journal
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience

journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960192/transcranial-doppler
#1
REVIEW
Vijay K Sharma, Ka Sing Wong, Andrei V Alexandrov
Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is the only diagnostic modality that provides a reliable evaluation of intracranial blood flow patterns in real-time. The physiological information obtained from TCD is complementary to the anatomical details obtained from other neuroimaging modalities. TCD is relatively cheap, can be performed bedside, and allows monitoring in acute emergency settings. TCD criteria for intracranial stenosis have been validated against various forms of angiographic studies and serve as reliable tools for screening, diagnostic as well as follow up purposes...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960191/pathological-characteristics
#2
REVIEW
Xiang-Yan Chen, Mark Fisher
Within the intracranial vasculature, atherosclerosis occurs in two distinctive patterns: (1) in Western populations who have severe extracranial and systemic atherosclerosis, the severity of intracranial involvement is consistently less than that within extracranial arteries; and (2) in Asians, Africans, and Hispanics, who often have isolated intracranial arterial disease that is found to be more often accompanied by brain infarction than comparable extracranial atherosclerotic disease. Compared to coronary and extracranial carotid atherosclerosis, intracranial atherosclerosis has distinct pathological characteristics compared to that of extracranial arteries...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960190/epidemiology
#3
REVIEW
Philip Gorelick, Ka Sing Wong, Liping Liu
Intracranial atherosclerotic occlusive disease is an important and possibly the most common cause of stroke worldwide. Asian, Black and certain Hispanic populations have a high risk of harboring intracranial occlusive disease. In this chapter we review the epidemiology of intracranial occlusive disease by primarily focusing on studies from China, Japan, Korea, and other Asian countries. In addition, we compare and contrast the information from Asian countries with that from North America and related regions...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960189/surgical-therapy
#4
REVIEW
Chang Wan Oh, Gary K Steinberg
Many prior investigations have indicated the important role of medical treatment to prevent stroke in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis, with angioplasty and stenting occasionally being performed. In a subgroup of patients with severe hemodynamic impairment, extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery may be considered. Additionally, in patients with massive infarctions due to middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion, the use of decompressive craniectomy may lower mortality rates and improve long-term quality of life...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960184/vessel-and-vessel-wall-imaging
#5
REVIEW
Seung Chai Jung, Dong-Wha Kang, Tanya N Turan
Angiography is a useful, important, common imaging method, with digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remaining the gold standard for luminal imaging. Computed tomography angiography (CTA) is minimally invasive and quite accurate in the evaluation of stenosis. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a good screening tool with the least invasiveness. Angiography mostly represents intracranial artery disease as luminal stenosis, which is often not sufficient to evaluate intracranial vascular pathology. The modalities provide indirect information about vascular pathology because luminal change, such as stenosis, results from the changes of vessel walls...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960183/antithrombotic-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Sun U Kwon, Jong S Kim
Symptomatic cerebral atherosclerosis including intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) is associated with a high risk of recurrent stroke. Antithrombotic agents are the mainstay of therapy in these patients. Several studies have found anticoagulation (warfarin) to increase the risk of bleeding events and have an efficacy no better than that of aspirin. Therefore, anticoagulants are not widely used unless patients develop recurrent ischemic symptoms despite receiving antiplatelet therapy. Because ICAS progression is not uncommon and the risk of stroke recurrence is high when aspirin monotherapy is used, dual antiplatelet agents may be needed at least in the early disease stage...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960181/stroke-mechanisms
#7
REVIEW
Ka Sing Wong, Louis R Caplan, Jong S Kim
Recent advances in neuroimaging technologies, such as diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perfusion weighted computed tomography (CT)/MRI, MR/CT angiography and Doppler ultrasonography allow us to determine the mechanisms of stroke and transient ischemic attack. In addition, high-resolution vessel wall MRI is nowadays increasingly used to understand the stroke mechanism in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Artery to artery embolism, hypoperfusion and the combination of the two are the important stroke mechanisms in patients with extracranial atherosclerosis...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960179/angioplasty-and-stenting
#8
REVIEW
Thomas W Leung, Ashley M Wabnitz, Zhongrong Miao, Marc I Chimowitz
The high rate of recurrent strokes in patients with intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAS) despite medical therapy prompted intracranial angioplasty and/or stenting an adjunctive treatment option. The minute calibers of cerebral arteries, the relative paucity of supporting medial and adventitia layers, the presence of end-anastomosing perforator branches, and the vascular tortuosity from groin to head all demand specialized operative skills and dedicated tools. Since the stroke mechanism of ICAS is diverse, patient selection for endovascular treatment requires a sound understanding of the underlying pathophysiology...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960175/moyamoya-disease
#9
REVIEW
Miki Fujimura, Oh Young Bang, Jong S Kim
Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a chronic occlusive cerebrovascular disease characterized by progressive stenosis at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network at the base of the brain. Although its etiology is unknown, recent genetic studies have identified RNF213 in the 17q25-ter region as an important susceptibility gene of MMD among East Asian populations. A c.14576G>A polymorphism in RNF213 was identified in 95% of MMD patients with a family history and in 79% of sporadic cases, and patients carrying this polymorphism exhibited significantly earlier disease onset and a more-severe form of MMD...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960174/non-atherosclerotic-intracranial-arterial-diseases
#10
REVIEW
Jong S Kim, Louis R Caplan
Atherosclerosis is not the only cause of intracranial arterial disease. Arterial dissection, moyamoya disease, vascular inflammatory disease, vasospasm and immunologic disorders are important non-atherosclerotic intracranial arterial diseases. Identification of the correct etiology is important in establishing treatment strategies and assessing prognosis. Careful history taking and appropriate laboratory testing are essential. Although catheter angiography is the most important diagnostic tool to examine various intracranial arterial diseases, other diagnostic modalities such as CT angiography and MR angiography are nowadays widely used...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960167/intracranial-arteries-anatomy-and-collaterals
#11
REVIEW
David S Liebeskind, Louis R Caplan
Anatomy, physiology, and pathophysiology are inextricably linked in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis. Knowledge of abnormal or pathological conditions such as intracranial atherosclerosis stems from detailed recognition of the normal pattern of vascular anatomy. The vascular anatomy of the intracranial arteries, both at the level of the vessel wall and as a larger structure or conduit, is a reflection of physiology over time, from in utero stages through adult life. The unique characteristics of arteries at the base of the brain may help our understanding of atherosclerotic lesions that tend to afflict specific arterial segments...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960164/clinical-stroke-syndromes
#12
REVIEW
Jong S Kim, Louis R Caplan
The main mechanism of stroke in patients who have extracranial atherosclerosis is artery to artery embolism, occasionally associated with hemodynamic disturbances. Although these mechanisms are also important in patients with intracranial atherosclerosis, branch occlusion and in-situ thrombotic occlusion play a relatively more important role in these patients. Accordingly, clinical stroke syndromes differ between extracranial atherosclerosis and intracranial atherosclerosis. In anterior circulation, middle cerebral artery atherosclerosis frequently produces subcortical infarction by way of branch occlusion...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960160/biomarkers-natural-course-and-prognosis
#13
REVIEW
Juan F Arenillas, Elena López-Cancio, Ka Sing Wong
Increasing our knowledge about intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) natural history and prognostic factors is essential to improve its preventive therapy and thus reduce the dramatic clinical consequences caused by this entity. ICAS is characterized by a chronic and progressive course until it becomes symptomatic, mostly through complication of an unstable intracranial atherosclerotic plaque. Population-based studies in healthy subjects have shown that the prevalence of asymptomatic ICAS is higher in Asian than in Caucasian populations...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960158/risk-factors
#14
REVIEW
T Uehara, O Y Bang, J S Kim, K Minematsu, R Sacco
Studies investigating risk factors for intracranial atherosclerosis (ICAS) have been infrequent. However, due to recent availability of non-invasive vascular imaging techniques that can assess intracranial cerebral arteries, there are a growing number of studies on risk factors for ICAS. Conventional vascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and cigarette smoking are risk factors for ICAS. However, it remains uncertain whether there is a difference in risk factors between ICAS and extracranial atherosclerosis (ECAS)...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27464072/pharmacogenetics-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-implications-for-clinical-trials
#15
REVIEW
Rosanna Tortelli, Davide Seripa, Francesco Panza, Vincenzo Solfrizzi, Giancarlo Logroscino
BACKGROUND: Pharmacogenetics has become extremely important over the last 20 years for identifying individuals more likely to be responsive to pharmacological interventions. The role of genetic background as a predictor of drug response is a young and mostly unexplored field in neurodegenerative diseases. SUMMARY: Mendelian mutations in neurodegenerative diseases have been used as models for early diagnosis and intervention. On the other hand, genetic polymorphisms or risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other neurodegenerative diseases, probably influencing drug response, are hardly taken into account in randomized clinical trial (RCT) design...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463974/cerebrospinal-fluid-biomarkers-for-target-engagement-and-efficacy-in-clinical-trials-for-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Lucilla Parnetti, Paolo Eusebi, Alberto Lleó
BACKGROUND: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is increasingly being used to detect biochemical changes that occur in different neurological conditions. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), three CSF biomarkers (Aβ42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau) are used in clinical practice to support the diagnosis in the prodromal stages of the disease. In Parkinson's disease (PD), the investigation is following the pathway of AD research and some promising markers have been identified, with the main aim to favor an early diagnosis, i...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463823/current-issues-in-randomized-clinical-trials-of-neurodegenerative-disorders-at-enrolment-and-reporting-diagnosis-recruitment-representativeness-of-patients-ethnicity-and-quality-of-reporting
#17
REVIEW
Giancarlo Logroscino, Rosa Capozzo, Rosanna Tortelli, Benoît Marin
BACKGROUND: The investigator is faced with several challenges when planning a randomized clinical trial (RCT). In the early phase, issues are particularly challenging for RCTs in neurodegenerative disorders (NDD). SUMMARY: At the time of inclusion in the study, an early and accurate diagnosis is mandatory. Variability of diagnostic criteria, mostly based on clinical grounds, lag time between onset and enrolment, and phenotypic heterogeneity are the main drivers of diagnostic complexity...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463807/biomarkers-in-randomized-clinical-trials-positron-emission-tomography-and-nuclear-medicine-techniques
#18
REVIEW
Tarun Singhal, Emily Stern
BACKGROUND: Positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are nuclear medicine techniques that utilize the tracer principle to image biological processes using radiolabeled molecules. Numerous PET and SPECT radiopharmaceuticals have been developed over the years that qualify as biomarkers for neurological disorders. SUMMARY: This chapter reviews the use of PET and SPECT in neurological clinical trials, and emphasizes the concepts and lessons learned from these experiences...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463686/peculiarities-of-neurological-disorders-and-study-designs
#19
REVIEW
Ettore Beghi, Elisabetta Pupillo, Giorgia Giussani
BACKGROUND: Neurological disorders are heterogeneous clinical conditions with variable course and outcome. SUMMARY: The basic aspects of the commonest neurological disorders are addressed along with the proposed structure of randomized clinical trials (RCTs). Dementing disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), are clinical conditions in which altered cognitive functions are associated with behavioral and personality changes. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a multisystem disorder characterized by motor dysfunction associated with dysautonomia, sleep and olfactory disturbances, cognitive changes, and depression...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27463684/biomarkers-in-randomized-clinical-trials-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
REVIEW
Jennifer L Whitwell
BACKGROUND: It is essential that randomized clinical trials (RCTs) incorporate biomarkers of disease progression that would be sensitive to the effects of disease-modifying treatments. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can be safely repeated over time, and is routinely performed in clinical centers, making it an ideal modality to be incorporated into RCTs. SUMMARY: This chapter discusses potential structural MRI biomarkers that have been proposed for a number of different neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), progressive supranuclear palsy syndrome (PSPS), and Parkinson's disease (PD)...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
journal
journal
41370
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"