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Infectious Agents and Cancer

Ping Zhang, Qingli Liu, Mei Yuan, Lina Wang
Background: The impact of different anti-virus regimens on prognosis of Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) related cirrhosis remains to be explored. We aim to investigate whether CHB-related HCC patients receiving nucleoside analogue regimen or not have a different prognosis. Methods: Two hundred forty-two CHB-related compensated cirrhosis patients were attributed into groups regarding their anti-virus regimens containing tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or not. The results of two groups were reviewed and investigated...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Adaobi I Bisi-Onyemaechi, Ugo N Chikani, Obinna Nduagubam
Background: Despite the high prevalences of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) infections and cervical cancer in Nigeria, utilization of the HPV vaccine as a highly effective preventive measure remains low. The aim of this study was to find out the awareness and attitudes of caregivers to HPV infections and the factors that determine acceptance of an HPV vaccine for their pre-adolescent girls. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of 508 caregivers of female children in Enugu Nigeria...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Dawit Wolday, Muluken Derese, Solomon Gebressellassie, Bekure Tsegaye, Wondwossen Ergete, Yirgu Gebrehiwot, Orit Caplan, Dana G Wolf, Shlomo Maayan
Background: Cervical cancer is the second most prevalent cancer among women of child-bearing age in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine human papilloma virus (HPV) genotype distribution among HIV-negative women with normal and abnormal cervical cytology results. Methods: We investigated a consecutive of 233 HIV-negative women between December 2008 and March 2009 presenting in a Tertiary Gynecology Referral Clinic in Ethiopia. Screening was done by Pap cytology and HPV detection and genotyping method was nested PCR (direct amplification with MY09/MY11 primers, followed by nested amplification with GP5/GP6 primers) and sequencing of the nested products...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Luis Ernesto Cuellar, Andrea Anampa-Guzmán, Alexis Manuel Holguín, Juan Velarde, Diana Portillo-Alvarez, Marco Antonio Zuñiga-Ninaquispe, Esther Rosa Luna-Reyes, Jule Vásquez, Joanne Marie Jeter, Karen Marie Winkfield
Background: Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is the most common cancer in people with HIV. Although 95% of HIV patients are in developing countries like Peru, the majority of these studies have been conducted in developed countries. In this study we aim to evaluate prognostic factors associated with outcomes in HIV positive patients undergoing systemic therapy for treatment of NHL. Methods: This retrospective study includes patients with NHL seen in the Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas (INEN) between 2004 to 2014...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Clorinda Annunziata, Giovanni Stellato, Stefano Greggi, Veronica Sanna, Maria Pia Curcio, Simona Losito, Gerardo Botti, Luigi Buonaguro, Franco Maria Buonaguro, Maria Lina Tornesello
Background: High risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been unequivocally recognised as the necessary cause of squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and invasive carcinoma of the cervix. The distribution and the role of unclassified risk HPV genotypes in cervical neoplasia has not been fully elucidated. Methods: Liquid-based cytological samples were collected from 337 women referred for colposcopy following an abnormal cytological diagnosis. HPV DNA was detected by broad-spectrum PCR and genotypes identified by nucleotide sequencing analysis and reverse line blot (RLB)...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Miguel Aco-Tlachi, Ricardo Carreño-López, Patricia L Martínez-Morales, Paola Maycotte, Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy, Luis Felipe Jave-Suárez, Gerardo Santos-López, Julio Reyes-Leyva, Verónica Vallejo-Ruiz
Background: Aberrant glycosylation is a characteristic of tumour cells. The expression of certain glycan structures has been associated with poor prognosis. In cervical carcinoma, changes in the expression levels of some glycogenes have been associated with lymph invasion. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is one of the most important factors underlying the development of cervical cancer. The HPV oncoproteins E6 and E7 have been implicated in cervical carcinogenesis and can modify the host gene expression profile...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Doaa M Al-Eraky, Omneya M Helmy, Yasser M Ragab, Zeinab Abdul-Khalek, Eman A El-Seidi, Mohammed A Ramadan
Background: Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori ) infection has been recognized as a significant threat for gastric cancer. However, studies that investigated the oncogenic factors and antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori in Egyptian isolates with gastric cancer are rare. The current study aimed to examine: (1) The pattern of antimicrobial resistance of H. pylori isolates of Egyptian gastric cancer patients, and (2) the prevalence of Cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA). Methods: Samples were collected from patients with gastric cancer...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Salvatore Filice, Orlando Catalano, Mauro Piccirillo, Raffaele Palaia, Francesco Izzo, Antonella Petrillo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common human solid malignancies worldwide. Although the MRI is the technique that is best adapted to characterize HCC, there is not an agreement regarding the study protocol and even what the role of Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). The possibility that imaging study can correlate to histologic grade to selecting the therapeutic strategy would be valuable in helping to direct the proper management of HCC. Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) and IVIM-derived perfusion fraction (fp) and tissue diffusivity (Dt) values of HCC showed significantly better diagnostic performance in differentiating high-grade HCC from low-grade HCC, and significant correlation was observed between ADC, fp, Dt and histological grade...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Takondwa Zuze, Matthew S Painschab, Ryan Seguin, Evarista Kudowa, Bongani Kaimila, Edwards Kasonkanji, Tamiwe Tomoka, Bal Mukunda Dhungel, Maurice Mulenga, Maria Chikasema, Blessings Tewete, Asekanadziwa Ntangwanika, Sarah Chiyoyola, Fred Chimzimu, Coxcilly Kampani, Robert Krysiak, Nathan D Montgomery, Yuri Fedoriw, Satish Gopal
Plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) clinical descriptions are scarce from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) where both HIV and EBV are highly endemic. We identified 12 patients with pathologically confirmed PBL from a prospective cohort in Lilongwe, Malawi. Median age was 46 (range 26-71), seven (58%) were male, and six (50%) were HIV-positive. Eight patients were treated with CHOP and four with a modified EPOCH regimen. One-year overall survival was 56% (95% CI 24-79%), without clear differences based on HIV status. PBL occurs in Malawi in HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals and can be treated successfully with curative intent, even in a low-resource setting in SSA...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Min Zhang, Dexin Wang, Haidong Liu, Hui Li
Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and entecavir (ETV) are recommended as the first-line choices regarding the treatment of chronic hepatits B. The impact of the two antiviral agents on prognosis of Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be explored. We aim to investigate whether CHB-related HCC patients receiving TDF and ETV have a different prognosis. Methods: 233 CHB-related compensated cirrhosis patients were divided into groups according to the nucleut(s)ide patients received...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Mubarak M Al-Mansour, Saif A Alghamdi, Musab A Alsubaie, Abdullah A Alesa, Muhammad A Khan
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is one of the most prevalent and serious infections worldwide. HBV reactivation is a serious complication for lymphoma patients who are being treated with rituximab-containing regimen. Since the impact of HBV has not been fully evaluated on the prognosis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), this study examined the effect of the hepatitis infection on the progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients with DLBCL who received rituximab-containing chemotherapy...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Lee Fah Yap, Sook Ling Lai, Anthony Rhodes, Hans Prakash Sathasivam, Maizaton Atmadini Abdullah, Kin-Choo Pua, Pathmanathan Rajadurai, Phaik-Leng Cheah, Selvam Thavaraj, Max Robinson, Ian C Paterson
Background: The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) has been rising in Western countries and this has been attributed to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. p16 expression is a marker for HPV infection and p16 positive OPSCC is now recognized as a separate disease entity. There are only limited data available regarding HPV-related OPSCC in Asian countries and no data from Malaysia. Methods: We identified 60 Malaysian patients with OPSCC over a 12-year period (2004-2015) from four different hospitals in two major cities, Kuala Lumpur and Penang...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Narongsak Rungsakulkij, Wikran Suragul, Somkit Mingphruedhi, Pongsatorn Tangtawee, Paramin Muangkaew, Suraida Aeesoa
Background: To analyze prognostic factors following hepatic resection in patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 217 patients with HBV-related hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatic resection at our hospital between January 2006 and December 2015. Disease-free survival and overall survival rates were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test. The association between recurrence and survival and various clinicopathological factors, including serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level, platelet count, platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, antiplatelet therapy, antiviral therapy, hepatitis C virus infection, and tumor-related characteristics, were assessed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Jing Sun, Yanfang Li, Yanna Wang, Yanyan Liu, Youde Liu, Xiumei Wang
Background: The impact of different anti-virus regimens on prognosis of Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) related cirrhosis remains to be explored. We aim to investigate whether CHB-related HCC patients receiving nucleoside analogue regimen or not have a different prognosis. Methods: 242 CHB-related compensated cirrhosis patients from 2008 June to 2011 December were included in our study and attributed into groups based on their anti-virus regimens containing adefovir (ADV) or not...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Valeria I Fink, Cathy A Jenkins, Jessica L Castilho, Anna K Person, Bryan E Shepherd, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Juliana Netto, Brenda Crabtree-Ramirez, Claudia P Cortés, Denis Padgett, Karu Jayathilake, Catherine McGowan, Pedro Cahn
Background: This study aimed to evaluate trends and predictors of survival after cancer diagnosis in persons living with HIV in the Caribbean, Central, and South America network for HIV epidemiology cohort. Methods: Demographic, cancer, and HIV-related data from HIV-positive adults diagnosed with cancer ≤ 1 year before or any time after HIV diagnosis from January 1, 2000-June 30, 2015 were retrospectively collected. Cancer cases were classified as AIDS-defining cancers (ADC) and non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC)...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Noelia López, Aureli Torné, Agustín Franco, María San-Martin, Elisabet Viayna, Carmen Barrull, Nuria Perulero
Background: A new nonavalent human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine that includes genotypes 6/11/16/18/31/33/45/52/58 has been recently approved in Spain. A previous study has shown that attributable fraction of HPV related diseases in Spain is consistent with that reported in European and global studies. The aim of the present study was to estimate the annual direct costs associated to the following HPV-related diseases: genital warts, high grade precancerous lesions and cancer of cervix, vulva, vagina, anus and penis and head and neck cancer, caused by genotypes included in the nonavalent (9vHPV) and quadrivalent vaccines (4vHPV), in Spanish men and women...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Silvia Giunco, Maria Raffaella Petrara, Manuela Zangrossi, Andrea Celeghin, Anita De Rossi
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous human γ-herpesvirus causally linked to a broad spectrum of both lymphoid and epithelial malignancies. In order to maintain its persistence in host cells and promote tumorigenesis, EBV must restrict its lytic cycle, which would ultimately lead to cell death, selectively express latent viral proteins, and establish an unlimited proliferative potential. The latter step depends on the maintenance of telomere length provided by telomerase. The viral oncoprotein LMP-1 activates TERT, the catalytic component of telomerase...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Jean-Damien Combes, Silvia Franceschi
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) cause infections that are responsible for diverse clinical manifestations from benign conditions to invasive cancer. As different HPV types are associated with variable pathogenic potential, minor genetic variations within a given high-risk HPV type might also be associated with distinct oncogenic capacities, through variable ability of persistence or risk of progression to precancer/cancer. Most recent HPV variant studies in the cervix using latest sequencing technology confirmed that minor changes in the HPV genome can have a major influence on carcinogenesis and have revealed key data that help better understand the carcinogenicity of HPV at a molecular level...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Jorge Levican, Mónica Acevedo, Oscar León, Aldo Gaggero, Francisco Aguayo
Human polyomaviruses (HPyV), which are small DNA viruses classified into the polyomaviridae family, are widely distributed in human populations. Thirteen distinct HPyVs have been described to date. Some of these viruses have been found in human tumors, suggesting an etiological relationship with cancer. In particular, convincing evidence of an oncogenic role has emerged for a specific HPyV, the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV). This HPyV has been linked to rare skin cancer, Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC). This finding may be just the tip of the iceberg, as HPyV infections are ubiquitous in humans...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Leonardo A Guevarra, Andrea Claudine F Afable, Patricia Joyce O Belza, Karen Joy S Dy, Scott Justin Q Lee, Teresa T Sy-Ortin, Pia Marie S P Albano
Background: The role of Fusobacterium nucleatum Fap2 protein in the development of colorectal cancer has recently been explained. Fap2, when bound to the human inhibitory receptor, TIGIT, inhibits the cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cells against cancer cells, thus, allowing proliferation of the latter eventually leading to tumor growth. The aim of the study was to identify the immunogenicity of a peptide mimotope of the Fap2 protein and to determine the reactivity of colorectal cancer patients' sera against the mimotope...
2018: Infectious Agents and Cancer
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