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Chiara Bastiancich, Laurent Lemaire, John Bianco, Florence Franconi, Fabienne Danhier, Veronique Préat, Guillaume Bastiat, Frederic Lagarce
AIM: Anticancer drug-loaded hydrogels are a promising strategy for the local treatment of incurable brain tumors such as glioblastoma (GBM). Recently, we demonstrated the efficacy of lauroyl-gemcitabine lipid nanocapsule hydrogel (GemC12 -LNC) in a U-87 MG xenograft orthotopic mouse model. In this study, we developed a reliable and reproducible surgical procedure to resect orthotopic GBM tumors in rats. GemC12 -LNC hydrogel integrity was tested after brain administration in rats and its anti-tumor efficacy was tested on a 9L syngeneic orthotopic model...
September 11, 2018: Nanomedicine
Victoria Lm Herrera, Aaron H Colby, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, David G Coleman, Mark W Grinstaff
This review presents an integrated analysis of the current-state-of-the-art in nucleic acid nanotherapies and highlights the importance of nanotechnology in the delivery of nucleic acid therapies. While there is no one dominant nanodesign, the diversity of nanodesigns and delivery of different siRNAs, miRNA and DNA to inhibit more than 20 targets in seven disease states in Phase II/III clinical trials reflects the potential of nucleic acid therapies to treat intractable diseases and non-druggable targets. We provide benchmarks to aid in comparing the design, proof-of-concept studies and clinical trials...
September 11, 2018: Nanomedicine
Biao Chen, Yajun Zhang, Yaning Yang, Shaopeng Chen, An Xu, Lijun Wu, Shengmin Xu
AIM: To investigate the possible mechanisms of telomerase and telomere underlying the anticancer effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). MATERIALS & METHODS: 25nm polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated AgNPs were used. The telomerase activity and telomere function were evaluated. The anticancer effects of AgNPs were gauged with cell viability assay under different statement of telomerase and telomere. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: AgNPs could inhibit telomerase activity and lead to telomere shortening and dysfunction...
September 11, 2018: Nanomedicine
Davide Orsi, Tiziano Rimoldi, Silvana Pinelli, Rossella Alinovi, Matteo Goldoni, Giovanna Benecchi, Francesca Rossi, Luigi Cristofolini
AIM: To synthesize and characterize the performances of a new all-inorganic nanocomposite (NC) for self-lighted photodynamic therapy against cancer. This NC could allow radiotherapy doses to be reduced, as it enhances the effects of x-rays, generating cytotoxic reactive oxygen species as singlet oxygen. MATERIALS & METHODS: The proposed NC combines CeF3 and ZnO; CeF3 absorbs 6-MeV x-rays and activates the photosensitizer ZnO. Characterization is performed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning-TEM, energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry and fluorescence spectroscopies...
September 10, 2018: Nanomedicine
Mahmoud M Abd Elwakil, Moustafa T Mabrouk, Maged W Helmy, Elsayeda-Zeinab A Abdelfattah, Sachin K Khiste, Kadria A Elkhodairy, Ahmed O Elzoghby
AIM: The use of inhalable nanomedicines can overcome the Enhanced permeation and retention effect (EPR)-associated drawbacks in lung cancer therapy via systemic nanomedicines. METHODS: We developed a lactoferrin-chondroitin sulfate nanocomplex for the co-delivery of doxorubicin and ellagic acid nanocrystals to lung cancer cells. Then, the nanocomplex was converted into inhalable nanocomposites via spray drying. RESULTS: The resulting 192.3 nm nanocomplex exhibited a sequential faster release of ellagic acid, followed by doxorubicin...
September 7, 2018: Nanomedicine
Catarina Oliveira, Nuno M Neves, Rui L Reis, Albino Martins, Tiago H Silva
AIM: To produce marine-origin nanoparticles (NPs) aiming to develop more effective and tolerated therapies for breast cancer. MATERIALS & METHODS: NPs based in two marine-origin polymers (fucoidan and chitosan) were prepared by polyelectrolyte complexation, for the delivery of an antitumor drug model (gemcitabine [Gem]). RESULTS: Final formulation resulted in stable NPs around 115-140 nm in size and with a polydispersity index less than 0...
September 7, 2018: Nanomedicine
Shivani Sahu, Sameer S Katiyar, Varun Kushwah, Sanyog Jain
AIM: The current study is emphasized on development of a nanoemulsion system that simultaneously delivers two antipsoriatic agents viz. Tacrolimus and Kalonji oil (functional excepient) topically. MATERIALS & METHODS: A nanoemulsion was characterized for quality attributes; a nanoemulsion gel was evaluated for spreadability, viscosity, dermal bioavailability, and in vitro efficacy in A-431 cell line, and so forth. In vivo performance was evaluated on psoriasis model in BALB/c mice...
September 6, 2018: Nanomedicine
James J Hobson, Andrew Owen, Steve P Rannard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 6, 2018: Nanomedicine
Jun Fu, Liyan Qiu
AIM: To meet the requirements on both delivery stability during blood circulation and fast intracellular release for water-soluble chemotherapeutics encapsulated in polymersomes. MATERIALS & METHODS: A shell photo-crosslinked and esterase-sensitive polymersome (C-PEAMP-D) was constructed based on amphiphilic polyphosphazene PEAMP containing 2-aminoethyl methacrylate. RESULTS: The leakage of doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX·HCl) was significantly inhibited from 42...
September 6, 2018: Nanomedicine
Amit Khurana, Sravani Tekula, Chandraiah Godugu
AIM: The present study was designed to probe the antidiabetic effects of nanoceria (NC) in Type 1 diabetes (T1DM). MATERIALS & METHODS: NC was characterized using scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform IR, powder x-ray diffraction and zeta sizer. Multiple low doses of streptozotocin (40 mg/kg, intraperitoneally, five consecutive days) induced Type 1 diabetic Swiss mice were treated with NC at two doses (0.2 and 2 mg/kg, ip.). RESULTS: NC treatment significantly reduced glucose levels and diabetogenesis to 50% (4/8 animals) at 0...
August 28, 2018: Nanomedicine
Menachem Motiei, Tamar Sadan, Neta Zilony, Guy Topaz, Rachela Popovtzer, Moris Topaz
AIM: Regulated negative pressure-assisted wound therapy is a fundamental, nonpharmaceutical technology for acute and chronically infected wounds, yet bacterial clearance and biofilm buildup remain a challenge for healing. Regulated irrigation combined with negative pressure (RI-NPT) is emerging as an alternative therapeutic strategy for reducing bacterial load. Here, we analyzed RI-NPT hydrokinetics and efficacy of bacterial load reduction in wounds. MATERIALS & METHODS: Escherichia coli were loaded with gold nanoparticles, quantified by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy...
August 28, 2018: Nanomedicine
Liangjiao Chen, Jia Liu, Yanli Zhang, Guilan Zhang, Yiyuan Kang, Aijie Chen, Xiaoli Feng, Longquan Shao
Silicon-based materials and their oxides are widely used in drug delivery, dietary supplements, implants and dental fillers. Silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) interact with immunocompetent cells and induce immunotoxicity. However, the toxic effects of SiNPs on the immune system have been inadequately reviewed. The toxicity of SiNPs to the immune system depends on their physicochemical properties and the cell type. Assessments of immunotoxicity include determining cell dysfunctions, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity...
August 28, 2018: Nanomedicine
Mohamed El-Far, Neven Salah, Alaa Essam, Amira O Abd El-Azim, Ibrahim M El-Sherbiny
AIM: This study aimed to evaluate, for the first time the potential use of a safe biocompatible nanoformulation of silymarin (SM) as antitumor agent and to provide its mechanism of action compared with native SM. MATERIALS & METHODS: SM was loaded into pluronic nanomicelles and Ehrlich ascites carcinoma-tumor-bearing mice were used as experimental model. Biochemical parameters including SOD, CAT and GSH, lipid peroxidation biomarkers (MDA), histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies were applied on the Ehrlich ascites carcinoma cells...
August 23, 2018: Nanomedicine
Midhun B Thomas, Divya Prakash Gnanadhas, Prasanta K Dash, Jatin Machhi, Zhiyi Lin, JoEllyn McMillan, Benson Edagwa, Harris Gelbard, Howard E Gendelman, Santhi Gorantla
AIM: Pharmacologic agents that affect autophagy were tested for their abilities to enhance macrophage nanoformulated antiretroviral drug (ARV) depots and its slow release. METHODS: These agents included URMC-099, rapamycin, metformin, desmethylclomipramine, 2-hydroxy-β-cyclodextrin (HBC) and clonidine. Each was administered with nanoformulated atazanavir (ATV) nanoparticles to human monocyte-derived macrophages. ARV retention, antiretroviral activity and nanocrystal autophagosomal formation were evaluated...
August 21, 2018: Nanomedicine
Tanveer A Tabish, Chris J Scotton, Daniel C J Ferguson, Liangxu Lin, Anienke van der Veen, Sophie Lowry, Muhammad Ali, Farhat Jabeen, Muhammad Ali, Paul G Winyard, Shaowei Zhang
AIM: Achieving reliably high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in photodynamic therapy (PDT) remains challenging. Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) hold great promise for PDT. However, the photochemical processes leading to GQD-derived ROS generation have not yet been fully elucidated. MATERIALS & METHODS: Physicochemical characteristics of GQDs were comprehensively investigated, including electron paramagnetic resonance analysis of singlet oxygen production...
August 20, 2018: Nanomedicine
Xiaodong Song, Wenting Shang, Li Peng, Hongmei Jiang, Kun Wang, Chihua Fang, Jie Tian
AIM: The diagnosis and treatment of hepatocarcinoma (HCC) is believed to be improved due to the development of specific targeting probes by molecular imaging methods. GPC3, which is a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-specific tumor marker, anchors at most HCC cells. To target this cell membrane protein, we developed a novel nanoparticle by conjugating WS2 -Ga3+ -PEG and a short peptide with favorable specificity and affinity to the GPC3 protein. MATERIALS & METHODS: In in vitro assay, several physical properties of the novel probe were evaluated...
August 9, 2018: Nanomedicine
Weiyuan Zhang, Wenyue Wang, David X Yu, Zhicheng Xiao, Zhiyong He
Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke are the most common CNS diseases, all characterized by progressive cellular dysfunction and death in specific areas of the nervous system. Therapeutic development for these diseases has lagged behind other disease areas due to difficulties in early diagnosis, long disease courses and drug delivery challenges, not least due to the blood-brain barrier. Over recent decades, nanotechnology has been explored as a potential tool for the diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of CNS diseases...
August 8, 2018: Nanomedicine
Rehab M Hussein, Hanan Saleh
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of two different doses of naked gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the experimental colitis in rats. MATERIALS & METHODS: Colitis was induced in rats by single intracolonic instillation of dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (250 μl DNBS-25 mg/rat). Four days later the rats were intravenously injected with a single dose of AuNPs 40 and 400 μg/kg of size 16-25 nm. RESULTS: In comparison with dinitro-benzene sulfonic acid-colitis group, the exposure to AuNPs for 72 h ameliorated the liver and kidney functions, increased the regenerative capacity of damaged colon tissues, suppressed the inflammatory cytokine response and diminished the colonic malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase activities...
August 7, 2018: Nanomedicine
Yang Li, Yanhong Duo, Peng Zhai, Lisheng He, Keli Zhong, Yue Zhang, Kaibin Huang, Jinfeng Luo, Han Zhang, Xiaofang Yu
AIM: We aim to explore the regulatory mechanism of miR-328 and further develop miR-328-loaded mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and surface-decorated with polymerized dopamine, epithelial cell adhesion molecule aptamer and bevacizumab for the dual-targeting treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). MATERIALS & METHODS: The relationship between miR-328 and CPTP and the mechanism and antitumor effect of MSNs-miR-328@PDA-PEG-Apt-Bev were evaluated. RESULTS: We found CPTP is a direct target of miR-328...
August 7, 2018: Nanomedicine
Susann Wolf-Grosse, Tom E Mollnes, Syed Ali, Jørgen Stenvik, Asbjørn M Nilsen
AIM: To assess the effects of different-sized iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) on inflammatory responses in human whole blood. MATERIALS & METHODS: Human whole blood with and without 10 and 30 nm IONPs was incubated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Cytokine levels, complement activation, reactive oxygen species and viability were determined. RESULTS: The 10 nm IONPs enhanced the TLR2/6, TLR4 and partly TLR8-mediated cytokine production, whereas the 30 nm IONPs partly enhanced TLR2/6 and decreased TLR8-mediated cytokine production...
August 7, 2018: Nanomedicine
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