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International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714774/small-sided-games-in-elite-soccer-does-one-size-fits-all
#1
Mathieu Lacome, Ben M Simpson, Yannick Cholley, Philippe Lambert, Martin Buchheit
PURPOSE: To compare the peak intensity of typical Small Sided Games (SSGs) with those of official matches in terms of running demands and mechanical work over different rolling average durations and playing positions. METHOD: Data were collected in 21 players (25±5 y, 181±7 cm, 77±7 kg) belonging to an elite French football team. SSG data were collected over two seasons during typical training sessions (249 files, 12±4 per player) and official matches (n=12)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714767/comparison-of-methods-of-calculating-dynamic-strength-index
#2
Paul Comfort, Christopher Thomas, Thomas Dos'Santos, Paul A Jones, Timothy J Suchomel, John J McMahon
PURPOSE: To determine the reliability and variability of dynamic strength index (DSI) calculated from squat jump (SJ) (DSI-SJ) versus countermovement jump (CMJ) (DSI-CMJ) peak force (PF) and to compare DSI values between methods. METHODS: Male youth soccer and rugby league players (n = 27; age = 17.2 ± 0.7 years; height = 173.9 ± 5.7 cm; body mass = 71.1 ± 7.2 kg) performed 3 trials of the SJ, CMJ and isometric mid-thigh pull (IMTP), on two separate days. DSI was calculated by dividing the PF during each jump by the IMTP PF...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714760/houston-we-still-have-a-problem
#3
Martin Buchheit
Apollo 13 was initially looking like it would be the smoothest flight ever. After the explosion of an oxygen tank however, the astronauts were close to spending the rest of their lives in rotation around the planet. I wished to use this well-known incident to discuss further the link, or lack thereof, between sport sciences research and current field practices. There is a feeling that the academic culture and its publishing requirements have created a bit of an Apollo 13-like orbiting world (e.g., journals and conferences) that is mostly disconnected from the reality of elite performance...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714752/differences-in-the-load-velocity-profile-between-four-bench-press-variants
#4
Amador García-Ramos, Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Francisco Javier Rojas, Guy Gregory Haff
PURPOSE: This study aimed to compare the load-velocity relationship between four variants of the bench press (BP) exercise. METHODS: The full load-velocity relationship of 30 men were evaluated by means of an incremental loading test starting at 17 kg progressing to the individual one-repetition maximum (1RM) in four BP variants: concentric-only BP, concentric-only bench press throw (BPT), eccentric-concentric BP, and eccentric-concentric BPT. RESULTS: A strong and fairly linear relationship between mean velocity (MV) and %1RM was observed for the four BP variants (r(2) > 0...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714750/-hand-in-glove-using-qualitative-methods-to-connect-research-and-practice
#5
Liam D Harper, Robert McCunn
Recent work has espoused the idea that within applied sporting environments, 'fast' working practitioners should work together with 'slow' working researchers. However, due to economical and logistical constraints, such a coupling may not always be practical. Therefore, alternative means of combining research and applied practice are needed. A particular methodology, which has been utilized in recent years, is qualitative research. Examples of qualitative methods include the use of online surveys, one-on-one interviews, and focus groups...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714746/age-related-changes-in-endurance-performance-vary-between-modes-of-locomotion-in-men-an-analysis-of-master-world-records
#6
Romuald Lepers, Paul J Stapley, Thomas Cattagni
BACKGROUND: Age-related declines in sport performance are characteristic of all endurance and sprinting disciplines. However, it is not known if the mode of locomotion (i.e. swimming, cycling or running) influences the age-related decline in sport performance in sprinting and endurance events. METHODS: To examine the age-related decline in three different modes of locomotion (i.e. swimming, cycling and running) for endurance and sprint events, the world best performances achieved for males in the age-groups 18-39 years, 40-44 years, 45-49 years, 50-54 years, 55-59 years, 60-64 years, 65-69 years, 70-74 years, 75-79 years and 80-84 years, were compared in swimming (1500-m and 50-m), cycling (1-h and 200-m) and running (10-km and 100-m)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714744/marathon-pace-control-in-masters-athletes
#7
Derek Breen, Michelle Norris, Robin Healy, Ross Anderson
PURPOSE: Pacing strategies are key to overall performance outcome in distance running events. Presently, no literature has examined pacing strategies utilised by masters athletes, of all running levels, during a competitive marathon. Therefore, this study aimed to examine masters athletes' pacing strategies, categorised by gender, age and performance level. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the 2015 TSC New York City Marathon for 31,762 masters athletes (20,019 men and 11,743 women)...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714743/an-alternate-test-of-tackling-ability-in-rugby-league-players
#8
Michael J A J Speranza, Tim J Gabbett, David A Greene, Rich D Johnston, Andrew D Townshend, Brett O'Farrell
This study investigated the relationship between two tests of tackling ability, muscular strength and power in semi-professional rugby league players. Thirty-one players, 19 first grade and 12 second grade underwent tests of muscular strength (1 repetition maximum bench press, chin-up, and squat) and power (plyometric push-up and countermovement jump). Tackling ability was assessed via video analysis of under-the-ball and over-the-ball tackle drills. The first grade players had significantly greater scores in both the under-the-ball (P = 0...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714739/relationships-between-model-predicted-and-actual-match-performance-in-professional-australian-footballers-during-an-in-season-training-macrocycle
#9
Stuart R Graham, Stuart Cormack, Gaynor Parfitt, Roger Eston
PURPOSE: To assess and compare the validity of internal and external Australian Football (AF) training load measures for predicting match exercise intensity (MEI.min(-1)) and player rank score (PR(Score)) using a variable dose-response model. METHODS: 25 professional AF players (23 ± 3 y, 188.3 ± 7.2 cm and 87.7 ± 8.4 kg) completed a 24-week in-season macrocycle. In-season internal training and match load was quantified using session-RPE (sRPE) and external load from satellite and accelerometer data...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657854/differences-between-relative-and-absolute-speed-and-metabolic-thresholds-in-rugby-league
#10
Tannath J Scott, Heidi R Thornton, Macfarlane T U Scott, Ben J Dascombe, Grant M Duthie
PURPOSE: This study compared relative and absolute speed and metabolic thresholds for quantifying match output in elite rugby league. METHODS: Twenty-six professional players competing in the National Rugby League (NRL) were monitored with global positioning systems (GPS) across a rugby league season. Absolute speed [moderate-intensity running (MIRTh >3.6 m·s(-1)); high intensity running (HIRTh > 5.2 m·s(-1))] and metabolic (>20 W·kg(-1)) thresholds were compared to individualised ventilatory [first (VT1IFT), and second (VT2IFT)] thresholds estimated from the 30-15 intermittent fitness test (30-15IFT), as well as the metabolic threshold associated with VT2IFT (HPmetVT2), to examine difference in match-play demands...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657853/racing-an-opponent-alters-pacing-performance-and-muscle-force-decline-but-not-rpe
#11
Marco J Konings, Jordan Parkinson, Inge Zijdewind, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: Performing against a virtual opponent has been shown to invite a change in pacing and improve time trial (TT) performance. This study explored how this performance improvement is established by assessing changes in pacing, neuromuscular function and perceived exertion. METHODS: After a peak power output test and a familiarization TT, twelve trained cyclists completed two 4-km TTs in randomized order on a Velotron cycle ergometer. Time trial conditions were riding alone (NO), and riding against a virtual opponent (OP)...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657821/a-scientific-approach-to-improve-physiological-capacity-of-an-elite-cyclist
#12
Bent R Rønnestad, Joar Hansen
Previous studies in endurance athletes has indicated that block periodization (BP) can be a good alternative to the more traditional organization of training despite the total volume and intensity of the training being similar. However, these studies usually last only 4-12 weeks. The aim of the present single-case study was to investigate the consequences of 58 weeks with systematic BP of low intensity training (LIT), moderate intensity training (MIT) and high intensity interval training (HIT) including incorporation of heavy strength training...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657812/combined-prior-exercise-and-fast-start-improves-vo2-kinetics-and-cycling-performance
#13
Kirsty Brock, Prokopios Antonellis, Matthew I Black, Fred J DiMenna, Anni Vanhatalo, Andrew M Jones, Stephen J Bailey
PURPOSE: To investigate whether oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics and simulated 4-km cycling performance are synergistically improved by prior 'priming' exercise and an all-out starting strategy. METHODS: Nine males completed four target work trials (114 ± 17 kJ) to assess V̇o2 kinetics and cycling performance in a repeated-measures, cross-over experimental design. Trials were initiated with either a 12-s all-out start or a self-selected start and preceded by prior severe-intensity (70%Δ) priming exercise or no priming exercise...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657807/variability-predictability-and-race-factors-affecting-performance-in-elite-biathlon
#14
Øyvind Skattebo, Thomas Losnegard
PURPOSE: Investigate variability, predictability and smallest worthwhile performance enhancement in elite biathlon sprint events. In addition, the effects of race factors on performance were assessed. METHODS: Data from 2005-2015 including >10,000 and >1000 observations for each sex for all athletes and annual top-10 athletes were included, respectively. Generalized linear mixed models were constructed based on total race time, skiing time, shooting times and proportions of targets hit...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657804/physiological-profile-of-an-uphill-time-trial-in-elite-cyclists
#15
Ana B Peinado, Nuria Romero-Parra, Miguel A Rojo-Tirado, Rocío Cupeiro, Javier Butragueño, Eliane A Castro, Francisco J Calderón, Pedro J Benito
PURPOSE: While a number of studies have researched road cycling performance, few studies have attempted to investigate the physiological response in field conditions. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe the physiological and performance profile of an uphill time-trial frequently used in cycling competitions. METHODS: Fourteen elite road cyclists (mean±SD: age 25±6 years, height 174±4.2 cm, body mass 64.4±6.1 kg and fat mass 7.48±2.82%) performed a graded exercise test until exhaustion to determine maximal parameters...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657799/is-there-an-optimal-ischaemic-preconditioning-dose-to-improve-cycling-performance
#16
Scott Cocking, Mathew G Wilson, David Nichols, N Timothy Cable, Daniel J Green, Dick H J Thijssen, Helen Jones
INTRODUCTION: Ischaemic preconditioning (IPC) may enhance endurance performance. No previous study has directly compared distinct IPC protocols for optimal benefit. The aim of this study was to determine whether a specific IPC protocol (i.e. number of cycles, amount of muscle tissue, and local vs remote occlusion) elicits greater performance outcome. METHODS: Twelve cyclists performed five different IPC protocols 30-min prior to a blinded 375 kJ cycling time trial (TT) in a laboratory...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657791/selective-changes-on-the-mechanical-capacities-of-lower-body-muscles-after-a-cycle-ergometer-sprint-training-against-heavy-and-light-resistances
#17
Amador García-Ramos, Alejandro Torrejón, Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Antonio J Morales-Artacho, Slobodan Jaric
PURPOSE: This study explored the feasibility of the linear force-velocity (F-V) modelling approach to detect selective changes of the F-V parameters (i.e., maximum force [F0], maximum velocity [V0], F-V slope [a], and maximum power [P0]) following a sprint training program. METHODS: Twenty-seven men were randomly assigned to a heavy load group (HLG), light load group (LLG), or control group (CG). The training sessions (6 weeks × 2 sessions per week) comprised performing eight maximal effort sprints against either heavy (HLG) or light (LLG) resistances in the leg cycle ergometer exercise...
June 28, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605265/associations-between-individual-lower-limb-muscle-volumes-and-100-m-sprint-time-in-male-sprinters
#18
Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie, Hiroaki Kanehisa
PURPOSE: To elucidate the relationship between the muscularity of individual lower limb muscles and 100-m race time (t100) in young adult male sprinters. METHODS: A total of 31 young adult male sprinters took part in this study (age, 19.9 ± 1.4 years; height, 173.5 ± 4.6 cm; body mass, 67.0 ± 4.9 kg; t100, 10.23-11.71 s). The cross-sectional images from the origin to insertion of 12 lower limb muscles were obtained with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605261/criterion-and-construct-validity-of-an-isometric-mid-thigh-pull-dynamometer-for-assessing-whole-body-strength-in-professional-rugby-league-players
#19
Nick Dobbin, Richard Hunwicks, Ben Jones, Kevin Till, Jamie Highton, Craig Twist
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion and construct validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer to assess whole body strength in professional rugby league players. METHODS: Fifty-six male rugby league players, (33 senior and 23 youth professional players) performed four isometric mid-thigh pull efforts (i.e. two on the dynamometer and two on the force platform) in a randomised and counterbalanced order. RESULTS: Isometric peak force was underestimated (P<0...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605253/pre-cooling-with-crushed-ice-is-as-effective-as-heat-acclimation-at-improving-cycling-time-trial-performance-in-the-heat
#20
Matthew Zimmermann, Grant J Landers, Karen E Wallman, Georgina Kent
This study compared pre-cooling (ice ingestion) with heat acclimation training on cycling time trial (CTT) performance in the heat. Fifteen male cyclists/triathletes completed two 800 kJ cycle time trials in the heat, with a 12-day training program in between. Initially, all participants consumed 7 g·kg(-1) of water (22°C) in 30 min, prior to completing an 800 kJ CTT in hot, humid conditions (pre-CTT) (35°C, 50% relative humidity; RH). Participants were then split into two groups, pre-cooling (n=7): trained in thermoneutral conditions then underwent pre-cooling with ice ingestion (7 g·kg(-1),1°C) prior to the final CTT (post-CTT), heat acclimation (n=8): trained in hot conditions (35°C, 50% RH) and consumed water (7 g·kg(-1)) prior to post-CTT...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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