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Experimental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912645/anti-inflammatory-effect-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-exendin-4-through-modulation-of-ib1-jip1-expression-and-jnk-signaling-in-stroke
#1
Soojin Kim, Jaewon Jeong, Hye-Seon Jung, Bokyung Kim, Ye-Eun Kim, Da-Sol Lim, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1) stimulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors, which block inactivation of GLP-1, are currently in clinical use for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, GLP-1 has also been reported to have neuroprotective effects in cases of cerebral ischemia. We therefore investigated the neuroprotective effects of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonist, exendin-4 (ex-4), after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) was induced in rats by intracerebroventricular (i...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912644/tlr5-activation-through-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-is-a-neuroprotective-mechanism-of-postconditioning-after-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#2
Jaewon Jeong, Soojin Kim, Da-Sol Lim, Seo-Hea Kim, Heeju Doh, So-Dam Kim, Yun Seon Song
Postconditioning has been shown to protect the mouse brain from ischemic injury. However, the neuroprotective mechanisms of postconditioning remain elusive. We have found that toll-like receptor 5 (TLR5) plays an integral role in postconditioning-induced neuroprotection through Akt/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) activation in cerebral ischemia. Compared to animals that received 30 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) group, animals that also underwent postconditioning showed a significant reduction of up to 60...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912643/decreased-glial-gaba-and-tonic-inhibition-in-cerebellum-of-mouse-model-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#3
Yoo Sung Kim, Junsung Woo, C Justin Lee, Bo-Eun Yoon
About 5~12% of school-aged children suffer from the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, the core mechanism of ADHD remains unclear. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein-1 (GIT1) has recently been reported to be associated with ADHD in human and the genetic deletion of GIT1 result in ADHD-like behaviors in mice. Mice lacking GIT1 shows a shift in neuronal excitation/inhibition (E/I) balance. However, the pricise mechanism for E/I imbalance and the role of neuron-glia interaction in GIT1 knockout (KO) mice have not been studied...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912642/nox-inhibitors-a-promising-avenue-for-ischemic-stroke
#4
REVIEW
Jong Youl Kim, Joohyun Park, Jong Eun Lee, Midori A Yenari
NADPH-oxidase (NOX) mediated superoxide originally found on leukocytes, but now recognized in several types of cells in the brain. It has been shown to play an important role in the progression of stroke and related cerebrovascular disease. NOX is a multisubunit complex consisting of 2 membrane-associated and 4 cytosolic subunits. NOX activation occurs when cytosolic subunits translocate to the membrane, leading to transport electrons to oxygen, thus producing superoxide. Superoxide produced by NOX is thought to function in long-term potentiation and intercellular signaling, but excessive production is damaging and has been implicated to play an important role in the progression of ischemic brain...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912641/toll-like-receptor-2-a-novel-therapeutic-target-for-ischemic-white-matter-injury-and-oligodendrocyte-death
#5
REVIEW
Jun Young Choi, Byung Gon Kim
Despite paramount clinical significance of white matter stroke, there is a paucity of researches on the pathomechanism of ischemic white matter damage and accompanying oligodendrocyte (OL) death. Therefore, a large gap exists between clinical needs and laboratory researches in this disease entity. Recent works have started to elucidate cellular and molecular basis of white matter injury under ischemic stress. In this paper, we briefly introduce white matter stroke from a clinical point of view and review pathophysiology of ischemic white matter injury characterized by OL death and demyelination...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912640/spike-frequency-adaptation-in-neurons-of-the-central-nervous-system
#6
REVIEW
Go Eun Ha, Eunji Cheong
Neuronal firing patterns and frequencies determine the nature of encoded information of the neurons. Here we discuss the molecular identity and cellular mechanisms of spike-frequency adaptation in central nervous system (CNS) neurons. Calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channels such as BKCa and SKCa channels have long been known to be important mediators of spike adaptation via generation of a large afterhyperpolarization when neurons are hyper-activated. However, it has been shown that a strong hyperpolarization via these KCa channels would cease action potential generation rather than reducing the frequency of spike generation...
August 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680303/an-autopsy-proven-child-onset-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy
#7
Kyuho Lee, Seong-Ik Kim, Yujin Lee, Jae Kyung Won, Sung-Hye Park
Here we present an autopsy case of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) in a 36-year-old man. He had a history of febrile seizures at the age of four and was severely demented at age 10 when he was admitted to a mental hospital. He had suffered repetitive self-harm, such as frequent banging of the head on the wall in his hospital record, but he had no clear history between the ages of four and ten. Autopsy revealed global cerebral atrophy, including the basal ganglia, thalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, mammilary bodies and lateral geniculate bodies...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680302/eosinophilic-granulomatosis-with-polyangiitis-presented-as-acute-polyneuropathy-and-cerebral-vasculitis
#8
Il-Han Yoo, Sang Tae Choi, Seong-Ho Choi, Jeong-Min Kim, Suk-Won Ahn
Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is an immune related systemic disease that is caused by vasculitis affecting multiple organ systems. It is characterized by asthma, fever, eosinophilia, cardiac problems, renal injury, and peripheral neuropathy. In this report, we describe a patient with EGPA with concurrent cerebral infarction and acute polyneuropathy mimicking a Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). A 46-year-old man presented with rapidly progressing gait disturbance, muscular weakness, and tingling sensation in all four limbs...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680301/functional-characterization-of-resting-and-adenovirus-induced-reactive-astrocytes-in-three-dimensional-culture
#9
Junsung Woo, Sun-Kyoung Im, Heejung Chun, Soon-Young Jung, Soo-Jin Oh, Nakwon Choi, C Justin Lee, Eun-Mi Hur
Brain is a rich environment where neurons and glia interact with neighboring cells as well as extracellular matrix in three-dimensional (3D) space. Astrocytes, which are the most abundant cells in the mammalian brain, reside in 3D space and extend highly branched processes that form microdomains and contact synapses. It has been suggested that astrocytes cultured in 3D might be maintained in a less reactive state as compared to those growing in a traditional, two-dimensional (2D) monolayer culture. However, the functional characterization of the astrocytes in 3D culture has been lacking...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680300/repeated-oral-administration-of-human-serum-albumin-protects-from-the-cerebral-ischemia-in-rat-brain-following-mcao
#10
Hyejin Park, Minyoung Hong, Gil-Ja Jhon, Youngmi Lee, Minah Suh
Albumin is known to have neuroprotective effects. The protein has a long half-life circulation, and its effects can therefore persist for a long time to aid in the recovery of brain ischemia. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of human serum albumin (HSA) on brain hemodynamics. Albumin is administrated using repeated oral gavage to the rodents. Sprague-Dawley rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion procedures and served as a stroke model. Afterwards, 25% human serum albumin (1...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680299/the-scaffolding-protein-grb2-associated-binder-1-in-skeletal-muscles-and-terminal-schwann-cells-regulates-postnatal-neuromuscular-synapse-maturation
#11
So Young Park, So Young Jang, Yoon Kyoung Shin, Dong Keun Jung, Byeol A Yoon, Jong Kook Kim, Young Rae Jo, Hye Jeong Lee, Hwan Tae Park
The vertebrate neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is considered as a "tripartite synapse" consisting of a motor axon terminal, a muscle endplate, and terminal Schwann cells that envelope the motor axon terminal. The neuregulin 1 (NRG1)-ErbB2 signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of the NMJ. We previously showed that Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1), a scaffolding mediator of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, is required for NRG1-induced peripheral nerve myelination. Here, we determined the role of Gab1 in the development of the NMJ using muscle-specific conditional Gab1 knockout mice...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680298/high-fat-diet-and-voluntary-chronic-aerobic-exercise-recover-altered-levels-of-aging-related-tryptophan-metabolites-along-the-kynurenine-pathway
#12
Keon-Joo Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Joo-Youn Cho, Soon-Tae Lee, Hwa Suk Kim, Jun Hwa Shim, Sang Kun Lee, Manho Kim, Kon Chu
Tryptophan metabolites regulate a variety of physiological processes, and their downstream metabolites enter the kynurenine pathway. Age-related changes of metabolites and activities of associated enzymes in this pathway are suggestable and would be potential intervention targets. Blood levels of serum tryptophan metabolites in C57BL/6 mice of different ages, ranging from 6 weeks to 10 months, were assessed using high-performance liquid chromatography, and the enzyme activities for each metabolic step were estimated using the ratio of appropriate metabolite levels...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680297/altered-gabaergic-signaling-in-brain-disease-at-various-stages-of-life
#13
REVIEW
Yoo Sung Kim, Bo-Eun Yoon
In the healthy brain, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is regulated by neurons and glia. This begs the question: what happens in the malfunctioning brain? There are many reasons why diseases occur, including genetic mutations, systemic problems, and environmental influences. There are also many ways in which GABA can become dysregulated, such as through alterations in its synthesis or release, and changes in systems that respond to it. Notably, dysregulation of GABA can have a large impact on the brain. To date, few reviews have examined brain diseases in which dysregulation of GABA is implicated as an underlying factor...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680296/distribution-and-function-of-the-bestrophin-1-best1-channel-in-the-brain
#14
REVIEW
Soo-Jin Oh, C Justin Lee
Bestrophin-1 (Best1) is a calcium-activated anion channel identified from retinal pigment epithelium where human mutations are associated with Best's macular degeneration. Best1 is known to be expressed in a variety of tissues including the brain, and is thought to be involved in many physiological processes. This review focuses on the current state of knowledge on aspects of expression and function of Best1 in the brain. Best1 protein is observed in cortical and hippocampal astrocytes, in cerebellar Bergmann glia and lamellar astrocytes, in thalamic reticular neurons, in meninges and in the epithelial cells of the choroid plexus...
June 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442947/a-high-fat-diet-induces-a-loss-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neuronal-function-that-underlies-motor-abnormalities
#15
Yunseon Jang, Min Joung Lee, Jeongsu Han, Soo Jeong Kim, Ilhwan Ryu, Xianshu Ju, Min Jeong Ryu, Woosuk Chung, Eungseok Oh, Gi Ryang Kweon, Jun Young Heo
Movement defects in obesity are associated with peripheral muscle defects, arthritis, and dysfunction of motor control by the brain. Although movement functionality is negatively correlated with obesity, the brain regions and downstream signaling pathways associated with movement defects in obesity are unclear. A dopaminergic neuronal pathway from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum is responsible for regulating grip strength and motor initiation through tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity-dependent dopamine release...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442946/optogenetic-rescue-of-locomotor-dysfunction-and-dopaminergic-degeneration-caused-by-alpha-synuclein-and-eko-genes
#16
Cheng Qi, Scott Varga, Soo-Jin Oh, C Justin Lee, Daewoo Lee
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a small presynaptic protein and its mutant forms (e.g. A53T) are known to be directly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying α-Syn-mediated neurodegeneration in PD still remain to be explored. However, several studies strongly support that overexpression of mutant α-Syn causes reduced release of dopamine (DA) in the brain, and contributes to motor deficits in PD. Using a favorable genetic model Drosophila larva, we examined whether reduced DA release is enough to induce key PD symptoms (i...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442945/pulse-train-stimulation-of-primary-somatosensory-cortex-blocks-pain-perception-in-tail-clip-test
#17
Soohyun Lee, Eunjin Hwang, Dongmyeong Lee, Jee Hyun Choi
Human studies of brain stimulation have demonstrated modulatory effects on the perception of pain. However, whether the primary somatosensory cortical activity is associated with antinociceptive responses remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the antinociceptive effects of neuronal activity evoked by optogenetic stimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. Optogenetic transgenic mice were subjected to continuous or pulse-train optogenetic stimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex at frequencies of 15, 30, and 40 Hz, during a tail clip test...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442944/immunohistochemical-localization-of-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-in-axon-terminals-of-mouse-hippocampal-neurons
#18
Seong-Yeon Bae, Vadim Sheverdin, Jeehye Maeng, In Kyoon Lyoo, Pyung-Lim Han, Kyunglim Lee
Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a cytosolic protein with microtubule stabilization and calcium-binding activities. TCTP is expressed in most organs including the nervous system. However, detailed distribution and functional significance of TCTP in the brain remain unexplored. In this study, we investigated the global and subcellular distributions of TCTP in the mouse brain. Immunohistochemical analyses with anti-TCTP revealed that TCTP was widely distributed in almost all regions of the brain including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala, wherein it was localized in axon tracts and axon terminals...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442943/flow-shear-stress-enhances-the-proliferative-potential-of-cultured-radial-glial-cells-possibly-via-an-activation-of-mechanosensitive-calcium-channel
#19
Min Gu Park, Heeyeong Jang, Sang-Hoon Lee, C Justin Lee
Radial glial cells (RGCs) which function as neural stem cells are known to be non-excitable and their proliferation depends on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) level. It has been well established that Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) entry through various Ca(2+) channels are involved in the proliferation of RGCs. Furthermore, RGCs line the ventricular wall and are exposed to a shear stress due to a physical contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, little is known about how the Ca(2+) entry through mechanosensitive ion channels affects the proliferation of RGCs...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243168/relapsing-polychondritis-presented-with-encephalitis-followed-by-brain-atrophy
#20
Suk-Won Ahn, Moo-Seok Park, Hae-Bong Jeong, Oh-Sang Kwon, Byung-Nam Yoon, Hee Sung Kim, Sang Tae Choi
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune disease that is characterized by inflammatory reaction of unknown etiology and destruction of cartilaginous structures. Characteristic symptoms of this disease include cartilage inflammation of the ear, nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, joints, eyes, heart and skin. Concomitance with neurologic symptom is very rare in RP, and the detailed underlying mechanism of neurological involvement associated with RP is not fully understood. We herein described an unusual recurrent case of inflammatory brain lesions associated with RP, with attention to clinical manifestations, autoimmune disease involvement, and therapeutic effects...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
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