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Infectious Agents and Cancer

Arnolfo Petruzziello, Samantha Marigliano, Giovanna Loquercio, Carmela Cacciapuoti
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major public health burden in Europe, causing an increasing level of liver-related morbidity and mortality, characterized by several regional variations in the genotypes distribution. A comprehensive review of the literature from 2000 to 2015 was used to gather country-specific data on prevalence and genotype distribution of HCV infection in 33 European countries (about 80 % of the European population), grouped in three geographical areas (Western, Eastern and Central Europe), as defined by the Global Burden of Diseases project (GBD)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Alfonso Reginelli, Luca Roberto, Francesco Granata, Daniela Rega, Antonio Rotondo, Roberto Grassi, Francesco Izzo, Antonella Petrillo
Anal cancer is uncommon neoplasm with an incidence of 2 new cases per 100,000 per year in the USA, accounting approximately 0.4 % of all tumors and 2.5 % of gastrointestinal malignancies. An early detection of the anal cancer is crucial for the patient management, whereas the diagnosis at an early stage allows conservative management with sphincter sparing, on the contrary a delays in diagnosis might lead to an advance cancer stage at presentation with worst survival. According to National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) Anal Carcinoma guidelines the patients should be subjected to a careful clinical examination, including a digital rectal examination (DRE), an anoscopic examination, and palpation of inguinal nodes...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Brunel Monic Angounda, Gildas Hoffman Ngouloubi, Amélia Bokilo Dzia, Luc Magloire Anicet Boumba, Warda Baha, Donatien Moukassa, Gabriel Ahombo, Moulay Mustapha Ennaji, Jean-Rosaire Ibara
BACKGROUND: Chronic Hepatitis B infection is a major health problem in Republic of Congo therefore molecular analysis of HBV strains is important to detect the patients at high risk of disease progression. METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 111 chronic HBV patients in Pointe Noire. HBsAg, HBeAg and HBeAb were detected. A fragment of the preS1 region of HBV was amplified and sequenced to determine genotypes, subgenotypes and to identify mutations. RESULTS: Of the 111 samples analyzed, 35 patients were asymptomatic carriers (ASC), 24 with a chronic active hepatitis (CAH), 33 with liver cirrhosis (LC) and 19 have a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Pamela Boundzanga Moussavou, Ismaël Hervé Koumakpayi, Andriniaina Andy Nkili-Meyong, Ingrid Labouba, Ulrich Bisvigou, Junie K Chansi, Corinne Engohan-Aloghe, Frederic Dissanami, Nathalie Ambounda, Anne-Sophie Delannoy-Vieillard, Laure Diancourt, Dieudonne Nkoghe, Eric M Leroy, Ernest Belembaogo, Nicolas Berthet
BACKGROUND: The human papillomavirus (HPV) is the causative agent of cervical cancer, which is the leading cancer-related cause of death for women in Sub-Saharan Africa. In 2013, the Gabonese Ministry of Health and the Sylvia Bongo Ondimba Foundation implemented cervical cancer screening programs based on the detection of cancerous lesions by visual inspection with acetic acid and/or Lugol's iodine (VIA/VILI). This pilot study was set up to determine the HPV profile and analyze the nucleotide sequence variation of HPV16 circulating in patients with cervical abnormalities detected by VIA/VILI testing...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Giuseppa Visalli, Monica Currò, Alessio Facciolà, Romana Riso, Placido Mondello, Pasqualina Laganà, Angela Di Pietro, Isa Picerno, Pasquale Spataro
BACKGROUND: The human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are DNA viruses associated with benign and malignant lesions of skin and mucous membranes. The HPVs has been implicated as the cause of virtually all cervical cancers worldwide but studies showed that these viruses can cause numerous cancers in several tissues including Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). At least 90 % of HPV-positive OSCCs are associated with high-risk (or oncogenic) HPV-16 and oral infection confers an approximate 50-fold increase in risk for HPV-positive OSCC...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Bianca Rivera-Peña, Francisco J Ruíz-Fullana, Germán L Vélez-Reyes, Rosa J Rodriguez-Benitez, María J Marcos-Martínez, Juan Trinidad-Pinedo, Adriana Báez
BACKGROUND: HPV-16 modifies the overall survival (OS) of patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPSCC). HPV-16 has been established as risk factor for OPSCC, but HPV-16 infection may also reside in the larynx and oral cavity. We evaluated HPV-16 status on OS of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. METHODS: HPV-16 infection was confirmed by amplification of E6 and E7 viral oncogenes through PCR assay and E6 IHC in 185 HNSCC samples. Associations between HPV-16 status and clinicopathological parameters were performed using Fisher's exact test and x(2)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Sven Grützmeier, Anna Porwit, Corinna Schmitt, Eric Sandström, Börje Åkerlund, Ingemar Ernberg
BACKGROUND: Most malignant lymphomas in HIV-patients are caused by reactivation of EBV-infection. Some lymphomas have a very rapid fulminant course. HHV-8 has also been reported to be a cause of lymphoma. The role of CMV in the development of lymphoma is not clear, though both CMV and HHV-8 have been reported in tissues adjacent to the tumour in Burkitt lymphoma patients. Here we present a patient with asymptomatic HIV infection, that contracted a primary cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) infection...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Fridolin Mujuni, Mariam M Mirambo, Peter Rambau, Korn Klaus, Muller Andreas, Dismas Matovelo, Mtebe Majigo, Christa Kasang, Stephen E Mshana
BACKGROUND: High risk (HR) human papilloma Virus (HPV) genotypes have been associated with cervical cancer. In Tanzania there is a limited data on the epidemiology of HPV and genotypes distribution among HIV infected women. Here we document varieties of HPV genotypes associated with cervical squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) among HIV- infected women at Bugando Medical Centre, Mwanza-Tanzania. METHODS: A cross sectional hospital based study involving HIV infected women was conducted between August and October, 2014...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Małgorzata Polz-Dacewicz, Małgorzata Strycharz-Dudziak, Jakub Dworzański, Agnieszka Stec, Joanna Kocot
BACKGROUND: Each year approximately 6,000 new cases of head and neck cancer are registered in Poland. Human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have been associated with tumour formation. Cytokines have been shown to play an important role both in inflammation and carcinogenesis and they can be detected in saliva and serum with ELISA assays. Salivary biomarkers may be used as markers of early cancer detection. The aim of this study was the analysis of the serum and salivary levels of IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β and VEGF in patients with oropharyngeal cancer and in healthy individuals...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Hongchang He, Hongtao Li, Peiwen Fan, Junling Zhu, Zhenzhen Pan, Huan Pan, Dan Wu, Xianxian Ren, Xiaoqing Guo, Dongmei Li, Zemin Pan, Renfu Shao
BACKGROUND: Persistent infection of high-risk human papillomaviruses 16 (HPV16) has been considered as the leading cause of cervical cancer. In this study we assessed HPV16 sequence variation and genetic diversity of HPV16 variants in cervical cancer in Uigur women in Xinjiang, China. We analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the open reading frames of E6 and E7, and part of the open reading frames of L1 of HPV16 in Uigur women. METHODS: Biopsies of histologically confirmed HPV16 infections with cervical cancer were obtained from 43 Uigur women in Xinjiang, China...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
David Guenat, Sophie Launay, Didier Riethmuller, Christiane Mougin, Jean-Luc Prétet
BACKGROUND: Preanalytical conditions determine the reliability and validity of bioassays. Therefore, the analytic performances of biological tests need to be determined when preanalytical steps differ from those recommended by the manufacturer. The objective of the study was to assess the analytic performance of the hc2 test for the detection of high-risk HPV DNA from cells stored in the new Novaprep® HQ+ medium. METHODS: Repeatability, reproducibility, method comparison and stability (-20 °C, +4 °C, +20 °C and +40 °C up to six months) were evaluated from HPV16 and HPV18 positive cell lines diluted in the Novaprep® HQ+ medium and the reference Specimen Transport Medium (STM)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Madori Osawa, Sohtaro Mine, Shinichiro Ota, Kengo Kato, Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Makoto Kuroda, Michiyo Kataoka, Hitomi Fukumoto, Yuko Sato, Takayuki Kanno, Hideki Hasegawa, Keiji Ueda, Masashi Fukayama, Takuya Maeda, Soichiro Kanoh, Akihiko Kawana, Yuji Fujikura, Harutaka Katano
BACKGROUND: Primary effusion lymphoma is a rare distinct large B-cell neoplasm that is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) infection. Over recent years, 9 KSHV-positive/Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-negative PEL cell lines have been established. METHODS: Tumor cells were collected from the pleural effusion of a 49-year-old male with AIDS. Cells were grown in RPMI1640 culture medium supplemented with 10 % fetus bovine serum. Single cell cloning was performed successfully by a limiting dilution method in a 96-well plate...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Samira Zoa-Assoumou, Angelique Ndjoyi-Mbiguino, Barthelemy Mabika Mabika, Ernest Belembaogo, Abdelkim Khattabi, My Mustapha Ennaji
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is a real public health problem in African countries. The relation between HPV and cervical cancer is well established. However, it is known that the distribution of HPV genotypes differ geographically and this may influence the effectiveness of the three available vaccines, which among other HPV genotypes targets the genotypes 16 and 18 that cause about 70 % of cervical cancers cases. The objective of this study was to identify for the first time the HPV genotypes distribution in cervical cancer specimens obtained from Gabonese women...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Callinice D Capo-Chichi, Blanche Aguida, Nicodème W Chabi, Jocelyn Acapko-Ezin, Jonas Sossah-Hiffo, Vidéhouénou K Agossou, Toussain Anagbla, Marcel Zannou, Fabien Houngbé, Ambaliou Sanni
BACKGROUND: High risk oncologic Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is one of the leading causes of cervical cancer worldwide. We investigated HPV genotypes among women living or not with Human Immuno-deficiency Virus (HIV) in two major hospitals in the south of the republic of BENIN in the city of Cotonou. Our objective is to investigate the association of high risk-HPV to cervical dysplasia among women under stringent anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment and in controls without HIV. METHODS: The investigation was carried out within 1 year period in two groups of adult women: one group with HIV1 infection and under ARV therapy in the National University Hospital (CNHU-HKM) designated as CH group (n = 86); and one control group without HIV infection and attending the hospital Mènontin for routine gynecologic checkup and designated as ME group (n = 86)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Manikankana Bandopadhyay, Neelakshi Sarkar, Sibnarayan Datta, Dipanwita Das, Ananya Pal, Rajesh Panigrahi, Arup Banerjee, Chinmay K Panda, Chandrima Das, Shekhar Chakrabarti, Runu Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) reported to be associated with pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and miR-122 expression is down regulated in HCC. Previous studies reported miR-122 targets cyclin G1 (CCNG1) expression and this in turn abolishes p53-mediated inhibition of HBV replication. Here we investigated the involvement of HBx protein in the modulation of miR-122 expression in hepatoblastoma cells. METHODS: Expression of miR-122 was measured in HepG2 cells transfected with HBx plasmid (HBx-HepG2), full length HBV genome (HBV-HepG2) and in constitutively HBV synthesizing HepG2...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Sabrina Bimonte, Maddalena Leongito, Mauro Piccirillo, Cristina de Angelis, Claudia Pivonello, Vincenza Granata, Francesco Izzo
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most frequent cancer worldwide with high morbidity, mortality and increasing incidence. It is of note that the main curative therapies for HCC are hepatic resection and transplantation although the majority of patients at the time of presentation are not eligible for resection or orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) due to the underlying cirrhosis. Currently, a variety of loco-regional therapies, including radiofrequency ablation (RFA), percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), microwave coagulation therapy (MCT), transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) and others, have been developed as alternative treatment options for HCC...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Wafaa Mohamed Hussein, Wagida A Anwar, Mohammed Attaleb, Loubna Mazini, Asta Försti, Roxana-Delia Trimbitas, Meriem Khyatti
Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Nayi Zongo, Nina Korsaga-Somé, Amandine Banata Gang-Ny, Edgar Ouangré, Maurice Zida, Aimé Sosthène Ouédraogo, Aboubacar Hirrhum Bambara, Augustin Tozoula Bambara, Si Simon Traore, Pascal Niamba, Adama Traoré, Ahmadou Dem
BACKGROUND: Vulvar cancer is a rare gynaecological cancer. In Burkina Faso, the diagnosis of vulvar cancers is delayed and the prognosis is poor. However, no specific study on vulvar cancers has been conducted at the moment. This work aimed to study the characteristics of these cancers. METHODS: This is a prospective study on histologically confirmed primary cancers of the vulva diagnosed between 1st January 2013 and 30th June 2015. The demographic and clinical aspects were studied at the Yalgado Ouedraogo University Hospital of Ouagadougou (CHU-YO)...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
Cheng-Te Major Lin, Emily C Leibovitch, M Isabel Almira-Suarez, Steven Jacobson
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is a fatal CNS malignancy, representing 50 % of all gliomas with approximately 12-18 months survival time after initial diagnosis. Recently, the human herpesvirus cytomegalovirus (CMV) has been suggested to have an oncogenic role, yet this association remains controversial. In addition, human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have also been associated with low-grade gliomas, but few studies have examined HHV-6 and EBV in glioblastomas. Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) is a highly precise diagnostic tool that enables the absolute quantification of target DNA...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
A P Kozlov
The evolutionarily novel genes originated through different molecular mechanisms are expressed in tumors. Sometimes the expression of evolutionarily novel genes in tumors is highly specific. Moreover positive selection of many human tumor-related genes in primate lineage suggests their involvement in the origin of new functions beneficial to organisms. It is suggested to consider the expression of evolutionarily young or novel genes in tumors as a new biological phenomenon, a phenomenon of TSEEN (tumor specifically expressed, evolutionarily novel) genes...
2016: Infectious Agents and Cancer
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