantly increased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased intracellular calcium and nitric oxide levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and also had increased glucose and corticosterone levels in blood compared to control mice...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035181/functional-connectivity-of-basolateral-amygdala-neurons-carrying-orexin-receptors-and-melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptors-in-regulating-sociability-and-mood-related-behaviors
#6
Tae-Kyung Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Chronic stress induces changes in neuronal functions in specific brain regions regulating sociability and mood-related behaviors. Recently we reported that stress-induced persistent upregulation of the neuropeptides orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the resulting activation of orexin receptors or MCH receptors within the BLA produced deficits in sociability and mood-related behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the neural targets that were innervated by BLA neurons containing orexin receptors or MCH receptors...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035180/bipolar-disorder-associated-microrna-mir-1908-5p-regulates-the-expression-of-genes-functioning-in-neuronal-glutamatergic-synapses
#7
Yoonhee Kim, Yinhua Zhang, Kaifang Pang, Hyojin Kang, Heejoo Park, Yeunkum Lee, Bokyoung Lee, Heon-Jeong Lee, Won-Ki Kim, Dongho Geum, Kihoon Han
Bipolar disorder (BD), characterized by recurrent mood swings between depression and mania, is a highly heritable and devastating mental illness with poorly defined pathophysiology. Recent genome-wide molecular genetic studies have identified several protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) significantly associated with BD. Notably, some of the proteins expressed from BD-associated genes function in neuronal synapses, suggesting that abnormalities in synaptic function could be one of the key pathogenic mechanisms of BD...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035179/molecular-neuroimaging-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#8
REVIEW
Jooyeon Jamie Im, Eun Namgung, Yejee Choi, Jung Yoon Kim, Sandy Jeong Rhie, Sujung Yoon
Over the past decade, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have provided insight into the neurobiological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PSTD). In particular, molecular neuroimaging techniques have been employed in examining metabolic and neurochemical processes in PTSD. This article reviews molecular neuroimaging studies in PTSD and focuses on findings using three imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790061/lrrk2-inhibits-fak-activity-by-promoting-ferm-mediated-autoinhibition-of-fak-and-recruiting-the-tyrosine-phosphatase-shp-2
#9
Insup Choi, Ji-Won Byun, Sang Myun Park, Ilo Jou, Eun-Hye Joe
Mutation of leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) causes an autosomal dominant and late-onset familial Parkinson's disease (PD). Recently, we reported that LRRK2 directly binds to and phosphorylates the threonine 474 (T474)-containing Thr-X-Arg(Lys) (TXR) motif of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), thereby inhibiting the phosphorylation of FAK at tyrosine (Y) 397 residue (pY397-FAK), which is a marker of its activation. Mechanistically, however, it remained unclear how T474-FAK phosphorylation suppressed FAK activation...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790060/systematic-analysis-of-translocator-protein-18-kda-tspo-ligands-on-toll-like-receptors-mediated-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-microglia-and-astrocytes
#10
Ji-Won Lee, Hyeri Nam, Seong-Woon Yu
Translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) is a mitochondrial protein highly expressed on reactive microglia and astrocytes, and is considered as a biomarker for neurodegeneration and brain damage, especially neuroinflammation. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are closely related with inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and these signaling pathways regulate neuroinflammation. Previous reports have identified the anti-inflammatory effects of TSPO ligands, however study of their effects in relation to the TLR signaling was limited...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790059/comparative-analysis-of-protein-tyrosine-phosphatases-regulating-microglial-activation
#11
Gyun Jee Song, Jaehong Kim, Jong-Heon Kim, Seungeun Song, Hana Park, Zhong-Yin Zhang, Kyoungho Suk
Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are key regulatory factors in inflammatory signaling pathways. Although PTPs have been extensively studied, little is known about their role in neuroinflammation. In the present study, we examined the expression of 6 different PTPs (PTP1B, TC-PTP, SHP2, MEG2, LYP, and RPTPβ) and their role in glial activation and neuroinflammation. All PTPs were expressed in brain and glia. The expression of PTP1B, SHP2, and LYP was enhanced in the inflamed brain. The expression of PTP1B, TC-PTP, and LYP was increased after treating microglia cells with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790058/inflammation-after-ischemic-stroke-the-role-of-leukocytes-and-glial-cells
#12
REVIEW
Jong Youl Kim, Joohyun Park, Ji Young Chang, Sa-Hyun Kim, Jong Eun Lee
The immune response after stroke is known to play a major role in ischemic brain pathobiology. The inflammatory signals released by immune mediators activated by brain injury sets off a complex series of biochemical and molecular events which have been increasingly recognized as a key contributor to neuronal cell death. The primary immune mediators involved are glial cells and infiltrating leukocytes, including neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocyte. After ischemic stroke, activation of glial cells and subsequent release of pro- and anti-inflammatory signals are important for modulating both neuronal cell damage and wound healing...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790057/astrocytes-and-microglia-as-non-cell-autonomous-players-in-the-pathogenesis-of-als
#13
REVIEW
Junghee Lee, Seung Jae Hyeon, Hyeonjoo Im, Hyun Ryu, Yunha Kim, Hoon Ryu
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that leads to a progressive muscle wasting and paralysis. The pathological phenotypes are featured by severe motor neuron death and glial activation in the lumbar spinal cord. Proposed ALS pathogenic mechanisms include glutamate cytotoxicity, inflammatory pathway, oxidative stress, and protein aggregation. However, the exact mechanisms of ALS pathogenesis are not fully understood yet. Recently, a growing body of evidence provides a novel insight on the importance of glial cells in relation to the motor neuronal damage via the non-cell autonomous pathway...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790056/two-pore-domain-potassium-channels-in-astrocytes
#14
REVIEW
Kanghyun Ryoo, Jae-Yong Park
Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels have a distinct structure and channel properties, and are involved in a background K(+) current. The 15 members of the K2P channels are identified and classified into six subfamilies on the basis of their sequence similarities. The activity of the channels is dynamically regulated by various physical, chemical, and biological effectors. The channels are expressed in a wide variety of tissues in mammals in an isoform specific manner, and play various roles in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790055/optogenetic-and-chemogenetic-approaches-for-studying-astrocytes-and-gliotransmitters
#15
REVIEW
Juwon Bang, Hak Yeong Kim, Hyosang Lee
The brain consists of heterogeneous populations of neuronal and non-neuronal cells. The revelation of their connections and interactions is fundamental to understanding normal brain functions as well as abnormal changes in pathological conditions. Optogenetics and chemogenetics have been developed to allow functional manipulations both in vitro and in vivo to examine causal relationships between cellular changes and functional outcomes. These techniques are based on genetically encoded effector molecules that respond exclusively to exogenous stimuli, such as a certain wavelength of light or a synthetic ligand...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790054/optogenetic-glia-manipulation-possibilities-and-future-prospects
#16
REVIEW
Woo-Hyun Cho, Ellane Barcelon, Sung Joong Lee
Our brains are composed of two distinct cell types: neurons and glia. Emerging data from recent investigations show that glial cells, especially astrocytes and microglia, are able to regulate synaptic transmission and thus brain information processing. This suggests that, not only neuronal activity, but communication between neurons and glia also plays a key role in brain function. Thus, it is currently well known that the physiology and pathophysiology of brain function can only be completely understood by considering the interplay between neurons and glia...
October 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574486/brain-edema-after-repeat-gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-a-large-arteriovenous-malformation-a-case-report
#17
Joo Whan Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Moon Hee Han, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek
Brain edema due to venous thrombosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has rarely been reported. We report a patient with a large AVM in the eloquent area, and brain edema developed in this area after repeat Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). An 18-year-old female presented with a 4-year-history of persistent headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral carotid angiogram revealed a high-flow large AVM in the left parieto-occipital area. Brain edema developed and aggravated patient's symptoms after time-staged GKRS...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574485/regional-cerebral-glucose-metabolism-in-novelty-seeking-and-antisocial-personality-a-positron-emission-tomography-study
#18
So Hyeon Park, Hyun Soo Park, Sang Eun Kim
Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574484/palmitoyl-serotonin-inhibits-l-dopa-induced-abnormal-involuntary-movements-in-the-mouse-parkinson-model
#19
Hye-Yeon Park, Young-Kyoung Ryu, Jun Go, Eunjung Son, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Mee Ree Kim
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most common treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long term use of L-DOPA for PD therapy lead to abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as dyskinesia. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is enriched protein in basal ganglia, and inhibition of the protein reduces dyskinetic behavior of mice. Palmitoyl serotonin (PA-5HT) is a hybrid molecule patterned after arachidonoyl serotonin, antagonist of FAAH. However, the effect of PA-5HT on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD have not yet been elucidated...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27574483/physical-exercise-counteracts-stress-induced-upregulation-of-melanin-concentrating-hormone-in-the-brain-and-stress-induced-persisting-anxiety-like-behaviors
#20
Tae-Kyung Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Chronic stress induces anxiety disorders, whereas physical exercise is believed to help people with clinical anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying stress-induced anxiety and its counteraction by exercise using an established animal model of anxiety. Mice treated with restraint for 2 h daily for 14 days exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, including social and nonsocial behavioral symptoms, and these behavioral impairments lasted for more than 12 weeks after the stress treatment was removed...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
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