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Future Virology

Colm Atkins, Alexander N Freiberg
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-borne bunyavirus endemic to sub-Saharan Africa and the Arabian Peninsula and the etiological agent of Rift Valley fever. Rift Valley fever is a disease of major public health and economic concern, affecting livestock and humans. In ruminants, RVFV infection is characterized by high mortality rates in newborns and near 100% abortion rates in pregnant animals. Infection in humans is typically manifested as a self-limiting febrile illness, but can lead to severe and fatal hepatitis, encephalitis, hemorrhagic fever or retinitis with partial or complete blindness...
November 2017: Future Virology
Olayinka Obanewa, Marie-Louise Newell
To systematically review the association between maternal nutritional status in pregnancy and infant immune response to childhood vaccines. We reviewed literature on maternal nutrition during pregnancy, fetal immune system and vaccines and possible relationships. Thereafter, we undertook a systematic review of the literature of maternal nutritional status and infant vaccine response, extracted relevant information, assessed quality of the nine papers identified and present findings in a narrative format. From limited evidence of average quality, intrauterine nutrition deficiency could lead to functional deficit in the infant's immune function; child vaccine response may thus be negatively affected by maternal malnutrition...
September 2017: Future Virology
Mausumi Basu, Margo A Brinton
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Future Virology
Jaclyn A Kaiser, Tian Wang, Alan Dt Barrett
West Nile virus (WNV), a neurotropic mosquito-borne flavivirus, has become endemic in the USA and parts of Europe since 1999. There is no licensed WNV vaccine for humans. Considering the robust immunity from immunization with live, attenuated vaccines, a live WNV vaccine is an ideal platform for disease control. Animal and mosquito studies have identified a number of candidate attenuating mutations, including the structural proteins premembrane/membrane and envelope, and the nonstructural proteins NS1, NS2A, NS3, NS4A, NS4B and NS5, and the 3' UTR...
May 2017: Future Virology
Victoria Williamson, Bronwyne Coetzee, Ashraf Kagee, Mark Tomlinson
Despite advances in preventive treatments for HIV, children continue to become infected with HIV. Research has investigated adult and adolescents' willingness to participate in hypothetical HIV vaccine trials; however, maternal willingness to enroll their infants in such trials remains underexplored. AIM: This study explored the factors influencing mothers' decision-making about enrolling their HIV negative infants in a hypothetical HIV vaccine trial. Methods: HIV infected and uninfected mothers (n = 22) were interviewed...
January 2017: Future Virology
Flavia Hodel, Marion Patxot, Tiia Snäkä, Angela Ciuffi
More than 35 million people remain infected with HIV-1. Upon antiretroviral therapy cessation, HIV-1-positive individuals systematically fail to achieve sustained virological remission, revealing the presence of a reservoir. This reservoir takes into account anatomical sanctuaries where HIV-1 continues to replicate, and latently infected cells also known as the latent reservoir (LR). A better understanding of the nature and features of the LR and its quantification are crucial to evaluate the efficiency of therapeutic strategies aiming at purging HIV-1...
December 2016: Future Virology
Matthew Cotten, Marion Koopmans
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Future Virology
Eleanor Burnett, Catherine Yen, Jacqueline E Tate, Umesh D Parashar
As of May 2016, 81 countries have introduced Rotarix or RotaTeq rotavirus vaccines into their national immunization program. Despite initially slow uptake in some countries and differences in vaccine effectiveness (VE) between high-, low- and middle-income countries, impact of the vaccines has been swift and striking in all settings, with good VE against vaccine-type and nonvaccine-type strains. Newly published research indicates poor nutrition is associated with decreased VE and breastfeeding at the time of vaccination does not affect vaccine response...
October 2016: Future Virology
Bassam H Rimawi, Somer L Smith, Martina L Badell, Leilah D Zahedi-Spung, Anandi N Sheth, Lisa Haddad, Rana Chakraborty
Linkage and retention in care for many HIV-infected women in the postpartum period is suboptimal, which compromises long-term virologic suppression and the HIV Care Continuum. Efforts are needed to improve individual outcomes by addressing transitions in care. We summarize some successful strategies to engage and retain HIV-infected women in care during the postpartum period.
August 2016: Future Virology
Maaike Everts, Mark J Suto, George R Painter, Richard J Whitley
Viral infections, such as Ebola, severe acute respiratory syndrome/Middle East respiratory syndrome and West Nile virus have emerged as a serious health threat with no effective therapies. These infections have little commercial potential and are not a high priority for the pharmaceutical industry. However, the academic community has been active in this area for many years. The challenge is how to take this academic virology knowledge into a drug discovery and development domain. One approach is the use of consortia and public-private partnerships - this article highlights ongoing efforts in the USA...
March 2016: Future Virology
Hilliard L Kutscher, Paras N Prasad, Gene D Morse, Jessica L Reynolds
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Future Virology
Alex M Agelidis, Deepak Shukla
HSV type-1 and -2 are widespread pathogens producing lifelong infection with multiple sequelae, including oral, ocular and genital disease. The process of herpesvirus entry is a highly complex process involving numerous viral and cellular factors. Entry begins with attachment of virus to the cell surface followed by interactions between viral glycoproteins and cellular receptors to facilitate capsid penetration. The nucleocapsid is then transported along microtubules to the nuclear membrane, where viral DNA is released for replication in the nucleus...
October 1, 2015: Future Virology
Emma K Larkin, Tina V Hartert
Infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) are at increased risk for childhood asthma. The objectives of this article are to review the genes associated with both RSV LRI and asthma, review analytic approaches to assessing shared genetic risk and propose a future perspective on how these approaches can help us to understand the role of infant RSV infection as both an important risk factor for asthma and marker of shared genetic etiology between the two conditions...
July 2015: Future Virology
Steven F Baker, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Vaccination represents the best option to protect humans against influenza virus. However, improving the effectiveness of current vaccines could better stifle the health burden caused by viral infection. Protein synthesis from individual genes can be downregulated by synthetically deoptimizing a gene's codon usage. With more rapid and affordable nucleotide synthesis, generating viruses that contain genes with deoptimized codons is now feasible. Attenuated, vaccine-candidate viruses can thus be engineered with hitherto uncharacterized properties...
June 2015: Future Virology
Pamela C Rosato, David A Leib
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a prevalent neurotropic virus, which establishes lifelong latent infections in the neurons of sensory ganglia. Despite our long-standing knowledge that HSV predominately infects sensory neurons during its life cycle, little is known about the neuronal antiviral response to HSV infection. Recent studies show that while sensory neurons have impaired intrinsic immunity to HSV infection, paracrine IFN signaling can potentiate a potent antiviral response. Additionally, antiviral autophagy plays an important role in neuronal control of HSV infection...
June 2015: Future Virology
Jonathan J Madara, Ziying Han, Gordon Ruthel, Bruce D Freedman, Ronald N Harty
The highly virulent nature of Ebola virus, evident from the 2014 West African pandemic, highlights the need to develop vaccines or therapeutic agents that limit the pathogenesis and spread of this virus. While vaccines represent an obvious approach, targeting virus interactions with host proteins that critically regulate the virus lifecycle also represent important therapeutic strategies. Among Ebola virus proteins at this critical interface is its matrix protein, VP40, which is abundantly expressed during infection and plays a number of critical roles in the viral lifecycle...
May 2015: Future Virology
Samantha Smith, Sandra K Weller
Peter Wildy first observed genetic recombination between strains of HSV in 1955. At the time, knowledge of DNA repair mechanisms was limited, and it has only been in the last decade that particular DNA damage response (DDR) pathways have been examined in the context of viral infections. One of the first reports addressing the interaction between a cellular DDR protein and HSV-1 was the observation by Lees-Miller et al. that DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit levels were depleted in an ICP0-dependent manner during Herpes simplex virus 1 infection...
April 2015: Future Virology
Juan C Zapata, Maria S Salvato
Lassa virus infection elicits distinctive changes in host gene expression and metabolism. We focus on changes in host gene expression that may be biomarkers that discriminate individual pathogens or may help to provide a prognosis for disease. In addition to assessing mRNA changes, functional studies are also needed to discriminate causes of disease from mechanisms of host resistance. Host responses that drive pathogenesis are likely to be targets for prevention or therapy. Host responses to Lassa or its related arenaviruses have been monitored in cell culture, in animal models of hemorrhagic fever, in Lassa-infected nonhuman primates and, to a limited extent, in infected human beings...
March 13, 2015: Future Virology
Suzanne Dg Kijewski, Suryaram Gummuluru
Despite progress in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 rebound after cessation of antiretroviral therapy suggests that establishment of long-term cellular reservoirs of virus is a significant barrier to functional cure. There is considerable evidence that dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in systemic virus dissemination. Although productive infection of DCs is inefficient, DCs capture HIV-1 and transfer-captured particles to CD4(+) T cells, a mechanism of DC-mediated HIV-1 trans infection. Recent findings suggest that DC-mediated trans infection of HIV-1 is dependent on recognition of GM3, a virus-particle-associated host-derived ligand, by CD169 expressed on DCs...
March 2015: Future Virology
Marina Jerebtsova, Sergei Nekhai
The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa is the largest with over 5100 deaths in four West African countries as of 14 November 2014. EVD has high case-fatality rates but no licensed treatment or vaccine is yet available. Several vaccine candidates that protected nonhuman primates are not yet available for clinical use. Slow development of vaccine-stimulated immunity, sporadic nature and fast progression of EVD underlines the need for the development of effective postexposure therapeutic drugs...
March 2015: Future Virology
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