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GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27453759/minimally-invasive-surgery-of-the-anterior-skull-base-transorbital-approaches
#1
REVIEW
Holger G Gassner, Franziska Schwan, Karl-Michael Schebesch
Minimally invasive approaches are becoming increasingly popular to access the anterior skull base. With interdisciplinary cooperation, in particular endonasal endoscopic approaches have seen an impressive expansion of indications over the past decades. The more recently described transorbital approaches represent minimally invasive alternatives with a differing spectrum of access corridors. The purpose of the present paper is to discuss transorbital approaches to the anterior skull base in the light of the current literature...
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770285/epidemiology-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-selected-risk-factors-comorbidities-and-economic-burden
#2
REVIEW
Achim Beule
Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a relevant and prevalent medical condition in Germany, Europe and the world. If analysed in detail, the prevalence of CRS shows regional and temporary variety. In this review, currently available data regarding the prevalence of CRS is therefore sorted by country and/or region, time point of data collection and the CRS-definition employed. Risk factors like smoking and gastroesophageal reflux are discussed regarding their influence on CRS prevalence. Moreover, comorbidities of CRS, like asthma, conditions of the cardiovascular system and depression are listed and their influence on CRS is discussed...
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770284/principles-of-infection-prevention-and-reprocessing-in-ent-endoscopy
#3
REVIEW
Axel Kramer, Wolfgang Kohnen, Susanne Israel, Sylvia Ryll, Nils-Olaf Hübner, Horst Luckhaupt, Werner Hosemann
This article gives an overview on the principles of reprocessing of rigid and flexible endoscopes used in ENT units including structural and spatial requirements based on general and ENT-specific risks of infection associated with diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopy. The underlying legal principles as well as recommendations from scientific societies will be exemplified in order to give a practical guidance to the otorhinolaryngologist. Preliminary results of a small nation-wide survey on infection control standards based on data of 29 ENT practices in Germany reveal current deficits of varying degree concerning infection control management including reprocessing of endoscopes...
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770283/pathophysiology-of-chronic-rhinosinusitis-pharmaceutical-therapy-options
#4
REVIEW
Claus Bachert, Gabriële Holtappels
Research in immunology has brought great progress in knowledge of inflammatory processes in the last 2 decades, which also has an impact on the upper airways. Our understanding of the pathophysiology of chronic rhinosinusitis developed from a rather mechanistic point of view with a focus on narrow clefts and mucociliary clearance to the appreciation of a complex network of immunological pathways forming the basis of disease. We today differentiate various forms of inflammation, we start to understand complex immune-regulatory networks and the reasons for their failure, and have already developed innovative approaches for therapy for the most severely ill subjects...
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770282/comprehensive-review-on-endonasal-endoscopic-sinus-surgery
#5
REVIEW
Rainer K Weber, Werner Hosemann
Endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery is the standard procedure for surgery of most paranasal sinus diseases. Appropriate frame conditions provided, the respective procedures are safe and successful. These prerequisites encompass appropriate technical equipment, anatomical oriented surgical technique, proper patient selection, and individually adapted extent of surgery. The range of endonasal sinus operations has dramatically increased during the last 20 years and reaches from partial uncinectomy to pansinus surgery with extended surgery of the frontal (Draf type III), maxillary (grade 3-4, medial maxillectomy, prelacrimal approach) and sphenoid sinus...
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770281/hemostatic-management-of-patients-undergoing-ear-nose-throat-surgery
#6
REVIEW
Thomas Thiele, Holger Kaftan, Werner Hosemann, Andreas Greinacher
Perioperative hemostatic management is increasingly important in the field of otolaryngology. This review summarizes the key elements of perioperative risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis and therapies for bridging of antithrombotic treatment. It gives practical advice based on the current literature with focus on patients undergoing ENT surgery.
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770280/trauma-of-the-midface
#7
REVIEW
Thomas S Kühnel, Torsten E Reichert
Fractures of the midface pose a serious medical problem as for their complexity, frequency and their socio-economic impact. Interdisciplinary approaches and up-to-date diagnostic and surgical techniques provide favorable results in the majority of cases though. Traffic accidents are the leading cause and male adults in their thirties are affected most often. Treatment algorithms for nasal bone fractures, maxillary and zygomatic fractures are widely agreed upon whereas trauma to the frontal sinus and the orbital apex are matter of current debate...
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770279/optimized-imaging-of-the-midface-and-orbits
#8
REVIEW
Sönke Langner
A variety of imaging techniques are available for imaging the midface and orbits. This review article describes the different imaging techniques based on the recent literature and discusses their impact on clinical routine imaging. Imaging protocols are presented for different diseases and the different imaging modalities.
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770278/orphan-diseases-of-the-nose-and-paranasal-sinuses-pathogenesis-clinic-therapy
#9
REVIEW
Martin Laudien
Rare rhinological diseases are a diagnostic challenge. Sometimes it takes months or even years from the primary manifestation of the disease until the definitive diagnosis is establibshed. During these times the disease proceeds in an uncontrolled or insufficiently treated way. (Irreversible) damage results and sometimes life-threatening situations occur. The unexpected course of a (misdiagnosed) disease should lead to further diagnostic reflections and steps in order to detect also rare diseases as early as possible...
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770277/position-paper-of-the-german-society-of-oto-rhino-laryngology-head-and-neck-surgery-and-the-german-society-of-phoniatrics-and-pediatric-audiology-current-state-of-clinical-and-endoscopic-diagnostics-evaluation-and-therapy-of-swallowing-disorders-in-children
#10
REVIEW
Christoph Arens, Ingo F Herrmann, Saskia Rohrbach, Cornelia Schwemmle, Tadeus Nawka
Swallowing disorders are frequent. The main concern is mortality due to aspiration-induced pneumonia and malnutrition. In addition, quality of life is severely affected. The demographic trend indicates an increase of dysphagia in the future. Neurodegenerative diseases, tumors of the digestive tract, and sequelae of tumor treatment in the head and neck region are the main pathologic entities. Predominantly ENT physicians and phoniatricians are asked for diagnostics and therapy, and will coordinate the interdisciplinary treatment according to the endoscopic findings...
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26770276/comprehensive-review-on-rhino-neurosurgery
#11
REVIEW
Werner Hosemann, Henry W S Schroeder
In the past 2 decades, an innovative and active field of surgical collaboration has been evolved and established combining the expertise of neurosurgery and rhinosurgery in the endonasal treatment of different lesions affecting the anterior skull base together with the adjacent intranasal and intradural areas. Important prerequisites for this development were improvements of technical devices, definitions of transnasal surgical corridors, and approvements in endonasal reconstructions, e.g. by use of pedicled nasal mucosal flaps...
2015: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25587371/diseases-of-the-middle-ear-in-childhood
#12
REVIEW
Amir Minovi, Stefan Dazert
Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25587370/diseases-of-the-nose-and-paranasal-sinuses-in-child
#13
REVIEW
Markus Stenner, Claudia Rudack
Diseases of the pediatric nose and nasal sinuses as well as neighboring anatomical structures encompass a variety of pathologies, especially of inflammatory nature. Congenital disease, such as malformations and structural deviations of the nasal septum, as well as systemic metabolic pathologies affecting the nose and sinuses, rarely require medical therapy from an Otolaryngologist. The immunological function of the mucosa and genetic factors play a role in the development of disease in the pediatric upper airway tract, especially due to the constantly changing anatomy in this growth phase...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25587369/pathologies-of-the-larynx-and-trachea-in-childhood
#14
REVIEW
Christian Sittel
Pathologies in the larynx and trachea in the pediatric age can be characterized in 4 main groups: airway stenosis, acute infections, benign neoplasia and foreign body aspiration. In this review main diagnostic strategies and therapeutic options are presented. Laryngomalazia is the most frequent condition of supraglottic stenosis. The term supraglottoplasty summarizes all different techniques used for it's repair using an endoscopic approach. Glottic stenosis is rare in children. Usually a compromise between voice preservation and airway restoration has to be sought...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25587368/cervical-lymph-node-diseases-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Stephan Lang, Benjamin Kansy
The lymph nodes are an essential part of the body's immune system and as such are affected in many infectious, autoimmune, metabolic and malignant diseases. The cervical lymph nodes are particularly important because they are the first drainage stations for key points of contact with the outside world (mouth/throat/nose/eyes/ears/respiratory system) - a critical aspect especially among children - and can represent an early clinical sign in their exposed position on a child's slim neck. Involvement of the lymph nodes in multiple conditions is accompanied by a correspondingly large number of available diagnostic procedures...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25587367/tonsillitis-and-sore-throat-in-children
#16
REVIEW
Klaus Stelter
Surgery of the tonsils is still one of the most frequent procedures during childhood. Due to a series of fatal outcomes after hemorrhage in children in Austria in 2006, the standards and indications for tonsillectomy have slowly changed in Germany. However, no national guidelines exist and the frequency of tonsil surgery varies across the country. In some districts eight times more children were tonsillectomized than in others. A tonsillectomy in children under six years should only be done if the child suffers from recurrent acute bacterially tonsillitis...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25587366/salivary-gland-diseases-in-children
#17
REVIEW
Heinrich Iro, Johannes Zenk
Salivary gland diseases in children are rare, apart from viral-induced diseases. Nevertheless, it is essential for the otolaryngologist to recognize these uncommon findings in children and adolescents and to diagnose and initiate the proper treatment. The present work provides an overview of the entire spectrum of congenital and acquired diseases of the salivary glands in childhood and adolescence. The current literature was reviewed and the results discussed and summarized. Besides congenital diseases of the salivary glands in children, the main etiologies of viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune diseases and tumors of the salivary glands were considered...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25587365/hearing-impairment-and-language-delay-in-infants-diagnostics-and-genetics
#18
REVIEW
Ruth Lang-Roth
This overview study provides information on important phoniatric and audiological aspects of early childhood hearing and language development with the aim of presenting diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The article first addresses the universal newborn hearing screening that has been implemented in Germany for all infants since January 2009. The process of newborn hearing screening from the maternity ward to confirmation diagnostics is presented in accordance with a decision by the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA)...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25587364/anesthesia-for-orl-surgery-in-children
#19
REVIEW
Karin Becke
ORL procedures are the most common operations in children - an optimal anesthetic management provides an uncomplicated, safe perioperative process with as little discomfort for the child as possible. Children at risk must already be identified preoperatively: the combination of ORL surgery, airway susceptibility and age below 3 years can increase the risk of perioperative respiratory adverse events. Postoperatively, it is important to prevent complications such as pain and PONV by dedicated prevention and treatment strategies, as well as to recognize and treat respiratory or circulatory complications competently...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25587363/pediatric-radiology-in-oto-rhino-laryngology
#20
REVIEW
Thekla von Kalle, Assen Koitschev
Head and neck diseases in children and adolescents present special diagnostic and differential diagnostic challenges to ENT surgeons as well as to radiologists. Both disciplines have to adapt the latest radiological and interventional technologies to the needs of the pediatric patient in order to enable a minimally invasive but successful diagnostic procedure. High quality sonography by an experienced examiner is often the only imaging technique that is necessary in children and adolescents. Radiographs are rarely indicated in pediatric head and neck diseases...
2014: GMS Current Topics in Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery
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