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Future Microbiology

Chengqian Qian, Yuhui Du, Huiying Li, Pan Wu, Lu Wang, Yi Wei, Hengchun Cao, Zhiqiu Yin, Yang Zhang, Yiming Zhu, Xi Guo, Bin Liu
AIM: Members of the genus Citrobacter are important opportunistic pathogens responsible for high mortality rate. Therefore, in this study, we aimed to develop efficient and accurate Citrobacter typing schemes for clinical detection and epidemiological surveillance. MATERIALS & METHODS: Using genomic and experimental analyses, we located the O-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters in Citrobacter genome for the first time, and used comparative genomic analyses to reveal the specific genes in different Citrobacter serotypes...
August 13, 2018: Future Microbiology
Sascha D Braun, Bushra Jamil, Muhammad A Syed, Shahid A Abbasi, Daniel Weiß, Peter Slickers, Stefan Monecke, Ines Engelmann, Ralf Ehricht
AIM: A DNA microarray-based assay for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes was used to study carbapenemase-producing organisms at the Kidney Center of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. METHODS: The evaluation of this assay was performed using 97 reference strains with confirmed AMR genes. Testing of 7,857 clinical samples identified 425 Gram-negative bacteria out of which 82 appeared carbapenem resistant. These isolates were analyzed using VITEK-2 for phenotyping and the described AMR assay for genotyping...
June 25, 2018: Future Microbiology
Alice Greenway
Hilary Browne speaks to Alice Greenway, Commissioning Editor of Future Microbiology, at the Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2018. Hilary Browne is a Staff Scientist at the Wellcome Sanger Institute in Cambridge (UK). His research focuses on culturing, curating and whole genome sequencing of the human gut microbiota and using these resources to study the human intestinal microbiota. At the Microbiology Society Annual Conference 2018, we asked him a few questions regarding his past and current research focuses, including the offered paper he presented at the conference entitled: 'Host adaptation of commensal bacteria through loss of sporulation and genome reduction'...
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Samantha A Whiteside, Sumit Dave, Shannon L Seney, Peter Wang, Gregor Reid, Jeremy P Burton
AIM: Enterococcus faecalis is one of the most common causes of recurrent urinary tract infection (RUTI), yet enterococcal pathogenesis is poorly understood. Our aims were to identify the prevalence of enterococci in RUTI patients and characterize the enterococcal response to nitrofurantoin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. MATERIALS & METHODS: We studied pediatric patients receiving antibiotic prophylaxis and those only under clinical observation for 12 months (n = 39)...
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Egle Butkeviciute, Christine E Jones, Steven G Smith
The current antituberculosis vaccine, BCG, was derived in the 1920s, yet the mechanisms of BCG-induced protective immunity and the variability of protective efficacy among populations are still not fully understood. BCG challenges the concept of vaccine specificity, as there is evidence that BCG may protect immunized infants from pathogens other than Mycobacterium tuberculosis - resulting in heterologous or nonspecific protection. This review summarizes the up-to-date evidence for this phenomenon, potential immunological mechanisms and implications for improved childhood vaccine design...
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Gordon Yc Cheung, Michael Otto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Justin Beardsley, Catriona L Halliday, Sharon C-A Chen, Tania C Sorrell
The incidence of serious fungal infections is increasing rapidly, and yet the rate of new drugs becoming available to treat them is slow. The limited therapeutic armamentarium is a challenge for clinicians, because the available drugs are often toxic, expensive, difficult to administer, ineffective or a combination of all four. Given this setting, the emergence of resistance is especially concerning, and a review of the topic is timely. Here we discuss antifungal drug resistance in Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp...
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Raimunda Sn Brilhante, Vandbergue S Pereira, Jonathas S Oliveira, Raissa Gp Lopes, Anderson M Rodrigues, Zoilo P Camargo, Waldemiro A Pereira-Neto, Débora Scm Castelo-Branco, Rossana A Cordeiro, José Jc Sidrim, Marcos Fg Rocha
AIM: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the antileishmanials meglumine antimoniate and pentamidine against Sporothrix schenckii complex. MATERIALS & METHODS: The antifungal activity of the two antileishmanials was assessed by broth microdilution. The interaction between the antileishmanials and antifungal drugs (amphotericin B, itraconazole and terbinafine) was evaluated by the checkerboard assay. The effect of prior exposure of Sporothrix spp...
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Konstantinos Mitsakakis, Wendy E Kaman, Gijs Elshout, Mara Specht, John P Hays
General practitioners stand at the front line of healthcare provision and have a pivotal role in the fight against increasing antibiotic resistance. In this respect, targeted antibiotic prescribing by general practitioners would help reduce the unnecessary use of antibiotics, leading to reduced treatment failures, fewer side-effects for patients and a reduction in the (global) spread of antibiotic resistances. Current 'gold standard' antibiotic resistance detection strategies tend to be slow, taking up to 48 h to obtain a result, although the implementation of point-of-care testing by general practitioners could help achieve the goal of targeted antibiotic prescribing practices...
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Shuang Bi, Quan-Zhen Lv, Tian-Tian Wang, Beth Burgwyn Fuchs, Dan-Dan Hu, Cleo G Anastassopoulou, Athanasios Desalermos, Maged Muhammed, Chin-Lee Wu, Yuan-Ying Jiang, Eleftherios Mylonakis, Yan Wang
AIM: To investigate the role of SDH2 in Candida albicans filamentation and virulence. MATERIALS & METHODS: Caenorhabditis elegans and mouse candidiasis models were used to assess the virulence of a sdh2Δ/Δ mutant. Various hypha-inducing media were used to evaluate the hyphal development of C. albicans. DCFH-DA was used to measure intracellular Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) levels. RESULTS: The sdh2Δ/Δ mutant was avirulent in the C...
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Yan Kong, Baichun Jiang, Xuancai Luo
AIM: The aim of present study is to investigate the relationship between gut microbiota and Alzheimer's disease (AD) using Drosophila model. MATERIALS & METHODS: The microbiota was characterized by Illumina sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer was performed to measure the level of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolites of the commensal microbiota. RESULTS: The diversity of the gut microbiota increased in AD Drosophila...
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Ioannis M Zacharioudakis, Fainareti N Zervou, Eleftherios Mylonakis
The mortality associated with invasive candidiasis remains unacceptably high. The T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) assay is a novel US FDA-approved molecular diagnostic assay for the diagnosis of candidemia that can rapidly detect the five most commonly isolated Candida spp. In clinical trials, T2MR has exhibited good clinical sensitivity and specificity. Potential benefits from the adoption of T2MR technology in the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms for invasive candidiasis can arise from timely diagnosis of disease, increased case detection, tailored therapy and decrease in empiric antifungal treatment...
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi, Davide Pecori, Glenn Tillotson
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens current clinical practice across a range of infection types. Delafloxacin, a non-zwitterionic fluoroquinolone recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, has been developed to address some of these challenges. Uniquely delafloxacin has increased intracellular penetration and enhanced antibacterial activity under acidic conditions, an environment seen in many infection sites including abscesses. Delafloxacin is active against a wide range of Gram-positive and -negative species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and many fluoroquinolone-resistant strains...
August 2018: Future Microbiology
Shey-Ying Chen, Hao Lee, Shih-Hua Teng, Xiao-Mei Wang, Tai-Fen Lee, Yu-Chung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Lee-Jene Teng, Po-Ren Hsueh
AIM: We evaluated a Staphylococcus argenteus-specific diagnostic profile of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer for accurate identification of this novel bacterium. MATERIALS & METHODS: Staphylococcus argenteus was identified based on negative crtM gene and presence of specific sequence types. A classification model was generated by cluster analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer results and ClinProTools software for 25 S...
July 2018: Future Microbiology
Seung Han Seon, Dong-Kwon Rhee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Future Microbiology
Ting Zhang, Jianping Sun, Haiwei Du, Haoxiang Su, Yonghong Zhang, Qi Jin
AIM: To identify potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 progression. METHODS: 19 subjects, diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in the follow-up, prospective, clinical cohort more than 6000 subjects from 2006, were incorporated into our study. The subjects included ten non-progressors and nine rapid progressors. The plasmas of subjects before HIV-1 seroconversion and after seroconversion were collected and analyzed with nontargeted metabolomics...
July 2018: Future Microbiology
Xiao-Yan Yuan, Ying Wang, Ming-Yi Wang
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has an essential role in the pathogenesis of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. The severity of the host inflammatory responses against the bacteria have been straightly associated with a special bacterial virulence factor, the cag pathogenicity island, which is a type IV secretion system (T4SS) to deliver CagA into the host cells. Besides cag-T4SS, the chromosomes of H. pylori can encode another three T4SSs, including comB, tfs3 and tfs4...
July 2018: Future Microbiology
Xiaowen Huang, Yinghui Liu, Liyan Xi, Kang Zeng, Eleftherios Mylonakis
AIM: To study the pathogenesis of chromoblastomycosis using the alternative model host Galleria mellonella. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the virulence of different dematiaceous fungal strains and the host immune responses (hemocytes density and morphological changes) to Fonsecaea monophora by the alternative infection model. Then detected the development of the pathogenic muriform cells within larvae under microscope. RESULTS: Increasing inocula resulted in greater larval mortality and Cladophialophora carrionii was the most virulent...
July 2018: Future Microbiology
James A Church, Edward Pk Parker, Margaret N Kosek, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly, Paul Kelly, Andrew J Prendergast
Oral vaccines significantly underperform in low-income countries. One possible contributory factor is environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical disorder of small intestinal structure and function among children living in poverty. Here, we review studies describing oral vaccine responses and EED. We identified eight studies evaluating EED and oral vaccine responses. There was substantial heterogeneity in study design and few consistent trends emerged. Four studies reported a negative association between EED and oral vaccine responses; two showed no significant association; and two described a positive correlation...
July 2018: Future Microbiology
David B Huang, Matthew Dryden
Iclaprim is under clinical development for treating acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and nosocomial pneumonia most often due to Gram-positive bacteria, including infections due to drug-resistant bacteria. In two recent Phase III studies of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, intravenous iclaprim 80 mg every 12 h was noninferior to dose-adjusted vancomycin. Additional studies are planned for patients with nosocomial pneumonia. Iclaprim represents an alternative for the treatment of severe skin and pulmonary infections due to Gram-positive bacteria...
July 2018: Future Microbiology
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