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International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488940/elite-african-marathoners-specialize-earlier-than-elite-non-african-marathoners
#1
Tyler J Noble, Robert F Chapman
PURPOSE: To assess differences in event specific specialization between elite African and Non-African male marathon runners on the basis of age, performance, and career length. METHODS: The top 90 African marathoners from 2001-2015 were compared to the top 90 Non-African marathoners from the same time period across various markers related to specialization age, performance, and career length. Independent t-tests were used to identify significant differences (P<0...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488924/effects-of-caffeine-on-countermovement-jump-performance-variables-in-elite-male-volleyball-players
#2
Hermann Zbinden-Foncea, Isabel Rada, Jesus Gomez, Marco Kokaly, Trent Stellingwerff, Louise Deldicque, Luis Peñailillo
PURPOSE: To examine the effects of a moderate dose of caffeine in elite male volleyball players on countermovement jump (CMJ) performance, as well as temporal concentric and eccentric phase effects. METHODS: Ten elite male volleyball players took part in two experimental days via a randomized cross-over trial 1 week apart in which they ingested either 5 mg/kg of caffeine or a placebo in double-blind fashion. Heart rate and blood pressure parameters were measured at rest and 60 min post-ingestion...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488921/sex-differences-in-world-record-performance-the-influence-of-sport-discipline-and-competition-duration
#3
Øyvind Sandbakk, Guro Strøm Solli, Hans-Christer Holmberg
In the present review, we summarize scientific knowledge concerning sex differences in world record performance and the influence of sport discipline and competition duration. In addition, we discuss how physiological factors relate to sex dimorphism. While cultural factors played a major role in the rapid improvement of performance of women relative to men up until the 1990's, sex differences between the world's best athletes in most events have remained relatively stable at approximately 8-12%. The exceptions are events in which upper-body power is a major contributor, where this difference is more than 15%, and ultra-endurance swimming, where the gap is now less than 5%...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488918/the-relationship-between-wearable-microtechnology-device-variables-and-cricket-fast-bowling-intensity
#4
Dean J McNamara, Tim J Gabbett, Peter Blanch, Luke Kelly
To date, the monitoring of fast bowling workloads across training and competition environments has been limited to counting total balls bowled. However, bowling at faster velocities is likely to require greater effort while also placing greater load on the bowler. This study investigated the relationship between prescribed effort and microtechnology outputs in fast bowlers to ascertain whether the technology could provide a more refined measure of workload. Twelve high performing fast bowlers (mean ± SD age; 20...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488913/relationship-between-pre-training-subjective-wellness-measures-player-load-and-rating-of-perceived-exertion-training-load-in-american-college-football
#5
Andrew D Govus, Aaron Coutts, Rob Duffield, Andrew Murray, Hugh Fullagar
PURPOSE: The relationship between pre-training subjective wellness, external and internal training load in American College football is unclear. This study examined the relationship between pre-training subjective wellness (sleep quality, muscle soreness, energy, wellness Z score) on 1) player load and 2) session rating of perceived exertion (s-RPE-TL) in American College footballers. METHODS: Subjective wellness (measured using 5-point, Likert scale questionnaires); external load (derived from global position systems [GPS] and accelerometry) and s-RPE-TL were collected during three typical training sessions per week for the second half of an American collegiate football season (eight weeks)...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488907/prediction-the-modern-day-sports-science-medicine-quest-for-the-holy-grail
#6
Alan McCall, Maurizio Fanchini, Aaron J Coutts
In high performance sport, science and medicine practitioners employ a variety of physical and psychological tests, training/match monitoring and injury screening tools for a variety of reasons; mainly to predict performance, identify talented individuals and flag when an injury will occur. The ability to 'predict' outcomes such as performance, talent or injury is arguably the sports science/medicine modern day equivalent of the 'Quest for the Holy Grail'. The purpose of this invited commentary is to 1) highlight the common misinterpretation of studies investigating association to those actually analysing prediction and 2) provide practitioners with simple recommendations to quickly distinguish between methods pertaining to association and those of prediction...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488906/factors-affecting-match-outcome-in-elite-australian-football-a-14-year-analysis
#7
Brendan H Lazarus, William G Hopkins, Andrew M Stewart, Robert J Aughey
Effects of fixture and team-characteristics on match outcome in elite Australian football were quantified using data accessed at AFLtables.com for 5109 matches for seasons 2000-2013. Aspects of each match included days-break between matches (≤7 d vs ≥8 d), location (home vs away), travel-status (travel vs no travel), and differences between opposing teams' mean age, body mass and height (expressed as quintiles). A logistic-regression version of the generalised mixed linear model estimated each effect, which was assessed with magnitude-based inference using one extra win or loss in every 10 matches as the smallest important change...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488905/tactical-behaviours-in-men-s-800m-olympic-and-world-championship-medallists-a-changing-of-the-guard
#8
Gareth N Sandford, Simon Pearson, Sian V Allen, Rita M Malcata, Andrew E Kilding, Angus Ross, Paul B Laursen
PURPOSE: To assess the longitudinal evolution of tactical behaviours used to medal in Men's 800m (M800) Olympic Games (OG) or World Championship (WC) events in the recent competition era (2000-2016). METHODS: Thirteen OG and WC events were characterised for first and second lap splits using available footage from YouTube. Positive pacing strategies were defined as a faster first lap. Season's best M800 time and world ranking, reflective of an athlete's 'peak condition', was obtained to determine relationships between adopted tactics and physical condition prior to the championships...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459360/strength-training-for-middle-and-long-distance-performance-a-meta-analysis
#9
Nicolas Berryman, Inigo Mujika, Denis Arvisais, Marie Roubeix, Carl Binet, Laurent Bosquet
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to assess the net effects of strength training on middle- and long-distance performance through a meta-analysis of the available literature. METHODS: Three databases were searched from which 28 out of 554 potential studies met all inclusion criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated and weighted by the inverse of variance to calculate an overall effect and its 95% confidence interval (CI). Subgroup analyses were conducted to determine whether the strength-training intensity, duration and frequency, and population performance level, age, sex and sport were outcomes that may influence the magnitude of the effect...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459358/oral-contraceptive-use-for-manipulation-of-menstruation-in-young-physically-active-women
#10
Mia A Schaumberg, Lynne M Emmerton, David G Jenkins, Nicola W Burton, Xanne Ak Janse de Jonge, Tina L Skinner
PURPOSE: Menstruation and menstrual symptoms are commonly-cited barriers to physical activity in women. The delay or avoidance of menstruation through extended oral contraceptive regimens may mitigate these barriers, yet information on menstrual manipulation practices in young physically-active women is sparse. The objective of this study was to investigate prevalence of, and reasons for, menstrual manipulation with oral contraceptives in recreationally- and competitively- active women...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459350/positive-effects-of-augmented-feedback-to-reduce-time-on-ground-in-well-trained-runners
#11
Rahel Gilgen-Ammann, Thomas Wyss, Severin Troesch, Louis Heyer, Wolfgang Taube
PURPOSE: Successful elite sprint to long-distance runners are known to have shorter ground contact times (GCT) than their less successful counterparts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether augmented feedback (aF) about GCT can reduce the time on ground (TOG) per minute in long-distance runners and if so, whether this reduction improves running performance. METHODS: Thirty well-trained runners were allocated to three groups. The intervention group (IG) received visual aF about their GCT during eight high-intensity interval sessions in the 4-week training period and were instructed to minimize GCT...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459347/characteristics-and-challenges-of-open-water-swimming-performance-a-review
#12
Roberto Baldassarre, Marco Bonifazi, Paola Zamparo, Maria Francesca Piacentini
PURPOSE: Although the popularity of open water swimming (OWS) events has significantly increased in the last decades, specific studies regarding performance of elite or age group athletes in these events are scarce. The purpose of this review is to analyse the existing literature on OWS. METHODS: Relevant literature was located via computer-generated citations: during August 2016, online computer searches on PubMed and Scopus databases were conducted to locate published research...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459314/anthropometric-profiles-of-elite-open-water-swimmers
#13
Gregory Shaw, Iñigo Mujika
Reports detailing the physiques of open water (OW) swimmers are limited. Data from anthropometric screening around competition provides a unique opportunity to describe the current physique attributes of elite OW swimmers peaking for international competition. Anthropometric screening was undertaken on a group of Australian and French OW swimmers as part of performance monitoring within 2 weeks of the 2015 FINA World Championships. Height, mass, and sum of seven skinfolds was measured utilising ISAK standardised measurement techniques by two trained anthropometrists...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459298/reliability-of-power-settings-of-the-wahoo-kickr-power-trainer-after-60-hours-of-use
#14
Emma K Zadow, Cecilia M Kitic, Sam S X Wu, James W Fell
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of power output measurements of a Wahoo KICKR Power Trainer (KICKR) on two separate occasions, separated by fourteen months of regular use (~1 h per week). METHODS: Using the KICKR to set power outputs, powers of 100-600W in increments of 50W were assessed at cadences of 80, 90 and 100rev.min(-1) which were controlled and validated by a dynamic calibration rig (CALRIG). RESULTS: A small ratio bias of 1...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459290/injury-patterns-physiological-profile-and-performance-in-university-rugby-union
#15
Shane Ball, Mark Halaki, Tristan Sharp, Rhonda Orr
OBJECTIVES: Rugby union is a physically demanding collision sport with high injury rates. There is a common perception that higher training loads result in greater injury risk in field-based sports. This study aims to determine injury, anthropometric and physical performance characteristics in junior rugby union players and investigate the interaction between training load and injury across a competitive season. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Fifty-one players (age 19...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459289/is-there-an-optimum-speed-for-economical-running
#16
Matthew I Black, Joseph C Handsaker, Sam J Allen, Stephanie E Forrester, Jonathan P Folland
The influence of running speed and sex on running economy is unclear and may have been confounded by measurements of oxygen cost that do not account for known differences in substrate metabolism, across a limited range of speeds, and differences in performance standard. Therefore, this study assessed the energy cost of running over a wide-range of speeds in high-level and recreational runners to investigate the effect of speed (considered in absolute and relative terms) and sex (males vs. females of equivalent performance standard) on running economy...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459286/the-maximally-achievable-cycling-cadence-affects-carbohydrate-management-at-moderate-and-heavy-exercise-intensity
#17
Ralph Beneke, Tobias G J Weber, Renate M Leithäuser
Effects of different cycling cadences (RPM) on metabolic rate, blood lactate concentration (BLC), and reliance on carbohydrate (CHO) defined as the fraction of oxygen uptake used for CHO oxidation (relCHO) are highly individual. Whether this depends on the individually maximal achievable RPM obtained at minimized cycling resistance (RPMmax), is unknown. We tested the hypotheses that 1) the individual freely chosen RPM at an incremental cycle ergometer test (ILT), and 2) relCHO at given BLC levels both depend on RPMmax...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422588/alterations-in-redox-homeostasis-during-recovery-from-unexplained-underperformance-syndrome-in-an-elite-international-rower
#18
Nathan A Lewis, Ann Redgrave, Mark Homer, Richard Burden, Wendy Martinson, Brian Moore, Charles R Pedlar
PURPOSE: This case study of an international rower examines a diagnosis of Unexplained Under Performance Syndrome (UUPS or Overtraining Syndrome) describing a full recovery and return to elite competition the same year. METHODS: On diagnosis and 4 and 14 months post-diagnosis, detailed assessments including physiological, nutritional, and biomarkers were made. RESULTS: Clinical examination and laboratory results for haematology, biochemistry, thyroid function, immunology, vitamins and minerals were unremarkable and did not explain the presentation and diagnosis...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422586/the-reactive-strength-index-reflects-vertical-stiffness-during-drop-jumps
#19
Kristof Kipp, Michael T Kiely, Matthew D Giordanelli, Philip J Malloy, Christopher F Geiser
The reactive strength index (RSI) is often used to quantify drop jump (DJ) performance; however, not much is known about the biomechanical determinants of the RSI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlations between the RSI and several biomechanical variables calculated from DJ performed with different initial drop heights. Twelve, male NCAA DI basketball players performed DJ from drop heights of 30, 45, and 60 cm. Force plates were used to calculate DJ performance parameters (i.e., DJ height, contact time, and RSI) and DJ biomechanical variables (i...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422583/game-simulation-drill-design-alters-the-speed-profiles-of-wheelchair-rugby-players
#20
James M Rhodes, Barry S Mason, Thomas A W Paulson, Victoria L Goosey-Tolfrey
PURPOSE: This study examined the speed profiles of elite wheelchair rugby (WCR) players during game-simulation training drills of differing player number and shot-clock regulations. A secondary aim was to determine whether the profiles were further influenced by players classification. METHODS: Eight elite WCR players (low-point n = 3; high-point n = 5) were monitored using a radio-frequency based, indoor tracking system during training sessions over a 5-month period...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
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