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Estelle Durantie, Hana Barosova, Barbara Drasler, Laura Rodriguez-Lorenzo, Dominic A Urban, Dimitri Vanhecke, Dedy Septiadi, Liliane Hirschi-Ackermann, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Inhalation of combustion-derived ultrafine particles (≤0.1  μ m) has been found to be associated with pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases. However, correlation of the physicochemical properties of carbon-based particles such as surface charge and agglomeration state with adverse health effects has not yet been established, mainly due to limitations related to the detection of carbon particles in biological environments. The authors have therefore applied model particles as mimics of simplified particles derived from incomplete combustion, namely, carbon nanodots (CNDs) with different surface modifications and fluorescent properties...
September 11, 2018: Biointerphases
Yanyi Zang, Ketul C Popat, Melissa M Reynolds
Thrombosis is one of the most critical challenges faced by successful clinical use of blood-contacting medical devices. The formation of blood clots on medical device surfaces is a multistep process that includes protein adsorption, platelet adhesion and activation, and platelet aggregation, resulting in platelet consumption and blockage of blood flow. Without proper treatment, thrombosis will lead to ultimate device failure and create complications in patients. Nitric oxide (NO), a small signaling molecule generated from natural endothelial cells, has been widely shown to reduce platelet adhesion and activation, which occurs in the second step of blood clotting cascade...
September 7, 2018: Biointerphases
Daniel J Graham, Lara J Gamble
The high sputter efficiency and low damage of gas cluster ion beams have enabled depth profiling to greater depths within organic samples using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS). Due to the typically fixed geometry of the ion sources used in ToF-SIMS, as one digs into a surface, the position sampled by ion beams shifts laterally. This causes a lateral shift in the resulting images that can become quite significant when profiling down more than one micron. Here, three methods to compensate for this image shifting are presented in order to more accurately stack the images to present a 3D representation...
September 5, 2018: Biointerphases
Anas M Sultan, Zak E Hughes, Tiffany R Walsh
How the presence of <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>Ca</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mrow> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> <mml:mo>+</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:math> ions at the aqueous <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msub> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>TiO</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:msub> </mml:math> interface influences the binding modes of two experimentally identified titania-binding peptides, Ti-1 and Ti-2, is investigated using replica exchange with solute tempering molecular dynamics simulations...
August 31, 2018: Biointerphases
Blake M Bluestein, Fionnuala Morrish, Daniel J Graham, Li Huang, David Hockenbery, Lara J Gamble
Solid tumors are a structurally complex system, composed of many different cell types. The tumor microenvironment includes nonmalignant cell types that participate in complex interactions with tumor cells. The cross talk between tumor and normal cells is implicated in regulating cell growth, metastatic potential, and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. A new approach is required to interrogate and quantitatively characterize cell to cell interactions in this complex environment. Here, the authors have applied time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) to analyze Myc-induced pancreatic β cell islet tumors...
August 28, 2018: Biointerphases
Tibor Teplický, Andrej Vincze, Anton Mateašík, Zuzana Garaiová, Miroslav Michalka, Beata Čunderlíková
Polysiloxanes have shown exquisite properties for fabrication of microstructures for various biomedical and biotechnological applications. Nevertheless, their biocompatibility in terms of cell adhesion and survival ability is controversial. A simple polysiloxane modifying procedure that reproducibly enhances cell adhesion was proposed. Sonication of the hybrid organic-inorganic polymer of polysiloxane type, Ormocomp, in potassium hydroxide (KOH)/ethanol solution enhanced adhesion and subsequent survival of a panel of four cell lines...
August 10, 2018: Biointerphases
Irini Sotiri, Amanda Tajik, Yang Lai, Cathy T Zhang, Yevgen Kovalenko, Carine R Nemr, Haylea Ledoux, Jack Alvarenga, Edythe Johnson, Huseini S Patanwala, Jaakko V I Timonen, Yuhang Hu, Joanna Aizenberg, Caitlin Howell
The ability to control the properties of bio-inspired liquid-infused surfaces is of interest in a wide range of applications. Liquid layers created using oil-infused polydimethylsiloxane elastomers offer a potentially simple way of accomplishing this goal through the adjustment of parameters such as curing agent ratio and oil viscosity. In this work, the effect of tuning these compositional parameters on the properties of the infused polymer are investigated, including infusion dynamics, stiffness, longevity in the face of continuous liquid overlayer removal, and resistance to bacterial adhesion...
August 9, 2018: Biointerphases
Dennis Flachs, Tim Köhler, Christiane Thielemann
It is well known that at the interface between neuronal tissue and recording electrode low electrical impedance is required. However, if simultaneous optical detection or stimulation is an issue, good optical transmittance of the electrode material is desirable as well. State-of-the-art titanium nitride electrodes provide superior low impedance compared to gold or iridium, but are nontransparent. Transparent electrode materials like the transparent conducting oxide, indium tin oxide (ITO), or graphene offer high light transmittance (>80%) but reveal relatively high impedance...
August 6, 2018: Biointerphases
H Michelle Grandin, Orane Guillaume-Gentil, Tomaso Zambelli, Michael Mayer, Jared Houghtaling, Cornelia G Palivan, Marcus Textor, Fredrik Höök
The genesis for this topical review stems from the interdisciplinary Biointerfaces International conference 2016 (BI 2016) in Zurich, Switzerland, wherein the need for advances in analytical tools was both expressed and addressed. Pushing the limits of detection for characterizing individual components, such as single proteins, single drug-delivery vehicles, or probing single living cells in a more natural environment, will contribute to the understanding of the complex biomolecular systems central to a number of applications including medical diagnostics, tissue engineering, and drug screening and delivery...
July 26, 2018: Biointerphases
Kim Alexander Nolte, Jana Schwarze, Cindy Denise Beyer, Onur Özcan, Axel Rosenhahn
Assessing the efficiency of the next generation of protective marine coatings is highly relevant for their optimization. In this paper, a parallelized microfluidic testing device is presented to quantify the accumulation of a model organism (Navicula perminuta) under constant laminar flow. Using automated microscopy in conjunction with image analysis, the adhesion densities on the tested surfaces could be determined after exposure to a flow of suspended algae for 90 min. The optimized protocol for the assay is presented, and the reproducibility of the densities of attached diatoms was verified on four identical surfaces (self-assembled dodecanethiol monolayers)...
July 18, 2018: Biointerphases
Manasi Chawathe, Atithi Patel, Sriramakamal Jonnalagadda, Alexander Sidorenko
Hybrid molecular brushes (HMBs) are macromolecules made of a linear backbone and polymeric side chains that differ in their chemical nature. The authors developed a new method of synthesis of HMB with chitosan (CHI) backbone. In the first step, chitosan-graft-polylactide (CHI-g-PLA) was synthesized by interfacial ring opening polymerization of lactide initiated from CHI. CHI-g-PLA is characterized for its molecular weight and structure. In the second step, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PNVP) or polyacrylamide (PAAm) is grafted by radical polymerization from the CHI in CHI-g-PLA to form CHI-g-PLA-g-PNVP and CHI-g-PLA-g-PAAm...
July 12, 2018: Biointerphases
Manuela S Killian, Adam J Taylor, David G Castner
Exposure of protein modified surfaces to air may be necessary in several applications. For example, air contact may be inevitable during the implantation of biomedical devices, for analysis of protein modified surfaces, or for sensor applications. Protein coatings are very sensitive to dehydration and can undergo significant and irreversible alterations of their conformations upon exposure to air. With the use of two compatible solutes from extremophilic bacteria, ectoine and hydroxyectoine, the authors were able to preserve the activity of dried protein monolayers for up to >24 h...
June 29, 2018: Biointerphases
Somayeh Ramezanian, Hien Xuan Ta, Balasingam Muhunthan, Nehal Abu-Lail
Biofilms in soil can offer solutions to many geotechnical problems. Controlling biofilm formation in soil requires a fundamental understanding of how bacterial cells interact with soil under relevant environmental conditions. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to quantify the adhesion forces acting between a model soil microbe, Pseudomonas putida, and a model of quartz sand under a range of ionic strengths (ISs; 0.02M-0.52M) that bracket common environmental conditions present in soil. AFM forces were decoupled into specific and nonspecific components following the established Poisson statistical analysis method...
June 13, 2018: Biointerphases
Hongrui Zhang, Qi Gu, Gordon G Wallace, Michael J Higgins
Cell adhesion on conducting polymers is important in organic bioelectronics, including applications such as electronically switchable surfaces and electrochemical transistors. There is a fundamental interest in understanding the conducting polymer-cellular interface though as yet no direct measurements to quantify the cell adhesion forces and energies, particularly at the molecular level, have been undertaken. Here, the authors apply electrochemical-single cell force spectroscopy (EC-SCFS) to directly quantify the de-adhesion forces between single L929 fibroblast cells and polypyrrole doped with dodecylbenzene sulfonate (PPy-DBSA) under electrical stimulation...
June 11, 2018: Biointerphases
Sylvie Coscoy, Sarah Baiz, Jean Octon, Benoît Rhoné, Lucie Perquis, Qingzong Tseng, François Amblard, Vincent Semetey
Cells are able to develop various types of membrane protrusions that modulate their adhesive, migratory, or functional properties. However, their ability to form basal protrusions, particularly in the context of epithelial sheets, is not widely characterized. The authors built hexagonal lattices to probe systematically the microtopography-induced formation of epithelial cell protrusions. Lattices of hexagons of various sizes (from 1.5 to 19 μm) and 5-10 μm height were generated by two-photon photopolymerization in NOA61 or poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate derivatives...
June 8, 2018: Biointerphases
Subramanian B, Thanka Rajan S, P J Martin, Vijay Vaithilingam, Penelope A Bean, Margaret D M Evans, A Bendavid
Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were deposited onto Ti6Al4V and Si wafer substrates by RF plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition. The influence of dopants such as fluorine (F), silicon (Si), and nitrogen (N) on composition, structure, and biocompatibility was investigated. Ion scattering spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of dopant atoms in the outer-most layers of the films. Raman studies showed that the position of the G-band shifts to higher frequencies with the fluorine and nitrogen content in the DLC film, whereas the incorporation of Si into DLC induces a decrease of the position of the G peak...
May 22, 2018: Biointerphases
Ulla König, Evmorfia Psarra, Olga Guskova, Eva Bittrich, Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn, Martin Müller, Petra B Welzel, Manfred Stamm, Petra Uhlmann
The development of bioengineered surface coatings with stimuli-responsive properties is beneficial for a number of biomedical applications. Environmentally responsive and switchable polymer brush systems have a great potential to create such smart biointerfaces. This study focuses on the bioconjugation of cell-instructive peptides, containing the arginine-glycine-aspartic acid tripeptide sequence (RGD motif), onto well-defined polymer brush films. Herein, the highly tailored end-grafted homo polymer brushes are either composed of the polyelectrolyte poly(acrylic) acid (PAA), providing the reactive carboxyl functionalities, or of the temperature-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAAm)...
May 18, 2018: Biointerphases
Mengli Zhao, Ye Cao, Huanhuan Gong, Yanqiu Sun, Jianhua Deng, Dejun Li, Rongxin Wan, Hanqing Gu
One of the key challenges in engineering tissues for cell-based therapies is developing biocompatible scaffold materials to direct cell behavior. In this paper, the cytocompatibilities of a flexible three-dimensional graphene scaffold (3D-G) and the same scaffold implanted with nitrogen ions (N+ /3D-G) are compared using an in vitro assay based on 3(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The N+ /3D-G samples were prepared from low-temperature hydrothermally synthesized flexible 3D-G by ion implantation and were found to display improved adhesion and proliferation of rat osteoblast and mouse fibroblast cells...
May 16, 2018: Biointerphases
Jonas K Hannestad, Fredrik Höök, Peter Sjövall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 8, 2018: Biointerphases
Siyu He, Hongyuan Li, Carmen L Gomes, Dmitri V Voronine
Optical detection and conformational mapping of aptamers are important for improving medical and biosensing technologies and for better understanding of biological processes at the molecular level. The authors investigate the vibrational signals of deoxyribonucleic acid aptamers specific to Listeria monocytogenes immobilized on gold substrates using tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) spectroscopy and nanoscale imaging. The authors compare topographic and nano-optical signals and investigate the fluctuations of the position-dependent TERS spectra...
May 3, 2018: Biointerphases
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