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Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine

Luis J Mena, Vanessa G Félix, Alberto Ochoa, Rodolfo Ostos, Eduardo González, Javier Aspuru, Pablo Velarde, Gladys E Maestre
Mobile electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring is an emerging area that has received increasing attention in recent years, but still real-life validation for elderly residing in low and middle-income countries is scarce. We developed a wearable ECG monitor that is integrated with a self-designed wireless sensor for ECG signal acquisition. It is used with a native purposely designed smartphone application, based on machine learning techniques, for automated classification of captured ECG beats from aged people. When tested on 100 older adults, the monitoring system discriminated normal and abnormal ECG signals with a high degree of accuracy (97%), sensitivity (100%), and specificity (96...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Jingming Xia, Yiming Chen, Aiyue Chen, Yicai Chen
The clinical assistant diagnosis has a high requirement for the visual effect of medical images. However, the low frequency subband coefficients obtained by the NSCT decomposition are not sparse, which is not conducive to maintaining the details of the source image. To solve these problems, a medical image fusion algorithm combined with sparse representation and pulse coupling neural network is proposed. First, the source image is decomposed into low and high frequency subband coefficients by NSCT transform...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Yanqiao Zheng, Xiaobing Zhao, Xiaoqi Zhang
The Coxian phase-type models and the joint models of longitudinal and event time have been extensively used in the studies of medical outcome data. Coxian phase-type models have the finite-jump property while the joint models usually assume a continuous variation. The gap between continuity and discreteness makes the two models rarely used together. In this paper, a partition-based approach is proposed to jointly model the charge accumulation process and the time to discharge. The key construction of our new approach is a set of partition cells with their boundaries determined by a family of differential equations...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Xiaoli Zhu, Zhao Ran, Wanci Li, Wansheng Wang, Kangshun Zhu, Wensou Huang, Xin Gao
Transjugular Intrahepatic Portal Systemic Shunt is a comprehensive interventional therapy for portal hypertension. During this intervention, puncturing from hepatic vein into portal vein is a difficult step. Selecting puncture needle with a proper bending angle is vital to accurate puncture. Thus, this prospective study provides a method to calculate the angle of the puncture needle using preinterventional contrast-enhanced CT imaging. According to the geometrical characteristics of puncture needle, Bezier curve equation was adopted to describe its bending part...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Weifeng Li, Yuxiaotong Shen, Jie Zhang, Xiaolin Huang, Ying Chen, Yun Ge
To improve the spatial resolution, dense multichannel electroencephalogram with more than 32 leads has gained more and more applications. However, strong common interference will not only conceal the weak components generated from the specific isolated neural source, but also lead to severe spurious correlation between different brain regions, which results in great distortion on brain connectivity or brain network analysis. Starting from the fast independent component analysis algorithm, we first derive the mixing matrix of independent source components based on the baseline signals prior to tasks...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Purity Ngina, Rachel Waema Mbogo, Livingstone S Luboobi
HIV is one of the major causes of deaths, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this paper, an in vivo deterministic model of differential equations is presented and analyzed for HIV dynamics. Optimal control theory is applied to investigate the key roles played by the various HIV treatment strategies. In particular, we establish the optimal strategies for controlling the infection using three treatment regimes as the system control variables. We have applied Pontryagin's Maximum Principle in characterizing the optimality control, which then has been solved numerically by applying the Runge-Kutta forth-order scheme...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Sudarat Chadsuthi, Surapa Wichapeng
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has spread widely in a continuing endemic in Thailand. There are no specific vaccines or antiviral treatments available that specifically target HFMD. Indirect transmission via free-living viruses from the environment may influence HFMD infections because the virus can survive for long periods in the environment. In this study, a new mathematical model is proposed to investigate the effect of indirect transmission from contaminated environments and the impact of asymptomatic individuals...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Ali Ghanbarzadeh, Majid Pouladian, Ali Shabestani Monfared, Seied Rabi Mahdavi
This article introduces a new framework for beam angle optimization (BAO) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) using the Scatter Search Based Algorithm. The potential benefits of plans employing the coplanar optimized beam sets are also examined. In the proposed beam angle selection algorithm, the problem is solved in two steps. Initially, the gantry angles are selected using the Scatter Search Based Algorithm, which is a global optimization method. Then, for each beam configuration, the intensity profile is calculated by the conjugate gradient method to score each beam angle set chosen...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Li Yuan, Zhuhuang Zhou, Yanchao Yuan, Shuicai Wu
Objective: The fast fixed-point algorithm for independent component analysis (FastICA) has been widely used in fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) extraction. However, the FastICA algorithm is sensitive to the initial weight vector, which affects the convergence of the algorithm. In order to solve this problem, an improved FastICA method was proposed to extract fetal ECG. Methods: First, the maternal abdominal mixed signal was centralized and whitened, and the overrelaxation factor was incorporated into Newton's iterative algorithm to process the initial weight vector randomly generated...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Jessica Beltrán, Mireya S García-Vázquez, Jenny Benois-Pineau, Luis Miguel Gutierrez-Robledo, Jean-François Dartigues
An opportune early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) would help to overcome symptoms and improve the quality of life for AD patients. Research studies have identified early manifestations of AD that occur years before the diagnosis. For instance, eye movements of people with AD in different tasks differ from eye movements of control subjects. In this review, we present a summary and evolution of research approaches that use eye tracking technology and computational analysis to measure and compare eye movements under different tasks and experiments...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Ashkan Sharabiani, Edith A Nutescu, William L Galanter, Houshang Darabi
It is a challenge to be able to prescribe the optimal initial dose of warfarin. There have been many studies focused on an efficient strategy to determine the optimal initial dose. Numerous clinical, genetic, and environmental factors affect the warfarin dose response. In practice, it is common that the initial warfarin dose is substantially different from the stable maintenance dose, which may increase the risk of bleeding or thrombosis prior to achieving the stable maintenance dose. In order to minimize the risk of misdosing, despite popular warfarin dose prediction models in the literature which create dose predictions solely based on patients' attributes, we have taken physicians' opinions towards the initial dose into consideration...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Yu Zhao, Jiangping Li, Xu Ma
It is well known that the pollution and environmental fluctuations may seriously affect the outbreak of infectious diseases (e.g., measles). Therefore, understanding the association between the periodic outbreak of an infectious disease and noise and pollution still needs further development. Here we consider a stochastic susceptible-infective (SI) epidemic model in a polluted environment, which incorporates both environmental fluctuations as well as pollution. First, the existence of the global positive solution is discussed...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Shunxian Zhou, Zhanwei Xuan, Lei Wang, Pengyao Ping, Tingrui Pei
Motivation: Increasing studies have demonstrated that many human complex diseases are associated with not only microRNAs, but also long-noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). LncRNAs and microRNA play significant roles in various biological processes. Therefore, developing effective computational models for predicting novel associations between diseases and lncRNA-miRNA pairs (LMPairs) will be beneficial to not only the understanding of disease mechanisms at lncRNA-miRNA level and the detection of disease biomarkers for disease diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention, but also the understanding of interactions between diseases and LMPairs at disease level...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Linfei Ge, Jin Zhang, Jing Wei
Respiration monitoring is helpful in disease prevention and diagnosis. Traditional respiration monitoring requires users to wear devices on their bodies, which is inconvenient for them. In this paper, we aim to design a noncontact respiration rate detection system utilizing off-the-shelf smartphones. We utilize the single-frequency ultrasound as the media to detect the respiration activity. By analyzing the ultrasound signals received by the built-in microphone sensor in a smartphone, our system can derive the respiration rate of the user...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Xinpei Wang, Chang Yan, Bo Shi, Changchun Liu, Chandan Karmakar, Peng Li
The acceleration and deceleration patterns in heartbeat fluctuations distribute asymmetrically, which is known as heart rate asymmetry (HRA). It is hypothesized that HRA reflects the balancing regulation of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems. This study was designed to examine whether altered autonomic balance during exercise can lead to HRA changes. Sixteen healthy college students were enrolled, and each student undertook two 5-min ECG measurements: one in a resting seated position and another while walking on a treadmill at a regular speed of 5 km/h...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Yang Li, Zhichuan Zhu, Alin Hou, Qingdong Zhao, Liwei Liu, Lijuan Zhang
Pulmonary nodule recognition is the core module of lung CAD. The Support Vector Machine (SVM) algorithm has been widely used in pulmonary nodule recognition, and the algorithm of Multiple Kernel Learning Support Vector Machine (MKL-SVM) has achieved good results therein. Based on grid search, however, the MKL-SVM algorithm needs long optimization time in course of parameter optimization; also its identification accuracy depends on the fineness of grid. In the paper, swarm intelligence is introduced and the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is combined with MKL-SVM algorithm to be MKL-SVM-PSO algorithm so as to realize global optimization of parameters rapidly...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
S D Perera, S S N Perera
Dengue virus is a mosquito borne Flavivirus and the most prevalent arbovirus in tropical and subtropical regions around the world. The incidence of dengue has increased drastically over the last few years at an alarming rate. The clinical manifestation of dengue ranges from asymptomatic infection to severe dengue. Even though the viral kinetics of dengue infection is lacking, innate immune response and humoral immune response are thought to play a major role in controlling the virus count. Here, we developed a computer simulation mathematical model including both innate and adaptive immune responses to study the within-host dynamics of dengue virus infection...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Qian Xiao, Li Luo, Shu-Zhen Zhao, Xiao-Bin Ran, Ya-Bing Feng
Nuclear medicine, a subspecialty of radiology, plays an important role in proper diagnosis and timely treatment. Multiple resources, especially short-lived radiopharmaceuticals involved in the process of nuclear medical examination, constitute a unique problem in appointment scheduling. Aiming at achieving scientific and reasonable appointment scheduling in the West China Hospital (WCH), a typical class A tertiary hospital in China, we developed an online appointment scheduling algorithm based on an offline nonlinear integer programming model which considers multiresources allocation, the time window constraints imposed by short-lived radiopharmaceuticals, and the stochastic nature of the patient requests when scheduling patients...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Yuchou Chang, Haifeng Wang
A phased array with many coil elements has been widely used in parallel MRI for imaging acceleration. On the other hand, it results in increased memory usage and large computational costs for reconstructing the missing data from such a large number of channels. A number of techniques have been developed to linearly combine physical channels to produce fewer compressed virtual channels for reconstruction. A new channel compression technique via kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) is proposed. The proposed KPCA method uses a nonlinear combination of all physical channels to produce a set of compressed virtual channels...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
S Fiocchi, E Chiaramello, P Ravazzani, M Parazzini
In the last two decades, motor cortex stimulation has been recognized as a valuable alternative to pharmacological therapy for the treatment of neuropathic pain. Although this technique started to be used in clinical studies, the debate about the optimal settings that enhance its effectiveness without inducing tissue damage is still open. To this purpose, computational approaches applied to realistic human models aimed to assess the current density distribution within the cortex can be a powerful tool to provide a basic understanding of that technique and could help the design of clinical experimental protocols...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
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