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Regenerative Medicine

Stephen Sullivan, Glyn N Stacey, Chihiro Akazawa, Naoki Aoyama, Ricardo Baptista, Patrick Bedford, Annelise Bennaceur Griscelli, Amit Chandra, Ngaire Elwood, Mathilde Girard, Shin Kawamata, Tadaaki Hanatani, Theodoros Latsis, Stephen Lin, Tenneille E Ludwig, Tamara Malygina, Amanda Mack, Joanne C Mountford, Scott Noggle, Lygia V Pereira, Jack Price, Michael Sheldon, Alok Srivastava, Harald Stachelscheid, Shaji R Velayudhan, Natalie J Ward, Marc L Turner, Jacqueline Barry, Jihwan Song
Use of clinical-grade human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines as a starting material for the generation of cellular therapeutics requires demonstration of comparability of lines derived from different individuals and in different facilities. This requires agreement on the critical quality attributes of such lines and the assays that should be used. Working from established recommendations and guidance from the International Stem Cell Banking Initiative for human embryonic stem cell banking, and concentrating on those issues more relevant to iPSCs, a series of consensus workshops has made initial recommendations on the minimum dataset required to consider an iPSC line of clinical grade, which are outlined in this report...
September 12, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
D Adam Young, Kirk C McGilvray, Nicole Ehrhart, Thomas W Gilbert
AIM: Biologically derived surgical graft materials come from a variety of sources with varying mechanical properties. This study aimed to evaluate the host response and mechanical performance of two extracellular matrix devices in a large animal preclinical model. MATERIALS & METHODS: Bilateral defects were created in the fascia lata of sheep and repaired with either an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) or urinary bladder matrix (UBM). After 1 or 3 months, the repair site was explanted for histological and mechanical analysis...
August 31, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Mukta S Sane, Neha Misra, Nathan M Quintanar, Christopher D Jones, Soumyajit Banerjee Mustafi
AIM: Placental allografts used for tissue regeneration differ in membrane compositions and processing techniques. A uniquely folded dehydrated binate amniotic membrane (DBAM) was biochemically characterized to evaluate its potential role in wound healing. METHODS: Histology, Luminex-based immunoassay and standard in vitro cell biology techniques were employed. RESULTS: Histological staining confirmed that the DBAM was chorion free with epithelial cell layer of the respective amnion membranes facing outward...
August 21, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Seydina B Touré, Erika Kleiderman, Bartha M Knoppers
Stem cells may not systematically obey traditional Phase I-IV clinical translation models. In response, various actors have suggested that stem cell-based medical innovation models could catalyze translation instead. Accordingly, calls were made to adopt more permissive approaches to stem cell translation. Yet, the Phase I-IV paradigm remains the standard within the scientific community. This article seeks to advance the stalemated discussions by proposing an alternative model for consideration. In it, we argue that a stem cell-based learning health system may be able to reconcile these two models...
July 25, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Hiromi Yagi Mendoza, Tomomi Yokoyama, Tomoko Tanaka, Hisataka Ii, Ken Yaegaki
AIM: In this study, we aimed to establish the differentiation protocol of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) into pancreatic islets using a 3D structure. MATERIALS & METHODS: DPSCs were differentiated in a 3D culture system using a stepwise protocol. Expression of β-cell markers, glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and PI3K/AKT and WNT pathways were compared between monolayer-cultured pancreatic cells and islets. RESULTS: Islet formation increased insulin and C-peptide production, and enhanced the expression of pancreatic markers...
July 20, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Gabriella Vácz, Bálint Major, Dorottya Gaál, Laura Petrik, Dénes Balázs Horváthy, Weiping Han, Tünde Holczer, Melinda Simon, Jeffrey M Muir, István Hornyák, Zsombor Lacza
AIM: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and hyperacute serum (HAS) were compared in a novel human model of ex vivo bone damage induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). MATERIALS & METHODS: Osteoarthritic subchondral bone pieces were harvested from discarded femoral heads during hip replacement surgery and subjected to transient OGD. RESULTS: Proteome profiling revealed that PRP is more angiopoietic, whereas HAS is more antiangiopoietic in composition...
July 1, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Lucas Dall Agnol, Fernanda Trindade Gonzalez Dias, Natália Fontana Nicoletti, Asdrubal Falavigna, Otávio Bianchi
AIM: Disc herniation is a spine disease that leads to suffering and disability. Discectomy is a Janus-faced approach that relieves pain symptoms but leave the intervertebral discs predisposed to herniation. This systematic review discussed the mechanical and biological requirements for a polyurethane-based biomaterial to be used in annular repair. METHODS: Search strategy was performed in PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases to define the main mechanical properties, biological findings and follow-up aspects of these biomaterials...
July 1, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Bahareh Abbaspanah, Maryam Momeni, Marzieh Ebrahimi, Seyed Hadi Mousavi
Perinatal tissues possess numerous types of stem (stromal) cells, which are considered effective candidates for cell therapy. These tissues possess common characteristics of both embryonic and adult stem cells, and cell therapists have begun to use perinatal stem cells to treat several diseases. Despite their benefits, these cells are considered biological waste and usually discarded after delivery. This review highlights the characteristics and potential clinical applications in regenerative medicine of perinatal stem cell sources - cord blood hematopoietic stem cells, umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells, amniotic membrane stem cells, amniotic fluid stem cells, amniotic epithelial cells and chorionic mesenchymal stem cells...
July 1, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Saheli Datta
The recent expansion of direct-to-consumer stem cell therapies (DSCTs) across nations where medical malpractice laws are the strongest globally challenges the causal assumption that low regulatory standards in developing countries bolster DSCTs. Drawing on firm-level data of existing biopharmaceuticals, approved stem cell therapies (SCTs) and DSCT clinics across the USA, PR China and India, this paper provides an innovation studies perspective of the ways in which the paradigmatic shift in fundamental knowledge production - from in vitro to in vivo stem cells - is transforming SCT discovery and delivery...
July 1, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Parinita Agrawal, Krishna Pramanik, Amit Biswas
AIM: Cartilage damage is a common age-related problem that leads to progressive proteoglycan loss. Glucosamine stimulates proteoglycan synthesis and, therefore, its effect on the cartilage extracellular matrix synthesis over silk fibroin:chitosan (SF:CS) tissue-engineered scaffold was investigated for cartilage construct generation. MATERIALS & METHODS: Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured and differentiated over SF:CS-glucosamine porous scaffold, under dynamic culture condition in spinner flask bioreactor...
July 1, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Emily Young, Brian Westerberg, Anat Yanai, Kevin Gregory-Evans
The olfactory mucosa contains cells that enable it to generate new neurons and other supporting cells throughout life, allowing it to replace cells of the mucosa that have been damaged by exposure to various insults. In this article, we discuss the different types of stem cell found within the olfactory mucosa and their properties. In particular, the mesenchymal-like cells found within the lamina propria will be reviewed in detail. In addition, we discuss potential applications of olfactory-derived stem cells toward hearing regeneration secondary to either inner hair cell loss or primary or secondary auditory nerve degeneration...
July 1, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Heather E desJardins-Park, Deshka S Foster, Michael T Longaker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 1, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Mariana Alves Bellezzia, Fernanda F Cruz, Vanessa Martins, Lígia Lins de Castro, Miquéias Lopes-Pacheco, Eduardo Prata Vilanova, Paulo A Mourão, Patricia Rm Rocco, Pedro L Silva
AIM: To evaluate different intratracheal flow rates on extracellular matrix content and lung mechanics in an established lung decellularization protocol. MATERIALS & METHODS: Healthy mice were used: 15 for decellularization and five to serve as controls. Fluids were instilled at 5, 10 and 20 ml/min flow rates through tracheal cannula and right ventricular cavity (0.5 ml/min) in all groups. RESULTS: The 20 ml/min rate better preserved collagen content in decellularized lungs...
July 1, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Zhi Yang, Zhicheng Song, Xin Nie, Jianjun Yang, Chenfang Zhu, Kaijin Guo, Yan Gu
AIM: To investigate the behavior of porcine-derived decellularized muscular matrix (DMM) in vitro and compare the performance of this biological mesh with that of acellular dermal matrix from pig in a full abdominal wall defect model. MATERIALS & METHODS: To describe the in vitro properties of the DMM scaffold with extracellular matrix histological analysis, growth factor quantification and scanning electron microscopy analysis. To compare structural and functional remodeling between acellular dermal matrix and DMM implants in a rodent full abdominal wall defect model...
July 1, 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Josephine K McEwan, Howard C Tribe, Neal Jacobs, Nicholas Hancock, Amir A Qureshi, Douglas G Dunlop, Richard Oc Oreffo
Bone is a highly specialized connective tissue and has a rare quality as one of the few tissues that can repair without a scar to regain pre-injury structure and function. Despite the excellent healing capacity of bone, tumor, infection, trauma and surgery can lead to significant bone loss requiring skeletal augmentation. Bone loss in the lower limb poses a complex clinical problem, requiring reconstructive techniques to restore form and function. In the past, amputation may have been the only option; however, there is now an array of reconstructive possibilities and cellular therapies available to salvage a limb...
June 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Elizabeth A Lucich, Juan L Rendon, Ian L Valerio
full-thickness skin defects remain a reconstructive challenge. Novel regenerative modalities can aid in addressing these defects. A literature review of currently available dermal and epidermal regenerates was performed. The mechanism and application for each skin substitute was analyzed to provide a guide for these modalities. Available epidermal substitutes include autografts and allografts and may be cultured or noncultured. Dermal regenerate templates exist in biologic and synthetic varieties that differ in the source animal and processing...
June 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Jeremy Snyder, Leigh Turner
AIM: To better understand how prospective customers interpret claims of businesses marketing unproven stem cell products that they are engaging in research activities. MATERIALS & METHODS: The authors examined 408 crowdfunding campaigns for unproven stem cell interventions for references to research activities. RESULTS: The authors identified three overarching themes: research as a signifier of scientific credibility; the experimental nature of stem cells as a rationale for noncoverage by insurers; and contributing to the advancement of science by engaging in research...
June 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Gisselle Escobar, Alejandro Escobar, Gabriel Ascui, Fabián I Tempio, María C Ortiz, Claudio A Pérez, Mercedes N López
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two platelet preparations used in the clinic, pure platelet-rich plasma (P-PRP) and the supernatant of calcium-activated P-PRP (S-PRP), on the phenotype of human macrophages. MATERIALS & METHODS: Surface markers and cytokine production of human monocyte-derived macrophages were analyzed after 24 h stimulation with P-PRP or S-PRP. RESULTS: P-PRP and S-PRP present no difference in the expression of CD206, a M2 tissue-repair macrophage-related marker...
June 2018: Regenerative Medicine
Gloria Pelizzo, Maria Antonietta Avanzini, Antonia Icaro Cornaglia, Annalisa De Silvestri, Melissa Mantelli, Paola Travaglino, Stefania Croce, Piero Romano, Luigi Avolio, Giulio Iacob, Massimo Dominici, Valeria Calcaterra
AIM: We evaluated the effects of the intradermal injection of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from adipose stem cells (ASC-EVs) and bone marrow cells (BM-EVs) in an experimental cutaneous wound repair model. METHODS: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were in vitro expanded from adipose (ASC) or BM tissues (BM-MSC) of rabbits. EVs were separated from the supernatants of confluent ASC and BM-MSCs. Two skin wounds were induced in each animal and treated with MSC or EV injections...
June 2018: Regenerative Medicine
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