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Experimental Neurobiology

Eugene Bok, Eun Ju Cho, Eun Sook Chung, Won-Ho Shin, Byung Kwan Jin
The present study investigated the effects of interleukin (IL)-4 on dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) in vivo of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated rat. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry showed a significant loss of nigral DA neurons at 3 and 7 day post-LPS. In parallel, IL-4 immunoreactivity was upregulated as early as 1 day, reached a peak at 3 day and remained elevated at 7 day post-LPS. IL-4 immunoreactivity was detected exclusively in microglia. IL-4 neutralizing antibody (NA) significantly increased survival of DA neurons in LPS-treated SN in vivo by inhibiting microglial activation and production of proinflammatory mediator such as IL-1β as assessed by immunihistochemical, RT-PCR and ELISA analysis, respectively...
August 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Min-Soo Kim, Bo-Ryoung Choi, Yong Woo Lee, Dong-Hee Kim, Ye Sun Han, Won Kyung Jeon, Jung-Soo Han
Angiogenic factors contribute to cerebral angiogenesis following cerebral hypoperfusion, and understanding these temporal changes is essential to developing effective treatments. The present study examined temporal alterations in angiogenesis-related matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) expression in the hippocampus following bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo). Male Wistar rats (12 weeks of age) were randomly assigned to sham-operated control or experimental groups, and expression levels of MMP-9 and ANG-2 were assessed after BCCAo (1 week, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks), using western blotting...
August 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Jeong Seon Yoon, Darong Jo, Hye-Sun Lee, Seung-Wan Yoo, Tae-Young Lee, Woo Sup Hwang, Jung-Mi Choi, Eunhee Kim, Sung-Soo Kim, Haeyoung Suh-Kim
Ischemic stroke and cerebral infarction triggered by the blockage of blood supply can cause damage to the brain via a complex series of pathological changes. Recently, diverse therapies have emerged as promising candidates for the treatment of stroke. These treatments exert therapeutic effects by acting on diverse target molecules and cells in different time windows from the acute to chronic phases. Here, using immunohistochemistry, we show pathophysiological changes in the brain microenvironment at the hyperacute (within 6 h), acute (1~3 days), subacute (7 days), and chronic (1 month) phases following ischemic injury...
August 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Saeram Lee, Jong Youl Kim, Eosu Kim, KyoungYul Seo, Youn Jae Kang, Jae Young Kim, Chul-Hoon Kim, Ho Taek Song, Lisa M Saksida, Jong Eun Lee
Obesity-related metabolic disorders can affect not only systemic health but also brain function. Recent studies have elucidated that amyloid beta deposition cannot satisfactorily explain the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and that dysregulation of glucose metabolism is a critical factor for the sporadic onset of non-genetic AD. Identifying the pathophysiology of AD due to changes in brain metabolism is crucial; however, it is limited in measuring changes in brain cognitive function due to metabolic changes in animal models...
August 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Jia-Piao Lin, Chao-Qin Chen, Ling-Er Huang, Na-Na Li, Yan Yang, Sheng-Mei Zhu, Yong-Xing Yao
α2-Adrenoceptor agonists attenuate hypersensitivity under neuropathic conditions. However, the mechanisms underlying this attenuation remain largely unknown. In the present study, we explored the potential roles of purinergic receptor 7 (P2X7R)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in the anti-nociceptive effect of dexmedetomidine in a rat model of neuropathic pain induced by chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. An animal model of CCI was adopted to mimic the clinical neuropathic pain state...
August 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Seung-Hyun Jung, Ha Yeun Song, Young Se Hyun, Yu-Cheol Kim, Ilson Whang, Tae-Young Choi, Seonmi Jo
Cephalopods have the most advanced nervous systems and intelligent behavior among all invertebrates. Their brains provide comparative insights for understanding the molecular and functional origins of the human brain. Although brain maps that contain information on the organization of each subregion are necessary for a study on the brain, no whole brain atlas for adult cephalopods has been constructed to date. Here, we obtained sagittal and coronal sections covering the entire brain of adult Octopus minor (Sasaki), which belongs to the genus with the most species in the class Cephalopoda and is commercially available in East Asia throughout the year...
August 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Hye Ran Park, Jae Meen Lee, Kwang-Woo Park, Jung Hoon Kim, Sang Soon Jeong, Jin Wook Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek
We present our experience on the hypofractionated Gamma Knife radiosurgery (FGKS) for large skull base meningioma as an initial treatment. We retrospectively reviewed 23 patients with large skull base meningioma ≥10 cm3 who underwent FGKS as the initial treatment option. The mean volume of tumors prior to radiosurgery was 21.2±15.63 cm3 (range, 10.09~71.42). The median total margin dose and marginal dose per fraction were 18 Gy (range, 15~20) and 6 Gy (range, 5~6), respectively. Patients underwent three or four fractionations in consecutive days with the same Leksell® frame...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Eun Hee Hong, Mina Hwang, Yong Un Shin, Hyun-Hee Park, Seong-Ho Koh, Heeyoon Cho
Leucine-rich G protein-coupled receptor-5 (LGR5) is known to be a stem cell marker in many organs. LGR5 may have important roles in proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) because LGR5 potentiate the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, which plays crucial roles in pathologic neovascularization in the retina. The association between LGR5 and retinal pathologic neovascularization has not yet been reported. In the present study, LGR5 was compared in human aqueous humor (AH) between normal control and patients with PDR to confirm the relationship between LGR5 and PDR...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Ji Min Lee, Jungwan Hong, Gyeong Joon Moon, Un Ju Jung, So-Yoon Won, Sang Ryong Kim
An abnormal reorganization of the dentate gyrus and neurotoxic events are important phenotypes in the hippocampus of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The effects of morin, a bioflavonoid constituent of many herbs and fruits, on epileptic seizures have not yet been elucidated, though its beneficial effects, such as its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties, are well-described in various neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated whether treatment with morin hydrate (MH) can reduce the susceptibility to seizures, granule cell dispersion (GCD), mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, and the increases in the levels of apoptotic molecules and inflammatory cytokines in the kainic acid (KA)-induced seizure mouse model...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Hyungju Park
Deficient BDNF signaling is known to be involved in neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease (HD). Mutant huntingtin (mhtt)-mediated disruption of either BDNF transcription or transport is thought to be a factor contributing to striatal atrophy in the HD brain. Whether and how activity-dependent BDNF secretion is affected by the mhtt remains unclear. In the present study, I provide evidence for differential effects of the mhtt on cortical BDNF secretion in the striatum during HD progression. By two-photon imaging of fluorescent BDNF sensor (BDNF-pHluorin and -EGFP) in acute striatal slices of HD knock-in model mice, I found deficient cortical BDNF secretion regardless of the HD onset, but antisense oligonucleotide (ASO)-mediated reduction of htts only rescues BDNF secretion in the early HD brain before the disease onset...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Su Jin Park, Sun Sook Paik, Ji-Yeon Lee, Su-Ja Oh, In-Beom Kim
The purpose of this study was to investigate the application of various electroretinography (ERG) to the diagnosis of inner retinal dysfunction induced by mild intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in a rat glaucoma model. For inner retinal function measurements, available photopic ERG protocols were applied under various light conditions including monochromatic combinations, which complement conventional scotopic ERG. Three episcleral veins in the right eyes of Sprague-Dawley rats were cauterized to induce an experimental model of glaucoma, leading to mild IOP elevation...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Ju-Yeon Shin, Jung-Won Shin, Sang-Kyu Ha, Yoorim Kim, Kelley M Swanberg, Suck Lee, Tae-Woo Kim, Sungho Maeng
Radix Polygalae (RP) has been used to relieve psychological stress in traditional oriental medicine. Recently, cell protective, antiamnestic and antidepressant-like effects were disclosed but the possible application of RP to post-traumatic stress disorder, in which exaggerated fear memory persists, has not yet been explored. For this purpose, the effects of RP on fear behavior was examined in a mouse model of single prolonged stress and conditioned fear (SPS-CF), previously shown to mimic key symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Seok Lee, Hyun-Bum Kim, Eun-Sang Hwang, Eun-Seok Kim, Sung-Soo Kim, Tae-Dong Jeon, Min-Cheol Song, Ji-Seung Lee, Min-Chan Chung, Sungho Maeng, Ji-Ho Park
Depression causes mental and physical changes which affect quality of life. It is estimated to become the second most prevalent disease, but despite its commonness, the pathophysiology of depression remains unclear and medicine is not sufficiently protective. p-Coumaric acid (p-CA) is a dietary phenolic acid which has been proven to have antifungal, anti-HIV, anti-melanogenic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Considering these effects, we investigated whether p-CA can prevent depressive symptoms by reducing inflammatory cytokines in animals injected with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Eunjin Hwang, Heonsoo Lee, Jee Hyun Choi
Stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB) can reinforce intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) in rodents (i.e., reward-seeking behavior). The MFB stimulation produces a highly reliable behavioral output that enabled a clear distinction of the animal behavioral states between the non-ICSS and ICSS periods. However, the cortical states during these reward-seeking behaviors are not fully characterized in comparison to those during volitional behavior. This study was designed to characterize the cortical rhythms of and coherence between prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during the wheel-turning behavior reinforced by the ICSS in comparison to the wheel-turning without ICSS...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Dong Hwan Ho, A Reum Je, Haejin Lee, Ilhong Son, Hee-Seok Kweon, Hyung-Gun Kim, Wongi Seol
Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 contains a functional kinase domain and G2019S, the most prevalent LRRK2 pathogenic mutation, increases its kinase activity. LRRK2 regulates mitochondria morphology and autophagy in neurons. LPS treatment increases LRRK2 protein level and mitochondrial fission in microglia, and down-regulation of LRRK2 expression or inhibition of its kinase activity attenuates microglia activation. Here, we evaluated the direct role of LRRK2 G2019S in mitochondrial dynamics in microglia...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Heejung Chun, Heeyoung An, Jiwoon Lim, Junsung Woo, Jaekwang Lee, Hoon Ryu, C Justin Lee
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain and they make close contacts with neurons and blood vessels. They respond dynamically to various environmental stimuli and change their morphological and functional properties. Both physiological and pathological stimuli can induce versatile changes in astrocytes, as this phenomenon is referred to as 'astrocytic plasticity'. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of astrocytic plasticity in response to various stimuli remain elusive, except for the presence of hypertrophy, a conspicuous structural change which is frequently observed in activated or reactive astrocytes...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Hyun Geun Shim, Yong-Seok Lee, Sang Jeong Kim
What is memory? How does the brain process the sensory information and modify an organism's behavior? Many neuroscientists have focused on the activity- and experience-dependent modifications of synaptic functions in order to solve these fundamental questions in neuroscience. Recently, the plasticity of intrinsic excitability (called intrinsic plasticity) has emerged as an important element for information processing and storage in the brain. As the cerebellar Purkinje cells are the sole output neurons in the cerebellar cortex and the information is conveyed from a neuron to its relay neurons by forms of action potential firing, the modulation of the intrinsic firing activity may play a critical role in the cerebellar learning...
June 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Sun-Nyoung Hwang, Jae-Cheon Kim, Mohammad Iqbal Hossain Bhuiyan, Joo Youn Kim, Ji Seon Yang, Shin Hee Yoon, Kee Dong Yoon, Seong Yun Kim
Rice is the most commonly consumed grain in the world. Black rice has been suggested to contain various bioactive compounds including anthocyanin antioxidants. There is currently little information about the nutritional benefits of black rice on brain pathology. Here, we investigated the effects of black rice ( Oryza sativa L ., Poaceae) extract (BRE) on the hippocampal neuronal damage induced by ischemic insult. BRE (300 mg/kg) was orally administered to adult male C57BL/6 mice once a day for 21 days. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 23 min on the 8th day of BRE or vehicle administration...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Min-Ho Nam, Kyung-Seok Han, Jaekwang Lee, Jin Young Bae, Heeyoung An, Seahyung Park, Soo-Jin Oh, Eunju Kim, Eunmi Hwang, Yong Chul Bae, C Justin Lee
µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin. In hippocampus, activation of MOR is known to enhance the neuronal excitability of pyramidal neurons, which has been mainly attributed to a disinhibition of pyramidal neurons via activating Gαi subunit to suppress the presynaptic release of GABA in hippocampal interneurons. In contrast, the potential role of MOR in hippocampal astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain, has remained unexplored...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
Miyeoun Song, Hyomin Kim, Sujin Park, Hyockman Kwon, Insil Joung, Yunhee Kim Kwon
Aucubin is a small compound naturally found in traditional medicinal herbs with primarily anti-inflammatory and protective effects. In the nervous system, aucubin is reported to be neuroprotective by enhancing neuronal survival and inhibiting apoptotic cell death in cultures and disease models. Our previous data, however, suggest that aucubin facilitates neurite elongation in cultured hippocampal neurons and axonal regrowth in regenerating sciatic nerves. Here, we investigated whether aucubin facilitates the differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) into specific types of neurons...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
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