Read by QxMD icon Read

Future Neurology

Tyler Cutforth, Mellissa Mc DeMille, Ilir Agalliu, Dritan Agalliu
Streptococcus pyogenes infections have been associated with two autoimmune diseases of the CNS: Sydenham's chorea (SC) and Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus infections (PANDAS). Despite the high frequency of pharyngeal streptococcus infections among children, only a small fraction develops SC or PANDAS. This suggests that several factors in combination are necessary to trigger autoimmune complications: specific S. pyogenes strains that induce a strong immune response toward the host nervous system; genetic susceptibility that predispose children toward an autoimmune response involving movement or tic symptoms; and multiple infections of the throat or tonsils that lead to a robust Th17 cellular and humoral immune response when untreated...
December 2016: Future Neurology
Christiane Reitz
Late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD), a highly prevalent neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive deterioration in cognition, function and behavior terminating in incapacity and death, is a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous disease with a substantial heritable component. During the past 5 years, the technological developments in next-generation high-throughput genome technologies have led to the identification of more than 20 novel susceptibility loci for AD, and have implicated specific pathways in the disease, in particular intracellular trafficking/endocytosis, inflammation and immune response and lipid metabolism...
December 2015: Future Neurology
Cesar V Borlongan, Jukka Jolkkonen, Olivier Detante
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2015: Future Neurology
Maya Elias, Jaclyn Hoover, Hung Nguyen, Stephanny Reyes, Christopher Lawton, Cesar V Borlongan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2015: Future Neurology
Ayan Ghoshal, P Jeffrey Conn
The hippocampo-prefrontal (H-PFC) pathway has been linked to cognitive and emotional disturbances in several psychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Preclinical evidence from the NMDA receptor antagonism rodent model of schizophrenia shows severe pathology selective to the H-PFC pathway. It is speculated that there is an increased excitatory drive from the hippocampus to the prefrontal cortex due to dysfunctions in the H-PFC plasticity, which may serve as the basis for the behavioral consequences observed in this rodent model...
2015: Future Neurology
Christina H Liu
MRI and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) along with computed tomography and PET are the most common imaging modalities used in the clinics to detect structural abnormalities and pathological conditions in the brain. MRI generates superb image resolution/contrast without radiation exposure that is associated with computed tomography and PET; MRS and spectroscopic imaging technologies allow us to measure changes in brain biochemistry. Increasingly, neurobiologists and MRI scientists are collaborating to solve neuroscience problems across sub-cellular through anatomical levels...
January 1, 2015: Future Neurology
Xiaohua Xu, Sher May Ng, Eamonn Hassouna, Arthur Warrington, Sang-Hyun Oh, Moses Rodriguez
The immune system generates antibodies and antigen-specific T-cells as basic elements of the immune networks that differentiate self from non-self in a finely tuned manner. The antigen-specific nature of immune responses ensures that normal immune activation contains non-self when tolerating self. Here we review the B-1 subset of lymphocytes which produce self-reactive antibodies. By analyzing the IgM class of natural antibodies that recognize antigens from the nervous system, we emphasize that natural antibodies are biomarkers of how the immune system monitors the host...
2015: Future Neurology
Sehreen Mumtaz, Matthew B Jensen
A young women developed unilateral facial neuropathy 2 weeks after a motor vehicle collision involving fractures of the skull and mandible. MRI showed contrast enhancement of the facial nerve. We review the literature describing facial neuropathy after trauma and facial nerve enhancement patterns with different causes of facial neuropathy.
November 1, 2014: Future Neurology
Paco S Herson, Richard J Traystman
Translation from basic science bench research in ischemic stroke to bedside treatment of patients suffering ischemic stroke remains a difficult challenge. Despite literally hundreds of compounds and interventions that provide benefit in experimental models of cerebral ischemia, efficacy in humans remains to be demonstrated. The reasons for failure to translate the extensive positive basic science findings to successful clinical trials have been the focus of discussion for years. Some attribute the failure to flaws in clinical trial design, others question the predictive value of current animal models and some question the quality of preclinical data...
September 2014: Future Neurology
Jens H Jensen, Joseph A Helpern
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 1, 2014: Future Neurology
Ai-Ling Lin, Douglas L Rothman
Brain metabolism declines with age and do so in an accelerated manner in neurodegenerative disorders. Noninvasive neuroimaging techniques have played an important role to identify the metabolic biomarkers in aging brain. Particularly, PET with fluorine-18 ((18)F)-labeled 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose tracer and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) have been widely used to monitor changes in brain metabolism over time, identify the risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and predict the conversion from mild cognitive impairment to AD...
May 1, 2014: Future Neurology
Christiane Reitz
The article by Lambert et al. reports the identification of 11 novel susceptibility loci for late-onset Alzheimer's disease. The observations of this study significantly enhance the field since they further disentangle the genetic causes and pathways underlying Alzheimer's disease by identifying novel disease-associated variants clustering in specific pathways. These pathways include APP processing, lipid metabolism, inflammation/immune response, intracellular trafficking/endocytosis, tau metabolism, synaptic function...
March 2014: Future Neurology
Ravi Chopra, Vikram G Shakkottai
The cerebellum is an important structure for accurate control and timing of movement, and Purkinje neurons in the cerebellar cortex are key players in cerebellar motor control. Cerebellar dysfunction can result in ataxia, a disorder characterized by postural instability, gait disturbances and motor incoordination. Cerebellar ataxia is a symptom of a number of conditions, and the emerging evidence that Purkinje neuron dysfunction, in particular, abnormal Purkinje neuron repetitive firing, is a major driver of motor dysfunction in a subset of dominantly inherited ataxias is dicussed...
March 1, 2014: Future Neurology
Aaron D Besterman, Scott A Wilke, Tua-Elisabeth Mulligan, Stephen C Allison, Randi Hagerman, Andreea L Seritan, James A Bourgeois
Fragile X-associated disorders (FXD) are a group of disorders caused by expansion of non-coding CGG repeat elements in the fragile X (FMR1) gene. One of these disorders, fragile X syndrome (FXS), is the most common heritable cause of intellectual disability, and is caused by large CGG repeat expansions (>200) resulting in silencing of the FMR1 gene. An increasingly recognized number of neuropsychiatric FXD have recently been identified that are caused by 'premutation' range expansions (55-200). These disorders are characterized by a spectrum of neuropsychiatric manifestations ranging from an increased risk of neurodevelopmental, mood and anxiety disorders to neurodegenerative phenotypes such as the fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS)...
March 2014: Future Neurology
Michael S Wolfe
Considerable evidence, particularly from genetics, points to the aggregation-prone amyloid β-peptide as a pathogenic entity in Alzheimer's disease. Hence, the proteases that produce this peptide from its precursor protein have been prime targets for the development of potential therapeutics. One of these proteases, γ-secretase, has been a particular focus. Many inhibitors and modulators of this membrane-embedded protease complex have been identified, with some brought into late-stage clinical trials, where they have spectacularly failed...
2014: Future Neurology
Brian A Gordon, Tyler Blazey, Tammie Ls Benzinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2014: Future Neurology
Ana Recober, B Lee Peterlin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2014: Future Neurology
Thomas van Groen, Pasi Miettinen, Inga Kadish
We are studying the projections from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampal formation in the mouse. The dentate gyrus is innervated by the lateral entorhinal cortex (lateral perforant path) and medial entorhinal cortex (medial perforant path). The entorhinal cortex also projects to hippocampal areas CA3 and CA1, and to the subiculum. In young transgenic Alzheimer's disease mouse models (before amyloid-β pathology), the connections are not different from normal mice. In Alzheimer's disease mice with pathology, two changes occur: first, dystrophic axon endings appear near amyloid-β plaques, and second, there are sparse aberrant axon terminations not in the appropriate area or lamina of the hippocampus...
January 1, 2014: Future Neurology
Umrao R Monani, Darryl C De Vivo
Of the numerous inherited diseases known to afflict the pediatric population, spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is among the most common. It has an incidence of approximately one in 10,000 newborns and a carrier frequency of one in 50. Despite its relatively high incidence, SMA remains somewhat obscure among the many neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans. Nevertheless, the last two decades have witnessed remarkable progress in our understanding of the pathology, underlying biology and especially the molecular genetics of SMA...
January 1, 2014: Future Neurology
Amandine Jullienne, Jérôme Badaut
The revised 'expanded' neurovascular unit (eNVU) is a physiological and functional unit encompassing endothelial cells, pericytes, smooth muscle cells, astrocytes and neurons. Ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury are acute brain injuries directly affecting the eNVU with secondary damage, such as blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, edema formation and hypoperfusion. BBB dysfunctions are observed at an early postinjury time point, and are associated with eNVU activation of proteases, such as tissue plasminogen activator and matrix metalloproteinases...
November 1, 2013: Future Neurology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"