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Sheeja Liza Easo, Parayanthala Valappil Mohanan
Iron oxide nanoparticles present an attractive choice for carcinogenic cell destruction via hyperthermia treatment due to its small size and magnetic susceptibility. Dextran stabilized iron oxide nanoparticles (DIONPs) synthesized and characterized for this purpose were used to evaluate its effect on cellular uptake, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress response in human peripheral blood lymphocytes. In the absence of efficient internalization and perceptible apoptosis, DIONPs were still capable of inducing significant levels of reactive oxygen species formation shortly after exposure...
December 14, 2016: Biointerphases
Karina I R Teixeira, Maria E Cortés, Robson A S Santos, Fábio de Oliveira, Ruben D Sinisterra
The aim of this study was to determine the physical properties and antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects of the KR12 peptide complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Hp-βCd) in vitro. The KR12:Hp-βCd composition was evaluated for particle size and its zeta (ζ)-potential in the presence and absence of cells. Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis for the peptide alone or associated was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration...
December 1, 2016: Biointerphases
Karina I R Teixeira, Maria E Cortés, Robson A S Santos, Flávio Oliveira, Ruben D Sinisterra
The aim of this study was to determine the physical properties and antimicrobial and antiproliferative effects of the KR12 peptide complexed with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (Hp-βCd) in vitro. The KR12:Hp-βCd composition was evaluated for particle size and its zeta (ζ)-potential in the presence and absence of cells. Antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans, Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, and Porphyromonas gingivalis for the peptide alone or associated was evaluated by minimal inhibitory concentration...
December 1, 2016: Biointerphases
Tiansheng Gan, Xiangjun Gong, Holger Schönherr, Guangzhao Zhang
Microrheology of growing biofilms provides insightful information about its structural evolution and properties. In this study, the authors have investigated the microrheology of Escherichia coli (strain HCB1) biofilms at different indentation depth (δ) by using magnetic force modulation atomic force microscopy as a function of disturbing frequency (f). As δ increases, the dynamic stiffness (ks) for the biofilms in the early stage significantly increases. However, it levels off when the biofilms are matured...
December 1, 2016: Biointerphases
Giulia Suarato, Weiyi Li, Yizhi Meng
There is a continuous demand for sensitive and efficient cancer drug delivery systems that, when administered at low concentrations, are capable of detecting early-stage pathological conditions and increasing patient survival without adverse side effects. Recent developments in the design of chitosan-based smart drug delivery nanocomplexes are able to respond to the distinctive features of the tumor microenvironment and have provided powerful tools for cancer targeted treatment. Due to its biocompatibility and pH-responsiveness, chitosan has emerged as a promising candidate for the formulation of novel, supramolecular multifunctional materials...
December 2016: Biointerphases
Caterina Minelli, Alexander G Shard
Understanding and controlling the performance of engineered nanoparticle (NP) systems is greatly assisted by quantitative characterization of their coatings. Useful measurements methods have been described for NPs in liquid environment, but NP aggregation often represents a limiting factor which impairs the accuracy of techniques such as dynamic light scattering for quantification purposes. Here, the authors show how differential centrifugal sedimentation (DCS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) can provide quantitative information on the NP coating thickness, molecular conformation, and grafting density of aggregated NP samples...
November 30, 2016: Biointerphases
Jessica A Nash, Tasha L Tucker, William Therriault, Yaroslava G Yingling
The interactions of nanoparticles (NPs) with single stranded nucleic acids (NAs) have important implications in gene delivery, and nanotechnological and biomedical applications. Here, the complexation of cationic ligand functionalized gold nanoparticles with single stranded deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA) are examined using all atom molecular dynamics simulations. The results indicated that complexation depends mostly on charge of nanoparticle, and, to lesser extent, sequence and type of nucleic acid...
November 11, 2016: Biointerphases
Nicholas G Welch, Robert M T Madiona, Christopher D Easton, Judith A Scoble, Robert T Jones, Benjamin W Muir, Paul J Pigram
Ensuring the optimum orientation, conformation, and density of substrate-bound antibodies is critical for the success of sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). In this work, the authors utilize a diethylene glycol dimethyl ether plasma polymer (DGpp) coating, functionalized with chromium within a 96 well plate for the enhanced immobilization of a capture antibody. For an equivalent amount of bound antibody, a tenfold improvement in the ELISA signal intensity is obtained on the DGpp after incubation with chromium, indicative of improved orientation on this surface...
November 10, 2016: Biointerphases
Ali Rafati, Alexander G Shard, David G Castner
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with average diameters of ∼14 and ∼40 nm, as well as flat gold coated silicon wafers, were functionalized with oligo ethylene glycol (OEG) terminated 1-undecanethiol (HS-CH2)11 self-assembled monolayers (SAMs). Both hydroxyl [(OEG)4OH] and methoxy [(OEG)4OMe] terminated SAMs were prepared. The AuNPs were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), attenuated total reflectance Fourier infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and low-energy ion scattering (LEIS)...
November 9, 2016: Biointerphases
Zhifeng Kuang, Steve S Kim, Yen H Ngo, Michael C McAlpine, Barry L Farmer, Rajesh R Naik
Recognition and manipulation of graphene edges enable the control of physical properties of graphene-based devices. Recently, the authors have identified a peptide that preferentially binds to graphene edges from a combinatorial peptide library. In this study, the authors examine the functional basis for the edge binding peptide using experimental and computational methods. The effect of amino acid substitution, sequence context, and solution pH value on the binding of the peptide to graphene has been investigated...
November 4, 2016: Biointerphases
Sanjay Singh
Cerium oxide nanoparticles (nanoceria) are known to exhibit enzymelike activity, such as biological catalase, oxidase, superoxide dismutase, and peroxidase enzymelike activities. Catalytically active nanoceria offer several advantages over natural enzymes, such as controlled synthesis at low cost, tunable catalytic activities, as well as high stability against stringent physiological conditions. Exploiting these properties, several biomedical applications, such as biosensing, immunoassay, drug delivery, radiation protection, and tissue engineering, have been maneuvered...
November 2, 2016: Biointerphases
Paul M Dietrich, Wolfgang E S Unger, Sufal Swaraj
Soft x-ray spectromicroscopy techniques have seen great amount of development in the recent years, and with the development of new diffraction limited synchrotron source, many new nanoscale and mesoscale characterization opportunities of applied materials are foreseen. In this perspective, the authors present some examples that illustrate the capabilities of spectromicroscopy techniques, namely, 2D and 3D spatially resolved chemical quantification, surface and bulk sensitive measurements, and polarization dependent measurements as applied to iron oxide nanoparticulate materials of biological, geological, and other origins...
October 28, 2016: Biointerphases
Imad Younus Hasan, Adam Mechler
Supported planar phospholipid membranes are used in a range of biophysical measurements, typically for characterizing protein-membrane interactions. Liposome deposition is the most common method to create such membranes. The ability of liposomes to fuse into a lamellar membrane during deposition is strongly dependent on the surface chemistry; some important substrate materials such as oxidized gold do not promote liposome fusion. Circumventing this determinism poses an enduring challenge to membrane biophysics...
September 22, 2016: Biointerphases
Neelima Bhargava, Vellasamy Shanmugaiah, Manav Saxena, Manish Sharma, Niroj Kumar Sethy, Sushil Kumar Singh, Karuppiah Balakrishnan, Kalpana Bhargava, Mainak Das
In vitro cell culture system for adult rod and cone photoreceptor (PR) is an effective and economical model for screening drug candidates against all kinds of age related retinal blindness. Interestingly, adult PR cells have a limited survival in the culture system, thus preventing full exploitation of this in vitro approach for drug screening applications. The limited survival of the adult PR cells in culture is due to their inherently high oxidative stress and photic injury. Mixed valence-state ceria nanoparticles have the ability to scavenge free radicals and reduce oxidative stress...
September 16, 2016: Biointerphases
Isabella da Silva Vieira Marques, Maria Fernanda Alfaro, Miki Taketomi Saito, Nilson Cristino da Cruz, Christos Takoudis, Richard Landers, Marcelo Ferraz Mesquita, Francisco Humberto Nociti Junior, Mathew T Mathew, Cortino Sukotjo, Valentim Adelino Ricardo Barão
Biofunctionalized surfaces for implants are currently receiving much attention in the health care sector. Our aims were (1) to create bioactive Ti-coatings doped with Ca, P, Si, and Ag produced by microarc oxidation (MAO) to improve the surface properties of biomedical implants, (2) to investigate the TiO2 layer stability under wear and corrosion, and (3) to evaluate human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) responses cultured on the modified surfaces. Tribocorrosion and cell experiments were performed following the MAO treatment...
August 11, 2016: Biointerphases
Tania K Lind, Marité Cárdenas
In this review, the authors discuss the challenges of studying supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) deposited by vesicle fusion in terms of (1) evaluating SLB formation and quality using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and (2) analyzing the composition and asymmetry of SLBs composed by lipid mixtures using complementary surface sensitive techniques. An overview of the literature is presented and the inconsistencies on this topic are discussed with the objective to expand beyond simple lipid compositions and set the basis for forming and analyzing SLBs of complex natural lipid extracts formed via the vesicle fusion method...
July 1, 2016: Biointerphases
Walid M Hassen, Hashimita Sanyal, Manar Hammood, Khalid Moumanis, Eric H Frost, Jan J Dubowski
The authors have investigated the effect of chemotaxis on immobilization of bacteria on the surface of biofunctionalized GaAs (001) samples. Escherichia coli K12 bacteria were employed to provide a proof-of-concept of chemotaxis-enhanced bacterial immobilization, and then, these results were confirmed using Legionella pneumophila. The recognition layer was based on a self-assembled monolayer of thiol functionalized with specific antibodies directed toward E. coli or L. pneumophila, together with the enzyme beta-galactosidase (β-gal)...
June 20, 2016: Biointerphases
Jay Gage Tarolli, Anna Bloom, Nicholas Winograd
In order to utilize complementary imaging techniques to supply higher resolution data for fusion with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) chemical images, there are a number of aspects that, if not given proper consideration, could produce results which are easy to misinterpret. One of the most critical aspects is that the two input images must be of the same exact analysis area. With the desire to explore new higher resolution data sources that exists outside of the mass spectrometer, this requirement becomes even more important...
June 14, 2016: Biointerphases
Bonnie J Tyler, Richard E Peterson, Therese G Lee, Felix Draude, Andreas Pelster, Heinrich F Arlinghaus
Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining...
June 13, 2016: Biointerphases
Ashley N Yeager, Peter K Weber, Mary L Kraft
Metabolic stable isotope incorporation and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) depth profiling performed on a Cameca NanoSIMS 50 were used to image the (18)O-cholesterol and (15)N-sphingolipid distributions within a portion of a Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell. Three-dimensional representations of the component-specific isotope distributions show clearly defined regions of (18)O-cholesterol and (15)N-sphingolipid enrichment that seem to be separate subcellular compartments. The low levels of nitrogen-containing secondary ions detected at the (18)O-enriched regions suggest that these (18)O-cholesterol-rich structures may be lipid droplets, which have a core consisting of cholesterol esters and triacylglycerides...
June 8, 2016: Biointerphases
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