Read by QxMD icon Read

Experimental Neurobiology

Joo Whan Kim, Hyun-Tai Chung, Moon Hee Han, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek
Brain edema due to venous thrombosis following stereotactic radiosurgery for a cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) has rarely been reported. We report a patient with a large AVM in the eloquent area, and brain edema developed in this area after repeat Gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery (GKRS). An 18-year-old female presented with a 4-year-history of persistent headache. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral carotid angiogram revealed a high-flow large AVM in the left parieto-occipital area. Brain edema developed and aggravated patient's symptoms after time-staged GKRS...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
So Hyeon Park, Hyun Soo Park, Sang Eun Kim
Novelty seeking (NS) and antisocial personality (ASP) are commonly exhibited by those who suffer from addictions, such as substance abuse. NS has been suggested to be a fundamental aspect of ASP. To investigate the neurobiological substrate of NS and ASP, we tested the relationship between regional cerebral glucose metabolism and the level of NS, determining the differences between individuals with and without ASP. Seventy-two healthy adults (43 males, mean age±SD=38.8±16.6 years, range=20~70 years; 29 females, 44...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Hye-Yeon Park, Young-Kyoung Ryu, Jun Go, Eunjung Son, Kyoung-Shim Kim, Mee Ree Kim
L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) is the most common treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). However, long term use of L-DOPA for PD therapy lead to abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) known as dyskinesia. Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is enriched protein in basal ganglia, and inhibition of the protein reduces dyskinetic behavior of mice. Palmitoyl serotonin (PA-5HT) is a hybrid molecule patterned after arachidonoyl serotonin, antagonist of FAAH. However, the effect of PA-5HT on L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in PD have not yet been elucidated...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Tae-Kyung Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Chronic stress induces anxiety disorders, whereas physical exercise is believed to help people with clinical anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying stress-induced anxiety and its counteraction by exercise using an established animal model of anxiety. Mice treated with restraint for 2 h daily for 14 days exhibited anxiety-like behaviors, including social and nonsocial behavioral symptoms, and these behavioral impairments lasted for more than 12 weeks after the stress treatment was removed...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Hyopil Kim, Junehee Son, Hyoungseob Yoo, Hakyoo Kim, Jihae Oh, DaeHee Han, Yoon Hwang, Bong-Kiun Kaang
A primary characteristic of autism, which is a neurodevelopmental disorder, is impaired social interaction and communication. Furthermore, patients with autism frequently show abnormal social recognition. In mouse models of autism, social recognition is usually assessed by examining same-sex social behavior using various tests, such as the three-chamber test. However, no studies have examined the ability of male mice with autism to recognize the estrous cycle of female partners. In this study, we investigated the sexual behaviors, especially mounting and ultrasonic vocal communication (USV), of BTBR T+ tf/J (BTBR) mice, which are used as a well-known mouse model of autism, when they encountered estrus or diestrus female mice...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Eunju Leem, Kyoung Hoon Jeong, So-Yoon Won, Won-Ho Shin, Sang Ryong Kim
Although accumulating evidence suggests that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation may be crucial for the initiation and progression of Parkinson's disease (PD), and that the control of neuroinflammation may be a useful strategy for preventing the degeneration of nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) projections in the adult brain, it is still unclear what kinds of endogenous biomolecules initiate microglial activation, consequently resulting in neurodegeneration. Recently, we reported that the increase in the levels of prothrombin kringle-2 (pKr-2), which is a domain of prothrombin that is generated by active thrombin, can lead to disruption of the nigrostriatal DA projection...
August 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Hong-Jeon Kim, Jung-Hwan Oh, Sa-Yoon Kang
Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by CTG repeat expansion in the DMPK gene in chromosome 19q13.3. External ophthalmoplegia is a rare manifestation in DM1. We report a DM1 patient confirmed by the presence of 650 CTG triplet expansions in the DMPK gene and had limitation of adduction gaze bilaterally. Brain MRI showed bilateral medial rectus muscles atrophy. Our patient provides additional evidence of ocular motor muscle involvement in DM1.
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Kee Hong Park, Young-Soo Kim, Soo-Kyung Kim, Nack-Cheon Choi, Oh-Young Kwon, ByeongHoon Lim, Ki-Jong Park
The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Jeongeun Sim, Areum Jo, Bok-Man Kang, Sohee Lee, Oh Young Bang, Chaejeong Heo, Gil-Ja Jhon, Youngmi Lee, Minah Suh
Ischemia can cause decreased cerebral neurovascular coupling, leading to a failure in the autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. This study aims to investigate the effect of varying degrees of ischemia on cerebral hemodynamic reactivity using in vivo real-time optical imaging. We utilized direct cortical stimulation to elicit hyper-excitable neuronal activation, which leads to induced hemodynamic changes in both the normal and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) ischemic stroke groups. Hemodynamic measurements from optical imaging accurately predict the severity of occlusion in mild and severe MCAO animals...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Jae-Young Jung, Seung Eun Lee, Eun Mi Hwang, C Justin Lee
Assessing the cell-type expression pattern of a certain gene can be achieved by using cell-type-specific gene manipulation. Recently, cre-recombinase-dependent gene-silencing tool, pSico has become popular in neuroscientific research. However, pSico has a critical limitation that gene-silenced cell cannot be identified by fluorescence, due to an excision of the reporter gene for green fluorescence protein (GFP). To overcome this limitation, we newly developed pSico-Red, with mCherry gene as a reporter outside two loxP sites, so that red mCherry signal is detected in all transfected cells...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Changyoun Kim, He-Jin Lee, Eliezer Masliah, Seung-Jae Lee
Synucleinopathies are a collection of neurological diseases that are characterized by deposition of α-synuclein aggregates in neurons and glia. These diseases include Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy. Although it has been increasingly clear that α-synuclein is implicated in the pathogenesis of PD and other synucleinopathies, the precise mechanism underlying the disease process remains to be unraveled. The past studies on how α-synuclein exerts pathogenic actions have focused on its direct, cell-autonomous neurotoxic effects...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Zoltán Rusznák, Willem Henskens, Emma Schofield, Woojin S Kim, YuHong Fu
The subgranular zone (SGZ) and subventricular zone (SVZ) are developmental remnants of the germinal regions of the brain, hence they retain the ability to generate neuronal progenitor cells in adult life. Neurogenesis in adult brain has an adaptive function because newly produced neurons can integrate into and modify existing neuronal circuits. In contrast to the SGZ and SVZ, other brain regions have a lower capacity to produce new neurons, and this usually occurs via parenchymal and periventricular cell genesis...
June 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Hye Ran Park, Hyun-Tai Chung, Sang Kun Lee, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek
An 18-year-old left-handed male harbored intractable medial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) underwent fractionated gamma knife surgery (GKS) instead of open surgery, considering the mental retardation and diffuse cerebral dysfunction. GKS treatment parameters were: target volume, 8.8 cm(3); total marginal dose, 24 Gy in 3 fractionations at the 50% isodose line. The patient has been free from seizures since 9 months after GKS, with notable improvement in cognitive outcome. Fractionated GKS could be considered as a safe tool for seizure control and neuropsychological improvement in patients with MTLE...
April 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Jeung Eun Kum, Hio-Been Han, Jee Hyun Choi
In neuronal recording studies on anesthetized animals, reliable measures for the transitional moment of consciousness are frequently required. Previous findings suggest that pupil fluctuations reflect the neuronal states during quiet wakefulness, whose correlation was unknown for the anesthetized condition. Here, we investigated the pupillary changes under isoflurane anesthesia simultaneously with the electroencephalogram (EEG) and electromyogram (EMG). The pupil was tracked by using a region-based active contour model...
April 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Hannah Kim, Yunjin Lee, Ji-Eun Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Adenylyl cyclase type-5 (AC5) is preferentially expressed in the dorsal striatum. Recently, we reported that AC5 knockout (KO) mice preferred food pellets carrying an olfactory cue produced by AC5 KO mice during food consumption (AC5 KO pellets) over food pellets that had been taken by wildtype (WT) mice. In the present study, we demonstrated that whisker trimming on the right side of the face but not the left in AC5 KO mice blocked the behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets. Conversely, whisker trimming on the right but not the left in WT mice induced a behavioral preference for AC5 KO pellets...
April 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Jaekwang Lee, Young-Eun Han, Oleg Favorov, Mark Tommerdahl, Barry Whitsel, C Justin Lee
Regulation of cell volume is an important aspect of cellular homeostasis during neural activity. This volume regulation is thought to be mediated by activation of specific transporters, aquaporin, and volume regulated anion channels (VRAC). In cultured astrocytes, it was reported that swelling-induced mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase activation is required to open VRAC, which are thought to be important in regulatory volume decrease and in the response of CNS to trauma and excitotoxicity. It has been also described that sodium fluoride (NaF), a recognized G-protein activator and protein phosphatase inhibitor, leads to a significant MAP kinase activation in endothelial cells...
April 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Hye-Kyung Lee, Hahnbie Lee, Lidan Luo, Ja-Kyeong Lee
Nerve injury-induced protein-1 (Ninjurin-1, Ninj1) was initially identified as a novel adhesion molecule in rat sciatic nerve and to be up-regulated in neurons and Schwann cells of distal nerve segments after nerve transection or crush injury. Recently, Ninj1 was found to act as a modulator of cell migration, angiogenesis, and apoptosis. Accumulating evidence indicates that innate immune response plays beneficial and deleterious roles in brain ischemia, and the trans-endothelial migration of blood-derived immune cells is key initiator of this response...
April 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Ji-Il Kim, Hye-Yeon Cho, Jin-Hee Han, Bong-Kiun Kaang
During past decades, the formation and storage principle of memory have received much attention in the neuroscience field. Although some studies have attempted to demonstrate the nature of the engram, elucidating the memory engram allocation mechanism was not possible because of the limitations of existing methods, which cannot specifically modulate the candidate neuronal population. Recently, the development of new techniques, which offer ways to mark and control specific populations of neurons, may accelerate solving this issue...
April 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Heeyoung An, Doo-Wan Cho, Seung Eun Lee, Young-Su Yang, Su-Cheol Han, C Justin Lee
Many researchers are using viruses to deliver genes of interest into the brains of laboratory animals. However, certain target brain cells are not easily infected by viruses. Moreover, the differential tropism of different viruses in monkey brain is not well established. We investigated the cellular tropism of lentivirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV) toward neuron and glia in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascularis). Lentivirus and AAV were injected into putamen of the monkey brain. One month after injection, monkeys were sacrificed, and then the presence of viral infection by expression of reporter fluorescence proteins was examined...
February 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Kee Hong Park, Junghee Jung, Jung-Hee Lee, Yoon-Ho Hong
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an antibody-mediated autoimmune disease characterized by exertional weakness. There is no biomarker to reflect disease activity and guide treatment decision. Here, we reported a pilot blood transcriptome study using RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) that identified differences of 5 samples in active status and 5 in remission from 8 different patients and 2 patients provided samples for both active and remission phase. We found a total of 28 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) possibly related to disease activity (23 up-regulated and 5 down-regulated)...
February 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"