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Future Microbiology

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October 24, 2016: Future Microbiology
Debora L Oliveira, Fernanda L Fonseca, Daniel Zamith-Miranda, Leonardo Nimrichter, Jéssica Rodrigues, Marcos D Pereira, Julia Cv Reuwsaat, Augusto Schrank, Charley Staats, Livia Kmetzsch, Marilene H Vainstein, Marcio L Rodrigues
AIM: We investigated the involvement of the autophagy protein 7 (Atg7) in physiology and pathogenic potential of Cryptococcus neoformans. MATERIALS & METHODS: The C. neoformans gene encoding Atg7 was deleted by biolistic transformation for characterization of autophagy mechanisms, pigment formation, cell dimensions, interaction with phagocytes and pathogenic potential in vivo. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: ATG7 deletion resulted in defective autophagy mechanisms, enhanced pigmentation and increased cellular size both in vitro and in vivo...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Juan J Valle-Delgado, Xavier Fernàndez-Busquets
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
He Wang, Ying-Chun Xu, Po-Ren Hsueh
In the Asia-Pacific region, Candida albicans is the predominant Candida species causing invasive candidiasis/candidemia in Australia, Japan, Korea, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand whereas C. tropicalis is the most frequently encountered Candida species in Pakistan and India. Invasive isolates of C. albicans, C. parapsilosis complex and C. tropicalis remain highly susceptible to fluconazole (>90% susceptible). Fluconazole resistance (6.8-15%), isolates with the non-wild-type phenotype for itraconazole susceptibility (3...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Susanna Esposito, Giada Di Pietro
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is among the most common causes of lower respiratory tract infection among infants and the elderly worldwide. Despite its long history, no licensed vaccine is available. Recently, advances in the knowledge of RSV biology and pathology as well as the development of new techniques to generate vaccine candidates have increased the number of promising vaccines. The aim of this review is to analyze RSV characteristics, to consider the history of RSV vaccines and to discuss RSV vaccines currently in development...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Bobbi Xayarath, Nancy E Freitag
A number of bacterial pathogens are capable of detecting the presence of other bacteria located within their surrounding niche through a process of bacterial signaling and cell-to-cell communication commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS). QS systems are commonly now described in the context of collective behaviors exhibited by groups of bacteria coordinating diverse arrays of physiological functions to enhance survival of the community. However, QS systems have also been implicated in a variety of processes distinct from the measure of bacterial cell density...
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Ranjani Somayaji, Joseph E Rubin, Madalagama Ar Priyantha, Deirdre Church
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Jing Zhang, Xiaohong Song, Marella J Ma, Li Xiao, Tsuyoshi Kenri, Hongmei Sun, Travis Ptacek, Shaoli Li, Ken B Waites, T Prescott Atkinson, Keigo Shibayama, Kevin Dybvig, Yanmei Feng
AIM: To characterize inter- and intra-strain variability of variable-number tandem repeats (VNTRs) in Mycoplasma pneumoniae to determine the optimal multilocus VNTR analysis scheme for improved strain typing. METHODS: Whole genome assemblies and next-generation sequencing data from diverse M. pneumoniae isolates were used to characterize VNTRs and their variability, and to compare the strain discriminability of new VNTR and existing markers. RESULTS: We identified 13 VNTRs including five reported previously...
October 12, 2016: Future Microbiology
Elvira Román, Daniel Prieto, Ry Martin, Inês Correia, Ana Cecilia Mesa Arango, Rebeca Alonso-Monge, Oscar Zaragoza, Jesús Pla
AIM: To investigate the role of Cat1 overproduction in Candida albicans. MATERIALS & METHODS: Strains overproducing the CAT1 gene were constructed. RESULTS: Cells overproducing CAT1 were found to be more resistant to some oxidants and mammalian phagocytic cells. They also showed reduced intracellular reactive oxygen species generated by amphotericin B or ciclopirox olamine. CAT1 overproduction did not change the minimum inhibitory concentration of fungal cells to fungistatic or fungicidal azoles nor to amphotericin B although increased twofold the minimum inhibitory concentration to caspofungin...
October 3, 2016: Future Microbiology
Paul Verweij, Sue Lyon
Report from the 26th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID 2016), 9-12 April Amsterdam, The Netherlands Invasive fungal infections are a major threat to the lives of the increasing number of immunocompromized patients, but neutropenic hemato-oncology patients are at especially high risk. Since effective antifungal treatment and prophylaxis are critical to improve survival in these patients, the emergence of antifungal drug resistance has become an increasing cause of concern...
October 3, 2016: Future Microbiology
Hong Li, Aleksandra W Debowski, Tingting Liao, Hong Tang, Hans-Olof Nilsson, Barry J Marshall, Keith A Stubbs, Mohammed Benghezal
Through advances in analytical methods to detect glycoproteins and to determine glycan structures, there have been increasing reports of protein glycosylation in bacteria. In this review, we summarize the known pathways for bacterial protein glycosylation: lipid carrier-mediated 'en bloc' glycosylation; and cytoplasmic stepwise protein glycosylation. The exploitation of bacterial protein glycosylation systems, especially the 'mix and match' of three independent but similar pathways (oligosaccharyltransferase-mediated protein glycosylation, lipopolysaccharide and peptidoglycan biosynthesis) in Gram-negative bacteria for glycoengineering recombinant glycoproteins is also discussed...
September 30, 2016: Future Microbiology
Marzanna Łusiak-Szelachowska, Maciej Żaczek, Beata Weber-Dąbrowska, Ryszard Międzybrodzki, Sławomir Letkiewicz, Wojciech Fortuna, Paweł Rogóż, Krzysztof Szufnarowski, Ewa Jończyk-Matysiak, Ewa Olchawa, Kinga M Walaszek, Andrzej Górski
AIM: The aim was to study the association between the phage neutralization of patients' sera and the clinical outcome of phage therapy (PT). PATIENTS: About 62 patients with various bacterial infections receiving PT as well as 30 healthy volunteers were studied. MATERIALS & METHODS: Antiphage activity of sera (AAS) was examined using the phage neutralization test of different types of phages before and during PT in relation to the route of phage administration and correlated with the results of PT...
September 19, 2016: Future Microbiology
Yanmei Zhang, Shiwen Wang, Binjie Hu, Fuju Zhao, Ping Xiang, Danian Ji, Fei Chen, Xiaoli Liu, Feng Yang, Yong Wu, Mimi Kong, Li Nan, Yingxin Miao, Wenrong Jiang, Yi Fang, Jinghao Zhang, Zhijun Bao, Michal A Olszewski, Hu Zhao
AIM: We evaluated the direct high-throughput multiple genetic detection system (dHMGS) for Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies. MATERIALS & METHODS: One hundred and thirty-three specimens were concurrently analyzed by dHMGS, rapid urease test, culture and sequencing. RESULTS: dHMGS was highly sensitive and specific for H. pylori identification compared with culture and rapid urease test. The correlation coefficient of the quantitative standard curve was R(2) = 0...
September 6, 2016: Future Microbiology
Stephen Villano, Judith Steenbergen, Evan Loh
Omadacycline is a first-in-class aminomethylcycline antibiotic that circumvents common tetracycline resistance mechanisms. In vitro omadacycline has potent activity against Gram-positive aerobic bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, penicillin-resistant and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae, and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp. It is also active against common Gram-negative aerobes, some anaerobes and atypical bacteria including Legionella spp. and Chlamydia spp. Ongoing Phase III clinical trials with omadacycline are investigating once daily doses of 100 mg intravenously followed by once daily doses of 300 mg orally for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia...
August 19, 2016: Future Microbiology
Yannan Liu, Zhiqiang Mi, Wenkai Niu, Xiaoping An, Xin Yuan, Huiying Liu, Yong Wang, Yuzhong Feng, Yong Huang, Xianglilan Zhang, Zhiyi Zhang, Hang Fan, Fan Peng, Puyuan Li, Yigang Tong, Changqing Bai
AIM: The ability of Acinetobacter baumannii to form biofilms and develop antibiotic resistance makes it difficult to control infections caused by this bacterium. In this study, we explored the potential of a lytic bacteriophage to disrupt A. baumannii biofilms. MATERIALS & METHODS: The potential of the lytic bacteriophage to disrupt A. baumannii biofilms was assessed by performing electron microscopy, live/dead bacterial staining, crystal violet staining and by determining adenosine triphosphate release...
August 18, 2016: Future Microbiology
Susan Mayor
26th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID 2016): 9-12 April 2016, Amsterdam, The Netherlands The European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), the annual meeting of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology, had a record attendance at the 2016 meeting, with more than 11,600 scientists and clinicians from 120 countries sharing the latest research and information on infectious diseases. This article reviews sessions on the growing threat of antibiotic resistance in the management of Gram-negative bacterial infections and potential solutions, including optimizing initial drug choice and dosing, development of new options and improving antimicrobial stewardship...
October 2016: Future Microbiology
Christian Eckmann, Sue Lyon
26th European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID), 9-12th April 2016, Amsterdam, The Netherlands The European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) is the annual scientific meeting of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology. ECCMID 2016, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, was attended by over 11,600 clinical microbiologists and infectious disease physicians from more than 120 countries. The Congress offered an essential opportunity to learn more about the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of healthcare-associated infections, especially those caused by Clostridium difficile...
October 2016: Future Microbiology
Regina Helena Pires, Thaís Regiani Cataldi, Livia Maria Franceschini, Mônica Veneziano Labate, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Carlos Alberto Labate, Mario Sérgio Palma, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
AIM: This study aims to understand which Candida orthopsilosis protein aids fungus adaptation upon its switching from planktonic growth to biofilm. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ion mobility separation within mass spectrometry analysis combination were used. RESULTS: Proteins mapped for different biosynthetic pathways showed that selective ribosome autophagy might occur in biofilms. Glucose, used as a carbon source in the glycolytic flux, changed to glycogen and trehalose...
October 2016: Future Microbiology
Eleanor R Watkins, Martin Cj Maiden, Sunetra Gupta
Understanding the processes whereby diversity arises and is maintained in pathogen populations is pivotal for designing disease control interventions. A particular problem is the maintenance of strain structure in bacterial pathogen populations despite frequent genetic exchange. Although several theoretical frameworks have been put forward to explain this widespread phenomenon, few have focused on the role of genes encoding metabolic functions, despite an increasing recognition of their importance in pathogenesis and transmission...
October 2016: Future Microbiology
Arianna Pompilio, Antonella Riviello, Valentina Crocetta, Fabrizio Di Giuseppe, Stefano Pomponio, Marilisa Sulpizio, Carmine Di Ilio, Stefania Angelucci, Luana Barone, Andrea Di Giulio, Giovanni Di Bonaventura
AIM: To evaluate the antibacterial and antibiofilm mechanisms of usnic acid (USN) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from cystic fibrosis patients. MATERIALS & METHODS: The effects exerted by USN at subinhibitory concentrations on S. aureus Sa3 strain was evaluated by proteomic, real-time PCR and electron microscopy analyses. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Proteomic analysis showed that USN caused damage in peptidoglycan synthesis, as confirmed by microscopy...
October 2016: Future Microbiology
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