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Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758166/does-online-technology-make-us-more-or-less-sociable-a-preliminary-review-and-call-for-research
#1
Adam Waytz, Kurt Gray
How does online technology affect sociability? Emerging evidence-much of it inconclusive-suggests a nuanced relationship between use of online technology (the Internet, social media, and virtual reality) and sociability (emotion recognition, empathy, perspective taking, and emotional intelligence). Although online technology can facilitate purely positive behavior (e.g., charitable giving) or purely negative behavior (e.g., cyberbullying), it appears to affect sociability in three ways, depending on whether it allows a deeper understanding of people's thoughts and feelings: (a) It benefits sociability when it complements already-deep offline engagement with others, (b) it impairs sociability when it supplants deeper offline engagement for superficial online engagement, and (c) it enhances sociability when deep offline engagement is otherwise difficult to attain...
May 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29641276/a-people-as-means-approach-to-interpersonal-relationships
#2
Edward Orehek, Amanda L Forest, Nicole Barbaro
Interpersonal relationships and goal pursuit are intimately interconnected. In the present article, we present a people-as-means perspective on relationships. According to this perspective, people serve as means to goals-helping other people to reach their goals in a variety of ways, such as by contributing their time; lending their knowledge, skills, and resources; and providing emotional support and encouragement. Because people serve as means to goals, we propose that considering relationship processes in terms of the principles of goal pursuit can provide novel and important insights into the ways that people think, feel, and behave in these interpersonal contexts...
April 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590533/three-unresolved-issues-in-human-morality
#3
Jerome Kagan
This article discusses three major, but related, controversies surrounding the idea of morality. Is the complete pattern of features defining human morality unique to this species? How context dependent are moral beliefs and the emotions that often follow a violation of a moral standard? What developmental sequence establishes a moral code? This essay suggests that human morality rests on a combination of cognitive and emotional processes that are missing from the repertoires of other species. Second, the moral evaluation of every behavior, whether by self or others, depends on the agent, the action, the target of the behavior, and the context...
March 1, 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716457/rethinking-the-confident-eyewitness-a-reply-to-wixted-mickes-and-fisher
#4
Shari R Berkowitz, Steven J Frenda
In the current issue, Wixted, Mickes, and Fisher make the claim that eyewitness memory is not inherently unreliable. They also describe specific conditions under which an eyewitness's confidence can be a reliable indicator of accuracy in the context of both recall and recognition. We argue, however, that calculating the probative value of eyewitness evidence is more complicated than the authors acknowledge. In this commentary, we raise several concerns about the collection and assessment of eyewitness confidence in the real world...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716456/who-decides-what-is-acceptable-speech-on-campus-why-restricting-free-speech-is-not-the-answer
#5
Stephen J Ceci, Wendy M Williams
Recent protests on dozens of campuses have led to the cancellation of controversial talks, and violence has accompanied several of these protests. Psychological science provides an important lens through which to view, understand, and potentially reduce these conflicts. In this article, we frame opposing sides' arguments within a long-standing corpus of psychological research on selective perception, confirmation bias, myside bias, illusion of understanding, blind-spot bias, groupthink/in-group bias, motivated skepticism, and naive realism...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716455/five-popular-study-strategies-their-pitfalls-and-optimal-implementations
#6
Toshiya Miyatsu, Khuyen Nguyen, Mark A McDaniel
Researchers' and educators' enthusiasm in applying cognitive principles to enhance educational practices has become more evident. Several published reviews have suggested that some potent strategies can help students learn more efficaciously. Unfortunately, for whatever reason, students do not report frequent reliance on these empirically supported techniques. In the present review, we take a novel approach, identifying study strategies for which students have strong preferences and assessing whether these preferred strategies have any merit given existing empirical evidence from the cognitive and educational literatures...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716454/rethinking-the-reliability-of-eyewitness-memory
#7
John T Wixted, Laura Mickes, Ronald P Fisher
Although certain pockets within the broad field of academic psychology have come to appreciate that eyewitness memory is more reliable than was once believed, the prevailing view, by far, is that eyewitness memory is unreliable-a blanket assessment that increasingly pervades the legal system. On the surface, this verdict seems unavoidable: Research convincingly shows that memory is malleable, and eyewitness misidentifications are known to have played a role in most of the DNA exonerations of the innocent. However, we argue here that, like DNA evidence and other kinds of scientifically validated forensic evidence, eyewitness memory is reliable if it is not contaminated and if proper testing procedures are used...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716453/in-the-dna-exoneration-cases-eyewitness-memory-was-not-the-problem-a-reply-to-berkowitz-and-frenda-2018-and-wade-nash-and-lindsay-2018
#8
John T Wixted, Laura Mickes, Ronald P Fisher
The available real-world evidence suggests that, on an initial test, eyewitness memory is often reliable. Ironically, even the DNA exoneration cases-which generally involved nonpristine testing conditions and which are usually construed as an indictment of eyewitness memory-show how reliable an initial test of eyewitness memory can be in the real world. We endorse the use of pristine testing procedures, but their absence does not automatically imply that eyewitness memory is unreliable.
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716452/reasons-to-doubt-the-reliability-of-eyewitness-memory-commentary-on-wixted-mickes-and-fisher-2018
#9
Kimberley A Wade, Robert A Nash, D Stephen Lindsay
Wixted, Mickes, and Fisher (this issue) take issue with the common trope that eyewitness memory is inherently unreliable. They draw on a large body of mock-crime research and a small number of field studies, which indicate that high-confidence eyewitness reports are usually accurate, at least when memory is uncontaminated and suitable interviewing procedures are used. We agree with the thrust of Wixted et al.'s argument and welcome their invitation to confront the mass underselling of eyewitnesses' potential reliability...
May 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592657/toward-a-psychology-of-human-agency-pathways-and-reflections
#10
Albert Bandura
Social cognitive theory is founded on an agentic perspective. This article reviews the core features of human agency and the individual, proxy, and collective forms in which it is exercised. Agency operates through a triadic codetermination process of causation. Knowledge from this line of theorizing is widely applied to effect individual and social change, including worldwide applications that address some of the most urgent global problems.
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592656/revisiting-most-people-are-happy-and-discovering-when-they-are-not
#11
Ed Diener, Carol Diener, Hyewon Choi, Shigehiro Oishi
In our 1996 article, "Most People are Happy," we presented evidence showing that the majority of humans are above neutral in happiness. The article was popular perhaps for several reasons. First, we shed light on the ubiquity of positive or pleasant emotions, whereas previously many scholars had focused on negative or unpleasant ones. Second, our article may have received attention because, as we showed, most people believe that humans are much less happy than they actually are. Thus, our article provided an impetus for understanding the role of positive emotions as well as illuminating an important aspect of human happiness-the fact that happiness is not unusual but may be the default condition...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592655/the-error-related-negativity
#12
William J Gehring, Brian Goss, Michael G H Coles, David E Meyer, Emanuel Donchin
We look back on the events surrounding the genesis of our 1993 article on the error-related negativity (ERN), a component of the event-related brain potential that accompanies errors in the performance of speeded-response tasks. Our reminiscences focus on the personal friendships, intellectual influences, and chance occurrences that shaped the article. To put our work in historical context, we consider subsequent trends in neuroimaging, computational modeling, and psychiatry that gave the ERN high visibility and contributed to the longevity of its scientific interest...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592654/working-memory-and-executive-attention-a-revisit
#13
Randall W Engle
In this follow-up to my 2002 article on working memory capacity, fluid intelligence, and executive attention in Current Directions in Psychological Science, I review even more evidence supporting the idea that the ability to control one's attention (i.e., executive attention) is important to working memory and fluid intelligence. I now argue that working memory tasks reflect primarily the maintenance of information, whereas fluid intelligence tests reflect primarily the ability to disengage from recently attended and no longer useful information...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592653/the-constructive-destructive-and-reconstructive-power-of-social-norms-reprise
#14
P Wesley Schultz, Jessica M Nolan, Robert B Cialdini, Noah J Goldstein, Vladas Griskevicius
The influence of social norms on behavior has been a longstanding storyline within social psychology. Our 2007 Psychological Science publication presented a new rendition of this classic telling. The reported field experiment showed that social norms could be leveraged to promote residential energy conservation, but importantly, the descriptive norm was shown to increase consumption for low-consuming households. This potential destructive effect of social norms was eliminated with the addition of an injunctive message of social approval for using less energy...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592652/the-strength-model-of-self-regulation-conclusions-from-the-second-decade-of-willpower-research
#15
Roy F Baumeister, Dianne M Tice, Kathleen D Vohs
The strength model of self-regulation uses a muscle analogy to explain patterns of ego depletion, conservation of willpower, and improved performance after frequent exercise. Our 2007 overview of the literature has been well cited, presumably because of the phenomenon's importance to theories of selfhood and a wide assortment of applied contexts, including problem behaviors. Some researchers have put forward rival theoretical accounts, and others have questioned the existence of the phenomenon. The weight of evidence continues to support the usefulness of the strength model, albeit amid continuing updates and revisions...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592651/the-scientific-pursuit-of-happiness
#16
David G Myers, Ed Diener
We review the history of happiness research that gave rise to our 1995 review. We then summarize-and update with a quick synopsis of more recent research-each of our conclusions regarding the associations of subjective well-being with age, gender, income, personal traits, social support, and religious engagement. Finally, we briefly review new research on the benefits of happiness, and of happiness interventions at both individual and national levels.
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592650/fitness-effects-on-the-cognitive-function-of-older-adults-a-meta-analytic-study-revisited
#17
Arthur F Kramer, Stanley Colcombe
We discuss the factors that encouraged us to examine the question of whether exercise training has a positive influence on cognitive health of older adults in 2003. At that time there was a substantial literature on exercise and cognition. However, cognitive assessment instruments, exercise protocols (including type of exercise, length, and intensity of exercise programs), and subject-selection criteria differed widely. Our meta-analysis enabled us to examine both the main question under study-exercise effects on cognition-and potential moderators of this effect...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592649/the-scientific-work-we-love-a-duplex-theory-of-scientific-impact-and-its-application-to-the-top-cited-articles-in-the-first-30-years-of-aps-journals
#18
Robert J Sternberg
This article proposes a duplex theory for understanding the scientific impact of contributions to psychological science. I argue that articles that we "love" can be understood in terms of (a) triangular elements of intimacy, passion, and commitment and (b) types of stories that characterize high-impact articles. Certain kinds of stories (e.g., review articles) are more likely to have lasting impact, on average, than other kinds of stories (e.g., data-driven empirical articles).
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592648/reflections-on-self-reflection-contemplating-flawed-self-judgments-in-the-clinic-classroom-and-office-cubicle
#19
David Dunning, Chip Heath, Jerry M Suls
We reflect back on our 2004 monograph reviewing the implications of faulty self-judgment for health, education, and the workplace. The review proved popular, no doubt because the importance of accurate self-assessment is best reflected in just how broad the literature is that touches on this topic. We discuss opportunities and challenges to be found in the future study of self-judgment accuracy and error, and suggest that designing interventions aimed at improving self-judgments may prove to be a worthwhile but complex and nuanced task...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592647/reflections-on-the-resurgence-of-interest-in-the-testing-effect
#20
Henry L Roediger, Jeffrey D Karpicke
We discuss the findings from our 2006 article in Psychological Science on the testing effect and describe how the project arose. The testing effect (or retrieval-practice effect) was first reported in the experimental literature about a century before our article was published, and the effect had been replicated (and sometimes discovered anew) many times over the years. Our experiments used prose materials (unlike most prior research) and produced a more powerful effect than prior research even though we used a conservative control condition for comparison...
March 2018: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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