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Experimental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731679/black-rice-oryza-sativa-l-poaceae-extract-reduces-hippocampal-neuronal-cell-death-induced-by-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-mice
#1
Sun-Nyoung Hwang, Jae-Cheon Kim, Mohammad Iqbal Hossain Bhuiyan, Joo Youn Kim, Ji Seon Yang, Shin Hee Yoon, Kee Dong Yoon, Seong Yun Kim
Rice is the most commonly consumed grain in the world. Black rice has been suggested to contain various bioactive compounds including anthocyanin antioxidants. There is currently little information about the nutritional benefits of black rice on brain pathology. Here, we investigated the effects of black rice ( Oryza sativa L ., Poaceae) extract (BRE) on the hippocampal neuronal damage induced by ischemic insult. BRE (300 mg/kg) was orally administered to adult male C57BL/6 mice once a day for 21 days. Bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) was performed for 23 min on the 8th day of BRE or vehicle administration...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731678/expression-of-%C3%A2%C2%B5-opioid-receptor-in-ca1-hippocampal-astrocytes
#2
Min-Ho Nam, Kyung-Seok Han, Jaekwang Lee, Jin Young Bae, Heeyoung An, Seahyung Park, Soo-Jin Oh, Eunju Kim, Eunmi Hwang, Yong Chul Bae, C Justin Lee
µ-opioid receptor (MOR) is a class of opioid receptors with a high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin. In hippocampus, activation of MOR is known to enhance the neuronal excitability of pyramidal neurons, which has been mainly attributed to a disinhibition of pyramidal neurons via activating Gαi subunit to suppress the presynaptic release of GABA in hippocampal interneurons. In contrast, the potential role of MOR in hippocampal astrocytes, the most abundant cell type in the brain, has remained unexplored...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731677/aucubin-promotes-differentiation-of-neural-precursor-cells-into-gabaergic-neurons
#3
Miyeoun Song, Hyomin Kim, Sujin Park, Hyockman Kwon, Insil Joung, Yunhee Kim Kwon
Aucubin is a small compound naturally found in traditional medicinal herbs with primarily anti-inflammatory and protective effects. In the nervous system, aucubin is reported to be neuroprotective by enhancing neuronal survival and inhibiting apoptotic cell death in cultures and disease models. Our previous data, however, suggest that aucubin facilitates neurite elongation in cultured hippocampal neurons and axonal regrowth in regenerating sciatic nerves. Here, we investigated whether aucubin facilitates the differentiation of neural precursor cells (NPCs) into specific types of neurons...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731676/genetic-ablation-of-ews-rna-binding-protein-1-ewsr1-leads-to-neuroanatomical-changes-and-motor-dysfunction-in-mice
#4
Yeojun Yoon, Hasang Park, Sangyeon Kim, Phuong T Nguyen, Seung Jae Hyeon, Sooyoung Chung, Hyeonjoo Im, Junghee Lee, Sean Bong Lee, Hoon Ryu
A recent study reveals that missense mutations of EWSR1 are associated with neurodegenerative disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but the function of wild-type (WT) EWSR1 in the central nervous system (CNS) is not known yet. Herein, we investigated the neuroanatomical and motor function changes in Ewsr1 knock out (KO) mice. First, we quantified neuronal nucleus size in the motor cortex, dorsal striatum and hippocampus of three different groups: WT, heterozygous Ewsr1 KO (+/-), and homozygous Ewsr1 KO (-/-) mice...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731675/odor-enrichment-increases-hippocampal-neuron-numbers-in-mouse
#5
Zoltán Rusznák, Gulgun Sengul, George Paxinos, Woojin Scott Kim, YuHong Fu
The hippocampus and olfactory bulb incorporate new neurons migrating from neurogenic regions in the brain. Hippocampal atrophy is evident in numerous neurodegenerative disorders, and altered hippocampal neurogenesis is an early pathological event in Alzheimer's disease. We hypothesized that hippocampal neurogenesis is affected by olfactory stimuli through the neural pathway of olfaction-related memory. In this study, we exposed mice to novel pleasant odors for three weeks and then assessed the number of neurons, non-neuronal cells (mainly glia) and proliferating cells in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb, using the isotropic fractionator method...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731674/electrophysiological-evidence-for-functional-astrocytic-p2x-3-receptors-in-the-mouse-trigeminal-caudal-nucleus
#6
Jaekwang Lee, Jin Young Bae, C Justin Lee, Yong Chul Bae
Recently, we reported that astrocytes in the trigeminal caudal nucleus (Vc) of the brain stem express a purinergic receptor P2X3 , which is involved in the craniofacial pathologic pain. Although we observed protein expression of P2X3 receptors (P2X3 Rs) in the astrocyte of the Vc, it is still unclear that astrocyte has functional P2X3 Rs in Vc. To address this issue, we recorded asrtocytic P2X3 Rs by using whole cell voltage-clamp recording in the Vc of the GFAP-GFP mice, which was used as a guide to astrocytes with green fluorescence...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731673/astrocytes-microglia-and-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Eun-Hye Joe, Dong-Joo Choi, Jiawei An, Jin-Hwa Eun, Ilo Jou, Sangmyun Park
Astrocytes and microglia support well-being and well-function of the brain through diverse functions in both intact and injured brain. For example, astrocytes maintain homeostasis of microenvironment of the brain through up-taking ions and neurotransmitters, and provide growth factors and metabolites for neurons, etc. Microglia keep surveying surroundings, and remove abnormal synapses or respond to injury by isolating injury sites and expressing inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, their loss and/or functional alteration may be directly linked to brain diseases...
April 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535571/development-of-a-low-cost-comprehensive-recording-system-for-circadian-rhythm-behavior
#8
Jea Kwon, Min Gu Park, Seung Eun Lee, C Justin Lee
Circadian rhythm is defined as a 24-hour biological oscillation, which persists even without any external cues but also can be re-entrained by various environmental cues. One of the widely accepted circadian rhythm behavioral experiment is measuring the wheel-running activity (WRA) of rodents. However, the price for commercially available WRA recording system is not easily affordable for researchers due to high-cost implementation of sensors for wheel rotation. Here, we developed a cost-effective and comprehensive system for circadian rhythm recording by measuring the house-keeping activities (HKA)...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535570/development-of-electrical-neural-stimulator-generating-periodic-and-non-periodic-signals-and-supporting-closed-loop-experimental-system
#9
Hyejin An, Hyun-Chool Shin
It is essential to build a system to generate proper neural stimulus signals with adjusting parameters. We developed a stimulator with up to four channels for separate settings in periodic and non-periodic modes. The device can support a closed-loop experimental system which utilizes neural information in real time as a feedback for controlling stimuli. To confirm whether stimulating signals are properly produced and delivered inside the brain, two experiments with rats were conducted. We observed that the change of firing rates and the cross-power spectral density increased after stimulation which meant that electric signals were transferred well and that they affected the neurons' activities...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535569/the-improving-effect-of-hl271-a-chemical-derivative-of-metformin-a-popular-drug-for-type-ii-diabetes-mellitus-on-aging-induced-cognitive-decline
#10
Eunyoung Bang, Boyoung Lee, Joon-Oh Park, Yooncheol Jang, Aekyong Kim, Sungwuk Kim, Hee-Sup Shin
In recent years, as the aging population grows, aging-induced cognitive impairments including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) have become the biggest challenges for global public health and social care. Therefore, the development of potential therapeutic drugs for aging-associated cognitive impairment is essential. Metabolic dysregulation has been considered to be a key factor that affects aging and dementia. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a primary sensor of cellular energy states and regulates cellular energy metabolism...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535568/generalization-of-conscious-fear-is-positively-correlated-with-anxiety-but-not-with-depression
#11
Doyoung Park, Hwa-Jin Lee, Sue-Hyun Lee
Generalization of learned fear has been considered to be critical for our survival. Patients with anxiety problems show overgeneralization of learned fear, as reflected by defensive physiological responses to harmless stimuli. Together with these physiological responses, conscious feeling of fear is a seminal part of emotional process that is directly related to the suffering of anxiety patients. However, the effect of anxiety on the generalization of conscious feeling remains unclear. We thus focused on the question whether the generalization of conscious feeling of fear depends on individual anxiety level in nonpatient participants...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535567/the-transient-intermediate-plexiform-layer-a-plexiform-layer-like-structure-temporarily-existing-in-the-inner-nuclear-layer-in-developing-rat-retina
#12
Hyung Wook Park, Hong-Lim Kim, Yong Soo Park, In-Beom Kim
The retina is a highly specialised part of the brain responsible for visual processing. It is well-laminated; three layers containing five different types of neurons are compartmentalised by two synaptic layers. Among the retinal layers, the inner nuclear layer (INL) is composed of horizontal, bipolar, and amacrine cell types. Bipolar cells form one sublayer in the distal half of the IPL, while amacrine cells form another sublayer in the proximal half, without any border-like structure. Here, we report that a plexiform layer-like structure exists temporarily in the border between the bipolar and amacrine sublayers in the INL in the rat retina during retinal development...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535566/functional-analysis-and-immunochemical-analyses-of-ca-2-homeostasis-related-proteins-expression-of-glaucoma-induced-retinal-degeneration-in-rats
#13
Ji-Yeon Lee, Su-Ja Oh
The retinal degeneration resulting from elevated intraocular pressure was evaluated through functional and morphological analyses, for better understanding of the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Ocular hypertension was induced via unilateral episcleral venous cauterization in rats. Experimental time was set at 1 and 3 days, and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-operation. Retinal function was analyzed using electroretinography. For morphological analysis, retinal tissues were processed for immunochemistry by using antibodies against the calcium-sensing receptor and calcium-binding proteins...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535565/the-efficacy-and-underlying-mechanism-of-moxibustion-in-preventing-cognitive-impairment-a-systematic-review-of-animal-studies
#14
REVIEW
Seon Choe, Mudan Cai, Ui Min Jerng, Jun-Hwan Lee
Cognitive impairment is age-related and manageable only with early diagnosis and prevention. Moxibustion is widely accepted in East Asia as useful for preventing cognitive impairment. This systematic review of animal studies was conducted to verify the efficacy of moxibustion in preventing cognitive impairment and to elucidate the underlying mechanism. Randomized controlled animal trials that established the efficacy of moxibustion in preventing cognitive impairment were included in the analysis. Results of behavioral tests and the signaling pathways elucidated were extracted and a meta-analysis was conducted with the behavioral test results...
February 2018: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303157/erratum-valproic-acid-induces-telomerase-reverse-transcriptase-expression-during-cortical-development
#15
Ki Chan Kim, Chang Soon Choi, Edson Luck T Gonzales, Darine Froy N Mabunga, Sung Hoon Lee, Se Jin Jeon, Ram Hwangbo, Minha Hong, Jong Hoon Ryu, Seol-Heui Han, Geon Ho Bahn, Chan Young Shin
[This corrects the article on p. 252 in vol. 26, PMID: 29093634.].
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302206/maternal-separation-does-not-produce-a-significant-behavioral-change-in-mice
#16
Shawn Tan, Hin San Ho, Anna Yoonsu Song, Joey Low, Hyunsoo Shawn Je
Early life adversities together with genetic predispositions have been associated with elevated risks of neuropsychiatric disorders during later life. In order to investigate the underlying mechanisms, many chronic, early-life stress paradigms in multiple animal models have been developed. Previously, studies reported that maternal separation (MS) in the early postnatal stages triggers depression-and/or anxiety-like behaviors in rats. However, similar studies using mice have reported inconsistent behavioral outcomes...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302205/endogenous-agmatine-induced-by-ischemic-preconditioning-regulates-ischemic-tolerance-following-cerebral-ischemia
#17
Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Jin Young Jung, Yong Woo Lee, Won Taek Lee, Seung Kon Huh, Jong Eun Lee
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is one of the most important endogenous mechanisms that protect the cells against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that changes in the level of agmatine were correlated with ischemic tolerance. Changes in brain edema, infarct volume, level of agmatine, and expression of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS; inducible NOS [iNOS] and neural NOS [nNOS]) were analyzed during I/R injury with or without IP in the rat brain...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302204/metagenome-analysis-of-bodily-microbiota-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-disease-using-bacteria-derived-membrane-vesicles-in-blood
#18
Jin-Young Park, Juli Choi, Yunjin Lee, Jung-Eun Lee, Eun-Hwa Lee, Hye-Jin Kwon, Jinho Yang, Bo-Ri Jeong, Yoon-Keun Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Emerging evidence has suggested that the gut microbiota contribute to brain dysfunction, including pathological symptoms of Alzheimer disease (AD). Microbiota secrete membrane vesicles, also called extracellular vesicles (EVs), which contain bacterial genomic DNA fragments and other molecules and are distributed throughout the host body, including blood. In the present study, we investigated whether bacteria-derived EVs in blood are useful for metagenome analysis in an AD mouse model. Sequence readings of variable regions of 16S rRNA genes prepared from blood EVs in Tg-APP/PS1 mice allowed us to identify over 3,200 operational taxonomic units corresponding to gut microbiota reported in previous studies...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302203/a-novel-visualization-method-for-sleep-spindles-based-on-source-localization-of-high-density-eeg
#19
Soohyun Lee, Seunghwan Kim, Jee Hyun Choi
Equivalent dipole source localization is a well-established approach to localizing the electrical activity in electroencephalogram (EEG). So far, source localization has been used primarily in localizing the epileptic source in human epileptic patients. Currently, source localization techniques have been applied to account for localizing epileptic source among the epileptic patients. Here, we present the first application of source localization in the field of sleep spindle in mouse brain. The spatial distribution of cortical potential was obtained by high density EEG and then the anterior and posterior sleep spindles were classified based on the K-mean clustering algorithm...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302202/aav-mediated-astrocyte-specific-gene-expression-under-human-aldh1l1-promoter-in-mouse-thalamus
#20
Wuhyun Koh, Yongmin Mason Park, Seung Eun Lee, C Justin Lee
Adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene delivery has been proposed to be an essential tool of gene therapy for various brain diseases. Among several cell types in the brain, astrocyte has become a promising therapeutic target for brain diseases, as more and more contribution of astrocytes in pathophysiology has been revealed. Until now, genetically targeting astrocytes has been possible by utilizing the glial fibrillary acidic protein ( GFAP ) promoter. In some brain areas including thalamus, however, the GFAP expression in astrocytes is reported to be low, making it difficult to genetically target astrocytes using GFAP promoter...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
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