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Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30231213/conspiracy-theories-evolved-functions-and-psychological-mechanisms
#1
Jan-Willem van Prooijen, Mark van Vugt
Belief in conspiracy theories-such as that the 9/11 terrorist attacks were an inside job or that the pharmaceutical industry deliberately spreads diseases-is a widespread and culturally universal phenomenon. Why do so many people around the globe believe conspiracy theories, and why are they so influential? Previous research focused on the proximate mechanisms underlying conspiracy beliefs but ignored the distal, evolutionary origins and functions. We review evidence pertaining to two competing evolutionary hypotheses: (a) conspiracy beliefs are a by-product of a suite of psychological mechanisms (e...
September 19, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30227083/finding-meaning-with-creativity-in-the-past-present-and-future
#2
James C Kaufman
Being creative is considered a desirable trait, yet most empirical studies emphasize how to increase creativity rather than explore its possible benefits. A natural connection is how creativity can enhance life's meaning. Many of the core concepts in work on the meaning of life, such as the needs for coherence, significance, and purpose or the desire for symbolic immortality, can be reached through creative activity. The synthesis of these two constructs-creativity and the meaning of life-is discussed with a temporal model encompassing past, present, and future pathways to creativity...
September 18, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30223765/from-the-fundamental-attribution-error-to-the-truly-fundamental-attribution-error-and-beyond-my-research-journey
#3
Lee Ross
This essay traces continuities and changes in focus of research and theory in my career. I describe early work on insensitivity to role-conferred advantages in self-presentation (and the personal experiences that prompted that work) and the subsequent identification and naming of the "fundamental attribution error." I next describe my work on the role that construal processes play in determining responses to various decision-making and attributional contexts. That work, in turn, culminated in identification and exploration of what I now deem the truly "fundamental attribution error": the illusion of superior personal objectivity and its various consequences for interpersonal and intergroup interactions...
September 17, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30217132/extending-the-passive-sensing-toolbox-using-smart-home-technology-in-psychological-science
#4
Benjamin W Nelson, Nicholas B Allen
New smart-home devices provide the opportunity to advance psychological science and theory through novel research opportunities in home environments. These technologies extend the in vivo research and intervention capabilities afforded by other assessment techniques such as Ecological Momentary Assessment methods as well as mobile and wearable devices. Smart-home devices contain a multitude of sensors capable of continuously and unobtrusively collecting multimodal data within home contexts. These devices have some complementary strengths and limitations compared with other assessment methods...
September 14, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30213257/the-curious-neglect-of-high-functioning-after-psychopathology-the-case-of-depression
#5
Jonathan Rottenberg, Andrew R Devendorf, Todd B Kashdan, David J Disabato
We address a key issue at the intersection of emotion, psychopathology, and public health-the startling lack of attention to people who experience benign outcomes, and even flourish, after recovering from depression. A rereading of the epidemiological literature suggests that the orthodox view of depression as chronic, recurrent, and lifelong is overstated. A significant subset of people recover and thrive after depression, yet research on such individuals has been rare. To facilitate work on this topic, we present a generative research framework...
September 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040911/goal-directed-allostasis-the-unique-challenge-of-keeping-things-as-they-are-and-strategies-to-overcome-it
#6
Yael Ecker, Michael Gilead
We introduce the concept of goal-directed allostasis (GDA), the mental process that underlies individuals' deliberate and proactive attempts to maintain the current state of affairs. GDA is distinct from goal-directed progress (GDP), the mental process that underlies the pursuit of change in the current state of affairs. We argue that GDA plays a crucial role in human life but that it has been largely overlooked in psychological research. We discuss the unique cognitive and motivational challenges that arise during GDA and suggest strategies to overcome these challenges...
September 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30040907/advancing-understanding-of-the-aesthetics-of-temporal-sequences-by-combining-some-principles-and-practices-in-music-and-cuisine-with-psychology
#7
Paul Rozin, Alexander Rozin
We consider how to optimize remembered aesthetic pleasure resulting from temporal sequences of events such as music and meals. We examine what psychology and music can learn from each other and how this knowledge might be applied to tasting menus and other temporal sequences. Common practices in longer musical works suggest the importance of (a) beginnings and endings, (b) variations in affective intensity over time, (c) repetitions, (d) variations on a theme, and (e) a return to prior material at the end of a piece...
September 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30005172/intergroup-contact-as-an-agent-of-cognitive-liberalization
#8
Gordon Hodson, Richard J Crisp, Rose Meleady, Megan Earle
Intergroup contact is widely recognized as one of the most validated methods of improving attitudes toward out-groups. Yet what is intergroup contact "good for" beyond this function? To answer this question we take a panoramic view of the literature, beginning with the recognition that contact is multifaceted in both form (e.g., face-to-face, indirect, simulated) and outcome (e.g., attitudes, cognition, behavior). Taking this highly inclusive view of what contact is and what contact does suggests that it plays a fundamental role in the shaping of human cognition...
September 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958067/auditory-distraction-during-reading-a-bayesian-meta-analysis-of-a-continuing-controversy
#9
Martin R Vasilev, Julie A Kirkby, Bernhard Angele
Everyday reading occurs in different settings, such as on the train to work, in a busy cafeteria, or at home while listening to music. In these situations, readers are exposed to external auditory stimulation from nearby noise, speech, or music that may distract them from their task and reduce their comprehension. Although many studies have investigated auditory-distraction effects during reading, the results have proved to be inconsistent and sometimes even contradictory. In addition, the broader theoretical implications of the findings have not always been explicitly considered...
September 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29958060/developing-treatments-for-antisocial-behavior-among-children-controlled-trials-and-uncontrolled-tribulations
#10
Alan E Kazdin
The article describes my research on the development and evaluation of psychosocial treatments for children who engage in extremes of antisocial behavior (e.g., aggression, property destruction, theft). I begin with my "story" of how the focus on interventions started as I worked in various settings (rehabilitation facilities, schools, hospitals, and outpatient clinical services) and with children, adolescents, and adults. The main stream of treatment research and findings with antisocial child behavior is highlighted along with tributaries that led naturally from the outcome research...
September 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961418/the-road-to-uncreative-science-is-paved-with-good-intentions-ideas-implementations-and-uneasy-balances
#11
James C Kaufman, Vlad P GlĒŽveanu
How does the current replication crisis, along with other recent psychological trends, affect scientific creativity? To answer this question, we consider current debates regarding replication through the lenses of creativity research and theory. Both scientific work and creativity require striking a balance between ideation and implementation and between freedom and constraints. However, current debates about replication and some of the emerging guidelines stemming from them threaten this balance and run the risk of stifling innovation...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961417/replication-registration-and-scientific-creativity
#12
C J Brainerd, Valerie F Reyna
The bureaucratization of psychological science exacts intellectual costs that go beyond the sheer amount of time that is drained away from creative scientific activity. Additional administrative hurdles are now being generated in an attempt to ensure the replicability of psychological effects. A cognitive analysis of those hurdles shows that impairment of scientific creativity is a foreseeable consequence, owing to their frequent verbatim-processing focus and the negative emotional context in which they are embedded...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961416/the-creative-cycle-and-the-growth-of-psychological-science
#13
Klaus Fiedler
Scientific progress relies on the dialectics of loosening and tightening processes. Although most gripping accomplishments in psychological science testify to the critical role of creative and innovative theorizing (loosening), the ongoing debate on the quality of psychological science is focused almost totally on a restrictive sense of tightening, revolving around statistical hypothesis testing (tightening). A discussion of the imbalance between the conspicuous neglect of theory and the overstated importance of the sacred cow of significance testing raises a skeptical question: Do we seriously believe that stricter compliance rules, exact p values, effect size calculations, new statistics, and monitoring of research practices will foster the growth of excellent science? A more effective strategy would be to start a positive debate that focuses on the best exemplars of strong theorizing and fascinating findings, replacing the focus on insufficient science and unwanted practices...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961415/toward-surmounting-the-psychological-barriers-to-climate-policy-appreciating-contexts-and-acknowledging-challenges-a-reply-to-weber-2018
#14
Leaf Van Boven, Phillip J Ehret, David K Sherman
The authors acknowledge and respond to three concerns raised by Weber (2018) about oversimplifying psychological barriers to climate policy. First, skepticism about climate change remains a major barrier to climate policy, along with political partisanship. Second, recognizing multifaceted barriers to climate policy calls for multiple targeted interventions to be implemented at critical junctures. Finally, translating pro-environmental attitudes into action requires an appreciation of proximate sociopolitical contexts and cultures...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961414/the-impact-of-changing-norms-on-creativity-in-psychological-science
#15
Jonathan Wai, Diane F Halpern
The open science or credibility revolution has divided psychologists on whether and how the "policy" change of preregistration and similar requirements will affect the quality and creativity of future research. We provide a brief history of how norms have rapidly changed and how news and social media are beginning to "disrupt" academic science. We note a variety of benefits, including more confidence in research findings, but there are possible costs as well, including a reduction in the number of studies conducted because of an increased workload required by new policies...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961413/the-creativity-verification-cycle-in-psychological-science-new-methods-to-combat-old-idols
#16
Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Gilles Dutilh, Alexandra Sarafoglou
Over the years, researchers in psychological science have documented and investigated a host of powerful cognitive fallacies, including hindsight bias and confirmation bias. Researchers themselves may not be immune to these fallacies and may unwittingly adjust their statistical analysis to produce an outcome that is more pleasant or better in line with prior expectations. To shield researchers from the impact of cognitive fallacies, several methodologists are now advocating preregistration-that is, the creation of a detailed analysis plan before data collection or data analysis...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961412/psychological-barriers-to-bipartisan-public-support-for-climate-policy
#17
Leaf Van Boven, Phillip J Ehret, David K Sherman
Psychological scientists have the expertise-and arguably an obligation-to help understand the political polarization that impedes enactment of climate policy. Many explanations emphasize Republican skepticism about climate change. Yet results from national panel studies in 2014 and 2016 indicate that most Republicans believe in climate change, if not as strongly as Democrats. Political polarization over climate policy does not simply reflect that Democrats and Republicans disagree about climate change but that Democrats and Republicans disagree with each other...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961411/from-outcome-to-process-focus-fostering-a-more-robust-psychological-science-through-registered-reports-and-results-blind-reviewing
#18
James A Grand, Steven G Rogelberg, George C Banks, Ronald S Landis, Scott Tonidandel
A variety of alternative mechanisms, strategies, and "ways of doing" have been proposed for improving the rigor and robustness of published research in the psychological sciences in recent years. In this article, we describe two existing but underused publication models-registered reporting (RR) and results-blind reviewing (RBR)-that we believe would contribute in important ways to improving both the conduct and evaluation of psychological research. We first outline the procedures and distinguishing features of both publication pathways and note their value for promoting positive changes to current scientific practices...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961410/implications-of-the-credibility-revolution-for-productivity-creativity-and-progress
#19
Simine Vazire
The credibility revolution (sometimes referred to as the "replicability crisis") in psychology has brought about many changes in the standards by which psychological science is evaluated. These changes include (a) greater emphasis on transparency and openness, (b) a move toward preregistration of research, (c) more direct-replication studies, and (d) higher standards for the quality and quantity of evidence needed to make strong scientific claims. What are the implications of these changes for productivity, creativity, and progress in psychological science? These questions can and should be studied empirically, and I present my predictions here...
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29961409/perception-matters-the-pitfalls-of-misperceiving-psychological-barriers-to-climate-policy
#20
Elke U Weber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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