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Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657838/reducing-calorie-intake-may-not-help-you-lose-body-weight
#1
David Benton, Hayley A Young
As the widespread availability of highly calorific food has resulted in a high incidence of obesity, attempts to decrease body weight have concentrated on trying to reduce energy intake. It is suggested that this is not the best approach. Although consuming more calories than expended is part of the initial problem, it does not follow that reducing intake, unless consciously counting calories, is the best solution. Mechanisms smooth out the large day-to-day differences in energy consumption, decreasing the importance of the size of a meal...
June 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727968/do-you-believe-the-field-of-psychological-science-is-headed-in-the-right-direction
#2
Robert W Levenson
The state of psychological science is considered in terms of current issues and suggestions for the future.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727967/whither-psychology
#3
Diane F Halpern
Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727966/mountain-climbing-in-the-dark-introduction-to-the-special-symposium-on-the-future-direction-of-psychological-science
#4
Robert J Sternberg
This special symposium in Perspectives on Psychological Science answers the question, "Do you believe the field of psychological science is headed in the right direction?" Respondents are a sampling of Association for Psychological Science award winners over the past 5 years dating back from publication of this symposium.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727965/is-psychology-headed-in-the-right-direction-yes-no-and-maybe
#5
Carol S Dweck
In this piece, I first celebrate the growing contribution of psychology to the understanding and solution of pressing social issues. Then, despite these exciting developments, I worry about whether we have created a field that our students want to spend their lives in, and I suggest concerns that might fruitfully be addressed. Finally, I worry about the potential fragmentation of psychology and applaud programs of research that have shown the unique and important contributions to be made when the methods and perspectives of neuroscience, cognitive science, and computational modeling are integrated with those of social, personality, and developmental psychology...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727964/psychological-science-as-a-complex-system-report-card
#6
Douglas L Medin
Psychological science is increasingly diverse in the tools available for research and the questions it is able to ask. But this potential is seriously limited by a lack of diversity in study populations, in situations and contexts explored, and in the researchers themselves. The current situation is problematic and difficult to change because of niche construction processes that favor the status quo. Systems level changes are needed to support a healthy psychological science.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727963/going-in-many-right-directions-all-at-once
#7
Susan T Fiske
When asked whether the field is going in the right direction, my answer is "yes, mostly." Policymakers' respect and the public's interest put us in the spotlight for our intrinsic strengths-but they also draw attention to our weaknesses as reflected by the replication crisis, about which reasonable opinions differ. Among other concerns, civility and mutual tolerance have sometimes been an issue in these debates. As an example of a constructive debate, our lab's recent experience with mutually respectful engagement has advanced solving one scientific puzzle...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727962/a-website-system-for-communicating-psychological-science
#8
Ed Diener
The peer review and journal system have shortcomings, and both computers and the Internet have made complementary or alternative systems attractive. In this article, I recommend that we implement a new platform for open communication of psychological science on a dedicated website to complement the current review and journal system, with reader reviews of the articles and with all behavioral scientists being eligible to publish and review articles. The judged merit of articles would be based on the citations and the ratings of the work by the whole scientific community...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727961/psychology-s-replication-crisis-and-the-grant-culture-righting-the-ship
#9
Scott O Lilienfeld
The past several years have been a time for soul searching in psychology, as we have gradually come to grips with the reality that some of our cherished findings are less robust than we had assumed. Nevertheless, the replication crisis highlights the operation of psychological science at its best, as it reflects our growing humility. At the same time, institutional variables, especially the growing emphasis on external funding as an expectation or de facto requirement for faculty tenure and promotion, pose largely unappreciated hazards for psychological science, including (a) incentives for engaging in questionable research practices, (b) a single-minded focus on programmatic research, (c) intellectual hyperspecialization, (d) disincentives for conducting direct replications, (e) stifling of creativity and intellectual risk taking, (f) researchers promising more than they can deliver, and (g) diminished time for thinking deeply...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727960/perspectives-on-psychological-science-right-way-wrong-way-symposium
#10
Megan R Gunnar
In unpredictable times, it is perhaps even more important to contemplate the direction different fields of science are headed. In this article, I contemplate two directions of psychological science: the increasing integration of the study of psychology with other sciences and the concern of many sciences, including ours, with improving the reproducibility of our findings. Both of these are argued to be "right ways," but these directions also have challenges that, unless carefully addressed, could detract from our ability to move the science of psychology forward...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727959/is-psychology-headed-in-the-right-direction
#11
Ethan Kross
Is psychology headed in the right direction? In this essay, I share my views on the answer to this question. I begin by describing how recent advances in technology, heightened levels of interdisciplinary collaboration, a renewed emphasis on considering the broader implications of basic psychological research, and field-wide efforts to encourage optimal research practices have combined to tilt psychology's trajectory upward. I then offer three suggestions for how to maintain the field's upward slanting course: (a) collaborate more to build cumulative knowledge, (b) improve the way we communicate contextual factors in psychological research, and (c) examine the psychological effects of technology...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679332/beyond-risk-and-protective-factors-an-adaptation-based-approach-to-resilience
#12
Bruce J Ellis, JeanMarie Bianchi, Vladas Griskevicius, Willem E Frankenhuis
How does repeated or chronic childhood adversity shape social and cognitive abilities? According to the prevailing deficit model, children from high-stress backgrounds are at risk for impairments in learning and behavior, and the intervention goal is to prevent, reduce, or repair the damage. Missing from this deficit approach is an attempt to leverage the unique strengths and abilities that develop in response to high-stress environments. Evolutionary-developmental models emphasize the coherent, functional changes that occur in response to stress over the life course...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679082/is-psychology-moving-in-the-right-direction-an-analysis-of-the-evidentiary-value-movement
#13
J Kiley Hamlin
The following article considers whether psychology is moving in the right direction by exploring the evidentiary value movement. Although the author considers the movement to be a net positive, she discusses concerns regarding the scope and tone of the discussions to date. She encourages the movement to consider heretofore underrepresented subfields and to reduce the use of negative tone.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679069/inflammation-self-regulation-and-health-an-immunologic-model-of-self-regulatory-failure
#14
Grant S Shields, Wesley G Moons, George M Slavich
Self-regulation is a fundamental human process that refers to multiple complex methods by which individuals pursue goals in the face of distractions. Whereas superior self-regulation predicts better academic achievement, relationship quality, financial and career success, and lifespan health, poor self-regulation increases a person's risk for negative outcomes in each of these domains and can ultimately presage early mortality. Given its centrality to understanding the human condition, a large body of research has examined cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of self-regulation...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671854/the-true-self-a-psychological-concept-distinct-from-the-self
#15
Nina Strohminger, Joshua Knobe, George Newman
A long tradition of psychological research has explored the distinction between characteristics that are part of the self and those that lie outside of it. Recently, a surge of research has begun examining a further distinction. Even among characteristics that are internal to the self, people pick out a subset as belonging to the true self. These factors are judged as making people who they really are, deep down. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the true self and identify features that distinguish people's understanding of the true self from their understanding of the self more generally...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651058/is-disgust-proneness-associated-with-anxiety-and-related-disorders-a-qualitative-review-and-meta-analysis-of-group-comparison-and-correlational-studies
#16
Bunmi O Olatunji, Thomas Armstrong, Lisa Elwood
Research suggests that disgust may be linked to the etiology of some anxiety-related disorders. The present investigation reviews this literature and employs separate meta-analyses of clinical group comparison and correlational studies to examine the association between disgust proneness and anxiety-related disorder symptoms. Meta-analysis of 43 group comparison studies revealed those high in anxiety disorder symptoms reported significantly more disgust proneness than those low in anxiety symptoms. Although this effect was not moderated by clinical versus analogue studies or type of disorder, larger group differences were observed for those high in anxiety symptoms associated with contagion concerns compared to those high in anxiety symptoms not associated with contagion concerns...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544871/signs-of-social-class-the-experience-of-economic-inequality-in-everyday-life
#17
Michael W Kraus, Jun Won Park, Jacinth J X Tan
By some accounts, global economic inequality is at its highest point on record. The pernicious effects of this broad societal trend are striking: Rising inequality is linked to poorer health and well-being across countries, continents, and cultures. The economic and psychological forces that perpetuate inequality continue to be studied, and in this theoretical review, we examine the role of daily experiences of economic inequality-the communication of social class signals between interaction partners-in this process...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544870/the-killing-of-kitty-genovese-what-else-does-this-case-tell-us
#18
Saul M Kassin
Well known in popular culture, the 1964 murder of Kitty Genovese in Queens, New York, became famous because not one of an alleged 38 bystanders called police until it was too late. Within psychology, this singular event inspired the study of bystander intervention. With the spotlight of history focused on Ms. Genovese and bystanders, other events, also profound for what they tell us about human social behavior, have escaped public notice. Based on archival records and current interviews, this article describes the three issues linked to Genovese...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544869/restoring-agency-to-the-human-actor
#19
William B Swann, Jolanda Jetten
A cursory read of the social psychological literature suggests that when people find themselves in strong situations, they fail to display agency. The early classic studies of conformity, obedience, and bystander intervention, for example, are renowned for showing that when challenged by strong situational pressures, participants acquiesced-even if it meant abandoning their moral principles or disregarding their own sensory data. Later studies of learned helplessness, ego depletion, and stereotype threat echoed this "power of the situation" theme, demonstrating that exposure to (or the expectation of) a frustrating or unpleasant experience suppressed subsequent efforts to actualize goals and abilities...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544868/a-mathematical-model-captures-the-structure-of-subjective-affect
#20
Alison M Mattek, George L Wolford, Paul J Whalen
Although it is possible to observe when another person is having an emotional moment, we also derive information about the affective states of others from what they tell us they are feeling. In an effort to distill the complexity of affective experience, psychologists routinely focus on a simplified subset of subjective rating scales (i.e., dimensions) that capture considerable variability in reported affect: reported valence (i.e., how good or bad?) and reported arousal (e.g., how strong is the emotion you are feeling?)...
May 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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