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Infectious Agents and Cancer

Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Salvatore Filice, Orlando Catalano, Mauro Piccirillo, Raffaele Palaia, Francesco Izzo, Antonella Petrillo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human solid malignancies worldwide. Although the MRI is the technique that is best adapted to characterize HCC, there is not an agreement regarding the study protocol and even what the role of Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The possibility that imaging study can correlate to histologic grade to selecting the therapeutic strategy would be valuable in helping to direct the proper management of HCC. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) and IVIM-derived perfusion fraction (fp) and tissue diffusivity (Dt) values of HCC showed significantly better diagnostic performance in differentiating high-grade HCC from low-grade HCC, and significant correlation was observed between ADC, fp, Dt and histological grade...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Takondwa Zuze, Matthew S Painschab, Ryan Seguin, Evarista Kudowa, Bongani Kaimila, Edwards Kasonkanji, Tamiwe Tomoka, Bal Mukunda Dhungel, Maurice Mulenga, Maria Chikasema, Blessings Tewete, Asekanadziwa Ntangwanika, Sarah Chiyoyola, Fred Chimzimu, Coxcilly Kampani, Robert Krysiak, Nathan D Montgomery, Yuri Fedoriw, Satish Gopal
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) clinical descriptions are scarce from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where both HIV and EBV are highly endemic. We identified 12 patients with pathologically confirmed PBL from a prospective cohort in Lilongwe, Malawi. Median age was 46 (range 26-71), seven (58%) were male, and six (50%) were HIV-positive. Eight patients were treated with CHOP and four with a modified EPOCH regimen. One-year overall survival was 56% (95% CI 24-79%), without clear differences based on HIV status. PBL occurs in Malawi in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals and can be treated successfully with curative intent, even in a low-resource setting in SSA...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Min Zhang, Dexin Wang, Haidong Liu, Hui Li
Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are recommended as the first-line choices regarding the treatment of chronic hepatits B. The impact of the two antiviral agents on prognosis of Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be explored. We aim to investigate whether CHB-related HCC patients receiving TDF and ETV have a different prognosis. Methods: 233 CHB-related compensated cirrhosis patients were divided into groups according to the nucleut(s)ide patients received...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Mubarak M Al-Mansour, Saif A Alghamdi, Musab A Alsubaie, Abdullah A Alesa, Muhammad A Khan
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most prevalent and serious infections worldwide. HBV reactivation is a serious complication for lymphoma patients who are being treated with rituximab-containing regimen. Since the impact of HBV has not been fully evaluated on the prognosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), this study examined the effect of the hepatitis infection on the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with DLBCL who received rituximab-containing chemotherapy...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Lee Fah Yap, Sook Ling Lai, Anthony Rhodes, Hans Prakash Sathasivam, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah, Kin-Choo Pua, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Phaik-Leng Cheah, Selvam Thavaraj, Max Robinson, Ian C Paterson
Background: The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been rising in Western countries and this has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. p16 expression is a marker for HPV infection and p16 positive OPSCC is now recognized as a separate disease entity. There are only limited data available regarding HPV-related OPSCC in Asian countries and no data from Malaysia. Methods: We identified 60 Malaysian patients with OPSCC over a 12-year period (2004-2015) from four different hospitals in two major cities, Kuala Lumpur and Penang...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Narongsak Rungsakulkij, Wikran Suragul, Somkit Mingphruedhi, Pongsatorn Tangtawee, Paramin Muangkaew, Suraida Aeesoa
Background: To analyze prognostic factors following hepatic resection in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 217 patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatic resection at our hospital between January 2006 and December 2015. Disease-free survival and overall survival rates were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. The association between recurrence and survival and various clinicopathological factors, including serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, platelet count, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, antiplatelet therapy, antiviral therapy, hepatitis C virus infection, and tumor-related characteristics, were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Jing Sun, Yanfang Li, Yanna Wang, Yanyan Liu, Youde Liu, Xiumei Wang
Background: The impact of different anti-virus regimens on prognosis of Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) related cirrhosis remains to be explored. We aim to investigate whether CHB-related HCC patients receiving nucleoside analogue regimen or not have a different prognosis. Methods: 242 CHB-related compensated cirrhosis patients from 2008 June to 2011 December were included in our study and attributed into groups based on their anti-virus regimens containing adefovir (ADV) or not...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Valeria I Fink, Cathy A Jenkins, Jessica L Castilho, Anna K Person, Bryan E Shepherd, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Juliana Netto, Brenda Crabtree-Ramirez, Claudia P Cortés, Denis Padgett, Karu Jayathilake, Catherine McGowan, Pedro Cahn
Background: This study aimed to evaluate trends and predictors of survival after cancer diagnosis in persons living with HIV in the Caribbean, Central, and South America network for HIV epidemiology cohort. Methods: Demographic, cancer, and HIV-related data from HIV-positive adults diagnosed with cancer ≤ 1 year before or any time after HIV diagnosis from January 1, 2000-June 30, 2015 were retrospectively collected. Cancer cases were classified as AIDS-defining cancers (ADC) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC)...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Noelia López, Aureli Torné, Agustín Franco, María San-Martin, Elisabet Viayna, Carmen Barrull, Nuria Perulero
Background: A new nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine that includes genotypes 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 has been recently approved in Spain. A previous study has shown that attributable fraction of HPV related diseases in Spain is consistent with that reported in European and global studies. The aim of the present study was to estimate the annual direct costs associated to the following HPV-related diseases: genital warts, high grade precancerous lesions and cancer of cervix, vulva, vagina, anus and penis and head and neck cancer, caused by genotypes included in the nonavalent (9vHPV) and quadrivalent vaccines (4vHPV), in Spanish men and women...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Silvia Giunco, Maria Raffaella Petrara, Manuela Zangrossi, Andrea Celeghin, Anita De Rossi
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human γ-herpesvirus causally linked to a broad spectrum of both lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. In order to maintain its persistence in host cells and promote tumorigenesis, EBV must restrict its lytic cycle, which would ultimately lead to cell death, selectively express latent viral proteins, and establish an unlimited proliferative potential. The latter step depends on the maintenance of telomere length provided by telomerase. The viral oncoprotein LMP-1 activates TERT, the catalytic component of telomerase...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Jean-Damien Combes, Silvia Franceschi
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause infections that are responsible for diverse clinical manifestations from benign conditions to invasive cancer. As different HPV types are associated with variable pathogenic potential, minor genetic variations within a given high-risk HPV type might also be associated with distinct oncogenic capacities, through variable ability of persistence or risk of progression to precancer/cancer. Most recent HPV variant studies in the cervix using latest sequencing technology confirmed that minor changes in the HPV genome can have a major influence on carcinogenesis and have revealed key data that help better understand the carcinogenicity of HPV at a molecular level...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Jorge Levican, Mónica Acevedo, Oscar León, Aldo Gaggero, Francisco Aguayo
Human polyomaviruses (HPyV), which are small DNA viruses classified into the polyomaviridae family, are widely distributed in human populations. Thirteen distinct HPyVs have been described to date. Some of these viruses have been found in human tumors, suggesting an etiological relationship with cancer. In particular, convincing evidence of an oncogenic role has emerged for a specific HPyV, the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). This HPyV has been linked to rare skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). This finding may be just the tip of the iceberg, as HPyV infections are ubiquitous in humans...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Leonardo A Guevarra, Andrea Claudine F Afable, Patricia Joyce O Belza, Karen Joy S Dy, Scott Justin Q Lee, Teresa T Sy-Ortin, Pia Marie S P Albano
Background: The role of Fusobacterium nucleatum Fap2 protein in the development of colorectal cancer has recently been explained. Fap2, when bound to the human inhibitory receptor, TIGIT, inhibits the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against cancer cells, thus, allowing proliferation of the latter eventually leading to tumor growth. The aim of the study was to identify the immunogenicity of a peptide mimotope of the Fap2 protein and to determine the reactivity of colorectal cancer patients' sera against the mimotope...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
A Petrizzo, A Mauriello, M L Tornesello, F M Buonaguro, M Tagliamonte, L Buonaguro
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy and accounts for about 6% of all new cancers diagnosed worldwide. Moreover, it is the third and the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in men and women, respectively. HBV and HCV chronic infection is the main risk factor for HCC. A range of therapies are used in the management of HCC according to the extent and severity of liver disease. In this perspective, evaluation of prognosis represents a crucial step for proper management of HCC patients...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Shiyu Song, Miza S Vuai, Mintao Zhong
In recent decades, bacteria's therapeutic role has aroused attention in medicinal and pharmaceutical research. While bacteria are considered among the primary agents for causing cancer, recent research has shown intriguing results suggesting that bacteria can be effective agents for cancer treatment - they are the perfect vessels for targeted cancer therapy. Several bacterial strains/species have been discovered to possess inherent oncolytic potentials to invade and colonize solid tumors in vivo. The therapeutic strategy of using bacteria for treating cancer is considered to be effective; however, the severe side effects encountered during the treatment resulted in the abandonment of the therapy...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Nora Kariche, Montserrat Torres Hortal, Samir Benyahia, Laia Alemany, Nabila Moulaï, Omar Clavero, Marleny Muñoz, Wahiba Ouahioune, Djamel Djennaoui, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa, Silvia de Sanjosé, Mehdi Bourouba
Background: Despite the increasing incidence of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) in Algeria, scarce information is available on the importance of the preventable etiological factors which may drive the disease. Remarkably, a significant number of cases occur in nonsmoker and nondrinker patients; hence, suggesting that alternative risk factors, like Human papillomavirus (HPV), might be etiologically involved. To gain more insight on the risk factors associated with the disease in the country, we evaluated the etiological fraction of HPV in comparison to tobacco and alcohol intake in LSCC patients...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Yuri Hatazawa, Yoshihiko Yano, Rina Okada, Toshihito Tanahashi, Hiroki Hayashi, Hirotaka Hirano, Akihiro Minami, Yuki Kawano, Motofumi Tanaka, Takumi Fukumoto, Yoshiki Murakami, Masaru Yoshida, Yoshitake Hayashi
Background: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can develop in patients who are negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in serum but positive for hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the liver, referred to as occult HBV infection (OBI). Previous reports showed that HBV variants in OBI-related HCC are different from those in HBsAg-positive HCC. In the present study, HBV quasispecies based on the pre-S/S gene in OBI-related HCC patients were examined by high throughput sequencing and compared with those in HBsAg-positive HCC...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Farzane Jamdar, Farah Farzaneh, Fariba Navidpour, Sarang Younesi, Payam Balvayeh, Maryamsadat Hosseini, Robabeh Ghodssi-Ghasemabadi
Background: Persistent infection with High Risk Human Papillomavirus (HR HPV) typesplaysamajor role in the development of cervical cancer. Therefore, the detection of HR HPV types is an essential part of cervical cancer screening. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of HR HPV infection among healthy women undergoing routine cervical cancer screening in Iran. Methods: In this cross-sectional study,the results of HPV DNA typing in 2453 normal Iranian womenwhowere referred for routine cervical cancer screening from September 2015 to March 2017 were analyzed...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Vini Fardhdiani, Lucas Molfino, Ana Gabriela Zamudio, Rolanda Manuel, Gilda Luciano, Iza Ciglenecki, Barbara Rusch, Laurence Toutous Trellu, Matthew E Coldiron
Background: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a common HIV-associated malignancy associated with disability, pain and poor outcomes. The cornerstone of its treatment is antiretroviral therapy, but advanced disease necessitates the addition of chemotherapy. In high-income settings, this often consists of liposomal anthracyclines, but in Mozambique, the first line includes conventional doxorubicin, bleomycin and vincristine, which is poorly-tolerated. Médecins Sans Frontières supports the Ministry of Health (MOH) in a specialized HIV and KS treatment center at the Centro de Referencia de Alto Maé in Maputo...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Sunil Kumar Sah, Joaquin V González, Sadina Shrestha, Anurag Adhikari, Krishna Das Manandhar, Shyam Babu Yadav, David A Stein, Birendra Prasad Gupta, María Alejandra Picconi
Background: Cervical cancer (CC) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality from cancer in Nepalese women. Nearly all cases of CC are caused by infection with certain genotypes of human papillomavirus (HPV). Data on HPV genotype distribution in Nepalese CC patients is sparse. We aimed to determine the distribution of HPV genotypes in biopsies of CC tissue from Nepalese women. Methods: This study examined 248 archived paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from CC cases from patients of B...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
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