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International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605265/associations-between-individual-lower-limb-muscle-volumes-and-100-m-sprint-time-in-male-sprinters
#1
Norihide Sugisaki, Kai Kobayashi, Hiroyasu Tsuchie, Hiroaki Kanehisa
PURPOSE: To elucidate the relationship between the muscularity of individual lower limb muscles and 100-m race time (t100) in young adult male sprinters. METHODS: A total of 31 young adult male sprinters took part in this study (age, 19.9 ± 1.4 years; height, 173.5 ± 4.6 cm; body mass, 67.0 ± 4.9 kg; t100, 10.23-11.71 s). The cross-sectional images from the origin to insertion of 12 lower limb muscles were obtained with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605261/criterion-and-construct-validity-of-an-isometric-mid-thigh-pull-dynamometer-for-assessing-whole-body-strength-in-professional-rugby-league-players
#2
Nick Dobbin, Richard Hunwicks, Ben Jones, Kevin Till, Jamie Highton, Craig Twist
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the criterion and construct validity of an isometric mid-thigh pull dynamometer to assess whole body strength in professional rugby league players. METHODS: Fifty-six male rugby league players, (33 senior and 23 youth professional players) performed four isometric mid-thigh pull efforts (i.e. two on the dynamometer and two on the force platform) in a randomised and counterbalanced order. RESULTS: Isometric peak force was underestimated (P<0...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605253/pre-cooling-with-crushed-ice-is-as-effective-as-heat-acclimation-at-improving-cycling-time-trial-performance-in-the-heat
#3
Matthew Zimmermann, Grant J Landers, Karen E Wallman, Georgina Kent
This study compared pre-cooling (ice ingestion) with heat acclimation training on cycling time trial (CTT) performance in the heat. Fifteen male cyclists/triathletes completed two 800 kJ cycle time trials in the heat, with a 12-day training program in between. Initially, all participants consumed 7 g·kg(-1) of water (22°C) in 30 min, prior to completing an 800 kJ CTT in hot, humid conditions (pre-CTT) (35°C, 50% relative humidity; RH). Participants were then split into two groups, pre-cooling (n=7): trained in thermoneutral conditions then underwent pre-cooling with ice ingestion (7 g·kg(-1),1°C) prior to the final CTT (post-CTT), heat acclimation (n=8): trained in hot conditions (35°C, 50% RH) and consumed water (7 g·kg(-1)) prior to post-CTT...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605252/a-simple-method-for-assessing-upper-limb-force-velocity-profile-in-bench-press
#4
Abderrahmane Rahmani, Pierre Samozino, Jean-Benoit Morin, Baptiste Morel
PURPOSE: 1) to analyze the reliability and validity of a field computation method based on easy-to-measure data to assess the mean force (F̄) and velocity (v̄) produced during a ballistic bench press movement; and 2) to verify that the force-velocity profile (F-v) obtained with multiple loaded trials is accurately described. METHODS: Twelve participants performed ballistic bench press against various lifted mass from 30 to 70% of their body mass. For each trial, F̄ and v̄ were determined from an accelerometer (sampling rate: 500Hz; reference method) and a simple computation method based on upper limb mass, barbell flight height and push-off distance...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605214/influence-of-reactive-strength-index-modified-on-force-and-power-time-curves
#5
John J McMahon, Paul A Jones, Timothy J Suchomel, Jason Lake, Paul Comfort
PURPOSE: The reactive strength index modified (RSImod) has been recently identified and validated as a method of monitoring countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. The kinetic and kinematic mechanisms that optimize a higher RSImod score are, however, currently unknown. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to compare entire CMJ force-, power-, velocity- and displacement-time curves (termed temporal phase analysis) of athletes who achieve high versus low RSImod scores. METHODS: Fifty-three professional male rugby league players performed three maximal effort CMJs on a force platform and variables of interest were calculated via forward dynamics...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605210/pacing-strategy-during-simulated-mountain-bike-racing
#6
Bruno Ferreira Viana, Flávio Oliveira Pires, Allan Inoue, Tony Meireles Santos
Cross-country mountain biking (XCO) is a popular high-intensity cycling endurance event, however, XCO pacing strategy has not been fully examined. This study examined the pacing strategies of different XCO athletes, during a laboratory-simulated XCO performance test. Brazilian cyclists classified as performance cohort level three (PL3-trained) performed an XCO race simulation. The simulation consisted of four 10 km laps with a gradient of 0-10%. No group vs. time interaction was found in lap time (P = 0.169), absolute (P = 0...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605209/pacing-and-self-regulation-important-skills-for-talent-development-in-endurance-sports
#7
Marije T Elferink-Gemser, Florentina J Hettinga
Pacing has been characterized as a multi-faceted goal-directed process of decision-making in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy during the race, a process essential for optimal performance. Both physiological as well as psychological characteristics associated with adequate pacing and performance are known to develop with age. Consequently, the multi-faceted skill of pacing might be under construction throughout adolescence as well. Therefore, we propose that the complex skill of pacing is a potential important performance characteristic for talented youth athletes, that needs to be developed throughout adolescence...
June 12, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530528/objectifying-tactics-athlete-and-race-variability-in-elite-short-track-speed-skating
#8
Marco J Konings, Florentina J Hettinga
PURPOSE: To objectively capture and understand tactical considerations in a race, we explored whether race-to-race variation of an athlete and the variation of competitors within a race could provide insight into how and when athletes modify their pacing decisions in response to other competitors. METHODS: Lap times of elite 500, 1000 and 1500 m short-track speed skating competitions between 2011-2016 (n=6965 races) were collected. Log-transformed lap and finishing times were analyzed with mixed linear models...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530517/contributions-of-body-composition-characteristics-to-critical-power-and-anaerobic-work-capacity
#9
M Travis Byrd, Jonathan Robert Switalla, Joel E Eastman, Brian J Wallace, Jody L Clasey, Haley C Bergstrom
Critical power (CP) and anaerobic work capacity (AWC) from the CP test represent distinct parameters related to metabolic characteristics of the whole body and active muscle tissue, respectively. PURPOSE: This study examined the contribution of whole body composition characteristics and local lean mass to further elucidate the differences in metabolic characteristics between CP and AWC as they relate to whole body and local factors. METHODS: Fifteen, anaerobically trained males were assessed for whole body (% body fat [%BF] and mineral-free, lean mass [LBM]) and local mineral-free thigh lean mass (TLM) composition characteristic...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530507/the-reliability-and-sensitivity-of-performance-measures-in-a-novel-pace-bowling-test
#10
Simon A Feros, Warren B Young, Brendan J O'Brien
OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the reliability and sensitivity of performance measures in a novel pace bowling test. METHODS: Thirteen male amateur club fast bowlers completed a novel pace bowling test on two separate occasions, 4-7 days apart. Participants delivered 48 balls (8 overs), at five targets on a suspended sheet, situated behind a 'live' batter who stood in a right-handed and left-handed stance for an equal amount of deliveries. Delivery instruction was frequently changed, with all deliveries executed in a pre-planned sequence...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530487/effects-of-pre-season-training-on-the-sleep-characteristics-of-professional-rugby-league-players
#11
Heidi R Thornton, Jace A Delaney, Grant M Duthie, Ben J Dascombe
PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of daily and exponentially-weighted moving training loads on subsequent night-time sleep. METHODS: Sleep of fourteen professional rugby league athletes competing in the National Rugby League competition was recorded using wristwatch actigraphy. Physical demands were quantified using GPS technology, including total distance (TD), high-speed distance (HSD), acceleration/deceleration load (SumAccDec; AU), and sRPE (AU). Linear mixed models determined effects of acute (daily) and sub-acute (three- and seven-day) exponentially-weighted moving averages (EWMA) on sleep...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530476/time-trials-versus-time-to-exhaustion-tests-effects-on-critical-power-w-and-oxygen-uptake-kinetics
#12
Bettina Karsten, Jonathan Baker, Fernando Naclerio, Andreas Klose, Antonino Bianco, Alfred Nimmerichter
PURPOSE: To investigate single-day time-to-exhaustion (TTE) and time trial (TT) based laboratory tests values of critical power (CP), Wprime (W') and respective oxygen kinetics responses. METHODS: Twelve cyclists performed a maximal ramp test followed by three TTE and three TT efforts interspersed by a 60-min recovery between efforts. Oxygen uptake was measured during all trials. The mean response time (MRT) was calculated as a description of the overall V̇O2 kinetic response from the onset to 2 min of exercise...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530474/optimising-pre-season-training-loads-in-australian-football
#13
David L Carey, Justin Crow, Kok-Leong Ong, Peter Blanch, Meg E Morris, Ben J Dascombe, Kay M Crossley
PURPOSE: To investigate whether pre-season training plans for Australian football can be computer generated using current training load guidelines to optimise injury risk reduction and performance improvement. METHODS: A constrained optimisation problem was defined for daily total and sprint distance, using the pre-season schedule of an elite Australian football team as a template. Maximising total training volume and maximising Banister model projected performance were both considered as optimisation objectives...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530452/overground-propulsion-kinematics-and-acceleration-in-elite-wheelchair-rugby
#14
David S Haydon, Ross A Pinder, Paul N Grimshaw, William S P Robertson
PURPOSE: Maximal acceleration from standstill has been identified as a key performance indicator in wheelchair rugby; however, the impact of classification and kinematic variables on performance has received limited attention. This study aimed to investigate kinematic variables during maximal acceleration, with level of activity limitation accounted for using sport classification scores. METHODS: 25 elite wheelchair rugby players were analysed in high-, mid-, and low-point groups based on their sporting classification score, which reflects the combined trunk, arm, and hand function, before completing five 5m sprints from a stationary position...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530450/the-dose-response-relationship-between-training-load-and-aerobic-fitness-in-academy-rugby-union-players
#15
Richard Taylor, Dajo Sanders, Tony Myers, Grant Abt, Celia A Taylor, Ibrahim Akubat
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to identify the dose-response relationship between measures of training load (TL) and changes in aerobic fitness in academy rugby union players. METHODS: Training data from ten academy rugby union players was collected during a six-week in-season period. Participants completed a lactate threshold (LT) test which was used to assess VO2max and velocities at VO2max, 2 mmol·L(-1) (vLT) and 4 mmol·L(-1) (vOBLA) as measures of aerobic fitness...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488940/elite-african-marathoners-specialize-earlier-than-elite-non-african-marathoners
#16
Tyler J Noble, Robert F Chapman
PURPOSE: To assess differences in event specific specialization between elite African and Non-African male marathon runners on the basis of age, performance, and career length. METHODS: The top 90 African marathoners from 2001-2015 were compared to the top 90 Non-African marathoners from the same time period across various markers related to specialization age, performance, and career length. Independent t-tests were used to identify significant differences (P<0...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488924/effects-of-caffeine-on-countermovement-jump-performance-variables-in-elite-male-volleyball-players
#17
Hermann Zbinden-Foncea, Isabel Rada, Jesus Gomez, Marco Kokaly, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Deldicque, Luis Peñailillo
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a moderate dose of caffeine in elite male volleyball players on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, as well as temporal concentric and eccentric phase effects. METHODS: Ten elite male volleyball players took part in two experimental days via a randomized cross-over trial 1 week apart in which they ingested either 5 mg/kg of caffeine or a placebo in double-blind fashion. Heart rate and blood pressure parameters were measured at rest and 60 min post-ingestion...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488921/sex-differences-in-world-record-performance-the-influence-of-sport-discipline-and-competition-duration
#18
Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli, Hans-Christer Holmberg
In the present review, we summarize scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. In addition, we discuss how physiological factors relate to sex dimorphism. While cultural factors played a major role in the rapid improvement of performance of women relative to men up until the 1990's, sex differences between the world's best athletes in most events have remained relatively stable at approximately 8-12%. The exceptions are events in which upper-body power is a major contributor, where this difference is more than 15%, and ultra-endurance swimming, where the gap is now less than 5%...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488918/the-relationship-between-wearable-microtechnology-device-variables-and-cricket-fast-bowling-intensity
#19
Dean J McNamara, Tim J Gabbett, Peter Blanch, Luke Kelly
To date, the monitoring of fast bowling workloads across training and competition environments has been limited to counting total balls bowled. However, bowling at faster velocities is likely to require greater effort while also placing greater load on the bowler. This study investigated the relationship between prescribed effort and microtechnology outputs in fast bowlers to ascertain whether the technology could provide a more refined measure of workload. Twelve high performing fast bowlers (mean ± SD age; 20...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488913/relationship-between-pre-training-subjective-wellness-measures-player-load-and-rating-of-perceived-exertion-training-load-in-american-college-football
#20
Andrew D Govus, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Andrew Murray, Hugh Fullagar
PURPOSE: The relationship between pre-training subjective wellness, external and internal training load in American College football is unclear. This study examined the relationship between pre-training subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) on 1) player load and 2) session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American College footballers. METHODS: Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert scale questionnaires); external load (derived from global position systems [GPS] and accelerometry) and s-RPE-TL were collected during three typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American collegiate football season (eight weeks)...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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