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Giulia Suarato, Weiyi Li, Yizhi Meng
There is a continuous demand for sensitive and efficient cancer drug delivery systems that, when administered at low concentrations, are capable of detecting early-stage pathological conditions and increasing patient survival without adverse side effects. Recent developments in the design of chitosan-based smart drug delivery nanocomplexes are able to respond to the distinctive features of the tumor microenvironment and have provided powerful tools for cancer targeted treatment. Due to its biocompatibility and pH-responsiveness, chitosan has emerged as a promising candidate for the formulation of novel, supramolecular multifunctional materials...
December 2016: Biointerphases
Jenifer K Tucker, Michaela L McNiff, Sasanka B Ulapane, Paulette Spencer, Jennifer S Laurence, Cindy L Berrie
The mechanism of matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) inhibition was investigated using ellipsometric measurements of the interaction of MMP-8 with a surface bound peptide inhibitor, tether-metal abstraction peptide (MAP), bound to self-assembled monolayer films. MMP-8 is a collagenase whose activity and dysregulation have been implicated in a number of disease states, including cancer metastasis, diabetic neuropathy, and degradation of biomedical reconstructions, including dental restorations. Regulation of activity of MMP-8 and other matrix metalloproteinases is thus a significant, but challenging, therapeutic target...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Morgan J Hawker, Christine S Olver, Ellen R Fisher
Three-dimensional synthetic constructs with complex geometries have immense potential for use in a multitude of blood-contacting applications. Understanding coagulation phenomena is arguably the most critical aspect for applications involving synthetic biomaterials; however, real-time evaluation of the clot formation while interfacing with these materials is difficult to achieve in a reproducible and robust manner. Here, work representing first steps toward addressing this deficit is presented, wherein modified consumables for a clinical instrument (a Thromboelastograph(®)) have been fabricated...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Swati Gupta, Alessia Donati, Ilya Reviakine
In this study, the activation of purified human platelets due to their adhesion on glass and TiO2 in the absence of extracellular calcium was investigated. Differences in α-granule secretion between platelets adhering on the two surfaces were detected by examining the expression and secretion of the α-granule markers P-selectin (CD62P) and β-thromboglobulin. Similarly, differences in the expression of phosphatidylserine (PS), and in the activation of the major integrin GPIIb/IIIa, on the surfaces of the adhering platelets, were also observed...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Chrystal R Quisenberry, Arshan Nazempour, Bernard J Van Wie, Nehal I Abu-Lail
The expression of β1-integrin on human adipose-derived stem cells, differentiating toward a chondrogenic lineage, is hypothesized to decrease when cells are grown under in vivo-like environments due to sufficient extracellular matrix (ECM) buildup in the engineered tissues. The opposite is true when cells are grown in static cultures such as in pellet or micromass. To probe β1-integrin distribution on cellular surfaces, atomic force microscopy cantilevers modified with anti-β1-integrin antibodies were used...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Walid M Hassen, Hashimita Sanyal, Manar Hammood, Khalid Moumanis, Eric H Frost, Jan J Dubowski
The authors have investigated the effect of chemotaxis on immobilization of bacteria on the surface of biofunctionalized GaAs (001) samples. Escherichia coli K12 bacteria were employed to provide a proof-of-concept of chemotaxis-enhanced bacterial immobilization, and then, these results were confirmed using Legionella pneumophila. The recognition layer was based on a self-assembled monolayer of thiol functionalized with specific antibodies directed toward E. coli or L. pneumophila, together with the enzyme beta-galactosidase (β-gal)...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Luisa Mayorga Szott, Colleen A Irvin, Mikael Trollsas, Syed Hossainy, Buddy D Ratner
Differences in thrombosis rates have been observed clinically between different drug eluting stents. Such differences have been attributed to numerous factors, including stent design, injury created by the catheter delivery system, coating application technologies, and the degree of thrombogenicity of the polymer. The relative contributions of these factors are generally unknown. This work focuses on understanding the thrombogenicity of the polymer by examining mechanistic interactions with proteins, human platelets, and human monocytes of a number of polymers used in drug eluting stent coatings, in vitro...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Bonnie J Tyler, Richard E Peterson, Therese G Lee, Felix Draude, Andreas Pelster, Heinrich F Arlinghaus
Peppers (Capsicum spp.) are well known for their ability to cause an intense burning sensation when eaten. This organoleptic response is triggered by capsaicin and its analogs, collectively called capsaicinoids. In addition to the global popularity of peppers as a spice, there is a growing interest in the use of capsaicinoids to treat a variety of human ailments, including arthritis, chronic pain, digestive problems, and cancer. The cellular localization of capsaicinoid biosynthesis and accumulation has previously been studied by fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy, both of which require immunostaining...
June 2016: Biointerphases
David G Castner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Biointerphases
Sung-Eun Choi, Kyrylo Greben, Roger Wördenweber, Andreas Offenhäusser
Supported lipid bilayers are widely used as cell membrane models and sensor platforms, but the usage on gold surface needs additional surface modification or optimized experimental conditions. In this work, the authors show lipid bilayer formation on plasma activated gold surfaces in physiological conditions without any other modification if at least 30% positively charged lipids are present. Details of bilayer formation from small unilamellar vesicles were monitored using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation in both basic and acidic environment...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Tania K Lind, Marité Cárdenas
In this review, the authors discuss the challenges of studying supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) deposited by vesicle fusion in terms of (1) evaluating SLB formation and quality using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation and (2) analyzing the composition and asymmetry of SLBs composed by lipid mixtures using complementary surface sensitive techniques. An overview of the literature is presented and the inconsistencies on this topic are discussed with the objective to expand beyond simple lipid compositions and set the basis for forming and analyzing SLBs of complex natural lipid extracts formed via the vesicle fusion method...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Colin D Eichinger, Aaron L Fogelson, Vladimir Hlady
A novel functional assay of antiplatelet drug efficacy was designed by utilizing the phenomena of platelet margination in flowing blood and transient platelet contacts with surface-immobilized platelet agonists. Flow margination enhances transient contacts of platelets with the walls of flow chambers covered with surface-immobilized proteins. Depending on the type and the surface density of the immobilized agonists, such transient interactions could "prime" the marginated platelet subpopulation for enhanced activation and adhesion downstream...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Xianfeng Li, N Sanjeeva Murthy, Matthew L Becker, Robert A Latour
A multiscale modeling approach is presented for the efficient construction of an equilibrated all-atom model of a cross-linked poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-based hydrogel using the all-atom polymer consistent force field (PCFF). The final equilibrated all-atom model was built with a systematic simulation toolset consisting of three consecutive parts: (1) building a global cross-linked PEG-chain network at experimentally determined cross-link density using an on-lattice Monte Carlo method based on the bond fluctuation model, (2) recovering the local molecular structure of the network by transitioning from the lattice model to an off-lattice coarse-grained (CG) model parameterized from PCFF, followed by equilibration using high performance molecular dynamics methods, and (3) recovering the atomistic structure of the network by reverse mapping from the equilibrated CG structure, hydrating the structure with explicitly represented water, followed by final equilibration using PCFF parameterization...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Christian Fernández-Solis, Andreas Erbe
Biopolymer-based systems are extensively studied as green alternatives for traditional polymer coatings, e.g., in corrosion protection. Chitosan-epoxysilane hybrid films are presented in this work as a chitosan-based protective system, which could, e.g., be applied in a pretreatment step. For the preparation of the chitosan-epoxysilane hybrid systems, a sol-gel procedure was applied. The function of the silane is to ensure adhesion to the substrate. On zinc substrates, homogeneous thin films with thickness of 50-70 nm were obtained after thermal curing...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Klaus Affeld, Jens Schaller, Thies Wölken, Thomas Krabatsch, Ulrich Kertzscher
Implants inside the cardiovascular system are subjected to blood flow. Platelet deposition usually takes place, eventually leading to thrombus formation. Tests must be performed in order to select a suitable biomaterial, but no generally accepted test method exists for biomaterials in contact with blood. At a first glance, the flow appears to play only a minor role in the complex interaction between platelets and biomaterials. However, experiments and models have indeed demonstrated the importance of flow. Flow is the mechanism by which platelets are transported to the site of deposition, enabling deposition and forming the shape of a growing thrombus...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Elaine H Tronic, Olga Yakovenko, Tobias Weidner, Joe E Baio, Rebecca Penkala, David G Castner, Wendy E Thomas
The clotting protein von Willebrand factor (VWF) binds to platelet receptor glycoprotein Ibα (GPIbα) when VWF is activated by chemicals, high shear stress, or immobilization onto surfaces. Activation of VWF by surface immobilization is an important problem in the failure of cardiovascular implants, but is poorly understood. Here, the authors investigate whether some or all surfaces can activate VWF at least in part by affecting the orientation or conformation of the immobilized GPIbα-binding A1 domain of VWF...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Magdalena E Marzec, Dorota Wojtysiak, Katarzyna Połtowicz, Joanna Nowak, Roman Pedrys
The quality of chicken meat, which is one of the most widely consumed meats in the world, has been the subject of research and studies for many years. There are several ways to improve the quality of this type of meat, including changing the concentrations of individual molecular components. Such important components of meat are inter alia, cholesterol, vitamin E, and some fatty acids such as ω-3 and ω-6. Manipulation of ingredient levels may be achieved by enriching chicken feed with elements of different types such as vegetable oils, garlic, or selenium...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Yulia N Sergeeva, Tongtong Huang, Olivier Felix, Laura Jung, Philippe Tropel, Stephane Viville, Gero Decher
Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembled multicomponent films offer the opportunity to control and to fine-tune cell attachment and behavior on solid surfaces [Layer-by-Layer Films for Biomedical Applications, edited by Picart et al. (Wiley, Weinheim, 2014) and El-Khouri et al., "Multifunctional layer-by-layer architectures for biological applications," in Functional Polymeric Ultrathin Films, edited by Advincula and Knoll (Wiley, Weinheim, 2011), Vol. 1]. At the same time, these films allow for quite detailed physicochemical characterization of static and dynamic surface properties that are typically not available in classic cell culture...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Stefanie Guimond-Lischer, Qun Ren, Olivier Braissant, Philipp Gruner, Bruno Wampfler, Katharina Maniura-Weber
Fast and efficient osseointegration of implants into bone is of crucial importance for their clinical success; a process that can be enhanced by coating the implant surface with hydroxyapatite (HA) using the vacuum plasma spray technology (VPS). However, bacterial infections, especially the biofilm formation on implant surfaces after a surgery, represent a serious complication. With ever-increasing numbers of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, there is great interest in silver (Ag) as an alternative to classical antibiotics due to its broad activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains...
June 2016: Biointerphases
Sage J B Dunham, Troy J Comi, Kyungwon Ko, Bin Li, Nameera F Baig, Nydia Morales-Soto, Joshua D Shrout, Paul W Bohn, Jonathan V Sweedler
Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has become an important analytical tool for many sectors of science and medicine. As the application of MSI expands into new areas of inquiry, existing methodologies must be adapted and improved to meet emerging challenges. Particularly salient is the need for small molecule imaging methods that are compatible with complex multicomponent systems, a challenge that is amplified by the effects of analyte migration and matrix interference. With a focus on microbial biofilms from the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the relative advantages of two established microprobe-based MSI techniques-polyatomic secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and laser desorption/ionization-are compared, with emphasis on exploring the effect of surface metallization on small molecule imaging...
June 2016: Biointerphases
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