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Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544871/signs-of-social-class-the-experience-of-economic-inequality-in-everyday-life
#1
Michael W Kraus, Jun Won Park, Jacinth J X Tan
By some accounts, global economic inequality is at its highest point on record. The pernicious effects of this broad societal trend are striking: Rising inequality is linked to poorer health and well-being across countries, continents, and cultures. The economic and psychological forces that perpetuate inequality continue to be studied, and in this theoretical review, we examine the role of daily experiences of economic inequality-the communication of social class signals between interaction partners-in this process...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544870/the-killing-of-kitty-genovese-what-else-does-this-case-tell-us
#2
Saul M Kassin
Well known in popular culture, the 1964 murder of Kitty Genovese in Queens, New York, became famous because not one of an alleged 38 bystanders called police until it was too late. Within psychology, this singular event inspired the study of bystander intervention. With the spotlight of history focused on Ms. Genovese and bystanders, other events, also profound for what they tell us about human social behavior, have escaped public notice. Based on archival records and current interviews, this article describes the three issues linked to Genovese...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544869/restoring-agency-to-the-human-actor
#3
William B Swann, Jolanda Jetten
A cursory read of the social psychological literature suggests that when people find themselves in strong situations, they fail to display agency. The early classic studies of conformity, obedience, and bystander intervention, for example, are renowned for showing that when challenged by strong situational pressures, participants acquiesced-even if it meant abandoning their moral principles or disregarding their own sensory data. Later studies of learned helplessness, ego depletion, and stereotype threat echoed this "power of the situation" theme, demonstrating that exposure to (or the expectation of) a frustrating or unpleasant experience suppressed subsequent efforts to actualize goals and abilities...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544868/a-mathematical-model-captures-the-structure-of-subjective-affect
#4
Alison M Mattek, George L Wolford, Paul J Whalen
Although it is possible to observe when another person is having an emotional moment, we also derive information about the affective states of others from what they tell us they are feeling. In an effort to distill the complexity of affective experience, psychologists routinely focus on a simplified subset of subjective rating scales (i.e., dimensions) that capture considerable variability in reported affect: reported valence (i.e., how good or bad?) and reported arousal (e.g., how strong is the emotion you are feeling?)...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544867/college-admissions-the-mia-model-and-moocs-commentary-on-niessen-and-meijer-2017
#5
Steven E Stemler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544866/on-the-use-of-broadened-admission-criteria-in-higher-education
#6
A Susan M Niessen, Rob R Meijer
There is an increasing interest in the use of broadened criteria for admission to higher education, often assessed through noncognitive instruments. We argue that there are several reasons why, despite some significant progress, the use of noncognitive predictors to select students is problematic in high-stakes educational selection and why the incremental validity will often be modest, even when studied in low-stakes contexts. Furthermore, we comment on the use of broadened admission criteria in relation to reducing adverse impact of testing on some groups, and we extend the literature by discussing an approach based on behavioral sampling, which showed promising results in Europe...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544865/erratum-investigation-of-consensually-nonmonogamous-relationships-theories-methods-and-new-directions
#7
(no author information available yet)
Conley, T. D., Matsick, J. L., Moors, A. C., & Ziegler, A. (2017). Investigation of consensually nonmonogamous relationships: Theories, methods, and new directions. Perspectives in Psychological Science, 12, 205-232. doi: 10.1177/1745691616667925 The byline for this article should be as follows: Terri D. Conley(1), Jes L. Matsick(2), Amy C. Moors(3), and Ali Ziegler(1).
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544864/reflections-on-the-time-pressure-cooperation-registered-replication-report
#8
David G Rand
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544863/how-social-status-shapes-person-perception-and-evaluation-a-social-neuroscience-perspective
#9
Bradley D Mattan, Jennifer T Kubota, Jasmin Cloutier
Inferring the relative rank (i.e., status) of others is essential to navigating social hierarchies. A survey of the expanding social psychological and neuroscience literatures on status reveals a diversity of focuses (e.g., perceiver vs. agent), operationalizations (e.g., status as dominance vs. wealth), and methodologies (e.g., behavioral, neuroscientific). Accommodating this burgeoning literature on status in person perception, the present review offers a novel social neuroscientific framework that integrates existing work with theoretical clarity...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544862/narcissistic-force-meets-systemic-resistance-the-energy-clash-model
#10
Constantine Sedikides, W Keith Campbell
This article focuses on the interplay between narcissistic leaders and organizations. It attempts to capture the gist of this interplay with a model outlining the narcissistic organizational trajectory. The Energy Clash Model borrows and adapts a phase/state physics metaphor to conceptualize narcissism as a force that enters or emerges in a stable system (i.e., organization) as a leader, destabilizes it, and stabilizes it at a different state or is expelled. The model consists of three time-contingent phases: perturbation, conflict, and resolution...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544861/social-buffering-of-stress-in-development-a-career-perspective
#11
Megan R Gunnar
This review provides a broad overview of my research group's work on social buffering in human development in the context of the field. Much of the focus is on social buffering of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, one of the two major arms of the mammalian stress system. This focus reflects the centrality of the HPA system in research on social buffering in the fields of developmental psychobiology and developmental science. However, buffering of the cardiovascular and autonomic nervous system is also discussed...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544860/behavioral-processes-in-long-lag-intervention-studies
#12
Dale T Miller, Jennifer E Dannals, Julian J Zlatev
We argue that psychologists who conduct experiments with long lags between the manipulation and the outcome measure should pay more attention to behavioral processes that intervene between the manipulation and the outcome measure. Neglect of such processes, we contend, stems from psychology's long tradition of short-lag lab experiments where there is little scope for intervening behavioral processes. Studying process in the lab invariably involves studying psychological processes, but in long-lag field experiments it is important to study causally relevant behavioral processes as well as psychological ones...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544859/college-admissions-diversity-and-performance-based-assessment-reply-to-stemler-2017
#13
A Susan M Niessen, Rob R Meijer
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475467/registered-replication-report-rand-greene-and-nowak-2012
#14
S Bouwmeester, P P J L Verkoeijen, B Aczel, F Barbosa, L Bègue, P Brañas-Garza, T G H Chmura, G Cornelissen, F S Døssing, A M Espín, A M Evans, F Ferreira-Santos, S Fiedler, J Flegr, M Ghaffari, A Glöckner, T Goeschl, L Guo, O P Hauser, R Hernan-Gonzalez, A Herrero, Z Horne, P Houdek, M Johannesson, L Koppel, P Kujal, T Laine, J Lohse, E C Martins, C Mauro, D Mischkowski, S Mukherjee, K O R Myrseth, D Navarro-Martínez, T M S Neal, J Novakova, R Pagà, T O Paiva, B Palfi, M Piovesan, R-M Rahal, E Salomon, N Srinivasan, A Srivastava, B Szaszi, A Szollosi, K Ø Thor, G Tinghög, J S Trueblood, J J Van Bavel, A E van 't Veer, D Västfjäll, M Warner, E Wengström, J Wills, C E Wollbrant
In an anonymous 4-person economic game, participants contributed more money to a common project (i.e., cooperated) when required to decide quickly than when forced to delay their decision (Rand, Greene & Nowak, 2012), a pattern consistent with the social heuristics hypothesis proposed by Rand and colleagues. The results of studies using time pressure have been mixed, with some replication attempts observing similar patterns (e.g., Rand et al., 2014) and others observing null effects (e.g., Tinghög et al., 2013; Verkoeijen & Bouwmeester, 2014)...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346121/can-memories-of-traumatic-experiences-or-addiction-be-erased-or-modified-a-critical-review-of-research-on-the-disruption-of-memory-reconsolidation-and-its-applications
#15
Michael Treanor, Lily A Brown, Jesse Rissman, Michelle G Craske
Recent research suggests that the mere act of retrieving a memory can temporarily make that memory vulnerable to disruption. This process of "reconsolidation" will typically restabilize the neural representation of the memory and foster its long-term storage. However, the process of reconsolidating the memory takes time to complete, and during this limited time window, the original memory may be modified either by the presentation of new information or with pharmacological agents. Such findings have prompted rising interest in using disruption during reconsolidation as a clinical intervention for anxiety, posttraumatic stress, and substance use disorders...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346120/investigation-of-consensually-nonmonogamous-relationships
#16
Terri Conley, Jessica Matsick, Amy Catherine Moors, Ali Ziegler
We proposed that the premise that monogamy is the exemplary form of romantic partnership underlies much theory and research on relationship quality, and we addressed how this bias has prompted methodological issues that make it difficult to effectively address the quality of nonmonogamous relationships. Because the idea that consensually nonmonogamous (CNM) relationships are functional (i.e., satisfying and of high quality) is controversial, we included a basic study to assess, in a variety of ways, the quality of these relationships...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346119/counterpoint
#17
Frank H Durgin
Claims about alterations in perception based on manipulations of the energetics hypothesis (and other influences) are often framed as interesting specifically because they affect our perceptual experience. Many control experiments conducted on such perceptual effects suggest, however, that they are the result of attribution effects and other kinds of judgmental biases influencing the reporting process rather than perception itself. Schnall (2017, this issue), appealing to Heider's work on attribution, argues that it is fruitless to try to distinguish between perception and attribution...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346118/social-and-contextual-constraints-on-embodied-perception
#18
Simone Schnall
A number of papers have challenged research on physiological and psychological influences on perception by claiming to show that such findings can be explained by nonperceptual factors such as demand characteristics. Relatedly, calls for separating perception from judgment have been issued. However, such efforts fail to consider key processes known to shape judgment processes: people's inability to report accurately on their judgments, conversational dynamics of experimental research contexts, and misattribution and discounting processes...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346117/on-the-communicative-function-of-body-odors
#19
Jasper H B de Groot, Gün R Semin, Monique A M Smeets
Humans use multiple senses to navigate the social world, and the sense of smell is arguably the most underestimated one. An intriguing aspect of the sense of smell is its social communicative function. Research has shown that human odors convey information about a range of states (e.g., emotions, sickness) and traits (e.g., individuality, gender). Yet, what underlies the communicability of these states and traits via smell? We fill this explanatory gap with a framework that highlights the dynamic and flexible aspects of human olfactory communication...
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346116/no-magic-bullet-in-sight
#20
Simone Schnall
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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