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Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125914/putting-culture-in-the-middle-in-judging-scholarly-merit
#1
Qi Wang
I discuss the critical importance of putting culture in the middle in judging scholarly merit in psychological science. I describe the challenges in evaluating cultural research, pointing out the various ways that ethnocentric judgments undermine the scientific merit of cultural research and the consequences of the marginalization of culture in psychological science and practice. In spite of the obstacles, cultural psychologists have made major scientific contributions and achieved scientific eminence. I further suggest that we raise the bar by including a broad, cultural approach to research as one basis for judging scientific contributions...
November 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028460/goldwater-rule-red-line-or-guideline
#2
Scott O Lilienfeld, Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028451/questioning-the-goldwater-rule-commentary-on-lilienfeld-miller-and-lynam
#3
Nick J Davis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028443/diagnosing-at-a-distance-is-the-goldwater-rule-still-relevant-today
#4
Richard J McNally
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024610/tough-the-measure-of-merit-in-psychological-science
#5
Todd Lubart, Christophe Mouchiroud
Scientific careers depend largely on the evaluation of one's merit. Yet scientists agree that the measurement of merit is quite a complex endeavor. Some indicators exist, such as Hirsch's well-known h index, but none can fully capture the complexity of the notion of merit. We propose that the h factor should be complemented with additional useful measurements: the t, o, u, and g indexes.
October 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024609/the-goldwater-rule-perspectives-from-and-implications-for-psychological-science
#6
Scott O Lilienfeld, Joshua D Miller, Donald R Lynam
When, if ever, should psychological scientists be permitted to offer professional opinions concerning the mental health of public figures they have never directly examined? This contentious question, which attracted widespread public attention during the 1964 U.S. presidential election involving Barry Goldwater, received renewed scrutiny during and after the 2016 U.S. presidential campaign, when many mental health professionals raised pointed questions concerning the psychiatric status of Donald Trump. Although the Goldwater Rule prohibits psychiatrists from offering diagnostic opinions on individuals they have never examined, no comparable rule exists for psychologists...
October 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016274/mind-the-hype-a-critical-evaluation-and-prescriptive-agenda-for-research-on-mindfulness-and-meditation
#7
Nicholas T Van Dam, Marieke K van Vugt, David R Vago, Laura Schmalzl, Clifford D Saron, Andrew Olendzki, Ted Meissner, Sara W Lazar, Catherine E Kerr, Jolie Gorchov, Kieran C R Fox, Brent A Field, Willoughby B Britton, Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis, David E Meyer
During the past two decades, mindfulness meditation has gone from being a fringe topic of scientific investigation to being an occasional replacement for psychotherapy, tool of corporate well-being, widely implemented educational practice, and "key to building more resilient soldiers." Yet the mindfulness movement and empirical evidence supporting it have not gone without criticism. Misinformation and poor methodology associated with past studies of mindfulness may lead public consumers to be harmed, misled, and disappointed...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016240/reiterated-concerns-and-further-challenges-for-mindfulness-and-meditation-research-a-reply-to-davidson-and-dahl
#8
Nicholas T Van Dam, Marieke K van Vugt, David R Vago, Laura Schmalzl, Clifford D Saron, Andrew Olendzki, Ted Meissner, Sara W Lazar, Jolie Gorchov, Kieran C R Fox, Brent A Field, Willoughby B Britton, Julie A Brefczynski-Lewis, David E Meyer
In response to our article, Davidson and Dahl offer commentary and advice regarding additional topics crucial to a comprehensive prescriptive agenda for future research on mindfulness and meditation. Their commentary raises further challenges and provides an important complement to our article. More consideration of these issues is especially welcome because limited space precluded us from addressing all relevant topics. While we agree with many of Davidson and Dahl's suggestions, the present reply (a) highlights reasons why the concerns we expressed are still especially germane to mindfulness and meditation research (even though those concerns may not be entirely unique) and (b) gives more context to other issues posed by them...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016238/outstanding-challenges-in-scientific-research-on-mindfulness-and-meditation
#9
Richard J Davidson, Cortland J Dahl
Van Dam et al. raise a number of critical issues in contemporary research on mindfulness and meditation and offer a prescriptive agenda for future work in this area. While we agree with all of the key points made in their article, there are a number of important issues omitted that are central to a comprehensive agenda for future research in this area. This commentary highlights five key points: (a) Many of the key methodological issues the article raises are not specific to research on mindfulness; (b) contemplative practices are varied, and the landscape of modern scientific research has evolved to focus almost exclusively on one or two types of practice to the exclusion of other forms of practice that are potentially highly impactful;...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992443/expressive-writing-in-psychological-science
#10
James W Pennebaker
The 1997 Psychological Science paper "Writing About Emotional Experiences as a Therapeutic Process" summarized the results of several expressive writing studies. Since the publication of the first expressive writing study in 1986, a number of discoveries had emerged that had both theoretical and clinical implications. The scientific and personal backstories of the research are discussed. Finally, several possible reasons are advanced to explain why this particular paper has been cited as much as it has.
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937914/collective-psychological-ownership-and-intergroup-relations
#11
Maykel Verkuyten, Borja Martinovic
Whereas much social psychological research has studied the in-group and out-group implications of social categorization and collective identity ("we"), little research has examined the nature and relevance of collective psychological ownership ("ours") for intergroup relations. We make a case for considering collective psychological ownership as an important source of intergroup tensions. We do so by integrating theory and research from various social sciences, and we draw out implications for future social psychological research on intergroup relations...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937910/loneliness-and-social-internet-use-pathways-to-reconnection-in-a-digital-world
#12
Rebecca Nowland, Elizabeth A Necka, John T Cacioppo
With the rise of online social networking, social relationships are increasingly developed and maintained in a digital domain. Drawing conclusions about the impact of the digital world on loneliness is difficult because there are contradictory findings, and cross-sectional studies dominate the literature, making causation difficult to establish. In this review, we present our theoretical model and propose that there is a bidirectional and dynamic relationship between loneliness and social Internet use. When the Internet is used as a way station on the route to enhancing existing relationships and forging new social connections, it is a useful tool for reducing loneliness...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937858/our-mother-s-mitochondria-and-our-mind
#13
Peter Kramer, Paola Bressan
Most of the energy we get to spend is furnished by mitochondria, minuscule living structures sitting inside our cells or dispatched back and forth within them to where they are needed. Mitochondria produce energy by burning down what remains of our meal after we have digested it, but at the cost of constantly corroding themselves and us. Here we review how our mitochondria evolved from invading bacteria and have retained a small amount of independence from us; how we inherit them only from our mother; and how they are heavily implicated in learning, memory, cognition, and virtually every mental or neurological affliction...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934560/creativity-and-mood-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Christa L Taylor
Although the belief that creativity is related to psychopathology is prevalent, empirical evidence is limited. Research findings relating to mood disorder in particular are mixed, possibly as a result of differing research approaches (e.g., assessing the creativity of individuals with versus without mood disorder opposed to the prevalence of mood disorder in creative versus noncreative individuals). Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to investigate prior research examining the link between mood disorder and creativity from three distinct research approaches...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934559/psychological-perspectives-on-interrogation
#15
Aldert Vrij, Christian A Meissner, Ronald P Fisher, Saul M Kassin, Charles A Morgan, Steven M Kleinman
Proponents of "enhanced interrogation techniques" in the United States have claimed that such methods are necessary for obtaining information from uncooperative terrorism subjects. In the present article, we offer an informed, academic perspective on such claims. Psychological theory and research shows that harsh interrogation methods are ineffective. First, they are likely to increase resistance by the subject rather than facilitate cooperation. Second, the threatening and adversarial nature of harsh interrogation is often inimical to the goal of facilitating the retrieval of information from memory and therefore reduces the likelihood that a subject will provide reports that are extensive, detailed, and accurate...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915361/cultural-change-the-how-and-the-why
#16
Michael E W Varnum, Igor Grossmann
More than half a century of cross-cultural research has demonstrated group-level differences in psychological and behavioral phenomena, from values to attention to neural responses. However, cultures are not static, with several specific changes documented for cultural products, practices, and values. How and why do societies change? Here we juxtapose theory and insights from cultural evolution and social ecology. Evolutionary approaches enable an understanding of the how of cultural change, suggesting transmission mechanisms by which the contents of culture may change...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972853/doing-psychology-with-a-cultural-lens-a-half-century-journey
#17
Cigdem Kagitcibasi
My first international publication started out with the following sentences: "Some findings of social psychology may refer to general panhuman relationships, others to relationships that hold only within specific socio-cultural settings. Only systematic cross-cultural comparison can separate these or identify the limits within which particular generalizations hold" (Kagitcibasi, 1970, p. 444). These words still reflect my orientation to psychology and have shaped my work over half a century.
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972852/how-the-study-of-cognitive-growth-can-benefit-from-a-cultural-lens
#18
Robert Serpell
Applications of psychology to education and assessment often take for granted Western cultural assumptions about the nature of intelligence, ignore cultural features of human cognition other than language, and liken the influence of socialization on development to biological nutrition. Such oversimplifications can lead to stigmatizing culturally different persons as atypical or deficient and to perpetuating oppressive cultural hegemony. A cultural lens can benefit psychological science by facilitating communication with diverse audiences, channeling new knowledge into social progress, and generating theoretical insights about human behavior and experience, such as linguistic flexibility as a dimension of cognition, social responsibility as a dimension of intelligence, and intimate culture as a filter between larger social representations and the frame of reference for an individual mind...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972851/culture-embrained-going-beyond-the-nature-nurture-dichotomy
#19
Shinobu Kitayama, Cristina E Salvador
Over the past three decades, the cultural psychology literature has established that there is systematic cultural variation in the nature of agency in the domains of cognition, emotion, and motivation. This literature adopted both self-report and performance-based (or behavioral) indicators of these processes, which set the stage for a more recent systematic exploration of cultural influences at the neural and biological level. Moreover, previous work has largely focused on East-West differences, thereby calling for a systematic exploration of other ethnic groups...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972850/american-independent
#20
Hazel Rose Markus
U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream...
September 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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