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Laura J Domigan, Helen Ashmead, Simone Dimartino, Jenny Malmstrom, F Grant Pearce, Matthew Blunt, David E Williams, Juliet A Gerrard
Recent research has highlighted the exciting possibilities enabled by the use of protein structures as nanocomponents to form functional nanodevices. To this end, control over protein-protein and protein-surface interactions is essential. In this study, the authors probe the interaction of human peroxiredoxin 3 with gold surfaces, a protein that has been previously identified as having potential use in nanotechnology. Analytical ultracentrifugation and transmission electron microscopy revealed the pH mediated assembly of protein toroids into tubular structures across a small pH range...
November 15, 2017: Biointerphases
Dajana Tanasic, Adriana Rathner, Jan Philipp Kollender, Petr Rathner, Norbert Müller, Karl Christian Zelenka, Achim Walter Hassel, Cezarina Cela Mardare
Developing novel compounds with antimicrobial properties can be an effective approach to decreasing the number of healthcare-associated infections, particularly in the context of medical devices and touch surfaces. A variety of molybdate powders (Ag2MoO4, CaMoO4, CuMoO4 and Cu3Mo2O9) were synthesized and characterized, and Escherichia coli was used as a model gram-negative bacterium to demonstrate their antimicrobial properties. Optical density measurements, bacterial colony growth, and stained gel images for protein expression clearly showed that silver- and copper molybdates inhibit bacterial growth, whereas CaMoO4 exhibited no bactericidal effect...
November 7, 2017: Biointerphases
Neda Davoudi, Katharina Huttenlochner, Jonas Chodorski, Christin Schlegel, Martin Bohley, Christine Müller-Renno, Jan C Aurich, Roland Ulber, Christiane Ziegler
The bacterial attachment to surfaces is the first step of biofilm formation. This attachment is governed by adhesion forces which act between the bacterium and the substrate. Such forces can be measured by single cell force spectroscopy, where a single bacterium is attached to a cantilever of a scanning force microscope, and force-distance curves are measured. For the productive sea-water bacterium Paracoccus seriniphilus, pH dependent measurements reveal the highest adhesion forces at pH 4. Adhesion forces measured at salinities between 0% and 4...
November 6, 2017: Biointerphases
Per Malmberg, Narmin Bigdeli, Jens Jensen, Håkan Nygren
The bone material interface has been an area of intense study over many decades, where studies of the healing process ranging from simple mineral deposition in vitro to actual healing in vivo have given important clues to the importance of calcium minerals in the bone/implant interface. Here, the authors use a combination of in vitro cell culture methods and in vivo implantation to study how the role of the spontaneously formed hydroxyapatite layer on Ti-implants for the in vivo-healing into the bone tissue of rat tibia...
October 27, 2017: Biointerphases
Mahdi Shahmiri, Bruce Cornell, Adam Mechler
Aurein 1.2 is a small cationic antimicrobial peptide, one of the shortest peptides that can exert antimicrobial activity at low micromolar concentrations. Aurein 1.2 is a surface acting peptide, following the "carpet" mechanism of thresholded membrane disruption. It is generally assumed that the activity of such cationic α-helical membrane disrupting peptides is charge driven. Here, the authors show that instead of charge interactions, aromatic phenylalanine residues of the Aurein 1.2 sequence facilitate the membrane binding...
October 26, 2017: Biointerphases
Jay Gilbert, Mirren Charnley, Christopher Cheng, Nicholas P Reynolds, Owen G Jones
Force spectroscopy is a means of obtaining mechanical information of individual nanometer-scale structures in composite materials, such as protein assemblies for use in consumer films or gels. As a recently developed force spectroscopy technique, bimodal force spectroscopy relates frequency shifts in cantilevers simultaneously excited at multiple frequencies to the elastic properties of the contacted material, yet its utility for quantitative characterization of biopolymer assemblies has been limited. In this study, a linear correlation between experimental frequency shift and Young's modulus of polymer films was used to calibrate bimodal force spectroscopy and quantify Young's modulus of two protein nanostructures: β-lactoglobulin fibrils and zein nanoparticles...
October 19, 2017: Biointerphases
Ricky W Lewis, Jason Unrine, Paul M Bertsch, David H McNear
Metal containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are now commonly used in various industrial and commercial applications. Many of these materials can be transformed during waste water treatment and ultimately enter terrestrial ecosystems via agriculturally applied biosolids. It is unclear how agriculturally important soil microbes will be affected by exposure to environmentally relevant, sublethal concentrations of ENMs and their transformation products (i.e., ions, aggregates, etc.). A method was developed, which puts O2 consumption responses in terms of viability, and tested by examining the toxic effects of Ag(+), Zn(2+), and Ni(2+) ions on the plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GB03...
October 4, 2017: Biointerphases
Rémi Veneziano, Claire Rossi, Alexandre Chenal, Catherine Brenner, Daniel Ladant, Joël Chopineau
Biological membranes and their related molecular mechanisms are essential for all living organisms. Membranes host numerous proteins and are responsible for the exchange of molecules and ions, cell signaling, and cell compartmentation. Indeed, the plasma membrane delimits the intracellular compartment from the extracellular environment and intracellular membranes. Biological membranes also play a major role in metabolism regulation and cellular physiology (e.g., mitochondrial membranes). The elaboration of membrane based biomimetic systems allows us to reconstitute and investigate, in controlled conditions, biological events occurring at the membrane interface...
September 28, 2017: Biointerphases
Chiara Diacci, Marcello Berto, Michele Di Lauro, Elena Bianchini, Marcello Pinti, Daniel T Simon, Fabio Biscarini, Carlo A Bortolotti
Cytokines are small proteins that play fundamental roles in inflammatory processes in the human body. In particular, interleukin (IL)-6 is a multifunctional cytokine, whose increased levels are associated with infection, cancer, and inflammation. The quantification of IL-6 is therefore of primary importance in early stages of inflammation and in chronic diseases, but standard techniques are expensive, time-consuming, and usually rely on fluorescent or radioactive labels. Organic electronic devices and, in particular, organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) have been proposed in the recent years as novel platforms for label-free protein detection, exploiting as sensing unit surface-immobilized antibodies or aptamers...
September 27, 2017: Biointerphases
Jamie Nuñez, Ryan Renslow, John B Cliff, Christopher R Anderton
Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) has become an increasingly utilized tool in biologically relevant studies. Of these, high lateral resolution methodologies using the NanoSIMS 50/50L have been especially powerful within many biological fields over the past decade. Here, the authors provide a review of this technology, sample preparation and analysis considerations, examples of recent biological studies, data analyses, and current outlooks. Specifically, the authors offer an overview of SIMS and development of the NanoSIMS...
September 27, 2017: Biointerphases
Ramya Raman, Miranda A Raper, Erik Hahn, Kate F Schilke
Severe sepsis is a life threatening immune response that may be caused by endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) in circulating bacterial cell wall fragments. Hemoperfusion through a sorbent column coated with the antimicrobial peptide polymyxin B (PMB) is a promising treatment for sepsis. However, PMB is cytotoxic and neurotoxic, and is a membrane disruptor that may fragment endotoxin vesicles. In addition, the blood is not protected from nonspecific interactions with the synthetic surface of the solid support. These effects may be responsible for the variety of undesirable clinical outcomes, including nonspecific adsorption of proteins, blood cell damage, platelet activation, and a lack of clear evidence of efficacy of the current hemoperfusion products...
September 20, 2017: Biointerphases
Tony W Hsiao, Patrick A Tresco, Vladimir Hlady
The surface concentration gradient of two extracellular matrix (ECM) macromolecules was developed to study the migratory and morphological responses of astrocytes to molecular cues typically found in the central nervous system injury environment. The gradient, prepared using microcontact printing, was composed of randomly positioned micrometer-sized dots of aggrecan (AGG) printed on a substrate uniformly coated with laminin (LN). AGG dots were printed in an increasing number along the 1000 μm long and 50 μm wide gradient area which had on each end either a full surface coverage of AGG or LN...
September 11, 2017: Biointerphases
Lifang Niu, Thorsten Wohland, Wolfgang Knoll, Ingo Köper
Tethered bimolecular lipid membranes are solid supported membrane systems, which provide a versatile model platform for the study of many membrane related processes. Here, such an architecture has been used to study the interaction of the small synthetic antimicrobial peptide, V4, with membranes of various mixed lipid compositions, including membranes containing bacterial lipids. By investigating the binding of the peptide using a range of surface analytical techniques such as surface plasmon resonance and surface plasmon field-enhanced fluorescence spectroscopy as well as electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, a clear preference of the peptide for negatively charged membranes over zwitterionic ones has been shown...
August 31, 2017: Biointerphases
Thomas D Michl, Carla Giles, Piotr Mocny, Kathryn Futrega, Michael R Doran, Harm-Anton Klok, Hans J Griesser, Bryan R Coad
There is a need for coatings for biomedical devices and implants that can prevent the attachment of fungal pathogens while allowing human cells and tissue to appose without cytotoxicity. Here, the authors study whether a poly(2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate) (PHEMA) coating can suppress attachment and biofilm formation by Candida albicans and whether caspofungin terminally attached to surface-tethered polymeric linkers can provide additional benefits. The multistep coating scheme first involved the plasma polymerization of ethanol, followed by the attachment of α-bromoisobutyryl bromide (BiBB) onto surface hydroxyl groups of the plasma polymer layer...
August 29, 2017: Biointerphases
Nicolás E Muzzio, Miguel A Pasquale, Sergio E Moya, Omar Azzaroni
The layer-by-layer assembly of polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) from natural or synthetic polyelectrolytes constitutes a very versatile and simple strategy to modify surfaces and modulate cell behavior. PEMs assembled from natural polyelectrolytes are very appealing for biological and medical applications due to their high biocompatibility. However, PEMs from natural polyelectrolytes display poor cell adhesion as they are soft materials with an elasticity modulus of a few kilopascal. In this report, the authors present results on the modulation of cell adhesion of different immortalized cell lines by PEMs...
August 29, 2017: Biointerphases
Veronika Rink, Christine Müller-Renno, Christiane Ziegler, Mario Braun, Kajohn Boonrod, Gabriele Krczal
Plant viruses which are self-assembled on a substrate are interesting building blocks in nanobiotechnology, in particular, for the creation of 2D ordered structures. In this article, the self-assembly of different genetically modified types of the tomato bushy stunt virus spin-coated on pristine silicon was investigated by scanning force and scanning electron microscopy. Amino acid side chains were integrated in the capsids of the viruses by extending the coat protein with different charged amino acid clusters (tetra-aspartate-hexa-histidine, hexa-aspartate, or tetra-arginine-tags)...
August 22, 2017: Biointerphases
Marcelle B M Spera, Thiago B Taketa, Marisa M Beppu
Surfaces are responsible for important interactions of biomaterials since they create the interface with the biological environment and affect the response that the body will have to the material. Surface roughness and morphology have great impact on the material performance, affecting cell, bacterial, and biomolecular adhesion. Thin films of chitosan and carboxymethyl cellulose were produced by layer-by-layer deposition at different pH values and had their surface growth process studied throughout roughness measurements...
August 21, 2017: Biointerphases
Xianfeng Li, Jia Jia, Ying Mei, Robert A Latour
Peptide-functionalized (PF) hydrogels are being widely investigated by the tissue engineering and regenerative medicine communities for a broad range of applications because of their unique potential to mimic the natural extracellular matrix and promote tissue regeneration. In order for these complex material systems to perform their intended bioactive function (e.g., cell signaling), the peptides that are tethered to the hydrogel matrix must be accessible at the hydrogel surface for cell-receptor binding. The factors influencing the surface accessibility of the tethered peptide mainly include the length of the tethers, the loading (i...
August 18, 2017: Biointerphases
Wenchao Wei, Yanyan Zhang, Rachel Komorek, Andrew Plymale, Rujia Yu, Bingchen Wang, Zihua Zhu, Fanghua Liu, Xiao-Ying Yu
The aggregation of syntrophic Geobacter metallireducens and Geobacter sulfurreducens is beneficial for enhancing direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET). Although DIET was suspected to occur on the microbial community surface, the surface chemical speciation of such cocultured communities remains unclear. In order to better understand surface interactions related to DIET, the authors characterized a series of samples associated with syntrophic G. metallireducens and G. sulfurreducens using surface sensitive time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS)...
August 18, 2017: Biointerphases
Robert M T Madiona, Nicholas G Welch, Judith A Scoble, Benjamin W Muir, Paul J Pigram
Determination of a limit of detection (LoD) for surface bound antibodies is crucial for the development and deployment of sensitive bioassays. The measurement of very low concentrations of surface bound antibodies is also important in the manufacturing of pharmaceutical products such as antibody-conjugated pharmaceuticals. Low concentrations are required to avoid an immune response from the target host. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) were used to determine the LoD for the surface bound antibody (antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibody) on silicon substrates...
August 11, 2017: Biointerphases
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