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Annual Review of Pathology

Hitesh Deshmukh, Sing Sing Way
Pregnancy stimulates an elaborate assortment of dynamic changes, allowing intimate approximation of genetically discordant maternal and fetal tissues. Although the cellular and molecular details about how this works remain largely undefined, important clues arise from evaluating how a prior pregnancy influences the outcome of a future pregnancy. The risk of complications is consistently increased when complications occurred in a prior pregnancy. Reciprocally, a prior successful pregnancy protects against complications in a future pregnancy...
September 5, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Abha Sahni, Rong Fang, Sanjeev K Sahni, David H Walker
Obligately intracytosolic rickettsiae that cycle between arthropod and vertebrate hosts cause human diseases with a spectrum of severity, primarily by targeting microvascular endothelial cells, resulting in endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial cells and mononuclear phagocytes have important roles in the intracellular killing of rickettsiae upon activation by the effector molecules of innate and adaptive immunity. In overwhelming infection, immuno-suppressive effects contribute to the severity of illness. Rickettsia-host cell interactions involve host cell receptors for rickettsial ligands that mediate cell adhesion and, in some instances, trigger induced phagocytosis...
August 27, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Nazima Shahnoor, Emily M Siebers, Kristy J Brown, Michael W Lawlor
Dystrophinopathy is a class of genetic skeletal muscle disease characterized by myofiber degeneration and regeneration due to insufficient levels or functioning of dystrophin. Pathological evaluation for dystrophinopathy includes the identification of dystrophic skeletal muscle pathology and the immuno-histochemical evaluation of dystrophin epitopes, but biopsies have become rare in recent years. However, the evaluation of dystrophin expression in the research setting has become critically important due to recent advances in genetic therapies, including exon skipping and gene therapy...
August 27, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Shuji Ogino, Jonathan A Nowak, Tsuyoshi Hamada, Danny A Milner, Reiko Nishihara
Evidence indicates that diet, nutrition, lifestyle, the environment, the microbiome, and other exogenous factors have pathogenic roles and also influence the genome, epigenome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome of tumor and nonneoplastic cells, including immune cells. With the need for big-data research, pathology must transform to integrate data science fields, including epidemiology, biostatistics, and bioinformatics. The research framework of molecular pathological epidemiology (MPE) demonstrates the strengths of such an interdisciplinary integration, having been used to study breast, lung, prostate, and colorectal cancers...
August 20, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Paul J Farrell
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) contributes to about 1.5% of all cases of human cancer worldwide, and viral genes are expressed in the malignant cells. EBV also very efficiently causes the proliferation of infected human B lymphocytes. The functions of the viral proteins and small RNAs that may contribute to EBV-associated cancers are becoming increasingly clear, and a broader understanding of the sequence variation of the virus genome has helped to interpret their roles. The improved understanding of the mechanisms of these cancers means that there are great opportunities for the early diagnosis of treatable stages of EBV-associated cancers and the use of immunotherapy to target EBV-infected cells or overcome immune evasion...
August 20, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Prue H Hart, Mary Norval, Scott N Byrne, Lesley E Rhodes
This review focuses primarily on the beneficial effects for human health of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR stimulates anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways in skin that modulate psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and vitiligo; suppresses cutaneous lesions of graft-versus-host disease; and regulates some infection and vaccination outcomes. While polymorphic light eruption and the cutaneous photosensitivity of systemic lupus erythematosus are triggered by UVR, polymorphic light eruption also frequently benefits from UVR-induced immunomodulation...
August 20, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Andrew P Lieberman, Vikram G Shakkottai, Roger L Albin
Among the age-dependent protein aggregation disorders, nine neurodegenerative diseases are caused by expansions of CAG repeats encoding polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts. We review the clinical, pathological, and biological features of these inherited disorders. We discuss insights into pathogenesis gleaned from studies of model systems and patients, highlighting work that informs efforts to develop effective therapies. An important conclusion from these analyses is that expanded CAG/polyQ domains are the primary drivers of neurodegeneration, with the biology of carrier proteins influencing disease-specific manifestations...
August 8, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Marco Pizzi, Elizabeth Margolskee, Giorgio Inghirami
Peripheral T cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are highly heterogeneous tumors, displaying distinct clinical and biological features. The pathogenesis and normal counterpart of such entities have been elusive for decades. Recent studies have, however, disclosed key mechanisms of peripheral T cell transformation, including (a) the deregulation of signaling pathways controlling T cell development, differentiation, and maturation; (b) the remodeling of the peritumor microenvironment; and (c) the virus-mediated rewiring of T cell biology...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Nicole A Najor
Tissue integrity is crucial for maintaining the homeostasis of living organisms. Abnormalities that affect sites of cell-cell contact can cause a variety of debilitating disorders. The desmosome is an essential cell-cell junctional protein complex in tissues that undergo stress, and it orchestrates intracellular signal transduction. Desmosome assembly and junctional integrity are required to maintain the overall homeostasis of a tissue, organ, and organism. This review discusses the desmosome and the human diseases associated with its disruption...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Juan Pablo Arab, Marco Arrese, Michael Trauner
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem worldwide and an important risk factor for both hepatic and cardiometabolic mortality. The rapidly increasing prevalence of this disease and of its aggressive form nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) will require novel therapeutic approaches based on a profound understanding of its pathogenesis to halt disease progression to advanced fibrosis or cirrhosis and cancer. The pathogenesis of NAFLD involves a complex interaction among environmental factors (i...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Vivek Mittal
Metastasis is the major cause of cancer-related deaths; therefore, the prevention and treatment of metastasis are fundamental to improving clinical outcomes. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT), an evolutionarily conserved developmental program, has been implicated in carcinogenesis and confers metastatic properties upon cancer cells by enhancing mobility, invasion, and resistance to apoptotic stimuli. Furthermore, EMT-derived tumor cells acquire stem cell properties and exhibit marked therapeutic resistance...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Madeline M Farley, Trent A Watkins
From injury to disease to aging, neurons, like all cells, may face various insults that can impact their function and survival. Although the consequences are substantially dictated by the type, context, and severity of insult, distressed neurons are far from passive. Activation of cellular stress responses aids in the preservation or restoration of nervous system function. However, stress responses themselves can further advance neuropathology and contribute significantly to neuronal dysfunction and neurodegeneration...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Vivian W Pinn
These words reflect my recollections of major transition points in my life and career: as I first became dedicated to becoming a physician, being introduced to the field of pathology and research, and then transitioning to a somewhat different career focus by becoming the first director of the National Institutes of Health Office of Research on Women's Health. Many of the experiences that I gained during my years in pathology served me well as I made efforts to establish women's health research and sex and gender based studies as scientific endeavors...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Benjamin A Plog, Maiken Nedergaard
The central nervous system (CNS) is unique in being the only organ system lacking lymphatic vessels to assist in the removal of interstitial metabolic waste products. Recent work has led to the discovery of the glymphatic system, a glial-dependent perivascular network that subserves a pseudolymphatic function in the brain. Within the glymphatic pathway, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) enters the brain via periarterial spaces, passes into the interstitium via perivascular astrocytic aquaporin-4, and then drives the perivenous drainage of interstitial fluid (ISF) and its solute...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Kojo S J Elenitoba-Johnson, Megan S Lim
Lymphomas represent clonal proliferations of lymphocytes that are broadly classified based upon their maturity (peripheral or mature versus precursor) and lineage (B cell, T cell, and natural killer cell). Insights into the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in lymphoma impact the classification of lymphoma and have significant implications for the diagnosis and clinical management of patients. Serial scientific and technologic advances over the last 30 years in immunology, cytogenetics, molecular biology, gene expression profiling, mass spectrometry-based proteomics, and, more recently, next-generation sequencing have contributed to greatly enhance our understanding of the pathogenetic mechanisms in lymphoma...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
G J Webb, G M Hirschfield, E L Krawitt, M E Gershwin
Autoimmune hepatitis is an uncommon idiopathic syndrome of immune-mediated destruction of hepatocytes, typically associated with autoantibodies. The disease etiology is incompletely understood but includes a clear association with human leukocyte antigen (HLA) variants and other non-HLA gene variants, female sex, and the environment. Pathologically, there is a CD4+ T cell-rich lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate with variable hepatocyte necrosis and subsequent hepatic fibrosis. Attempts to understand pathogenesis are informed by several monogenetic syndromes that may include autoimmune liver injury, by several drug and environmental agents that have been identified as triggers in a minority of cases, by human studies that point toward a central role for CD4+ effector and regulatory T cells, and by animal models of the disease...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Jacquelyn O Russell, Satdarshan P Monga
The liver is an organ that performs a multitude of functions, and its health is pertinent and indispensable to survival. Thus, the cellular and molecular machinery driving hepatic functions is of utmost relevance. The Wnt signaling pathway is one such signaling cascade that enables hepatic homeostasis and contributes to unique hepatic attributes such as metabolic zonation and regeneration. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays a role in almost every facet of liver biology. Furthermore, its aberrant activation is also a hallmark of various hepatic pathologies...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Adam J Kuszak, Michael Graham Espey, Marni J Falk, Marissa A Holmbeck, Giovanni Manfredi, Gerald S Shadel, Hilary J Vernon, Zarazuela Zolkipli-Cunningham
Multisystem metabolic disorders caused by defects in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) are severe, often lethal, conditions. Inborn errors of OXPHOS function are termed primary mitochondrial disorders (PMDs), and the use of nutritional interventions is routine in their supportive management. However, detailed mechanistic understanding and evidence for efficacy and safety of these interventions are limited. Preclinical cellular and animal model systems are important tools to investigate PMD metabolic mechanisms and therapeutic strategies...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Eric Perkey, Ivan Maillard
Allogeneic transplantation of foreign organs or tissues has lifesaving potential, but can lead to serious complications. After solid organ transplantation, immune-mediated rejection mandates the use of prolonged global immunosuppression and limits the life span of transplanted allografts. After bone marrow transplantation, donor-derived immune cells can trigger life-threatening graft-versus-host disease. T cells are central mediators of alloimmune complications and the target of most existing therapeutic interventions...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Thomas J Giordano
The genomic landscape of thyroid cancers that are derived from follicular cells has been substantially elucidated through the coordinated application of high-throughput genomic technologies. Here, I review the common genetic alterations across the spectrum of thyroid neoplasia and present the resulting model of thyroid cancer initiation and progression. This model illustrates the striking correlation between tumor differentiation and overall somatic mutational burden, which also likely explains the highly variable clinical behavior and outcome of patients with thyroid cancers...
January 24, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
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