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Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899736/eminence-and-omniscience-statistical-and-clinical-prediction-of-merit
#1
Donald J Foss
In this article, I review, comment upon, and assess some of the suggestions for evaluating scientific merit as suggested by contributors to this symposium. I ask the reader to take the perspective of the individual who has the final say in making a tenure, promotion, or hiring decision. I also ask that one imagine the difference between the fallible human state we are in on such an occasion and what it would be like to be omniscient when making such decisions. After adopting the terminology of "deep" and "surface" eminence, I consider what an omniscient being would take into account to determine eminence and to guide decision-making...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899735/improving-departments-of-psychology
#2
Ed Diener
Our procedures for creating excellent departments of psychology are based largely on selection-hiring and promoting the best people. I argue that these procedures have been successful, but I suggest the implementation of policies that I believe will further improve departments in the behavioral and brain sciences. I recommend that we institute more faculty development programs attached to incentives to guarantee continuing education and scholarly activities after the Ph.D. degree. I also argue that we would do a much better job if we more strongly stream our faculty into research, education, or service and not expect all faculty members to carry equal responsibility for each of these...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899734/taking-advantage-of-citation-measures-of-scholarly-impact-hip-hip-h-index
#3
John Ruscio
Professional decisions about hiring, tenure, promotion, funding, and honors are informed by assessments of scholarly impact. As a measure of influence, citations are produced by experts but accessible to nonexperts. The h index is the largest number h such that an individual has published at least h works cited at least h times apiece. This is easy to understand and calculate, as or more reliable and valid than alternative citation measures, and highly robust to missing or messy data. Striving for a large h index requires both productivity and influence, which provides healthy incentives for researchers striving for eminence through scientific impact...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899733/scientific-eminence-where-are-the-women
#4
Alice H Eagly, David I Miller
Women are sparsely represented among psychologists honored for scientific eminence. However, most currently eminent psychologists started their careers when far fewer women pursued training in psychological science. Now that women earn the majority of psychology Ph.D.'s, will they predominate in the next generation's cadre of eminent psychologists? Comparing currently active female and male psychology professors on publication metrics such as the h index provides clues for answering this question. Men outperform women on the h index and its two components: scientific productivity and citations of contributions...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899732/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-science-a-dialectic-of-scientific-fame
#5
Gregory J Feist
In this article, I argue that scientific fame and impact exists on a continuum from the mundane to the transformative/revolutionary. Ideally, one achieves fame and impact in science by synthesizing two extreme career prototypes: intrinsic and extrinsic research. The former is guided by interest, curiosity, passion, gut, and intuition for important untapped topics. The latter is guided by money, grants, and/or what is being published in top-tier journals. Assessment of fame and impact in science ultimately rests on productivity (publication) and some variation of its impact (citations)...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899731/giving-credit-where-credit-s-due-why-it-s-so-hard-to-do-in-psychological-science
#6
Dean Keith Simonton
More than a century of scientific research has shed considerable light on how a scientist's contributions to psychological science might be best assessed and duly recognized. This brief overview of that empirical evidence concentrates on recognition for lifetime career achievements in psychological science. After discussing both productivity and citation indicators, the treatment turns to critical precautions in the application of these indicators to psychologists. These issues concern both predictive validity and interjudge reliability...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899730/varieties-of-fame-in-psychology
#7
Henry L Roediger
Fame in psychology, as in all arenas, is a local phenomenon. Psychologists (and probably academics in all fields) often first become well known for studying a subfield of an area (say, the study of attention in cognitive psychology, or even certain tasks used to study attention). Later, the researcher may become famous within cognitive psychology. In a few cases, researchers break out of a discipline to become famous across psychology and (more rarely still) even outside the confines of academe. The progression is slow and uneven...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899729/-am-i-famous-yet-judging-scholarly-merit-in-psychological-science-an-introduction
#8
Robert J Sternberg
The purpose of this symposium is to consider new ways of judging merit in academia, especially with respect to research in psychological science. First, I discuss the importance of merit-based evaluation and the purpose of this symposium. Next, I review some previous ideas about judging merit-especially creative merit-and I describe some of the main criteria used by institutions today for judging the quality of research in psychological science. Finally, I suggest a new criterion that institutions and individuals might use and draw some conclusions...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899728/evolution-of-sex-differences-in-trait-and-age-specific-vulnerabilities
#9
David C Geary
Traits that facilitate competition for reproductive resources or that influence mate choice generally have a heightened sensitivity to stressors. They have evolved to signal resilience to infectious disease and nutritional and social stressors, and they are compromised by exposure to man-made toxins. Although these traits can differ from one species or sex to the next, an understanding of the dynamics of competition and choice can in theory be used to generate a priori predictions about sex-, age-, and trait-specific vulnerabilities for any sexually reproducing species...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899727/using-smartphones-to-collect-behavioral-data-in-psychological-science-opportunities-practical-considerations-and-challenges
#10
Gabriella M Harari, Nicholas D Lane, Rui Wang, Benjamin S Crosier, Andrew T Campbell, Samuel D Gosling
Smartphones now offer the promise of collecting behavioral data unobtrusively, in situ, as it unfolds in the course of daily life. Data can be collected from the onboard sensors and other phone logs embedded in today's off-the-shelf smartphone devices. These data permit fine-grained, continuous collection of people's social interactions (e.g., speaking rates in conversation, size of social groups, calls, and text messages), daily activities (e.g., physical activity and sleep), and mobility patterns (e.g., frequency and duration of time spent at various locations)...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899726/a-taxonomic-analysis-of-abstraction
#11
Stephen K Reed
An important characteristic of knowledge is that it exists at multiple levels of abstraction. This article illustrates how different levels of abstraction influence perception, comprehension, categorization, memory, and thought. Theories exist for how abstraction influences each of these cognitive processes, but there are few unifying principles for discussing these theories within a common conceptual framework. My proposed taxonomy examines three senses of abstraction: (a) an abstract entity is a concept that has no material referent, (b) abstraction focuses on only some attributes of multicomponent stimuli, and (c) an abstract idea applies to many particular instances of a category...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899725/why-good-teaching-evaluations-may-reward-bad-teaching-on-grade-inflation-and-other-unintended-consequences-of-student-evaluations
#12
Wolfgang Stroebe
In this article, I address the paradox that university grade point averages have increased for decades, whereas the time students invest in their studies has decreased. I argue that one major contributor to this paradox is grading leniency, encouraged by the practice of university administrators to base important personnel decisions on student evaluations of teaching. Grading leniency creates strong incentives for instructors to teach in ways that would result in good student evaluations. Because many instructors believe that the average student prefers courses that are entertaining, require little work, and result in high grades, they feel under pressure to conform to those expectations...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899724/working-memory-capacity-and-fluid-intelligence-maintenance-and-disengagement
#13
Zach Shipstead, Tyler L Harrison, Randall W Engle
Working memory capacity and fluid intelligence have been demonstrated to be strongly correlated traits. Typically, high working memory capacity is believed to facilitate reasoning through accurate maintenance of relevant information. In this article, we present a proposal reframing this issue, such that tests of working memory capacity and fluid intelligence are seen as measuring complementary processes that facilitate complex cognition. Respectively, these are the ability to maintain access to critical information and the ability to disengage from or block outdated information...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784750/reflection-on-the-smiling-registered-replication-report
#14
Fritz Strack
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784749/registered-replication-report-strack-martin-stepper-1988
#15
E-J Wagenmakers, Titia Beek, Laura Dijkhoff, Quentin F Gronau
According to the facial feedback hypothesis, people's affective responses can be influenced by their own facial expression (e.g., smiling, pouting), even when their expression did not result from their emotional experiences. For example, Strack, Martin, and Stepper (1988) instructed participants to rate the funniness of cartoons using a pen that they held in their mouth. In line with the facial feedback hypothesis, when participants held the pen with their teeth (inducing a "smile"), they rated the cartoons as funnier than when they held the pen with their lips (inducing a "pout")...
November 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694469/reflections-on-the-commitment-forgiveness-registered-replication-report
#16
Eli J Finkel
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694468/registered-replication-report-study-1-from-finkel-rusbult-kumashiro-hannon-2002
#17
Irene Cheung, Lorne Campbell, Etienne P LeBel
Finkel, Rusbult, Kumashiro, and Hannon (2002, Study 1) demonstrated a causal link between subjective commitment to a relationship and how people responded to hypothetical betrayals of that relationship. Participants primed to think about their commitment to their partner (high commitment) reacted to the betrayals with reduced exit and neglect responses relative to those primed to think about their independence from their partner (low commitment). The priming manipulation did not affect constructive voice and loyalty responses...
September 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694467/adjusting-for-publication-bias-in-meta-analysis-an-evaluation-of-selection-methods-and-some-cautionary-notes
#18
Blakeley B McShane, Ulf Böckenholt, Karsten T Hansen
We review and evaluate selection methods, a prominent class of techniques first proposed by Hedges (1984) that assess and adjust for publication bias in meta-analysis, via an extensive simulation study. Our simulation covers both restrictive settings as well as more realistic settings and proceeds across multiple metrics that assess different aspects of model performance. This evaluation is timely in light of two recently proposed approaches, the so-called p-curve and p-uniform approaches, that can be viewed as alternative implementations of the original Hedges selection method approach...
September 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694466/conducting-meta-analyses-based-on-p-values-reservations-and-recommendations-for-applying-p-uniform-and-p-curve
#19
Robbie C M van Aert, Jelte M Wicherts, Marcel A L M van Assen
Because of overwhelming evidence of publication bias in psychology, techniques to correct meta-analytic estimates for such bias are greatly needed. The methodology on which the p-uniform and p-curve methods are based has great promise for providing accurate meta-analytic estimates in the presence of publication bias. However, in this article, we show that in some situations, p-curve behaves erratically, whereas p-uniform may yield implausible estimates of negative effect size. Moreover, we show that (and explain why) p-curve and p-uniform result in overestimation of effect size under moderate-to-large heterogeneity and may yield unpredictable bias when researchers employ p-hacking...
September 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694465/increasing-transparency-through-a-multiverse-analysis
#20
Sara Steegen, Francis Tuerlinckx, Andrew Gelman, Wolf Vanpaemel
Empirical research inevitably includes constructing a data set by processing raw data into a form ready for statistical analysis. Data processing often involves choices among several reasonable options for excluding, transforming, and coding data. We suggest that instead of performing only one analysis, researchers could perform a multiverse analysis, which involves performing all analyses across the whole set of alternatively processed data sets corresponding to a large set of reasonable scenarios. Using an example focusing on the effect of fertility on religiosity and political attitudes, we show that analyzing a single data set can be misleading and propose a multiverse analysis as an alternative practice...
September 2016: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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