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Experimental Neurobiology

Jea Kwon, Min Gu Park, Seung Eun Lee, C Justin Lee
Circadian rhythm is defined as a 24-hour biological oscillation, which persists even without any external cues but also can be re-entrained by various environmental cues. One of the widely accepted circadian rhythm behavioral experiment is measuring the wheel-running activity (WRA) of rodents. However, the price for commercially available WRA recording system is not easily affordable for researchers due to high-cost implementation of sensors for wheel rotation. Here, we developed a cost-effective and comprehensive system for circadian rhythm recording by measuring the house-keeping activities (HKA)...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Hyejin An, Hyun-Chool Shin
It is essential to build a system to generate proper neural stimulus signals with adjusting parameters. We developed a stimulator with up to four channels for separate settings in periodic and non-periodic modes. The device can support a closed-loop experimental system which utilizes neural information in real time as a feedback for controlling stimuli. To confirm whether stimulating signals are properly produced and delivered inside the brain, two experiments with rats were conducted. We observed that the change of firing rates and the cross-power spectral density increased after stimulation which meant that electric signals were transferred well and that they affected the neurons' activities...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Eunyoung Bang, Boyoung Lee, Joon-Oh Park, Yooncheol Jang, Aekyong Kim, Sungwuk Kim, Hee-Sup Shin
In recent years, as the aging population grows, aging-induced cognitive impairments including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have become the biggest challenges for global public health and social care. Therefore, the development of potential therapeutic drugs for aging-associated cognitive impairment is essential. Metabolic dysregulation has been considered to be a key factor that affects aging and dementia. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a primary sensor of cellular energy states and regulates cellular energy metabolism...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Doyoung Park, Hwa-Jin Lee, Sue-Hyun Lee
Generalization of learned fear has been considered to be critical for our survival. Patients with anxiety problems show overgeneralization of learned fear, as reflected by defensive physiological responses to harmless stimuli. Together with these physiological responses, conscious feeling of fear is a seminal part of emotional process that is directly related to the suffering of anxiety patients. However, the effect of anxiety on the generalization of conscious feeling remains unclear. We thus focused on the question whether the generalization of conscious feeling of fear depends on individual anxiety level in nonpatient participants...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Hyung Wook Park, Hong-Lim Kim, Yong Soo Park, In-Beom Kim
The retina is a highly specialised part of the brain responsible for visual processing. It is well-laminated; three layers containing five different types of neurons are compartmentalised by two synaptic layers. Among the retinal layers, the inner nuclear layer (INL) is composed of horizontal, bipolar, and amacrine cell types. Bipolar cells form one sublayer in the distal half of the IPL, while amacrine cells form another sublayer in the proximal half, without any border-like structure. Here, we report that a plexiform layer-like structure exists temporarily in the border between the bipolar and amacrine sublayers in the INL in the rat retina during retinal development...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Ji-Yeon Lee, Su-Ja Oh
The retinal degeneration resulting from elevated intraocular pressure was evaluated through functional and morphological analyses, for better understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Ocular hypertension was induced via unilateral episcleral venous cauterization in rats. Experimental time was set at 1 and 3 days, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-operation. Retinal function was analyzed using electroretinography. For morphological analysis, retinal tissues were processed for immunochemistry by using antibodies against the calcium-sensing receptor and calcium-binding proteins...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Seon Choe, Mudan Cai, Ui Min Jerng, Jun-Hwan Lee
Cognitive impairment is age-related and manageable only with early diagnosis and prevention. Moxibustion is widely accepted in East Asia as useful for preventing cognitive impairment. This systematic review of animal studies was conducted to verify the efficacy of moxibustion in preventing cognitive impairment and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Randomized controlled animal trials that established the efficacy of moxibustion in preventing cognitive impairment were included in the analysis. Results of behavioral tests and the signaling pathways elucidated were extracted and a meta-analysis was conducted with the behavioral test results...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Ki Chan Kim, Chang Soon Choi, Edson Luck T Gonzales, Darine Froy N Mabunga, Sung Hoon Lee, Se Jin Jeon, Ram Hwangbo, Minha Hong, Jong Hoon Ryu, Seol-Heui Han, Geon Ho Bahn, Chan Young Shin
[This corrects the article on p. 252 in vol. 26, PMID: 29093634.].
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Shawn Tan, Hin San Ho, Anna Yoonsu Song, Joey Low, Hyunsoo Shawn Je
Early life adversities together with genetic predispositions have been associated with elevated risks of neuropsychiatric disorders during later life. In order to investigate the underlying mechanisms, many chronic, early-life stress paradigms in multiple animal models have been developed. Previously, studies reported that maternal separation (MS) in the early postnatal stages triggers depression-and/or anxiety-like behaviors in rats. However, similar studies using mice have reported inconsistent behavioral outcomes...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Jin Young Jung, Yong Woo Lee, Won Taek Lee, Seung Kon Huh, Jong Eun Lee
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is one of the most important endogenous mechanisms that protect the cells against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that changes in the level of agmatine were correlated with ischemic tolerance. Changes in brain edema, infarct volume, level of agmatine, and expression of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS; inducible NOS [iNOS] and neural NOS [nNOS]) were analyzed during I/R injury with or without IP in the rat brain...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Jin-Young Park, Juli Choi, Yunjin Lee, Jung-Eun Lee, Eun-Hwa Lee, Hye-Jin Kwon, Jinho Yang, Bo-Ri Jeong, Yoon-Keun Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Emerging evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota contribute to brain dysfunction, including pathological symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microbiota secrete membrane vesicles, also called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain bacterial genomic DNA fragments and other molecules and are distributed throughout the host body, including blood. In the present study, we investigated whether bacteria-derived EVs in blood are useful for metagenome analysis in an AD mouse model. Sequence readings of variable regions of 16S rRNA genes prepared from blood EVs in Tg-APP/PS1 mice allowed us to identify over 3,200 operational taxonomic units corresponding to gut microbiota reported in previous studies...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Soohyun Lee, Seunghwan Kim, Jee Hyun Choi
Equivalent dipole source localization is a well-established approach to localizing the electrical activity in electroencephalogram (EEG). So far, source localization has been used primarily in localizing the epileptic source in human epileptic patients. Currently, source localization techniques have been applied to account for localizing epileptic source among the epileptic patients. Here, we present the first application of source localization in the field of sleep spindle in mouse brain. The spatial distribution of cortical potential was obtained by high density EEG and then the anterior and posterior sleep spindles were classified based on the K-mean clustering algorithm...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Wuhyun Koh, Yongmin Mason Park, Seung Eun Lee, C Justin Lee
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery has been proposed to be an essential tool of gene therapy for various brain diseases. Among several cell types in the brain, astrocyte has become a promising therapeutic target for brain diseases, as more and more contribution of astrocytes in pathophysiology has been revealed. Until now, genetically targeting astrocytes has been possible by utilizing the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) promoter. In some brain areas including thalamus, however, the GFAP expression in astrocytes is reported to be low, making it difficult to genetically target astrocytes using GFAP promoter...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Il-Doo Kim, Hahnbie Lee, Yin-Chuan Jin, Ja-Kyeong Lee
Osteopontin (OPN) is a secreted glycoprotein that is expressed in various tissues, including brain, and mediates a wide range of cellular activities. In a previous study, the authors observed the robust neuroprotective effects of recombinant OPN and of RGD and SLAYGLR-containing OPN-peptide icosamer (OPNpt20) in an animal model of transient focal ischemia, and demonstrated anti-inflammatory and pro-angiogenic effects of OPNpt20 in the postischemic brain. In the present study, we investigated the effects of OPNpt20 on the motility and phagocytic activity of BV2 cells (a microglia cell line)...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Jong Woo Lee, Min Young Lim, Yong Soo Park, Su Jin Park, In-Beom Kim
Dopaminergic amacrine cells (DACs) are among the most well-characterized neurons in the mammalian retina, and their connections to AII amacrine cells have been described in detail. However, the stratification of DAC dendrites differs based on their location in the inner plexiform layer (IPL), raising the question of whether all AII lobules are modulated by dopamine release from DACs. The present study aimed to clarify the relationship between DACs and AII amacrine cells, and to further elucidate the role of dopamine at synapses with AII amacrine cell...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Dong-Kyu Kim, Kyu-Won Cho, Woo Jung Ahn, Dayana Perez-Acuña, Hyunsu Jeong, He-Jin Lee, Seung-Jae Lee
Huntington disease (HD) is an inherited neurodegenerative disorder characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunction caused by expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) repeat in exon 1 of huntingtin (HTT). In patients, the number of glutamine residues in polyQ tracts are over 35, and it is correlated with age of onset, severity, and disease progression. Expansion of polyQ increases the propensity for HTT protein aggregation, process known to be implicated in neurodegeneration. These pathological aggregates can be transmitted from neuron to another neuron, and this process may explain the pathological spreading of polyQ aggregates...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Sang Myun Park
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Yunjin Lee, Jin-Young Park, Eun-Hwa Lee, Jinho Yang, Bo-Ri Jeong, Yoon-Keun Kim, Ju-Young Seoh, SoHyun Lee, Pyung-Lim Han, Eui-Jung Kim
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have altered gut microbiota, which appears to regulate ASD symptoms via gut microbiota-brain interactions. Rapid assessment of gut microbiota profiles in ASD individuals in varying physiological contexts is important to understanding the role of the microbiota in regulating ASD symptoms. Microbiomes secrete extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) to communicate with host cells and secreted EVs are widely distributed throughout the body including the blood and urine...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Jiwon Esther Han, Pyung Won Lim, Chul Min Na, You Sik Choi, Joo Young Lee, Yona Kim, Hyung Woo Park, Hyo Eun Moon, Man Seung Heo, Hye Ran Park, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive form of brain tumors. GBMs, like other tumors, rely relatively less on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and utilize more aerobic glycolysis, and this metabolic shift becomes augmented under hypoxia. In the present study, we investigated the physiological significance of altered glucose metabolism and hypoxic adaptation in the GBM cell line U251 and two newly established primary GBMs (GBM28 and GBM37). We found that these three GBMs exhibited differential growth rates under hypoxia compared to those under normoxia...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Hani Kim, Yunsook Choi, Hye-Young Joung, Yun Seo Choi, Hyeon Jin Kim, Yohan Joo, Jin-Hwan Oh, Hoo Jae Hann, Zang-Hee Cho, Hyang Woon Lee
Pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model is an established animal model that mimics medial temporal lobe epilepsy in humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate neuroimaging abnormalities in various stages of epileptogenesis and to correlate them with seizure severity in pilocarpine-induced rat epilepsy model. Fifty male Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to continuous video and electroencephalographic monitoring after inducing status epilepticus (SE) and seizure severity was estimated by frequency and total durations of class 3 to 5 spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) by modified Racine's classification...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
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