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Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915361/cultural-change-the-how-and-the-why
#1
Michael E W Varnum, Igor Grossmann
More than half a century of cross-cultural research has demonstrated group-level differences in psychological and behavioral phenomena, from values to attention to neural responses. However, cultures are not static, with several specific changes documented for cultural products, practices, and values. How and why do societies change? Here we juxtapose theory and insights from cultural evolution and social ecology. Evolutionary approaches enable an understanding of the how of cultural change, suggesting transmission mechanisms by which the contents of culture may change...
September 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873328/how-to-map-theory-reliable-methods-are-fruitless-without-rigorous-theory
#2
Kurt Gray
Good science requires both reliable methods and rigorous theory. Theory allows us to build a unified structure of knowledge, to connect the dots of individual studies and reveal the bigger picture. Some have criticized the proliferation of pet "Theories," but generic "theory" is essential to healthy science, because questions of theory are ultimately those of validity. Although reliable methods and rigorous theory are synergistic, Action Identification suggests psychological tension between them: The more we focus on methodological details, the less we notice the broader connections...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873325/moving-forward-challenges-and-directions-for-psychopathological-network-theory-and-methodology
#3
Eiko I Fried, Angélique O J Cramer
Since the introduction of mental disorders as networks of causally interacting symptoms, this novel framework has received considerable attention. The past years have resulted in over 40 scientific publications and numerous conference symposia and workshops. Now is an excellent moment to take stock of the network approach: What are its most fundamental challenges, and what are potential ways forward in addressing them? After a brief conceptual introduction, we first discuss challenges to network theory: (1) What is the validity of the network approach beyond some commonly investigated disorders such as major depression? (2) How do we best define psychopathological networks and their constituent elements? And (3) how can we gain a better understanding of the causal nature and real-life underpinnings of associations among symptoms? Next, after a short technical introduction to network modeling, we discuss challenges to network methodology: (4) heterogeneity of samples studied with network analytic models, and (5) a lurking replicability crisis in this strongly data-driven and exploratory field...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862919/the-science-and-practice-of-self-control
#4
Angela L Duckworth, Martin E P Seligman
In 2002, we discovered that self-control "outdoes" talent in predicting academic success during adolescence. Since then, a surfeit of longitudinal evidence has affirmed the importance of self-control to achieving everyday goals that conflict with momentary temptations. In parallel, research that has "lumped" self-control with other facets of Big Five conscientiousness has shown the superior predictive power of this broad family of individual differences for diverse life outcomes. Self-control can also be "split" from related traits that in certain contexts demonstrate superior predictive power for achievement...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846503/does-self-control-training-improve-self-control-a-meta-analysis
#5
Malte Friese, Julius Frankenbach, Veronika Job, David D Loschelder
Self-control is positively associated with a host of beneficial outcomes. Therefore, psychological interventions that reliably improve self-control are of great societal value. A prominent idea suggests that training self-control by repeatedly overriding dominant responses should lead to broad improvements in self-control over time. Here, we conducted a random-effects meta-analysis based on robust variance estimation of the published and unpublished literature on self-control training effects. Results based on 33 studies and 158 effect sizes revealed a small-to-medium effect of g = 0...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841086/choosing-prediction-over-explanation-in-psychology-lessons-from-machine-learning
#6
Tal Yarkoni, Jacob Westfall
Psychology has historically been concerned, first and foremost, with explaining the causal mechanisms that give rise to behavior. Randomized, tightly controlled experiments are enshrined as the gold standard of psychological research, and there are endless investigations of the various mediating and moderating variables that govern various behaviors. We argue that psychology's near-total focus on explaining the causes of behavior has led much of the field to be populated by research programs that provide intricate theories of psychological mechanism but that have little (or unknown) ability to predict future behaviors with any appreciable accuracy...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841081/on-the-nature-of-objectification-implications-of-considering-people-as-means-to-goals
#7
Edward Orehek, Casey G Weaverling
People are objectified when they are treated as a means to a goal. The most common example is when women are sexually objectified and reduced to their physical appearance, sexuality, or individual body parts. In such instances, people are used in the same way as objects and are evaluated according to their instrumentality to the others' goals. The aim of this paper is to gain a better understanding of objectification. We will (a) outline basic principles of means-goal relations during goal pursuit, (b) review research in which people are means to goals, (c) explain objectification according to a means-goal psychology in which people serve as means to goals, and (d) explain the implications of our account for the consequences of objectification...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820952/adult-intelligence-the-construct-and-the-criterion-problem
#8
Phillip L Ackerman
Over 100 years have passed since Binet and Simon proposed scales for assessment of intelligence of children to predict academic success and failure. The extension of these assessments to adults largely resulted from efforts of psychologists to provide insights for military selection in World War I. At the time, relatively little thought was given to how adult intelligence might differ from child and adolescent intelligence. Traditional approaches for assessing adult intelligence have largely survived. However, there is little reference to adult intellectual functioning outside of laboratory-based tasks and clinical assessments of pathology...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792862/nudging-and-boosting-steering-or-empowering-good-decisions
#9
Ralph Hertwig, Till Grüne-Yanoff
In recent years, policy makers worldwide have begun to acknowledge the potential value of insights from psychology and behavioral economics into how people make decisions. These insights can inform the design of nonregulatory and nonmonetary policy interventions-as well as more traditional fiscal and coercive measures. To date, much of the discussion of behaviorally informed approaches has emphasized "nudges," that is, interventions designed to steer people in a particular direction while preserving their freedom of choice...
August 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727968/do-you-believe-the-field-of-psychological-science-is-headed-in-the-right-direction
#10
Robert W Levenson
The state of psychological science is considered in terms of current issues and suggestions for the future.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727967/whither-psychology
#11
Diane F Halpern
Contemporary psychology is experiencing tremendous growth in neuroscience, and there is every indication that it will continue to gain in popularity notwithstanding the scarcity of academic positions for newly minted Ph.Ds. Despite the general perception that brain correlates "explain" or "cause" the mind and behavior, these correlates have not yet proven useful in understanding psychological processes, although they offer the possibility of early identification of some disorders. Other recent developments in psychology include increased emphasis on applications and more global representation among researchers and participants...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727966/mountain-climbing-in-the-dark-introduction-to-the-special-symposium-on-the-future-direction-of-psychological-science
#12
Robert J Sternberg
This special symposium in Perspectives on Psychological Science answers the question, "Do you believe the field of psychological science is headed in the right direction?" Respondents are a sampling of Association for Psychological Science award winners over the past 5 years dating back from publication of this symposium.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727965/is-psychology-headed-in-the-right-direction-yes-no-and-maybe
#13
Carol S Dweck
In this piece, I first celebrate the growing contribution of psychology to the understanding and solution of pressing social issues. Then, despite these exciting developments, I worry about whether we have created a field that our students want to spend their lives in, and I suggest concerns that might fruitfully be addressed. Finally, I worry about the potential fragmentation of psychology and applaud programs of research that have shown the unique and important contributions to be made when the methods and perspectives of neuroscience, cognitive science, and computational modeling are integrated with those of social, personality, and developmental psychology...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727964/psychological-science-as-a-complex-system-report-card
#14
Douglas L Medin
Psychological science is increasingly diverse in the tools available for research and the questions it is able to ask. But this potential is seriously limited by a lack of diversity in study populations, in situations and contexts explored, and in the researchers themselves. The current situation is problematic and difficult to change because of niche construction processes that favor the status quo. Systems level changes are needed to support a healthy psychological science.
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727963/going-in-many-right-directions-all-at-once
#15
Susan T Fiske
When asked whether the field is going in the right direction, my answer is "yes, mostly." Policymakers' respect and the public's interest put us in the spotlight for our intrinsic strengths-but they also draw attention to our weaknesses as reflected by the replication crisis, about which reasonable opinions differ. Among other concerns, civility and mutual tolerance have sometimes been an issue in these debates. As an example of a constructive debate, our lab's recent experience with mutually respectful engagement has advanced solving one scientific puzzle...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727962/a-website-system-for-communicating-psychological-science
#16
Ed Diener
The peer review and journal system have shortcomings, and both computers and the Internet have made complementary or alternative systems attractive. In this article, I recommend that we implement a new platform for open communication of psychological science on a dedicated website to complement the current review and journal system, with reader reviews of the articles and with all behavioral scientists being eligible to publish and review articles. The judged merit of articles would be based on the citations and the ratings of the work by the whole scientific community...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727961/psychology-s-replication-crisis-and-the-grant-culture-righting-the-ship
#17
Scott O Lilienfeld
The past several years have been a time for soul searching in psychology, as we have gradually come to grips with the reality that some of our cherished findings are less robust than we had assumed. Nevertheless, the replication crisis highlights the operation of psychological science at its best, as it reflects our growing humility. At the same time, institutional variables, especially the growing emphasis on external funding as an expectation or de facto requirement for faculty tenure and promotion, pose largely unappreciated hazards for psychological science, including (a) incentives for engaging in questionable research practices, (b) a single-minded focus on programmatic research, (c) intellectual hyperspecialization, (d) disincentives for conducting direct replications, (e) stifling of creativity and intellectual risk taking, (f) researchers promising more than they can deliver, and (g) diminished time for thinking deeply...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727960/perspectives-on-psychological-science-right-way-wrong-way-symposium
#18
Megan R Gunnar
In unpredictable times, it is perhaps even more important to contemplate the direction different fields of science are headed. In this article, I contemplate two directions of psychological science: the increasing integration of the study of psychology with other sciences and the concern of many sciences, including ours, with improving the reproducibility of our findings. Both of these are argued to be "right ways," but these directions also have challenges that, unless carefully addressed, could detract from our ability to move the science of psychology forward...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727959/is-psychology-headed-in-the-right-direction
#19
Ethan Kross
Is psychology headed in the right direction? In this essay, I share my views on the answer to this question. I begin by describing how recent advances in technology, heightened levels of interdisciplinary collaboration, a renewed emphasis on considering the broader implications of basic psychological research, and field-wide efforts to encourage optimal research practices have combined to tilt psychology's trajectory upward. I then offer three suggestions for how to maintain the field's upward slanting course: (a) collaborate more to build cumulative knowledge, (b) improve the way we communicate contextual factors in psychological research, and (c) examine the psychological effects of technology...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679332/beyond-risk-and-protective-factors-an-adaptation-based-approach-to-resilience
#20
Bruce J Ellis, JeanMarie Bianchi, Vladas Griskevicius, Willem E Frankenhuis
How does repeated or chronic childhood adversity shape social and cognitive abilities? According to the prevailing deficit model, children from high-stress backgrounds are at risk for impairments in learning and behavior, and the intervention goal is to prevent, reduce, or repair the damage. Missing from this deficit approach is an attempt to leverage the unique strengths and abilities that develop in response to high-stress environments. Evolutionary-developmental models emphasize the coherent, functional changes that occur in response to stress over the life course...
July 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
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