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Experimental Neurobiology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442947/a-high-fat-diet-induces-a-loss-of-midbrain-dopaminergic-neuronal-function-that-underlies-motor-abnormalities
#1
Yunseon Jang, Min Joung Lee, Jeongsu Han, Soo Jeong Kim, Ilhwan Ryu, Xianshu Ju, Min Jeong Ryu, Woosuk Chung, Eungseok Oh, Gi Ryang Kweon, Jun Young Heo
Movement defects in obesity are associated with peripheral muscle defects, arthritis, and dysfunction of motor control by the brain. Although movement functionality is negatively correlated with obesity, the brain regions and downstream signaling pathways associated with movement defects in obesity are unclear. A dopaminergic neuronal pathway from the substantia nigra (SN) to the striatum is responsible for regulating grip strength and motor initiation through tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) activity-dependent dopamine release...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442946/optogenetic-rescue-of-locomotor-dysfunction-and-dopaminergic-degeneration-caused-by-alpha-synuclein-and-eko-genes
#2
Cheng Qi, Scott Varga, Soo-Jin Oh, C Justin Lee, Daewoo Lee
α-Synuclein (α-Syn) is a small presynaptic protein and its mutant forms (e.g. A53T) are known to be directly associated with Parkinson's disease (PD). Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying α-Syn-mediated neurodegeneration in PD still remain to be explored. However, several studies strongly support that overexpression of mutant α-Syn causes reduced release of dopamine (DA) in the brain, and contributes to motor deficits in PD. Using a favorable genetic model Drosophila larva, we examined whether reduced DA release is enough to induce key PD symptoms (i...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442945/pulse-train-stimulation-of-primary-somatosensory-cortex-blocks-pain-perception-in-tail-clip-test
#3
Soohyun Lee, Eunjin Hwang, Dongmyeong Lee, Jee Hyun Choi
Human studies of brain stimulation have demonstrated modulatory effects on the perception of pain. However, whether the primary somatosensory cortical activity is associated with antinociceptive responses remains unknown. Therefore, we examined the antinociceptive effects of neuronal activity evoked by optogenetic stimulation of primary somatosensory cortex. Optogenetic transgenic mice were subjected to continuous or pulse-train optogenetic stimulation of the primary somatosensory cortex at frequencies of 15, 30, and 40 Hz, during a tail clip test...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442944/immunohistochemical-localization-of-translationally-controlled-tumor-protein-in-axon-terminals-of-mouse-hippocampal-neurons
#4
Seong-Yeon Bae, Vadim Sheverdin, Jeehye Maeng, In Kyoon Lyoo, Pyung-Lim Han, Kyunglim Lee
Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a cytosolic protein with microtubule stabilization and calcium-binding activities. TCTP is expressed in most organs including the nervous system. However, detailed distribution and functional significance of TCTP in the brain remain unexplored. In this study, we investigated the global and subcellular distributions of TCTP in the mouse brain. Immunohistochemical analyses with anti-TCTP revealed that TCTP was widely distributed in almost all regions of the brain including the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala, wherein it was localized in axon tracts and axon terminals...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442943/flow-shear-stress-enhances-the-proliferative-potential-of-cultured-radial-glial-cells-possibly-via-an-activation-of-mechanosensitive-calcium-channel
#5
Min Gu Park, Heeyeong Jang, Sang-Hoon Lee, C Justin Lee
Radial glial cells (RGCs) which function as neural stem cells are known to be non-excitable and their proliferation depends on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) level. It has been well established that Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-mediated Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) entry through various Ca(2+) channels are involved in the proliferation of RGCs. Furthermore, RGCs line the ventricular wall and are exposed to a shear stress due to a physical contact with the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). However, little is known about how the Ca(2+) entry through mechanosensitive ion channels affects the proliferation of RGCs...
April 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243168/relapsing-polychondritis-presented-with-encephalitis-followed-by-brain-atrophy
#6
Suk-Won Ahn, Moo-Seok Park, Hae-Bong Jeong, Oh-Sang Kwon, Byung-Nam Yoon, Hee Sung Kim, Sang Tae Choi
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is a rare autoimmune disease that is characterized by inflammatory reaction of unknown etiology and destruction of cartilaginous structures. Characteristic symptoms of this disease include cartilage inflammation of the ear, nose, larynx, trachea, bronchi, joints, eyes, heart and skin. Concomitance with neurologic symptom is very rare in RP, and the detailed underlying mechanism of neurological involvement associated with RP is not fully understood. We herein described an unusual recurrent case of inflammatory brain lesions associated with RP, with attention to clinical manifestations, autoimmune disease involvement, and therapeutic effects...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243167/effect-of-single-and-double-administration-of-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-following-focal-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#7
Hyung Woo Park, Yona Kim, Jong Wook Chang, Yoon Sun Yang, Wonil Oh, Jae Min Lee, Hye Ran Park, Dong Gyu Kim, Sun Ha Paek
Stem cell therapies are administered during the acute phase of stroke to preserve the penumbral tissues from ischemic injury. However, the effect of repeated cell therapy during the acute phase remains unclear. In this study, we investigated and compared the functional outcome of single (two days post-injury) and repeated (two and nine days post-injury) treatment with human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The rotarod and limb placement tests were utilized to investigate functional outcomes, while infarct volume and tissue damage were measured by immunofluorescent staining for neovascularization, neurogenesis, apoptosis, and inflammation in the penumbral zones...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243166/orai1-and-orai3-in-combination-with-stim1-mediate-the-majority-of-store-operated-calcium-entry-in-astrocytes
#8
Jea Kwon, Heeyoung An, Moonsun Sa, Joungha Won, Jeong Im Shin, C Justin Lee
Astrocytes are non-excitable cells in the brain and their activity largely depends on the intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) level. Therefore, maintaining the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis is critical for proper functioning of astrocytes. One of the key regulatory mechanisms of Ca(2+) homeostasis in astrocytes is the store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). This process is mediated by a combination of the Ca(2+)-store-depletion-sensor, Stim, and the store-operated Ca(2+)-channels, Orai and TrpC families. Despite the existence of all those families in astrocytes, previous studies have provided conflicting results on the molecular identification of astrocytic SOCE...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243165/m2-phenotype-microglia-derived-cytokine-stimulates-proliferation-and-neuronal-differentiation-of-endogenous-stem-cells-in-ischemic-brain
#9
Ja Yong Choi, Jong Youl Kim, Jae Young Kim, Joohyun Park, Won Taek Lee, Jong Eun Lee
Microglia play a key role in the immune response and inflammatory reaction that occurs in response to ischemic stroke. Activated microglia promote neuronal damage or protection in injured brain tissue. Extracellular signals polarize the microglia towards the M1/M2 phenotype. The M1/M2 phenotype microglia released pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines which induce the activation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). In this study, we investigated how the cytokines released by microglia affect the activation of NSPCs...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243164/astrocytic-expression-of-ctmp-following-an-excitotoxic-lesion-in-the-mouse-hippocampus
#10
Nara Shin, Min-Hee Yi, Sena Kim, Hyunjung Baek, Ursula L Triantafillu, Jongsun Park, Dong Woon Kim
Akt (also known as protein kinase B, PKB) has been seen to play a role in astrocyte activation of neuroprotection; however, the underlying mechanism on deregulation of Akt signaling in brain injuries is not fully understood. We investigated the role of carboxy-terminal modulator protein (CTMP), an endogenous Akt inhibitor, in brain injury following kainic acid (KA)-induced neurodegeneration of mouse hippocampus. In control mice, there was a weak signal for CTMP in the hippocampus, but CTMP was markedly increased in the astrocytes 3 days after KA treatment...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243163/drug-abuse-and-psychosis-new-insights-into-drug-induced-psychosis
#11
REVIEW
Suji Ham, Tae Kyoo Kim, Sooyoung Chung, Heh-In Im
Addictive drug use or prescribed medicine abuse can cause psychosis. Some representative symptoms frequently elicited by patients with psychosis are hallucination, anhedonia, and disrupted executive functions. These psychoses are categorized into three classifications of symptoms: positive, negative, and cognitive. The symptoms of DIP are not different from the symptoms of schizophrenia, and it is difficult to distinguish between them. Due to this ambiguity of distinction between the DIP and schizophrenia, the DIP animal model has been frequently used as the schizophrenia animal model...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243162/segregated-cell-populations-enable-distinct-parallel-encoding-within-the-radial-axis-of-the-ca1-pyramidal-layer
#12
REVIEW
Tristan Geiller, Sebastien Royer, June-Seek Choi
Numerous studies have implicated the hippocampus in the encoding and storage of declarative and spatial memories. Several models have considered the hippocampus and its distinct subfields to contain homogeneous pyramidal cell populations. Yet, recent studies have led to a consensus that the dorso-ventral and proximo-distal axes have different connectivities and physiologies. The remaining deep-superficial axis of the pyramidal layer, however, remains relatively unexplored due to a lack of techniques that can record from neurons simultaneously at different depths...
February 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035186/rapid-progression-of-sporadic-als-in-a-patient-carrying-sod1-p-gly13arg-mutation
#13
Myung-Jin Kim, Jae-Han Bae, Jeong-Min Kim, Hye Ryoun Kim, Byung-Nam Yoon, Jung-Joon Sung, Suk-Won Ahn
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the most common adult onset motor neuron disease, is pathologically characterized by progressive loss of the upper and lower motor neurons. Mutations in the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1) account for about 20% of familial ALS cases and a small percentage of sporadic ALS (SALS) cases, and have revealed a validated genotype-phenotype correlation. Herein, we report a p.Gly13Arg mutation in SOD1 exon 1 in a patient with SALS who presented with a rapidly progressive course, predominantly affecting the lower motor neurons...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035185/mildly-increased-mechanical-nociceptive-sensitivity-in-rev-erb%C3%AE-knock-out-mice
#14
Jaehyun Lee, Hyoung-Gon Ko, Kyungjin Kim, Bong-Kiun Kaang
Nociception is one of the most complex senses that is affected not only by external stimulation but also internal conditions. Previous studies have suggested that circadian rhythm is important in modulating nociception. REV-ERBα knock-out (KO) mice have disrupted circadian rhythm and altered mood-related phenotypes. In this study, we examined the role of REV-ERBα in inflammatory nociception. We found that the nociceptive sensitivity of KO mice was partially enhanced in mechanical nociception. However, this partial alteration was independent of the circadian rhythm...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035184/prefrontal-cortical-thickness-deficit-in-detoxified-alcohol-dependent-patients
#15
Sujin Bae, Ilhyang Kang, Boung Chul Lee, Yujin Jeon, Han Byul Cho, Sujung Yoon, Soo Mee Lim, Jungyoon Kim, In Kyoon Lyoo, Jieun E Kim, Ihn-Geun Choi
Alcohol dependence is a serious disorder that can be related with a number of potential health-related and social consequences. Cortical thickness measurements would provide important information on the cortical structural alterations in patients with alcohol dependence. Twenty-one patients with alcohol dependence and 22 healthy comparison subjects have been recruited and underwent high-resolution brain magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinical assessments. T1-weighted MR images were analyzed using the cortical thickness analysis program...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035183/neonatal-administration-of-memantine-enhances-social-cognition-in-adult-rats-subjected-to-early-maternal-deprivation
#16
Ezequiel Uribe, Eduardo Sánchez-Mendoza, Nayadoleni Nieves, Gustavo Merchor
Schizophrenia is considered a neurodevelopmental disorder; however, all the available treatment options are used when the disease becomes clinically significant in adolescence or early adulthood. Using a developmental rat model of schizophrenia, we examined whether neonatal treatment with memantine, an NMDA receptor modulator, can improve schizophrenic-like symptoms in adulthood. Early maternal deprivation in rats produces deficits in social interaction behaviors in adulthood. In contrast, memantine administrated in neonatal rats subjected to early maternal deprivation significantly reduces deficits in social interaction behaviors in adulthood...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035182/chronic-nonmodulated-microwave-radiations-in-mice-produce-anxiety-like-and-depression-like-behaviours-and-calcium-and-no-related-biochemical-changes-in-the-brain
#17
Manoj Kumar, Surya P Singh, Chandra M Chaturvedi
The present study was aimed to investigate behavioural and biochemical effects of chronic exposure of amplitude modulated and non-modulated microwave radiation on laboratory mice. Chronic microwave exposures were executed with 2.45 GHz of either modulated (power density, 0.029 mW/cm(2); specific absorption rate, 0.019 W/Kg with sinusoidal modulation of 400 Hz) or nonmodulated continuous sinusoidal wave (power density, 0.033 mW/cm(2); specific absorption rate, 0.023 W/Kg) for 2 hrs daily for 1 month. Mice subjected to non-modulated microwave exposure had significantly increased acetylcholinesterase activity and increased intracellular calcium and nitric oxide levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus, and also had increased glucose and corticosterone levels in blood compared to control mice...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035181/functional-connectivity-of-basolateral-amygdala-neurons-carrying-orexin-receptors-and-melanin-concentrating-hormone-receptors-in-regulating-sociability-and-mood-related-behaviors
#18
Tae-Kyung Kim, Pyung-Lim Han
Chronic stress induces changes in neuronal functions in specific brain regions regulating sociability and mood-related behaviors. Recently we reported that stress-induced persistent upregulation of the neuropeptides orexin and melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the resulting activation of orexin receptors or MCH receptors within the BLA produced deficits in sociability and mood-related behaviors. In the present study, we investigated the neural targets that were innervated by BLA neurons containing orexin receptors or MCH receptors...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035180/bipolar-disorder-associated-microrna-mir-1908-5p-regulates-the-expression-of-genes-functioning-in-neuronal-glutamatergic-synapses
#19
Yoonhee Kim, Yinhua Zhang, Kaifang Pang, Hyojin Kang, Heejoo Park, Yeunkum Lee, Bokyoung Lee, Heon-Jeong Lee, Won-Ki Kim, Dongho Geum, Kihoon Han
Bipolar disorder (BD), characterized by recurrent mood swings between depression and mania, is a highly heritable and devastating mental illness with poorly defined pathophysiology. Recent genome-wide molecular genetic studies have identified several protein-coding genes and microRNAs (miRNAs) significantly associated with BD. Notably, some of the proteins expressed from BD-associated genes function in neuronal synapses, suggesting that abnormalities in synaptic function could be one of the key pathogenic mechanisms of BD...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035179/molecular-neuroimaging-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder
#20
REVIEW
Jooyeon Jamie Im, Eun Namgung, Yejee Choi, Jung Yoon Kim, Sandy Jeong Rhie, Sujung Yoon
Over the past decade, an increasing number of neuroimaging studies have provided insight into the neurobiological mechanisms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PSTD). In particular, molecular neuroimaging techniques have been employed in examining metabolic and neurochemical processes in PTSD. This article reviews molecular neuroimaging studies in PTSD and focuses on findings using three imaging modalities including positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
December 2016: Experimental Neurobiology
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