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Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology

Vinit Suri, Leena Mendiratta, Suranjit Chatterjee, Raman Sardana, Hena Butta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Dinesh Chouksey, Pankaj S Rathi, Hashash H Singh Ishar, Rahul Jain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Shakya Bhattacharjee
This sign is observed in atypical parkinsonism mainly in Progressive Supranuclear Palsy. The exact mechanism of this sign is not clear but the contraction of the Corrugator Supercilii muscle is the most important factor for the generation of vertical forehead creases. Though the wrinkling of forehead is a complex phenomenon involving multiple muscles but the 'Corrugator sign' would be a better term to describe this phenomenon. Despite the controversies regarding the mechanism and nomenclature, the 'Procerus sign' remains an important clinical clue for early Progressive Supranuclear palsy...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Yareeda Sireesha, Megha S Uppin, Komal Bohra, Rajesh Alugolu, Mathukumalli L Neeharika, Angamuthu Kanikannan
Toxoplasma is an obligate intracellular parasite that remains asymptomatic in humans but, at times, can cause devastating disease. Here, we describe an autopsy study of a young immunocompetent gentleman with no comorbidities whose presentation was acute transverse myelitis. Magnetic resonance imaging spine showed longitudinally extensive spinal cord lesion (LESCL) that mimicked neuromyelitis optica with normal brain imaging at presentation. Investigations showed albuminocytological dissociation which prompted a course of parenteral steroid...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Neera Chaudhry, Nishant Aswani, Geeta Anjum Khwaja, Puja Rani
Association of dengue fever with transverse myelitis is a rare phenomenon; involvement of a long segment is even rarer. We describe a middle-aged female who presented with weakness of bilateral lower limbs and urinary retention 4 days after recovery from dengue fever. She, in addition, had a sensory level up to the level of nipples. Magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the diagnosis of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. Besides, the patient had spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in the absence of dengue hemorrhagic fever...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Pradeep Kallollimath, Amruth Gujjar, Megharanjini Patil
Narcolepsy is a sleep disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness. It can be either primary or symptomatic due to other neurologic disorders. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disorder in which symptomatic narcolepsy is being described as one of the core clinical features. Here, we report a patient with NMO who presented with narcolepsy. Signal changes on magnetic resonance imaging in hypothalamus and other periventricular regions of high aquaporin-4 expression should prompt considering NMO as diagnosis...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Prasenjit Sengupta, Koushik Dutta, Sambuddha Ghosh, Avik Mukherjee, Sandip Pal, Debasis Basu
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative movement disorders and its incidence is increasing worldwide along with population aging. Previous clinical and histologic studies suggest that the neurodegenerative process, which affects the brain, may also affect the retina of PD patients. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the thickness changes of retina nerve fibers and macular volume with optical coherence tomography (OCT) in PD patients...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Shweh Fern Loo, Nicole Kelsie Justin, Ri An Lee, Yin Cheng Hew, Kheng Seang Lim, Chong Tin Tan
Introduction: Approximately 5%-11% of neurologically normal population has extensor plantar response (EPR). Method: This study is aimed to identify differentiating features of EPR between physiological and pathological population. Results: A total of 43 patients with pyramidal lesions and 113 normal controls were recruited for this study. The pathological EPRs were more reproducible, with 89.4% having at least two positive Babinski responses and 91...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Rajesh Kumar, Birinder Singh Paul, Gagandeep Singh, Amarjit Kaur
Background: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that selectively affects the optic nerves and spinal cord and generally follows a relapsing course. Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) appears to be effective in patients with central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disease who do not respond to first-line corticosteroid treatment. Objective: We represent a retrospective review of the use of TPE in the treatment of an acute attack of NMO in five patients who failed to respond to initial immunomodulatory treatment...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
R Sheelakumari, Sankara P Sarma, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Bejoy Thomas, Deepak Sasi, Lekha V Sarath, Sunitha Justus, Mridula Mathew, Ramshekhar N Menon
Background and Purpose: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a focus of considerable research. The present study aimed to test the utility of a logistic regression-derived classifier, combining specific quantitative multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data for the early objective phenotyping of MCI in the clinic, over structural MRI data. Methods: Thirty-three participants with cognitively stable amnestic MCI; 15 MCI converters to early Alzheimer's disease (AD; diseased controls) and 20 healthy controls underwent high-resolution T1-weighted volumetric MRI, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MR spectroscopy)...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Sandeep Chaudhary, Deepika Joshi, Abhishek Pathak, Vijay Nath Mishra, Rameshwar Nath Chaurasia, Garima Gupta
Background: Cognitive impairment is increasingly being recognized as a major cause of morbidity and increased dependence over the caregivers in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Objective: The present study aimed to compare the cognition testing in young- and late-onset PD patient. Methods: Sixty PD patients (20 young onset and 40 late onset) fulfilling UKPDS Brain Bank diagnostic criteria were enrolled in the study. Patients were assessed clinically and using scales for cognition testing such as Scales for Outcomes in PDCognition (SCOPA-COG), Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating scale (motor part), and Hoehn and Yahr staging...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Murat Alpua, Yakup Turkel, Ersel Dag, Ucler Kisa
Objectives: Recent studies have shown that Apelin 13 may have a neuroprotective property. Therefore it can be used as a biomarker for multiple sclerosis. Our purpose to assess serum apelin-13 levels in adult patients with multiple sclerosis and healthy controls. Patients and Methods: Subjects consisted of 42 relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis patients and 41 controls. Demographic characteristics including age, gender, duration of disease and Expanded Disability Symptom Scale (EDSS) were recorded...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Ceren Poroy, Ahmet Âli Yücel
Introduction: Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration was histopathologically proved previously in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In this study, we aimed to determine RGC degeneration in vivo using optical coherence tomography (OCT) in AD. Methods: Twenty-one mild-to-moderate AD patients and 25 cognitively healthy age-matched controls were enrolled in this case-control prospective study. All participants underwent OCT examination to assess peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, macular volume, and thickness...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Shri Kant Mishra, Sandeep Singh, Brian Lee, Shaweta Khosa, Negar Moheb, Vishal A Tandon
The objective of this analysis is to study the life of Hans Gustav Wilhelm Steinert and his role in identifying several neurologic disorders including myotonic dystrophy (DM). DM type 1 (DM1) is a commonly inherited adult muscle disorder. In 1909, its characteristics were first described by Hans Steinert (1875-1911), a German neurologist. Born in Dresden, Germany, Steinert studied philosophy and medicine at the Universities of Leipzig, Berlin, Freiberg, and Kiel. There, under the supervision of Heinrich Curschmann, he accomplished his own works on aphthongia, cerebral muscular atrophy, and cerebral hemiplegia...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Sudhir Kumar, Anshu Rohatgi, Harshal Chaudhari, Priti Thakor
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neurological disease which often leads to disability. The complex etiology and progressive nature pose challenges in the management of patients with MS, particularly in developing countries like India. Lack of data on prevalence further complicates estimation of the magnitude of MS in India. There are various other challenges associated with management of patients with MS due to which the therapy is utilized by only a small segment of population in India. This article encapsulates the gaps and challenges in the management of patients with MS and presents suggestions and recommendations of the members of advisory boards held to discuss these challenges...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Lakshmi Narasimhan Ranganathan, R Guhan, M M Arun Shivaraman, P Lenin Sankar, A V Srinivasan, G Suriyakumar, A L Periakaruppan
Neuroimaging in dementia has advanced several folds in the past decade. It has evolved from diagnosing secondary causes of dementia to the current use in identifying primary dementia and aid in clinically perplexing situations. There has been a leap in the imaging technology that can virtually dissect the brain with a high degree of radiopathological correlation. The neuroimaging in dementia is classified into structural, functional, and molecular imaging. Structural imaging includes voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Vinay Goyal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Debashish Chowdhury
Primary trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) are uncommon group of headache disorders. These are defined and diagnosed by the criteria given by the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3β version. Over the past few decades, a number of secondary (symptomatic) cases have been described in the literature with headache features indistinguishable from primary TACs. Many structural and other pathologies have been found in these patients that can be causally related to the headaches. This review attempts to critically analyze the existing literature including the new cases published during 2015-2017...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
Mark Obermann, Dagny Holle, Steffen Nagel
Functional neuroimaging was able to identify key structures for the pathophysiology of trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs) including cluster headache, paroxysmal hemicrania, and short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks with conjunctival injection and tearing or cranial autonomic features and hemicrania continua. The posterior hypothalamus was the structure most consistently depicted with functional imaging in different states of disease with and without pain. Network-oriented imaging techniques such as resting-state functional resonance imaging were able to show a broader involvement of human trigeminal pain processing in the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of the different TACs, highlighting similarities between this distinct group of primary headache disorders, while also demonstrating the differences in brain activation across these disorders...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
K Ravishankar
The term "Trigeminal Autonomic Cephalalgia (TAC)" was first coined by Goadsby and Lipton[1] to include a group of relatively rare primary headache disorders characterized by moderate to severe, short-lived head pain in the trigeminal distribution with unilateral cranial parasympathetic autonomic features, such as lacrimation, rhinorrhea, conjunctival injection, eyelid edema, and ptosis. In the current International Classification of Headache Disorders (ICHD-3 beta),[2] the TAC group includes cluster headache (CH), paroxysmal hemicrania (PH), short-lasting unilateral neuralgiform headache attacks (SUNHAs) and their 2 subforms - SUNHAs with conjunctival injection and tearing (SUNCT), SUNHAs with cranial autonomic symptoms (SUNA)...
April 2018: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
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