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Vikesh Chhabria, Steve Beeton
AIM: To produce mammalian biomimetic nanosponges from mammalian erythrocyte ghosts. Biomimetic nanosponges were studied in vitro as treatment platforms against exotoxin-related sepsis. METHODS: Ovine blood was treated with hypotonic buffer to create erythrocyte ghosts and then subjected to sonication to produce erythrocyte vesicles of nonuniform size. Vesicles were then serially extruded through 400-nm and 100-nm polycarbonate membranes. Nanosponges were prepared by fusing poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) cores with ovine erythrocyte vesicles...
October 21, 2016: Nanomedicine
Gurpreet S Suri, Amritvir Kaur, Tapas Sen
Persistent development in nanomedicine has enabled successful nanosizing of most drug samples which, in turn, imparts remarkable properties to the drugs such as enhanced solubility and bioavailability for the applications in drug delivery. In this context, several review articles are available in scientific domain covering inorganic nanoparticles such as Au, Ag, SPIONs, Qdots, carbon nanotubes and graphene; however, this review covers the development of drug nanoparticles together with their possibilities and limitation from fabrication (bottom up vs top down) to application in drug delivery during the last 5 years...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine
Maneea Eizadi Sharifabad, Tim Mercer, Tapas Sen
Liposome-capped core-shell mesoporous silica-coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles called 'magnetic protocells' were prepared as novel nanocomposites and used for loading anticancer drug doxorubicin (DOX) for cellular toxicity study. Cytotoxicity of the magnetic protocells with or without DOX was tested in vitro on commercial MCF7 and U87 cell lines under alternating magnetic field. MCF7 cell line treated with the DOX-loaded nanoparticles under alternating magnetic field exhibited nearly 20% lower survival rate after 24 h compared with cells treated with free DOX and similarly, it was around 24% when applied to U87...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine
Jian Zhang, Guixin Chou, Zhijun Liu, Mei Liu
AIM: To examine if rubusoside (RUB) can overcome insolubility of betulonic acid (BEA), it can be accurately evaluated for its intrinsic activity against cancer in cell culture and in tumor animal models. MATERIALS & METHODS: By processing RUB and BEA together using a solvent evaporation method, a joint nanoparticulate structure is formed, designated as BEA-NP. RESULTS: BEA-NP was found over three-times more permeable than that solubilized by DMSO in Caco-2 cell monocultures...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine
Aditi A Sidhaye, Kanchan C Bhuran, Sneha Zambare, Munna Abubaker, Niroshini Nirmalan, Kamalinder K Singh
AIM: The intra-erythrocytic development of the malarial parasite is dependent on active uptake of nutrients, including human serum albumin (HSA), into parasitized red blood cells (pRBCs). We have designed HSA-based nanoparticles as a potential drug-delivery option for antimalarials. METHODS: Artemether-loaded nanoparticles (AANs) were designed and antimalarial activity evaluated in vitro/in vivo using Plasmodium falciparum/Plasmodium berghei species, respectively...
October 19, 2016: Nanomedicine
Antonella Antonelli, Carla Sfara, Oliver Weber, Ulrich Pison, Elisabetta Manuali, Sonia Salamida, Mauro Magnani
AIM: The biomedical application of contrast agents based on superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles is still limited because of their short intravascular half-life. The potential of red blood cells (RBCs) loaded with new ferucarbotran nanoparticles as magnetic contrast agents with longer blood retention time has been investigated. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ferucarbotran was loaded into RBCs by a procedure of hypotonic dialysis and isotonic resealing. Ferucarbotran amounts encapsulated in RBCs were determined by NMR...
October 14, 2016: Nanomedicine
Sophie Richard, Véronique Eder, Gianvito Caputo, Clément Journé, Phalla Ou, Julie Bolley, Liliane Louedec, Erwann Guenin, Laurence Motte, Nicola Pinna, Yoann Lalatonne
AIM: Tunable size ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) nanoparticles from 3 to 9 nm coated with polyethylene glycol phosphonate moieties have been designed for neovascularization MRI. MATERIALS & METHODS: USPIO were synthesized using a nonaqueous sol-gel method. An ischemia-reperfusion rat model has been chosen for neo-angiogenesis and scanned on MRI after injection of different sized USPIO. Histological studies have been performed for USPIO localization within the tissue...
October 14, 2016: Nanomedicine
Roger M Pallares, Yusong Wang, Suo H Lim, Nguy N T K Thanh, Xiaodi Su
AIM: To develop a novel plasmonic nanosensing technique to monitor the exposure levels of UV light for sunlight disease prevention. METHODS: Anisotropic gold nanoparticles were grown inside a UV photoresponsive fluid, which was previously exposed to UV radiation from different sources. The morphology and optical properties of the obtained nanoparticles were monitored by spectroscopy and microscopy. RESULTS: The morphological and optical properties of the nanoparticles were dependent on the UV dose...
October 14, 2016: Nanomedicine
Yurun Shen, Mengying Hu, Liyan Qiu
AIM: In this study, we constructed a novel vector (BioPf-M-loaded Alg-microparticles [Alg-BioPf-M]) with nano-in-micro structure to improve the oral absorption of docetaxel (DTX) by sequentially dual-targeting functions toward intestine and sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter based on entrapping biotin-modified micelles into alginate microparticles. METHODS: A series of characteristics of this system was investigated, such as drug release, cellular uptake, transport pathway and the comprehensive in vivo studies including pharmacokinetic studies, anti-tumor activity and toxicity study...
October 12, 2016: Nanomedicine
Zhirong Gong, Dazhong Chen, Fangyuan Xie, Junjie Liu, He Zhang, Hao Zou, Yuan Yu, Yan Chen, Zhiguo Sun, Xinxia Wang, Hai Zhang, Guoqing Zhang, Chuan Yin, Jie Gao, Yanqiang Zhong, Ying Lu
AIM: To develop salinomycin-loaded nanoliposomes (SLN), doxorubicin-loaded nanoliposomes (DLN) and nanoliposomes codelivering salinomycin and doxorubicin (SDLN) to target both liver cancer cells and cancer stem cells. MATERIALS & METHODS: The characterization and antitumor activity of SLN, DLN and SDLN were evaluated. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: The doxorubicin/salinomycin sodium mole ratio of 1:1 had the best synergistic combination index value, and was chosen as the drug ratio in SDLN...
September 20, 2016: Nanomedicine
Chiara Brazzale, Roberto Canaparo, Luisa Racca, Federica Foglietta, Gianni Durando, Roberto Fantozzi, Paolo Caliceti, Stefano Salmaso, Loredana Serpe
AIM: This study investigates cancer targeted gold nanoparticles as ultrasound sensitizers for the treatment of cancer. METHODS: The ultrasound sensitizer activity of folate-PEG decorated gold nanoparticles (FA-PEG-GNP) has been studied on human cancer cell lines that overexpress folate receptors (KB and HCT-116) and another that does not (MCF7), at two ultrasound energy densities (8 × 10(-6) J cm(-2) and 8 × 10(-5) J cm(-2), for 5 min at 1.866 MHz). RESULTS: FA-PEG-GNP selectively targeted KB and HCT-116 cells and a remarkable reduction in cancer cell growth was observed upon ultrasound exposure, along with significant reactive oxygen species generation and increase in necrotic cells...
September 15, 2016: Nanomedicine
Stephan Grabbe, Heinrich Haas, Mustafa Diken, Lena M Kranz, Peter Langguth, Ugur Sahin
The development of nucleic acid based vaccines against cancer has gained considerable momentum through the advancement of modern sequencing technologies and on novel RNA-based synthetic drug formats, which can be readily adapted following identification of every patient's tumor-specific mutations. Furthermore, affordable and individual 'on demand' production of molecularly optimized vaccines should allow their application in large groups of patients. This has resulted in the therapeutic concept of an active personalized cancer vaccine, which has been brought into clinical testing...
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Rudolf Zentel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Andrea Tuettenberg, Kerstin Steinbrink, Detlef Schuppan
Macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and tolerogenic dendritic cells are central players of a heterogeneous myeloid cell population, with the ability to suppress innate and adaptive immune responses and thus to promote tumor growth. Their influx and local proliferation are mainly induced by the cancers themselves, and their numbers in the tumor microenvironment and the peripheral blood correlate with decreased survival. Therapeutic targeting these innate immune cells, either aiming at their elimination or polarization toward tumor suppressive cells is an attractive novel approach to control tumor progression and block metastasis...
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Helmut Jonuleit, Tobias Bopp, Christian Becker
Treg cell-mediated immune suppression appears to represent a significant barrier to effective anticancer immune responses and their inactivation or removal is viewed as a potential therapeutic approach. Although suitable tools for selective Treg cell manipulation in man are missing, their number and function can be altered by a number of drugs and biologicals and by reprogramming tumor-infiltrating antigen presenting cells. Nanoparticles offer exceptional new options in drug and gene delivery by prolonging the circulation time of their cargo, protecting it from degradation and promoting its local accumulation in cells and tissues...
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Stephan Grabbe, Katharina Landfester, Detlef Schuppan, Matthias Barz, Rudolf Zentel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nanomedicine
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Nane Vanparijs, Lutz Nuhn, Samantha J Paluck, Maria Kokkinopoulou, Ingo Lieberwirth, Heather D Maynard, Bruno G De Geest
AIM: A promising nanogel vaccine platform was expanded toward antigen conjugation. MATERIALS & METHODS: Block copolymers containing a reactive ester solvophobic block and a PEG-like solvophilic block were synthesized via reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer polymerization. Following self-assembly in DMSO, the esters allow for core-crosslinking and hydrophilization by amide bond formation with primary amines. Free thiols were accessed at the polymer chain ends through aminolysis of the reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer groups, and into the nanogel core by reactive ester conversion with cysteamine...
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Manuel Tonigold, Volker Mailänder
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Nanomedicine
Mustafa Diken, Stefanie Pektor, Matthias Miederer
Preclinical imaging has become a powerful method for investigation of in vivo processes such as pharmacokinetics of therapeutic substances and visualization of physiologic and pathophysiological mechanisms. These are important aspects to understand diseases and develop strategies to modify their progression with pharmacologic interventions. One promising intervention is the application of specifically tailored nanoscale particles that modulate the immune system to generate a tumor targeting immune response...
October 2016: Nanomedicine
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