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Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005172/intergroup-contact-as-an-agent-of-cognitive-liberalization
#1
Gordon Hodson, Richard J Crisp, Rose Meleady, Megan Earle
Intergroup contact is widely recognized as one of the most validated methods of improving attitudes toward out-groups. Yet what is intergroup contact "good for" beyond this function? To answer this question we take a panoramic view of the literature, beginning with the recognition that contact is multifaceted in both form (e.g., face-to-face, indirect, simulated) and outcome (e.g., attitudes, cognition, behavior). Taking this highly inclusive view of what contact is and what contact does suggests that it plays a fundamental role in the shaping of human cognition...
July 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958067/auditory-distraction-during-reading-a-bayesian-meta-analysis-of-a-continuing-controversy
#2
Martin R Vasilev, Julie A Kirkby, Bernhard Angele
Everyday reading occurs in different settings, such as on the train to work, in a busy cafeteria, or at home while listening to music. In these situations, readers are exposed to external auditory stimulation from nearby noise, speech, or music that may distract them from their task and reduce their comprehension. Although many studies have investigated auditory-distraction effects during reading, the results have proved to be inconsistent and sometimes even contradictory. In addition, the broader theoretical implications of the findings have not always been explicitly considered...
June 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958060/developing-treatments-for-antisocial-behavior-among-children-controlled-trials-and-uncontrolled-tribulations
#3
Alan E Kazdin
The article describes my research on the development and evaluation of psychosocial treatments for children who engage in extremes of antisocial behavior (e.g., aggression, property destruction, theft). I begin with my "story" of how the focus on interventions started as I worked in various settings (rehabilitation facilities, schools, hospitals, and outpatient clinical services) and with children, adolescents, and adults. The main stream of treatment research and findings with antisocial child behavior is highlighted along with tributaries that led naturally from the outcome research...
June 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29851554/at-least-bias-is-bipartisan-a-meta-analytic-comparison-of-partisan-bias-in-liberals-and-conservatives
#4
Peter H Ditto, Brittany S Liu, Cory J Clark, Sean P Wojcik, Eric E Chen, Rebecca H Grady, Jared B Celniker, Joanne F Zinger
Both liberals and conservatives accuse their political opponents of partisan bias, but is there empirical evidence that one side of the political aisle is indeed more biased than the other? To address this question, we meta-analyzed the results of 51 experimental studies, involving over 18,000 participants, that examined one form of partisan bias-the tendency to evaluate otherwise identical information more favorably when it supports one's political beliefs or allegiances than when it challenges those beliefs or allegiances...
May 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758166/does-online-technology-make-us-more-or-less-sociable-a-preliminary-review-and-call-for-research
#5
Adam Waytz, Kurt Gray
How does online technology affect sociability? Emerging evidence-much of it inconclusive-suggests a nuanced relationship between use of online technology (the Internet, social media, and virtual reality) and sociability (emotion recognition, empathy, perspective taking, and emotional intelligence). Although online technology can facilitate purely positive behavior (e.g., charitable giving) or purely negative behavior (e.g., cyberbullying), it appears to affect sociability in three ways, depending on whether it allows a deeper understanding of people's thoughts and feelings: (a) It benefits sociability when it complements already-deep offline engagement with others, (b) it impairs sociability when it supplants deeper offline engagement for superficial online engagement, and (c) it enhances sociability when deep offline engagement is otherwise difficult to attain...
May 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961418/the-road-to-uncreative-science-is-paved-with-good-intentions-ideas-implementations-and-uneasy-balances
#6
James C Kaufman, Vlad P GlĒŽveanu
How does the current replication crisis, along with other recent psychological trends, affect scientific creativity? To answer this question, we consider current debates regarding replication through the lenses of creativity research and theory. Both scientific work and creativity require striking a balance between ideation and implementation and between freedom and constraints. However, current debates about replication and some of the emerging guidelines stemming from them threaten this balance and run the risk of stifling innovation...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961417/replication-registration-and-scientific-creativity
#7
C J Brainerd, Valerie F Reyna
The bureaucratization of psychological science exacts intellectual costs that go beyond the sheer amount of time that is drained away from creative scientific activity. Additional administrative hurdles are now being generated in an attempt to ensure the replicability of psychological effects. A cognitive analysis of those hurdles shows that impairment of scientific creativity is a foreseeable consequence, owing to their frequent verbatim-processing focus and the negative emotional context in which they are embedded...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961416/the-creative-cycle-and-the-growth-of-psychological-science
#8
Klaus Fiedler
Scientific progress relies on the dialectics of loosening and tightening processes. Although most gripping accomplishments in psychological science testify to the critical role of creative and innovative theorizing (loosening), the ongoing debate on the quality of psychological science is focused almost totally on a restrictive sense of tightening, revolving around statistical hypothesis testing (tightening). A discussion of the imbalance between the conspicuous neglect of theory and the overstated importance of the sacred cow of significance testing raises a skeptical question: Do we seriously believe that stricter compliance rules, exact p values, effect size calculations, new statistics, and monitoring of research practices will foster the growth of excellent science? A more effective strategy would be to start a positive debate that focuses on the best exemplars of strong theorizing and fascinating findings, replacing the focus on insufficient science and unwanted practices...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961415/toward-surmounting-the-psychological-barriers-to-climate-policy-appreciating-contexts-and-acknowledging-challenges-a-reply-to-weber-2018
#9
Leaf Van Boven, Phillip J Ehret, David K Sherman
The authors acknowledge and respond to three concerns raised by Weber (2018) about oversimplifying psychological barriers to climate policy. First, skepticism about climate change remains a major barrier to climate policy, along with political partisanship. Second, recognizing multifaceted barriers to climate policy calls for multiple targeted interventions to be implemented at critical junctures. Finally, translating pro-environmental attitudes into action requires an appreciation of proximate sociopolitical contexts and cultures...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961414/the-impact-of-changing-norms-on-creativity-in-psychological-science
#10
Jonathan Wai, Diane F Halpern
The open science or credibility revolution has divided psychologists on whether and how the "policy" change of preregistration and similar requirements will affect the quality and creativity of future research. We provide a brief history of how norms have rapidly changed and how news and social media are beginning to "disrupt" academic science. We note a variety of benefits, including more confidence in research findings, but there are possible costs as well, including a reduction in the number of studies conducted because of an increased workload required by new policies...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961413/the-creativity-verification-cycle-in-psychological-science-new-methods-to-combat-old-idols
#11
Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Gilles Dutilh, Alexandra Sarafoglou
Over the years, researchers in psychological science have documented and investigated a host of powerful cognitive fallacies, including hindsight bias and confirmation bias. Researchers themselves may not be immune to these fallacies and may unwittingly adjust their statistical analysis to produce an outcome that is more pleasant or better in line with prior expectations. To shield researchers from the impact of cognitive fallacies, several methodologists are now advocating preregistration-that is, the creation of a detailed analysis plan before data collection or data analysis...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961412/psychological-barriers-to-bipartisan-public-support-for-climate-policy
#12
Leaf Van Boven, Phillip J Ehret, David K Sherman
Psychological scientists have the expertise-and arguably an obligation-to help understand the political polarization that impedes enactment of climate policy. Many explanations emphasize Republican skepticism about climate change. Yet results from national panel studies in 2014 and 2016 indicate that most Republicans believe in climate change, if not as strongly as Democrats. Political polarization over climate policy does not simply reflect that Democrats and Republicans disagree about climate change but that Democrats and Republicans disagree with each other...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961411/from-outcome-to-process-focus-fostering-a-more-robust-psychological-science-through-registered-reports-and-results-blind-reviewing
#13
James A Grand, Steven G Rogelberg, George C Banks, Ronald S Landis, Scott Tonidandel
A variety of alternative mechanisms, strategies, and "ways of doing" have been proposed for improving the rigor and robustness of published research in the psychological sciences in recent years. In this article, we describe two existing but underused publication models-registered reporting (RR) and results-blind reviewing (RBR)-that we believe would contribute in important ways to improving both the conduct and evaluation of psychological research. We first outline the procedures and distinguishing features of both publication pathways and note their value for promoting positive changes to current scientific practices...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961410/implications-of-the-credibility-revolution-for-productivity-creativity-and-progress
#14
Simine Vazire
The credibility revolution (sometimes referred to as the "replicability crisis") in psychology has brought about many changes in the standards by which psychological science is evaluated. These changes include (a) greater emphasis on transparency and openness, (b) a move toward preregistration of research, (c) more direct-replication studies, and (d) higher standards for the quality and quantity of evidence needed to make strong scientific claims. What are the implications of these changes for productivity, creativity, and progress in psychological science? These questions can and should be studied empirically, and I present my predictions here...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961409/perception-matters-the-pitfalls-of-misperceiving-psychological-barriers-to-climate-policy
#15
Elke U Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961408/open-science-is-liberating-and-can-foster-creativity
#16
Willem E Frankenhuis, Daniel Nettle
Some scholars think that Open Science practices constrain researchers in ways that reduce their creativity, arguing, for instance, that preregistration discourages data exploration and so stifles discovery. In this article, we argue the opposite: Open Science practices are liberating and can foster creativity. Open Science practices are liberating because they (a) enable us to explore data transparently and comfortably; (b) reward quality, which is under our control, rather than outcomes, which are not; and (c) reduce the choke hold of needing to find "positive" results for career advancement...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716457/rethinking-the-confident-eyewitness-a-reply-to-wixted-mickes-and-fisher
#17
Shari R Berkowitz, Steven J Frenda
In the current issue, Wixted, Mickes, and Fisher make the claim that eyewitness memory is not inherently unreliable. They also describe specific conditions under which an eyewitness's confidence can be a reliable indicator of accuracy in the context of both recall and recognition. We argue, however, that calculating the probative value of eyewitness evidence is more complicated than the authors acknowledge. In this commentary, we raise several concerns about the collection and assessment of eyewitness confidence in the real world...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716456/who-decides-what-is-acceptable-speech-on-campus-why-restricting-free-speech-is-not-the-answer
#18
Stephen J Ceci, Wendy M Williams
Recent protests on dozens of campuses have led to the cancellation of controversial talks, and violence has accompanied several of these protests. Psychological science provides an important lens through which to view, understand, and potentially reduce these conflicts. In this article, we frame opposing sides' arguments within a long-standing corpus of psychological research on selective perception, confirmation bias, myside bias, illusion of understanding, blind-spot bias, groupthink/in-group bias, motivated skepticism, and naive realism...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716455/five-popular-study-strategies-their-pitfalls-and-optimal-implementations
#19
Toshiya Miyatsu, Khuyen Nguyen, Mark A McDaniel
Researchers' and educators' enthusiasm in applying cognitive principles to enhance educational practices has become more evident. Several published reviews have suggested that some potent strategies can help students learn more efficaciously. Unfortunately, for whatever reason, students do not report frequent reliance on these empirically supported techniques. In the present review, we take a novel approach, identifying study strategies for which students have strong preferences and assessing whether these preferred strategies have any merit given existing empirical evidence from the cognitive and educational literatures...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716454/rethinking-the-reliability-of-eyewitness-memory
#20
John T Wixted, Laura Mickes, Ronald P Fisher
Although certain pockets within the broad field of academic psychology have come to appreciate that eyewitness memory is more reliable than was once believed, the prevailing view, by far, is that eyewitness memory is unreliable-a blanket assessment that increasingly pervades the legal system. On the surface, this verdict seems unavoidable: Research convincingly shows that memory is malleable, and eyewitness misidentifications are known to have played a role in most of the DNA exonerations of the innocent. However, we argue here that, like DNA evidence and other kinds of scientifically validated forensic evidence, eyewitness memory is reliable if it is not contaminated and if proper testing procedures are used...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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