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Future Virology

Maaike Everts, Mark J Suto, George R Painter, Richard J Whitley
Viral infections, such as Ebola, severe acute respiratory syndrome/Middle East respiratory syndrome and West Nile virus have emerged as a serious health threat with no effective therapies. These infections have little commercial potential and are not a high priority for the pharmaceutical industry. However, the academic community has been active in this area for many years. The challenge is how to take this academic virology knowledge into a drug discovery and development domain. One approach is the use of consortia and public-private partnerships - this article highlights ongoing efforts in the USA...
March 2016: Future Virology
Alex M Agelidis, Deepak Shukla
HSV type-1 and -2 are widespread pathogens producing lifelong infection with multiple sequelae, including oral, ocular and genital disease. The process of herpesvirus entry is a highly complex process involving numerous viral and cellular factors. Entry begins with attachment of virus to the cell surface followed by interactions between viral glycoproteins and cellular receptors to facilitate capsid penetration. The nucleocapsid is then transported along microtubules to the nuclear membrane, where viral DNA is released for replication in the nucleus...
October 1, 2015: Future Virology
Emma K Larkin, Tina V Hartert
Infants with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRIs) are at increased risk for childhood asthma. The objectives of this article are to review the genes associated with both RSV LRI and asthma, review analytic approaches to assessing shared genetic risk and propose a future perspective on how these approaches can help us to understand the role of infant RSV infection as both an important risk factor for asthma and marker of shared genetic etiology between the two conditions...
July 2015: Future Virology
Steven F Baker, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Vaccination represents the best option to protect humans against influenza virus. However, improving the effectiveness of current vaccines could better stifle the health burden caused by viral infection. Protein synthesis from individual genes can be downregulated by synthetically deoptimizing a gene's codon usage. With more rapid and affordable nucleotide synthesis, generating viruses that contain genes with deoptimized codons is now feasible. Attenuated, vaccine-candidate viruses can thus be engineered with hitherto uncharacterized properties...
June 2015: Future Virology
Pamela C Rosato, David A Leib
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a prevalent neurotropic virus, which establishes lifelong latent infections in the neurons of sensory ganglia. Despite our long-standing knowledge that HSV predominately infects sensory neurons during its life cycle, little is known about the neuronal antiviral response to HSV infection. Recent studies show that while sensory neurons have impaired intrinsic immunity to HSV infection, paracrine IFN signaling can potentiate a potent antiviral response. Additionally, antiviral autophagy plays an important role in neuronal control of HSV infection...
June 2015: Future Virology
Jonathan J Madara, Ziying Han, Gordon Ruthel, Bruce D Freedman, Ronald N Harty
The highly virulent nature of Ebola virus, evident from the 2014 West African pandemic, highlights the need to develop vaccines or therapeutic agents that limit the pathogenesis and spread of this virus. While vaccines represent an obvious approach, targeting virus interactions with host proteins that critically regulate the virus lifecycle also represent important therapeutic strategies. Among Ebola virus proteins at this critical interface is its matrix protein, VP40, which is abundantly expressed during infection and plays a number of critical roles in the viral lifecycle...
May 2015: Future Virology
Samantha Smith, Sandra K Weller
Peter Wildy first observed genetic recombination between strains of HSV in 1955. At the time, knowledge of DNA repair mechanisms was limited, and it has only been in the last decade that particular DNA damage response (DDR) pathways have been examined in the context of viral infections. One of the first reports addressing the interaction between a cellular DDR protein and HSV-1 was the observation by Lees-Miller et al. that DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit levels were depleted in an ICP0-dependent manner during Herpes simplex virus 1 infection...
April 2015: Future Virology
Juan C Zapata, Maria S Salvato
Lassa virus infection elicits distinctive changes in host gene expression and metabolism. We focus on changes in host gene expression that may be biomarkers that discriminate individual pathogens or may help to provide a prognosis for disease. In addition to assessing mRNA changes, functional studies are also needed to discriminate causes of disease from mechanisms of host resistance. Host responses that drive pathogenesis are likely to be targets for prevention or therapy. Host responses to Lassa or its related arenaviruses have been monitored in cell culture, in animal models of hemorrhagic fever, in Lassa-infected nonhuman primates and, to a limited extent, in infected human beings...
March 13, 2015: Future Virology
Suzanne Dg Kijewski, Suryaram Gummuluru
Despite progress in antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 rebound after cessation of antiretroviral therapy suggests that establishment of long-term cellular reservoirs of virus is a significant barrier to functional cure. There is considerable evidence that dendritic cells (DCs) play an important role in systemic virus dissemination. Although productive infection of DCs is inefficient, DCs capture HIV-1 and transfer-captured particles to CD4(+) T cells, a mechanism of DC-mediated HIV-1 trans infection. Recent findings suggest that DC-mediated trans infection of HIV-1 is dependent on recognition of GM3, a virus-particle-associated host-derived ligand, by CD169 expressed on DCs...
March 2015: Future Virology
Marina Jerebtsova, Sergei Nekhai
The current Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa is the largest with over 5100 deaths in four West African countries as of 14 November 2014. EVD has high case-fatality rates but no licensed treatment or vaccine is yet available. Several vaccine candidates that protected nonhuman primates are not yet available for clinical use. Slow development of vaccine-stimulated immunity, sporadic nature and fast progression of EVD underlines the need for the development of effective postexposure therapeutic drugs...
March 2015: Future Virology
Cindy J Bednasz, Joshua R Sawyer, Anthony Martinez, Patrick G Rose, Samantha S Sithole, Holly R Hamilton, Farzia S Kaufman, Charles S Venuto, Qing Ma, Andrew Talal, Gene D Morse
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a global epidemic, affecting approximately 150 million individuals throughout the world. The implications of HCV infection have been magnified in those who are infected with both HCV and the HIV as liver disease progression, liver failure and liver-related death are increased, particularly in those without well-controlled HIV disease. The development of direct-acting antiviral agents for HCV that allow shorter treatment periods with increased efficacy and decreased adverse events have greatly changed the outlook for HCV-infected individuals...
2015: Future Virology
Lindsey M Hutt-Fletcher
Glycoproteins are critical to virus entry, to spread within and between hosts and can modify the behavior of cells. Many viruses carry only a few, most found in the virion envelope. EBV makes more than 12, providing flexibility in how it colonizes its human host. Some are dedicated to getting the virus through the cell membrane and on toward the nucleus of the cell, some help guide the virus back out and on to the next cell in the same or a new host. Yet others undermine host defenses helping the virus persist for a lifetime, maintaining a presence that is mostly tolerated and serves to perpetuate EBV as one of the most common infections of man...
2015: Future Virology
Gabriele Neumann
Highly pathogenic influenza viruses of the H5N1 subtype have infected more than 600 people since 1997, resulting in the deaths of approximately 60% of those infected. Multiple studies have established the viral hemagglutinin (HA) surface glycoprotein as the major determinant of H5N1 virulence. HA mediates host-specific virus binding to cells, and mutations that allow efficient binding to viral receptors on mammalian cells are critical (although not sufficient) for H5N1 transmissibility among mammals. The viral polymerase PB2 protein is also a critical virulence determinant, and adaptive mutations in this protein are crucial for efficient H5N1 virus replication in mammals...
2015: Future Virology
Catherine Laughlin, Amanda Schleif, Carole A Heilman
Antimicrobial resistance is a serious healthcare concern affecting millions of people around the world. Antiviral resistance has been viewed as a lesser threat than antibiotic resistance, but it is important to consider approaches to address this growing issue. While vaccination is a logical strategy, and has been shown to be successful many times over, next generation viral vaccines with a specific goal of curbing antiviral resistance will need to clear several hurdles including vaccine design, evaluation and implementation...
2015: Future Virology
Rita Czako, Kanta Subbarao
Vaccination is the most effective strategy for prevention and control of influenza. Timely production and deployment of seasonal influenza vaccines is based on an understanding of the epidemiology of influenza and on global disease and virologic surveillance. Experience with seasonal influenza vaccines guided the initial development of pandemic influenza vaccines. A large investment in pandemic influenza vaccines in the last decade has resulted in much progress and a body of information that can now be applied to refine the established paradigm...
2015: Future Virology
Jacob Kocher, Lijuan Yuan
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) are a leading cause of acute, nonbacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. The lack of a cell culture system and smaller animal model has delayed the development and commercial availability of vaccines and antiviral drugs. Current vaccines rely on recombinant capsid proteins, such as P particles and virus-like particles (VLPs), which have been promising in clinical trials. Anti-HuNoV drug development is another area of extensive research, including currently available antiviral drugs for other viral pathogens...
2015: Future Virology
Stewart M Coleman, Alistair McGregor
Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has emerged as a powerful tool in the study of animal models of viral disease. BLI enables real-time in vivo study of viral infection, host immune response and the efficacy of intervention strategies. Substrate dependent light emitting luciferase enzyme when incorporated into a virus as a reporter gene enables detection of bioluminescence from infected cells using sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera systems. Advantages of BLI include low background, real-time tracking of infection in the same animal and reduction in the requirement for larger animal numbers...
2015: Future Virology
Jessica R Spengler, Dennis A Bente
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Future Virology
Yong Luo, Jianming Qiu
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a human pathogen that belongs to genus Erythroparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family, which is composed of a group of small DNA viruses with a linear single-stranded DNA genome. B19V mainly infects human erythroid progenitor cells and causes mild to severe hematological disorders in patients. However, recent clinical studies indicate that B19V also infects nonerythroid lineage cells, such as myocardial endothelial cells, and may be associated with other disease outcomes. Several cell culture systems, including permissive and semipermissive erythroid lineage cells, nonpermissive human embryonic kidney 293 cells and recently reported myocardial endothelial cells, have been used to study the mechanisms underlying B19V infection and B19V DNA replication...
2015: Future Virology
Sophia A Hussen, Ann Chahroudi, Ashley Boylan, Andres F Camacho-Gonzalez, Stephanie Hackett, Rana Chakraborty
Due to advances in antiretroviral therapy, most HIV-infected children and youth now survive into adulthood. Many experts and professional societies have expressed concern about potential disruptions to care when youth living with HIV transition from pediatric to adult-oriented medical care. However, original research focused on this transition process is rare. The existing literature can be organized into the following categories: pre-transition assessments of anticipated barriers and concerns; studies describing provider practices during the transition period; and post-transition retrospective analyses after transition to adult care...
2015: Future Virology
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