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Future Microbiology

Shey-Ying Chen, Hao Lee, Shih-Hua Teng, Xiao-Mei Wang, Tai-Fen Lee, Yu-Chung Huang, Chun-Hsing Liao, Lee-Jene Teng, Po-Ren Hsueh
AIM: We evaluated a Staphylococcus argenteus-specific diagnostic profile of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer for accurate identification of this novel bacterium. MATERIALS & METHODS: Staphylococcus argenteus was identified based on negative crtM gene and presence of specific sequence types. A classification model was generated by cluster analysis of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer results and ClinProTools software for 25 S...
June 28, 2018: Future Microbiology
Seung Han Seon, Dong-Kwon Rhee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 27, 2018: Future Microbiology
Sascha D Braun, Bushra Jamil, Muhammad A Syed, Shahid A Abbasi, Daniel Weiß, Peter Slickers, Stefan Monecke, Ines Engelmann, Ralf Ehricht
AIM: A DNA microarray-based assay for the detection of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes was used to study carbapenemase-producing organisms at the Kidney Center of Rawalpindi, Pakistan. METHODS: The evaluation of this assay was performed using 97 reference strains with confirmed AMR genes. Testing of 7,857 clinical samples identified 425 Gram-negative bacteria out of which 82 appeared carbapenem resistant. These isolates were analyzed using VITEK-2 for phenotyping and the described AMR assay for genotyping...
June 25, 2018: Future Microbiology
Ting Zhang, Jianping Sun, Haiwei Du, Haoxiang Su, Yonghong Zhang, Qi Jin
AIM: To identify potential biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of HIV-1 progression. METHODS: 19 subjects, diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in the follow-up, prospective, clinical cohort more than 6000 subjects from 2006, were incorporated into our study. The subjects included ten non-progressors and nine rapid progressors. The plasmas of subjects before HIV-1 seroconversion and after seroconversion were collected and analyzed with nontargeted metabolomics...
June 22, 2018: Future Microbiology
Xiao-Yan Yuan, Ying Wang, Ming-Yi Wang
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has an essential role in the pathogenesis of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and gastric cancer. The severity of the host inflammatory responses against the bacteria have been straightly associated with a special bacterial virulence factor, the cag pathogenicity island, which is a type IV secretion system (T4SS) to deliver CagA into the host cells. Besides cag-T4SS, the chromosomes of H. pylori can encode another three T4SSs, including comB, tfs3 and tfs4...
June 21, 2018: Future Microbiology
Xiaowen Huang, Yinghui Liu, Liyan Xi, Kang Zeng, Eleftherios Mylonakis
AIM: To study the pathogenesis of chromoblastomycosis using the alternative model host Galleria mellonella. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed the virulence of different dematiaceous fungal strains and the host immune responses (hemocytes density and morphological changes) to Fonsecaea monophora by the alternative infection model. Then detected the development of the pathogenic muriform cells within larvae under microscope. RESULTS: Increasing inocula resulted in greater larval mortality and Cladophialophora carrionii was the most virulent...
June 21, 2018: Future Microbiology
James A Church, Edward Pk Parker, Margaret N Kosek, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly, Paul Kelly, Andrew J Prendergast
Oral vaccines significantly underperform in low-income countries. One possible contributory factor is environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a subclinical disorder of small intestinal structure and function among children living in poverty. Here, we review studies describing oral vaccine responses and EED. We identified eight studies evaluating EED and oral vaccine responses. There was substantial heterogeneity in study design and few consistent trends emerged. Four studies reported a negative association between EED and oral vaccine responses; two showed no significant association; and two described a positive correlation...
June 21, 2018: Future Microbiology
Emma Bagshaw, David A Enoch, Michael Blackney, Jan Posthumus, Daniel Kuessner
AIM: Invasive mold diseases (IMDs) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Approved treatments include voriconazole (VORI), liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB), posaconazole (POSA) and isavuconazole (ISAV). A UK-based economic model was developed to explore the cost of treating IMDs with ISAV versus L-AMB followed by POSA. MATERIALS & METHODS: As indirect comparisons have demonstrated similar efficacy between the comparators, a cost-minimization approach was taken...
June 18, 2018: Future Microbiology
Giuliana Banche, Alessandro Bistolfi, Valeria Allizond, Claudia Galletta, Maria Rita Iannantuoni, Elisa Simona Marra, Chiara Merlino, Alessandro Massè, Anna Maria Cuffini
Prosthetic joint infection diagnosis is often difficult since biofilm-embedded microorganisms attach well to the prosthetic surfaces and resist their detection by conventional methods. DL-dithiothreitol has been described as a valid method for biofilm detachment on orthopedic devices. We report the case of an occasional detection of Listeria monocytogenes in a non immuno-compromised patient with a preoperative diagnosis of aseptic loosening. The infection diagnosis due to such rare bacteria was made postoperatively, thanks to a DL-dithiothreitol-based device...
June 18, 2018: Future Microbiology
Andrew D Wiese, Carlos G Grijalva
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: Future Microbiology
Jiří Trousil, Vít Ulmann, Martin Hrubý
Mycobacterioses represent a global health problem and rapid diagnostic improvements are urgently required. Mycobacteria-specific fluorescence and bioluminescence phenomena have been found to be useful for a wide range of mycobacteria-focused research. Here, we present a critical survey of the most promising techniques in this field and the potential of new methods under investigation. These approaches include acid-fast staining, intrinsic fluorescence of the coenzyme F420 , fluorogenic substrates (e.g., β-lactamase-sensitive coumpounds) and recombination of mycobacteria or mycobacteriophages...
June 12, 2018: Future Microbiology
Ioannis M Zacharioudakis, Fainareti N Zervou, Eleftherios Mylonakis
The mortality associated with invasive candidiasis remains unacceptably high. The T2 magnetic resonance (T2MR) assay is a novel US FDA-approved molecular diagnostic assay for the diagnosis of candidemia that can rapidly detect the five most commonly isolated Candida spp. In clinical trials, T2MR has exhibited good clinical sensitivity and specificity. Potential benefits from the adoption of T2MR technology in the diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms for invasive candidiasis can arise from timely diagnosis of disease, increased case detection, tailored therapy and decrease in empiric antifungal treatment...
May 24, 2018: Future Microbiology
Matteo Bassetti, Elda Righi, Davide Pecori, Glenn Tillotson
The emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens current clinical practice across a range of infection types. Delafloxacin, a non-zwitterionic fluoroquinolone recently approved by the US FDA for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, has been developed to address some of these challenges. Uniquely delafloxacin has increased intracellular penetration and enhanced antibacterial activity under acidic conditions, an environment seen in many infection sites including abscesses. Delafloxacin is active against a wide range of Gram-positive and -negative species including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and many fluoroquinolone-resistant strains...
May 16, 2018: Future Microbiology
David B Huang, Matthew Dryden
Iclaprim is under clinical development for treating acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and nosocomial pneumonia most often due to Gram-positive bacteria, including infections due to drug-resistant bacteria. In two recent Phase III studies of patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, intravenous iclaprim 80 mg every 12 h was noninferior to dose-adjusted vancomycin. Additional studies are planned for patients with nosocomial pneumonia. Iclaprim represents an alternative for the treatment of severe skin and pulmonary infections due to Gram-positive bacteria...
May 10, 2018: Future Microbiology
Twisha S Patel, Jason M Pogue, John P Mills, Keith S Kaye
Meropenem-vaborbactam is a fixed-dose combination product of a carbapenem and a cyclic boronic acid β-lactamase inhibitor with potent in vitro activity against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE). The efficacy of meropenem-vaborbactam for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis was demonstrated in a Phase III trial (TANGO I). Preliminary data from TANGO II, a separate Phase III study, support the efficacy of meropenem-vaborbactam for the treatment of infections caused by CRE...
April 25, 2018: Future Microbiology
Shweta Anjan, Michele I Morris
Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental organisms that are rapidly emerging as pathogens in the transplant population. The prevalence of infection in transplant recipients remains unknown. While guidelines exist for treatment of NTM, neither the American Thoracic Society, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, nor the British Thoracic Society guidelines dictate the approach needed for transplant recipients. Here, we summarize risk factors, important diagnostic and treatment facts, and preventive measures to be taken to help improve outcomes of those infected with NTM infections...
June 1, 2018: Future Microbiology
Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Antonio José de Jesus Evangelista, Rosana Serpa, Ana Raquel Colares de Andrade, Patrícia Bruna Leite Mendes, Jônatas da Silva Franco, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, Lucas Pereira de Alencar, Jamille Alencar Sales, Lília Maria Carneiro Câmara, Débora de Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
AIM: To investigate the direct effect of antibiotics on growth and virulence of the major Candida species associated with invasive infections. MATERIALS & METHODS: Cefepime, imipenem, meropenem, amoxicillin and vancomycin were tested at twofold the peak plasma concentration (2× PP) and the peak plasma concentration (PP). The effects of antibiotics on Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis were investigated by colony counting, flow cytometry, proteolytic activity and virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans...
June 1, 2018: Future Microbiology
Bin Zhu, Lorna C Macleod, Todd Kitten, Ping Xu
Caries and periodontitis are the two most common human dental diseases and are caused by dysbiosis of oral flora. Although commensal microorganisms have been demonstrated to protect against pathogens and promote oral health, most previous studies have addressed pathogenesis rather than commensalism. Streptococcus sanguinis is a commensal bacterium that is abundant in the oral biofilm and whose presence is correlated with health. Here, we focus on the mechanism of biofilm formation in S. sanguinis and the interaction of S...
June 1, 2018: Future Microbiology
Peter W Taylor, Kevin P Francis
Recently developed 3D noninvasive in vivo optical imaging is providing fresh insights into the understanding of the pathogenesis of invasive bacteria in small animal experimental models. Here, we describe the advantages of 3D diffuse light imaging tomography with integrated micro-computed tomography (DLIT-μCT) over more traditional 2D systems, in particular with regard to precise localization of infectious foci within tissues in 3D space. We highlight data from rodent studies that employ experimental infections replicating the course of naturally occurring bacterial disease, such as invasive Escherichia coli infections that arise following colonization of the GI tract in neonatal rats...
June 1, 2018: Future Microbiology
Paolo Visca, Francesco Imperi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Future Microbiology
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