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Nanomedicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816102/hydrodenticity-to-enhance-relaxivity-of-gadolinium-dtpa-within-crosslinked-hyaluronic-acid-nanoparticles
#1
Maria Russo, Alfonso Maria Ponsiglione, Ernesto Forte, Paolo Antonio Netti, Enza Torino
AIM: The efficacy of gadolinium (Gd) chelates as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging remains limited owing to poor relaxivity and toxic effects. Here, the effect of the hydration of the hydrogel structure on the relaxometric properties of Gd-DTPA is explained for the first time and called Hydrodenticity. RESULTS: The ability to tune the hydrogel structure is proved through a microfluidic flow-focusing approach able to produce crosslinked hyaluronic acid nanoparticles, analyzed regarding the crosslink density and mesh size, and connected to the characteristic correlation times of the Gd-DTPA...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814165/ag-implantation-induces-mechanical-properties-cell-adhesion-and-antibacterial-effects-of-tin-ag-multilayers-in-vitro
#2
Xiuhua Sun, Huanhuan Gong, Dejun Li, Lei Dong, Mengli Zhao, Rongxin Wan, Hanqing Gu
AIM: This study aims to investigate the effect of Ag(+) implantation dose on the structure, hardness, adhesion strength, friction resistance, cell adhesion and antibacterial effects of TiN/Ag multilayers. METHODS: Nanoscale TiN/Ag multilayers were deposited on Ti-6Al-4V substrates using multiarc ion plating. The multilayers were then implanted by Ag ions. RESULTS: A distinct multilayer structure and large titanium nitride grains with better (111) crystallinity were proved...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814163/protease-activated-nanomaterials-for-targeted-cancer-theranostics
#3
Yung-Chieh Chan, Michael Hsiao
Cancer metastasis accompanies irreversible proteolysis. Malignant cells that abnormally express extracellular proteases usually lead to a poor outcome during cancer progression. The development of protease-activated drugs is an important goal. Moreover, the specific proteolytic mechanism can be used as a diagnostic strategy. Currently, nanotechnology for use in medication has been extensively developed to exploit the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles. For example, to improve the efficacy of cancer therapy drugs, targeted delivery has been attempted by combining a targeting ligand with a nanoparticle...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814149/n-implantation-induce-cytocompatibility-of-shape-controlled-three-dimensional-self-assembly-graphene
#4
Ye Cao, Dejun Li, Mengli Zhao, Huanhuan Gong, Rongxin Wan, Hanqing Gu
AIM: The aim of the present research was to synthesize N(+) implanted 3D self-assembly graphene (N(+)/3D-SGHs) to overcome the weaknesses of graphene (small sizes and poor hydrophilicity) in tissue engineering scaffolds. MATERIALS & METHODS: N(+)/3D-SGHs was achieved by ion implantation on one-step hydrothermal synthesized 3D self-assembly graphene (3D-SGHs), and N(+)/3D-SGHs with different doses of nitrogen ions (1 × 10(16) ions/cm(2), 1 × 10(18) ions/cm(2) and 1 × 10(20) ions/cm(2)), which adjusted by nitrogen ion beam intensity...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814137/pegylated-crosslinked-hyaluronic-acid-nanoparticles-designed-through-a-microfluidic-platform-for-nanomedicine
#5
Maria Russo, Anna Maria Grimaldi, Paolo Bevilacqua, Olimpia Tammaro, Paolo Antonio Netti, Enza Torino
AIM: A high versatile microfluidic platform is proposed to design, in a one-step strategy, PEGylated crosslinked hyaluronic acid nanoparticles (cHANPs) entrapping a magnetic resonance imaging contrast agent and a dye for multimodal imaging applications. MATERIALS & METHODS: Clinically relevant biomaterials were shaped in the form of spherical NPs through a microfluidic flow focusing approach. A comparison between post processing and simultaneous PEGylation is reported to evaluate the potentiality of the chemical decoration of the cHANPs in microfluidics...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814136/hybrid-core-shell-nanoparticles-entrapping-gd-dtpa-and-18-f-fdg-for-simultaneous-pet-mri-acquisitions
#6
Donatella Vecchione, Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Emanuele Nicolai, Paolo Antonio Netti, Enza Torino
AIM: Although there has been an improvement in the hardware and software of the PET/MRI system, the development of the nanoprobes exploiting the simultaneous acquisition of the bimodal data is still under investigation. Moreover, few studies on biocompatible and clinically relevant probes are available. This work presents a core-shell polymeric nanocarrier with improved relaxometric properties for simultaneous PET/MRI acquisitions. MATERIALS & METHODS: Core-shell nanoparticles entrapping the Gd-DTPA and (18)F-FDG are obtained by a complex coacervation...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814127/carbon-nanotubes-functionalized-with-folic-acid-attached-via-biomimetic-peptide-linker
#7
Justyna Fraczyk, Malgorzata Walczak, Lukasz Szymanski, Zbigniew Kolacinski, Henryk Wrzosek, Ireneusz Majsterek, Karolina Przybylowska-Sygut, Zbigniew J Kaminski
AIM: Anchoring folic acid (FA) with a biomimetic peptidic linker resistant to proteolytic degradation to act as a homing device on functionalized carbon nanotubes. MATERIALS & METHODS: Ethylenediamine was attached to oxidized multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) using 4-(4,6-dimethoxy-[1,3,5]triazin-2-yl)-4-methylmorpholinium tetrafluoroborate. FA was coupled with 6-aminohexanoic acid and derivatives of β-alanine, affording four intermediates, which connected to the MWNTs via peptidic linkers of various lengths...
August 17, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805551/bone-targeted-cabazitaxel-nanoparticles-for-metastatic-prostate-cancer-skeletal-lesions-and-pain
#8
Andrew S Gdowski, Amalendu Ranjan, Marjana R Sarker, Jamboor K Vishwanatha
AIM: The aim of this study was to develop a novel cabazitaxel bone targeted nanoparticle (NP) system for improved drug delivery to the bone microenvironment. MATERIALS & METHODS: Nanoparticles were developed using poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and cabazitaxel as the core with amino-bisphosphonate surface conjugation. Optimization of nanoparticle physiochemical properties, in vitro evaluation in prostate cancer cell lines and in vivo testing in an intraosseous model of metastatic prostate cancer was performed...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805542/plasma-protein-adsorption-and-biological-identity-of-systemically-administered-nanoparticles
#9
Dongyu Chen, Shanthi Ganesh, Weimin Wang, Mansoor Amiji
Although a variety of nanoparticles (NPs) have been used for drug delivery applications, their surfaces are immediately covered by plasma protein corona upon systemic administration. As a result, the adsorbed proteins create a unique biological identity of the NPs that lead to unpredictable performance. The protein corona on NPs could also impede active targeting, induce off-target effects, trigger particle clearance and even provoke toxicity. This article reviews the fundamentals of NP-plasma protein interaction, the consequences of the interactions, and provides insights into the correlations of protein corona with biodistribution and cellular delivery...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805153/investigating-the-susceptibility-of-mice-to-a-bacterial-challenge-after-intravenous-exposure-to-durable-nanoparticles
#10
Saeed Khan, Qin Zhang, Bernard S Marasa, Kidon Sung, Carl E Cerniglia, Taylor Ingle, Margie Yvonne Jones, Angel M Paredes, Grainne A Tobin, Simona Bancos, James L Weaver, Peter L Goering, Paul C Howard, Anil K Patri, Katherine M Tyner
AIM: The goal of this study was to determine whether bacterial clearance in a rodent model would be impaired upon exposure to gold, silver or silica nanoparticles (NPs). MATERIALS & METHODS: Mice received weekly injections of NPs followed by a challenge of Listeria monocytogenes (LM). On days 3 and 10 after LM injections, the animals were sacrificed and their tissues were collected for elemental analysis, electron microscopy and LM count determination. RESULTS: The untreated and NP-treated animals cleared LM at the same rate suggesting that bioaccumulation of NPs did not increase the animals' susceptibility to bacterial infection...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805111/chemoresistance-in-cancer-cells-exosomes-as-potential-regulators-of-therapeutic-tumor-heterogeneity
#11
Aman Sharma
Drug resistance in cancer cells remains a fundamental challenge. Be it nontargeted or targeted drugs, the presence of intrinsic or acquired cancer cell resistance remains a great obstacle in chemotherapy. Conventionally, a spectrum of cellular mechanisms defines drug resistance including overexpression of antiapoptotic proteins and drug efflux pumps, mutations in target and synergistic activation of prosurvival pathways in tumor cells. In addition to these well-studied routes, exosome-induced chemoresistance is emerging as a novel mechanism...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805110/lack-of-interaction-of-lopinavir-solid-drug-nanoparticles-with-cells-of-the-immune-system
#12
Neill J Liptrott, Marco Giardiello, Tom O McDonald, Steven P Rannard, Andrew Owen
AIM: We previously demonstrated that solid drug nanoparticles (SDNs) lopinavir (LPV) dispersed into aqueous media display favorable pharmacokinetics. METHODS: The impact of LPV SDNs on the function and phenotype of primary human T cells and macrophages (primary sites of HIV replication) was investigated. RESULTS: LPV significantly increased IL-1β (ninefold higher than untreated cells; p = 0.045) and TNF-α (sixfold higher than untreated cells; p = 0...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805098/assessment-of-the-permeability-and-toxicity-of-polymeric-nanocapsules-using-the-zebrafish-model
#13
Carmen Teijeiro-Valiño, Elena Yebra-Pimentel, Jorge Guerra-Varela, Noemi Csaba, María J Alonso, Laura Sánchez
AIM: To assess the capacity of a new drug delivery nanocapsule (NC) with a double shell of hyaluronic acid and protamine to overcome biological barriers using the zebrafish model. MATERIALS & METHODS: NCs were prepared by the solvent displacement method, tagged with fluorescent makers and physicochemically characterized. Toxicity was evaluated according to the Fish Embryo Acute Toxicity test, and permeability was tested by exposing zebrafish, with and without chorion, to the fluorescent NCs...
August 14, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756740/c-type-lectin-receptor-s-targeted-nanoliposomes-an-intelligent-approach-for-effective-cancer-immunotherapy
#14
Rajeev Sharma, Nishi Mody, Varun Kushwah, Sanyog Jain, S P Vyas
AIM: The purpose of present approach is to target C-Type lectin (CTL) receptors for preferential uptake by the macrophages/dendritic cells and improving the cross-presentation of ovalbumin. MATERIALS & METHODS: Conventional and engineered nanoliposomes (MPNLs) were fabricated and extensively characterized. The nanoliposome(s) was spherical in shape; and their ζ potential, size and ovalbumin loading efficiency were recorded to be 268 ± 4.15 nm, 23.4 ± 0.35 mV, 46...
July 31, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747089/advances-in-nanopore-sensing-promises-to-transform-healthcare
#15
Farzin Haque, Shaoying Wang, Taoxiang Wu, Peixuan Guo
International Conference on Nanopore Technology (Shenzhen), 30 March-1 April 2017, Shenzhen, China The International Conference on Nanopore Technology (Shenzhen) was held from 30 March to 1 April 2017 in Shenzhen, China. The goal of the meeting was threefold: leverage the unique properties of nanopore technology to promote transformative advances in medicine, encourage cross-disciplinary collaborations in the research community within China and abroad; and discuss critical challenges that need to be addressed to rapidly advance the field...
July 27, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745129/complex-effects-of-tumor-microenvironment-on-the-tumor-disposition-of-carrier-mediated-agents
#16
Andrew T Lucas, Lauren Sl Price, Allison Schorzman, William C Zamboni
Major advances in carrier-mediated agents, including nanoparticle, conjugates and antibody-drug conjugates, have created revolutionary drug delivery systems in cancer over the past two decades. While these agents provide several advantages, such as greater duration of exposure and solubility, compared with their small-molecule counterparts, there is substantial variability in delivery of these agents to tissues and especially tumors. This review provides an overview of tumor microenvironment factors that affect the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of carrier-mediated agents observed in preclinical models and patients...
July 26, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745127/modified-gold-based-sirna-nanotherapeutics-for-targeted-therapy-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer
#17
Reza Shahbazi, Elif Asik, Nermin Kahraman, Mustafa Turk, Bulent Ozpolat, Kezban Ulubayram
AIM: In this study, we aimed to therapeutically target eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF-2K) in an in vivo triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) tumor model. MATERIALS & METHODS: We synthesized a highly monodisperse nanoformulation using polyethylenimine-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNP-PEI) as siRNA delivery vehicle and evaluated gene downregulation. RESULTS: We found that AuNP-PEI/eEF-2K nanoformulation was highly effective for in vitro and in vivo gene downregulation and showed remarkable antitumor efficacy that was associated with eEF-2K knockdown, inhibition of Src and MAPK-ERK signaling pathways in a TNBC orthotopic tumor model...
July 26, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745104/ph-sensitive-nanoparticles-for-improved-oral-delivery-of-dapsone-risk-assessment-design-optimization-and-characterization
#18
Luíse L Chaves, Sofia A Costa Lima, Alexandre Cc Vieira, Luísa Barreiros, Marcela A Segundo, Domingos Ferreira, Bruno Sarmento, Salette Reis
AIM: To optimize the production of pH-sensitive dapsone (DAP) nanoparticles based on Eugradit L100 (NPs-EL100-DAP) for oral delivery. MATERIALS & METHODS: NPs-EL100-DAP were optimized using a Plackett-Burman design and a Box-Behnken design. The physicochemical properties of the obtained nanoparticles were monitored by microscopy, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, in vitro release assays, and examined for cytotoxicity and permeation across intestinal barrier...
July 26, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718703/nanoliposome-improves-inhibitory-effects-of-naringenin-on-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-mice
#19
Cong Chen, Xu Jie, Yangjie Ou, Yini Cao, Lu Xu, Yunxia Wang, Rong Qi
AIM: To prepare naringenin nanoliposome (NRG-Nanolipo) and investigate its inhibitory effects on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). MATERIALS & METHODS: NRG-Nanolipo was prepared by thin-film rehydration method. Its characterizations and effects on NAFLD in mice induced by methionine choline deficient diet were investigated. RESULTS: NRG-Nanolipo had high-drug loading percentage and showed a sustained release profile. The nanoliposome formulation significantly increased oral absorption of naringenin (NRG)...
July 18, 2017: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703684/development-of-antifungal-therapies-using-nanomaterials
#20
Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Bonita Durnaś, Ewelina Piktel, Robert Bucki
The number and diversity of chemical structures currently available as antibacterial drugs is much higher compared with the number of active substances in relation to pathogenic fungi. In this review we focus on nanotechnology approaches, which offer promising strategies to create nanoagents that possess broad-spectrum antifungal activity and might overcome mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Special attention was given to magnetic nanoparticles and their ability to restrict fungal growth directly, which depends on surface chemistry and pathogen strains...
July 13, 2017: Nanomedicine
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